1,502 results for 1990, Doctoral

  • Haematology and inflammation in infections of farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus)

    Cross, John Philip (1991)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xiii, 180, i, 39 leaves, [1] folded leaf :ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department : Microbiology

    View record details
  • A comparison of the fate of elemental sulphur and sulphate sulphur based fertilizers in pasture soils : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Soil Science at Massey University

    Phimsarn, Sathien (1991)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Nitrogen fixation by legumes has a particular requirement for adequate soil sulphur status. Sulphur (S) is a mobile nutrient and is easily leached from aquic soil environments, therefore regular topdressing with S fertilizer is required to maintain legume vigor and pasture production in most New Zealand pasture soils. Escalating fertilizer costs have focused attention on the efficiency of use of S fertilizers, particularly superphosphate (SSP) and alternative elemental S (S0) based fertilizers less liable to leaching loss in this aquic environment. Field and glasshouse trials, using the resident clover/ryegrass sward on undisturbed soil cores (150 mm diameter, 100 mm depth) , were undertaken to determine the comparative short-term fate of SSP and different particle sizes of S0. Methods for manufacturing radioactively labelled (35s) fertilizers were developed. In addition, the effect of sheep dung on the short-term immobilization of soil and fertilizer S was also investigated. A simple computer simulation model explaining the observed transformation of soil sulphur and 35s labelled fertilizer was developed. Initially, the effect of sheep dung on the short-term immobilization of soil and fertilizer S was investigated. Very small amounts (about 2-5%) of plant (clover/ryegrass pasture) S and P, within 1 00 mm of the area surrounding the dung pellet, were derived from the dung. Under the experimental conditions that prevailed, dung S behaved as a slow release S form causing neither greater immobilization of soil or fertilizer S nor mineralization of soil organic S. It was concluded that the impact of dung return on short-term (< one year) S fertilizer fate need not be considered. An initial field trial comparing the fate of microfine S0 (< 0.010 mm) relative to sulphate-based SSP was undertaken on Tokomaru silt loam, a New Zealand yellow-grey earth (Fragiaqualf). The microfine S0 oxidized within 30 days of application but initially (up to 60 days) was slightly less effective than SSP in terms of plant uptake. Over longer periods of time (150 days) their performances were comparable. Final cumulative plant uptake at 150 days accounted for 13.6% of microfine S0 and 16.3% of the SSP-sulphate. The major transformation of 35s from microfine S0 and 35s belied gypsum In SSP to soil organic 35s forms occurred in the first 30 days after application. The organic 35s activity formed from 35s0 was twice that formed from sulphate-based fertilizer and was mainly carbon- bonded 35s in the top 33mm of the pasture soil profile. The amount of organic 35s remaining as carbon-bonded 35s decreased with soil depth and the reverse occurred for the estersulphate 35s. By 1 50 days, greater activity from the microfine 35s0 remained in the soil organics fraction than from the sulphate-35s fertilizer, indicating that more soil organicS reserves may be formed through the use of fine S0 fertilizer than from the sulphate-based fertilizer. This also indicated the advantage of using S0 in minimizing the S leaching losses in this aquic environment. An inverse dilution technique using an isotope injector developed at Massey University to uniformly label undisturbed soil cores with carrier-free 35so4= solution was used to measure the impact of S0 and sulphate-based fertilizers on the fate of soil S. Results were consistent with the labelled fertilizer technique and both techniques indicated rapid incorporation of 35s into soil organic S and that the carbon-bonded S formed was likely to be a subsequent source of mineralized S available to plants. Soil samples from the preliminary field study were used to evaluate soil preparation and extraction techniques. Soil sampling and preparation techniques were evaluated on the basis that an extract sampling the plant available S pool in soil should have the same 35s specific activity as plant growing on that soil. The average 35s specific activity in a calcium dihydrogen phosphate (CaP-S) (0.04 M) extract from a freeze-dried sample of the top 60 mm of a pasture soil was most closely related to the 35s specific activity of plants growing on that soil. CaP-S extracts from field-moist soil or 0.01 M CaCI2 extracts from field-moist or freeze-dried soils had higher specific activities than plants. lt was concluded that plants were able to extract soil S from soils which was not exchangeable with added 35so4= fertilizers during either the field experiment or extraction with 0.01 M CaCI2. The second series of field and glasshouse trials were conducted to investigate the fate of 35s labelled SSP, gypsum and S0 of varying particle sizes (0 . 1 50 m m) which had not oxidized, the major fate of fertilizer 35s, either under glasshouse or field conditions, was again in soil organic matter mostly formed in the top 33 mm of the soil. Applications of gypsum and SSP caused 35s to move to the 33-1 00 mm soil depths but there was no additional influence of P on the depth to which so4= was leached. A preliminary computer simulation model describing the fate of 35so4 =-s fertilizer was developed. The model provided a very accurate method of predicting plant uptake of S from both SSP fertilized and u nfertilized soil cores. The model also indicated that, at any particular soil depth, on average, actual rates of mineralizatio n a nd i m mobilization may exceed root uptake of S by 1.5 to 2 fold (mg S turned over per unit of S taken up by plants). The accuracy of the estimated turnover rate could not be validated because the model gave relatively inaccurate predictions of the measured movement and transformations of 35s tracer added to the soil as SSP. There was, however, relative similarity between the observed and predicted proportional distribution of 35s between soil and plant S forms. Such a distribution supported the concept of using root activity as a modifier of mineralization and immobilization rates in order to describe the extent of these processes at different soil depths. The study has emphasized the greater importance of the surface few millimeters of pasture soil in S transformations, important in the fate of fertilizer and pasture plant nutrition. There appears to be scope in manipulating S0 particle size to improve the efficiency of the S fertilizer used.

    View record details
  • The effect of water stress on water relations, carbon isotype discrimination, and shoot and root growth of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) and lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Department of Plant Science at Massey University

    Mir-Hosseini-Dehabadi, Seyed Reza (1994)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) is a useful forage legume regarded as having drought resistant attributes. Also, it does not cause bloat in ruminants and is not sensitive to alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica. L). Although the physiological and morphological responses to water stress of lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) are well known the responses of sainfoin to water stress have not been fully studied. In this study the physiological and morphological responses of sainfoin to water stress were investigated, with lucerne used as a reference plant. The results of the indoor and outdoor studies showed sainfoin had useful characteristics for forage production in dry conditions. Relative to lucerne it had a lower yield, due to lower leaf area, lower stem number and poor regrowth. However, sainfoin responded to water stress at least as well as lucerne. Sainfoin had a higher root:shoot ratio and a lower specific leaf area ratio than lucerne, indicating a higher allocation of carbohydrate to the roots, and a lower leaf surface area for transpiration in sainfoin than for lucerne. Water stress decreased the yield of lucerne proportionally more than sainfoin mostly due to the greater reduction in the above ground dry weight of lucerne. The indoor study of root characteristics of sainfoin and lucerne in 1m tall tubes showed that in terms of root development sainfoin responded to water stress better than lucerne. Although sainfoin had equal root mass and root length to lucerne, the root distribution of sainfoin at below 0.6 m depths was greater than for lucerne. As water stress developed sainfoin roots grew below 0.6 m earlier than lucerne roots. Sainfoin had a higher root osmotic adjustment than lucerne and also maintained higher (less negative) leaf water potential than lucerne. The stomatal resistances (Rs) of sainfoin and lucerne were equal, but Rs was not distributed equally between adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces. The Rs of the adaxial leaf surface of sainfoin was lower and more sensitive to water stress than the Rs of the abaxial leaf surface. The different Rs of the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces of sainfoin was partly due to the different stomatal frequencies of the respective surfaces. Comparison of sainfoin cultivars in a climate room showed that the water use efficiencies (WUE) of Remont, Fakir, Cotswold-Common, and Eski, were similar. Remont was more sensitive to water stress than the other three cultivars, and Eski produced a greater root length and mass than other cultivars. The growth of Eski was initially slower than that of the Remont in both the indoor and the outdoor studies. However, lucerne grew faster than all the sainfoin cultivars. Over three harvests in the field the yields of Eski and Remont were similar but lucerne out yielded both sainfoin cultivars. Sainfoin produced a greater proportion of its yield earlier than lucerne, whereas lucerne distributed its yield throughout the whole season, indicating that sainfoin is adapted to regions with precipitation in only winter and spring. The results of the carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) analysis for the indoor and outdoor studies showed Δ had a negative correlation with WUE, leaf water potential, osmotic potential, and stomatal resistance, but had a positive correlation with relative water content, turgor potential, transpiration rate, and photosynthetic rate. These correlations demonstrated the usefulness of this technique for evaluating the responses of plants to water stress. The stressed plants always had lower Δ than the control plants showing the higher WUE of stressed plants. The Δ of roots was higher than the Δ of the leaves suggesting that the growth of leaves occurred in conditions that were an average drier than for the growth of roots. This was supported by the lower (more negative) water potential of leaves than roots. The Δ of the roots below 0.6 m depth was higher than the Δ of roots above 0.1 m depth suggesting the roots above 0.1m grew under higher water stress than the roots below 0.6m depth. Over three harvests in the field the Δ of Eski and lucerne were similar and the Δ of Remont was higher than for Eski and lucerne. In conclusion, sainfoin was found to have several useful attributes for growth and survival in dry regions. Of the sainfoin cultivars examined Eski was the best adapted to water stress. Relative to lucerne, sainfoin yielded less, but had a similar water use efficiency, a shorter season of growth, a greater root: shoot ratio, deeper roots and better maintenance of leaf water potential under water stress.

    View record details
  • Studies towards the chemical synthesis of the 18 kDa antigenic protein from Mycobacterium leprae : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Ph. D. in Chemistry at Massey University

    Love, Stephen George (1991)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis describes the solid phase synthesis of a series of peptides from the antigenic Mycobacterium leprae 18 kDa protein and the total synthesis of the 148 amino acid protein. The peptides were synthesised using an Applied Biosystems 430A Solid Phase Peptide Synthesiser usually modified by the removal of in-line filters to the reaction vessel to allow the synthesis of the peptides using programs evolved by S.B.H. Kent. The peptides were cleaved from the peptide resin using liquid HF and purified by reverse phase HPLC. The first series of peptides to be synthesised revolved around a monoclonal antibody binding site. These peptides were SLP-1, (101-115, RILASYQEGVLKLSI), SLP-2, (111-124, LKLSIPVAERAKPRK), SLP-3, (121-134, AKPRKISVDRGNNG) and SLP-4 (109-125 GVLKLSIPVAERAKPRK). The other peptides were synthesised as a series of overlapping 20 mers covering the entire 148 amino acid sequence. These peptides are SLP-5 (1-20, MLMRTDPFRELDRFAEQVLG), SLP-6 (16-35, EQVLGTS ARPAVMPMDAWRE), SLP-7 (31-50, DAWREGEFVVEFDLPGIKA), SLP-8 (46-65, PGIKADSLDIDIERNVVTVR), SLP-9 (61-80, VVTVRAERPGVDPDREMLAA), SLP-10 (76-95, EMLAAERPRGLFNRQLVLGE), SLP-11 (91-110, LVLGENLDTERIL ASYQEGV), SLP-12 (106-125, YQEGVLKLSIPVAERAKPRK), SLP-13 (121-140, AKPRKISVDRGNNGHQTINK) and SLP-14 (136-148, QTINKTAEHEIIDA). Two other peptides SLP-15 (101-125, RILASYQEGVLKLSIPVAERAKPRK) and SLP-16 (91-115, LVLGEIVLDTERILASVQEGVLKLSI) were also synthesised. The peptides were used in immunological studies that determined the location of the L-5 monoclonal antibody binding site and showed where T-cell stimulation sites are located on the 18 kDa protein in murine systems. The synthesis of larger 50 amino acid fragments of the 18 kDa protein, peptides SLP-17 (101-148), SLP-18 (50-100) and SLP 19 (1-50) was carried out in order to determine if it was possible to synthesise the total 18 kDa protein. These fragments were synthesised in a similar manner to the previous peptides. From the synthesis of these peptides it was decided that the total synthesis of the 148 amino acid protein was possible. The synthesis of the 18 kDa protein was carried out using Kent's protocols as a single step process. The synthesis was monitored up to the 100th amino acid by ninhydrin assay with no failed couplings detected. The coupling percentages for all of the amino acids was achieved by peptide resin sequencing where the average percentage couplings were shown to be 99.49% with an overall yield for the protein on the resin of 49%. After Lo-Hi HF cleavage purification of the protein was hampered by the formation of aggregated products which proved initially to be inseparable from the protein. By sequencing some partially purified protein it was shown that under certain cleavage conditions the benzyl ether side chain protecting group was present on the threonine amino acids at positions 5 and 21. A further treatment of the protein using a hard acid-soft base mechanism with trimethylsilyl trifluorosulphonate/thioanisole was used in these cases to remove the remaining benzyl protecting groups. An attempt to overcome the aggregation of the protein involved the addition of SDS to the HF cleavage vessel. After purification the protein showed no signs of the aggregation products. A 90 amino acid fragment removed during the course of the synthesis of the 18 kDa proteien was cleaved and dissolved in 6M guanidine.HCl. After gel filtration on a Sephadex G-50 column, preparative HPLC was carried out on the isolated protein peak. The protein was then gel filtered again on a Sephadex G-50 column using 6M guanidine.HCl which separated the aggregated product to give a pure 90 amino acid protein after dialysis. The full synthetic 18 kDa protein was purified in a similar manner to the 90 amino acid fragment with the second gel filtration being carried out using a Sephadex G-100 column or a Pharmacia Superose 12 column. This provided pure synthetic 18 kDa protein in an estimated 1.8 % yield or 47 mg from this synthesis of a final 2.46 g of protein resin based on the starting protein on the resin.

    View record details
  • The neotectonics of the Wellington and Ruahine faults between the Manawatu Gorge and Puketitiri, North Island, New Zealand : a thesis presented as partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Earth Science

    Hanson, Judith Ann (1998)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The Wellington and Ruahine Faults are two major faults of the North Island Dextral Fault Belt which formed approximately 2.5ma in response to the obliquely subducting Pacific Plate beneath the east coast of the North Island. Plate rotation has increased over time causing faulting patterns to change throw direction and strike-slip activity to increase within the Hawkes Bay area. Earthquakes rupturing either the Wellington or Ruahine Faults represent a serious hazard for this area. The purpose of this study was to establish a record of paleoseismic activity on the Wellington and Ruahine Faults which would allow future estimates of likely fault behaviour to be made. Trenches were excavated across these faults in mainly swampy environments. Within these trenches are layers of earthquake debris, layers of peat and other terrestrial sediments which have been deformed by earthquake activity. The layers of peat were radiocarbon dated to give the approximate ages of underlying or overlying earthquake debris. In many areas through which the faults pass are terraces composed of gravel which has been washed down from the axial ranges composed of Torlesse greywacke. The ages of these terraces are known due to layers of dated volcanic ash preserved in cover beds and wood preserved within. Some of these terraces have been offset by the fault. Using the known age of these terraces and the distance that they are offset by the fault, it was possible to calculate rates of fault movement during late Quaternary time. Field observations of the Wellington and Ruahine Faults reveal that the faults do not deform the areas through which they pass but rather act in response to regional deformation (within these structurally different areas). During earthquake events large blocks of land are moved both horizontally and vertically. The rate and size of these events is dependent on the regional geology where the earthquake ruptures occur. These regions are described as follows from south to north. The first region lies between Kahuki and the Ohara Depression, this is an area of prevalent strike-slip with horizontal offset rates averaging 12mm/yr for the Wellington Fault which is high by world standards. In contrast the Ruahine Fault displays little evidence of late Quaternary movement. The second region encloses the Ohara Depression which has an east-west compressional vector. Here strain is transferred from the Wellington to the Ruahine Fault thereby lowering the horizontal offset rate for the Wellington Fault to a maximum of 4.7mm/yr. The third region lies between the Ngaruroro and Tutaekuri Rivers and is a region with a north-northeast compressional vector. Here a horizontal offset rate of 3.3mm/yr (for the Wellington Fault) was determined using offset Ohakean terrace rises. The most northern region lies between the Tutaekuri River and Napier-Taupo Highway is a zone of normal strike-slip faulting with a combined horizontal offset rate of 18mm/yr for the Wellington, Ruahine and Te Waka Faults. These regions correspond to proposed rupture segments for both Wellington and Ruahine Faults. This study provides a record of at least 12 Ms >6.5 earthquake events recorded on the Wellington Fault in the Kahuki-Dannevirke district, 9 of which occurred in the last 30,000 years. This is the longest record of earthquake events recorded within fault trenches in New Zealand. The last earthquake on the Wellington Fault took place c. 300 years ago between Kahuki and Dannevirke. The largest single offset found in the Kahuki-Dannevirke area is estimated to have been displaced by 12m horizontally and 1.8m vertically. The estimated magnitude for an earthquake occurring in this region is between Ms 7.4 and 7.8. An earthquake of this magnitude would cause major destruction to all nearby engineering structures and to buildings in the nearby cities of Palmerston North, Napier and Hastings. Earthquakes of this size are estimated to occur every c. 300 years for the Kahuki-Dannevirke area, every 300 to 500 years for the Ohara Depression and every 1000 years for the region between the Tutaekuri River and the Napier-Taupo Highway. Similar studies were conducted along the Ruahine Fault trace between the Ohara Depression and the Napier-Taupo Highway. Seismic activity in this area is estimated to produce a Ms 7.4 to 7.5 magnitude earthquake every 400 to 500 years. Horizontal offset is expected to be in the range of 3 to 5.5m. Dates for the last earthquake on the Ruahine Fault have not been determined but it is possible that there have been up to 4 earthquakes on this fault since 1850 yrs B.P. The Wellington and Ruahine Faults pass mainly through farmland, areas of forestry and the southern Ruahine Range. When an earthquake rupture event occurs it is possible that most farmhouses will escape major damage with little loss of life, providing they are not built on the fault or in the path of any possible landslides. However major disruption is to be expected to any engineering works close to the faults. Landslides may occur on over-steep slopes in and near the axial ranges and some major rivers may be dammed as a result. The larger magnitude earthquakes will produce severe shaking in the cities of Palmerston North, Napier and Hastings where substantial damage can be expected to occur, especially to those buildings that are built on reclaimed land or on alluvial soils prone to liquefaction.

    View record details
  • The role of career development in relation to the developmental contextual position of young people in New Zealand : considerations for policy development and career services in New Zealand secondary schools : thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Education

    McIntyre, Diana J (1998)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    This is a study of young peoples' career development needs and awareness and the relationship to personal development at the interface of school provision and wider economic, political and educational change that impinge on those relationships. It is theoretically embedded within the developmental contextual position of adolescent development, but much of the study is concerned with generating a comprehensive data base to inform policy development and practice considerations in careers assistance in New Zealand secondary schools. It begins, therefore, with an overview of the analytical framework of developmental contextualism, and goes on to explore more fully the dimensions presumed to be operating in relation to the career development of New Zealand youth. In doing so, it contributes a multidisciplinarian perspective, the essence of which it is argued, is an integral and necessary consideration in the provision of a developmentally appropriate and socially accountable approach to careers services in secondary schools. An examination of senior secondary school students' career development characteristics and experiences to which schools are in a position to respond forms the central empirical study of the latter part of this thesis. School careers staff, parents' and students' believed that schools were important environments for young people's career exploration and development and that an integrated, comprehensive careers service was an acceptable responsibility of secondary schooling. The careers information bases in schools were considered to be well resourced. Other dimensions, including career education, career advice and career counselling were nominated the most crucial areas needed for improvement. Limited opportunity for professional development and training in careers work was considered by staff to be the greatest barrier toward the provision of developmentally appropriate careers assistance. Other barriers included limited time allocation for careers work, low status in the school and unclear specifications regarding the role of careers staff and career services. Parents did not feel adequately informed about the nature and role of careers assistance in schools and this was considered a hindrance toward constructive involvement with their childrens career development. For the majority of students concern around career-related issues represented the source of considerable anxiety in their life. Careers assistance was highly valued by these young people, with most expressing concern about access to good quality careers advice and careers counselling. Limited access to specialised assistance at the personal level was reflected by students self reports on measures of career development and personal coping resources. Generally, the young people reported that they had not engaged adequately in appropriate career planning activities; had few 'useful' career exploration experiences; possessed insufficient knowledge about the nature and requirements of the world of work or occupations; and were not particularly knowledgeable about what to consider in making career-related (including education, training and work) decisions. Statistically significant relationships were found between scores on indices of career development and scores on a measure of how students coped with career-related concerns. While most young people approached career problems constructively, those students who were less likely to have engaged in useful planning and exploration and who had limited knowledge of the world of work generally were more likely to approach career development concerns non-productively, such as worrying about what might happen or closing oneself off from the problem. Perhaps the most salient theme to emerge in this thesis is the conviction that the career development of young people is a social as well as a personal process. Both the individual and society have much to gain from the young person's capacity for realism and purpose concerning school and post-school pathways and ultimately in the possession of a beginning repertoire of personal resources to manage career transitions in future journeys during their adult years. Ultimately, the complex interaction of individuals and society in relation to career pathways demand school-based career services which are clearly defined in policy, operationalised in official documentation, adequately resourced in relation to personnel and training and properly integrated alongside existing school practices.

    View record details
  • Quantitative genetics of prostrateness and other related attributes in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Plant Breeding and Genetics, Department of Plant Genetics, Massey University, New Zealand

    Mirzaie-Nodoushan, Hossein (1993)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Three major experiments were conducted to investigate quantitative genetic aspects of prostrateness and related attributes in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) during the years 1991-1993. These were done on several red clover genotypes with prostrate growth habit, nodal rooting ability, and early flowering characteristics, together with several other genotypes from semierect and erect types. Three types of experiments were carried out: 1)Since genotype environment interaction is believed to be ubiquitous in affecting the performance of plants, a series of experiments were carried out in order to get general information on a range of red clover germplasm representative of the three distinct types of red clover. Twelve genotypes (four per type) were studied in a randomized complete block design with three replications at two sites for two successive years. Several techniques of univariate and multivariate analysis were applied in order to quantify and qualify the magnitude and pattern of the possible genotype-environment interaction effects. Phenotypic and genotypic correlation values were estimated for each year and type separately as well as for the whole data set in genotype-environment interaction experiment. As a result of GE interaction analysis, a large amount of genetic variation was found in the genotypes examined. Several attributes presented significant first and second order interaction effects. Multivariate discriminant analysis based on these effects revealed discriminant scores by which the contribution and importance of each attribute in the response of genotypes examined in the environments was studied. Cluster analysis revealed that each of the three red clover types have their own particular responses to the environment effect. Phenotypic and genotypic correlation patterns were different from year to year and type to type. Prostrate growth habit reduced dry matter yield through significant negative correlation with yield components. 2) One accession from each of the two extreme types, erect and prostrate, were examined using a hierarchical mating design to investigate their genetic structure and to obtain more detailed genetic information on a narrower germplasm. Nine random plants from each type were cloned and used as male parent. Each male parent was crossed to six different random plants as female parents, three from the same population and three from opposite population. In other words four sets of crosses, two intra- and two inter-population sets, were made. To evaluate the 108 progeny families produced, male groups were divided into six sets, each containing three male groups from the same type. Each set was examined in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Various genetic parameters including genetic variance components and heritability of several morphological attributes were estimated. The two plant populations examined by the mating design, presented different patterns of genetic variation. Although the prostrate population did not have much genetic variation, its additive genetic variance components were of more importance than dominant components. However, in the erect population, dominance components of variance were more important than additive. In inter-population crosses, additive components were more important than dominance components. Stem length, number of internodes, number of branches, and plant diameter presented high level of heterosis. Number of stems, plant height, and stem thickness presented fairly high hybrid depression (negative heterosis). Heritability broad sense and narrow sense were estimated in genotype-environment interaction experiment and hierarchical mating design. Heritability values in GE interaction experiment were different from the heritability broad sense values in hierarchical mating design for most of the attributes, indicating the influence of GE interaction effect. This difference was not noticeable in prostrateness. Heritability narrow sense estimated in hierarchical mating design varied from intra- to inter-population crosses. 3) Three sets of generation mean analysis were carried out to obtain the most detailed genetic information including function of genes, and number of genes controlling the attributes. To achieve these, three pairs of parent plants were used (one erect and one prostrate in each pair) to produce F1, F2, Bc1, and Bc2. Several attributes which were distinct enough in the two types so that it could be assumed that parent populations were nearly homozygous in opposite directions, were studied in these crosses. Three, six, and the best parsimonious models were presented for the studied attributes. Prostrateness and stem thickness were partially to completely dominant over erectness and stem thinness. Small leaf size was over-dominant over large leaf size. There were strong evidences for additive x additive non-allelic interaction for stem thickness, additive x dominance interaction for leaf size, and dominance x dominance interaction for prostrateness and leaf size. Nodal rooting ability, prostrateness, and stem thickness seemed to be controlled by a low number of genes, whereas leaf size seemed to be controlled by several genes.

    View record details
  • Studies of sap-transmissable viruses of flowering cherries : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at MasseyUniversity

    Everett, Kerry-Rae (1993)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Six sap-transmitted viruses were identified during a study of 434 flowering cherry trees (Prunus serrulata Lindl. sensu lato) in the North Island of New Zealand. These included Prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus strain G (PNRSV -G), apple mosaic ilarvirus (ApMV), flowering cherry virus B (FCVB), strawberry latent ringspot virus (SLRV), prune dwarf ilarvirus (PDV) and flowering cherry virus I (FCVI). Of these, ApMV, FCVB, SLRV and FCVI were new records for this host. FCVB and FCVI are newly described viruses. The most common virus was PNRSV -G (30.6% ); the other viruses ranged in incidence from 1 0.2% (FCVB) to 0.5% (PDV). A further nine viruses were also detected by mechanical transmission, but were not characterized in this study. Repeated sampling of 30 flowering cherry trees during late winter and early spring showed that ELISA was more sensitive for detecting PNRSV -G infection of flowering cherries than sap-transmission. Three methods for purifying PNRSV -G isolates from flowering cherry were assessed and the best method was one that used ether as a clarification agent. Yields of 5.0 mg/1 00 g of tissue were obtained. An antiserum was produced to PNRSV-G in New Zealand white rabbits which had a titre in microprecipitin tests of 1/81 92. A 338 nucleotide cDNA clone was made to PNRSV-G which hybridised to RNA-3 in Northern analysis. FCVI had a narrow host range, quasi-isometric particles of c. 26 nm diam. morphologically similar to the particles of ilarviruses, some bullet shaped particles (also characteristic of ilarviruses), four RNA species of 3550, 2800, 2000 and 1 050 nucleotides, and a coat protein of Mr 30 000. These properties indicate that FCVI has affinities with the ilarvirus group, but it differs in host range and symptoms, physical characteristics and serological properties from other members of this group. FCVB infected both monocotyledons and dicotyledons, but had a limited host range. FCVB has four RNA species of 3900, 21 50, 1 800 and 800 nucleotides (estimated from denatured dsRNA). Partially purified preparations contained isometric particles about 24nm in diameter. When purified at pH 7.5 FCVB sedimented in sucrose gradients as three UV absorbing components and virus particles appeared to be swollen. At low pH (5.0 or 6.0) or at pH 7.5 with the addition of magnesium ions, FCVB sedimented as a single predominant UV absorbing component and virus particles were not swollen. One major protein band (Mr 1 9 300) was extracted from partially purified preparations. Based on these features, it is proposed that FCVB is a new member of the bromovirus group. However, serological interrelationships were not detected with antisera to three bromoviruses, brome mosaic virus, broad bean mottle virus and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus. SLRV was isolated from flowering cherry trees in close proximity to each other in Auckland, New Zealand. The virus was not isolated from any of 390 flowering cherry trees tested from four other regions in the North Island. The virus was identified by host range, particle morphology, RNA and protein content and by serology. This is the first record of SLRV in flowering cherry. The nucleotide sequence of the 3' -terminal 2427 nucleotides of SLRV RNA-2 were determined using cDNA clones. The sequence contains a single reading frame terminating at an ochre stop codon 552 nucleotides from a 3'-terminal poly(A) tract. The N-terminal sequences of the two SLRV coat proteins determined by Edman degradation indicated that the larger 43K protein had a N-terminal Gly and the smaller 27K protein was cleaved at a Ser/Gly bond. No homologies were found in amino acid sequences or nucleotide sequences to four comoviruses or six nepoviruses suggesting that SLRV should be placed in a separate plant virus group.

    View record details
  • The "manufacture" of news in the 1993 New Zealand general election : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of PhD in Human Resource Management at Massey University

    McGregor, Judith Helen (1995)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The news media's role in general election campaigns in New Zealand remains mysterious because few indigenous research antecedents inform the debate about the democratic function of journalists reporting election campaigns. This study analyses the creation of news by reporters during the 1993 New Zealand general election campaign and examines the relationships between journalists, politicians and third party sources which impact on political communication. The analysis leads to a discussion of the role of the news media in reporting election news. The notions that news is created by journalists and through relationship between journalists, politicians and third party sources are central to the study. The concept that news is "manufactured" or socially constructed is explained in the introductory chapter and linked to theoretical perspectives in the literature review in Chapter Two. The two broad research questions which the study answers are: 1. how was the news manufactured during the 1993 New Zealand election campaign? 2. what does this mean for the "dialogue of democracy" (Taylor, 1992)? The manufacture of news is examined from three perspectives in the research. These can be called the "doing" perspective which employs action research methodology, the "watching" perspective which uses participant observation methodology and the "measuring" perspective utilising content analysis. The research notes the failure of "any particular holistic paradigm" to sweep the field of political communication and employs "ground-up paradigm building" by carving out broad research problem areas and examining them through the use of appropriate research methodologies (Bennett, 1993, p.182). The objectives of the action research project were twofold. First, to assist an individual political candidate contesting the election to develop systematic processes to use the news media to raise the candidate's profile. Second, to increase the level of understanding by the political candidate of news media processes and news concepts such as newsworthiness, candidate accessibility and news angles so she could utilise the knowledge to generate news and photographic opportunities. The findings revealed that the political candidate perceived that her level of understanding of news processes was enhanced through the action research. The study found, too, that a systematic process of source relationship was cultivated between the political candidate and journalist, which in principle enhanced the democratic function of the news media as a platform for political debate. The action research project, was, however, bound by the prevailing climate of political rhetoric with all its shortcomings. The participant observation methodology explored the nature of the contest between the triumvirate of political candidates as sources, journalists and third party sources such as "spin doctors". A second research question examined whether reporters seek to reassert their role in such a way as to influence the news when traditional journalistic autonomy is threatened. The findings showed a complex, shifting contest for control over knowledge and power in the making of news. This contest was characterised by features such as the increased sophistication of third party sources actively intervening in news processes, by strategic utilisation of "new" news formats by politicians and by journalists vigorously defending their status and enlarging their role. The impact of the findings on democratic journalism were examined using Golding's (1990) suggestion of a revival of the notion of citizenship, "to what degree and in what ways are people denied access to necessary information and imagery to allow full and equal participation in the social order?" (p.98). The third methodology, content analysis, tested Edelstein, Ito and Kepplinger's (1989) theory of news content using a cognitive construct, the problematic situation. The results confirmed a larger interpretive as opposed to purely descriptive role for metropolitan newspaper journalists reporting news in the 1993 general election campaign in New Zealand. Over 70% of election campaign issues in the period sampled were defined problematically and negatively with a high reliance on references to loss of value and conflict. The findings have implications for how political candidates could and should tailor their political messages. Overall the results taken together have fundamental implications for the "dialogue of democracy" (Taylor, 1992). They disclose a powerful dilemma about the manufacture of news in the 1993 New Zealand general election. The expanded influence of the news media has not been accompanied by a reassessment of what it is the news media should be doing in election campaign reportage. Reformative suggestions are made in the final chapter of the study and the implications for political journalism in a democracy are discussed.

    View record details
  • Accounting in hospital organisations in New Zealand : a qualitative study in the reform context of 1984-1994 : a thesis presented for the degree of Ph.D. in Management Systems at Massey University

    Dixon, Keith (1994)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Most general hospitals in New Zealand operate as part of the public sector. Since 1984, that sector has been the subject of radical, government led reforms. The espoused theory of these reforms has been expounded in terms of improving efficiency and effectiveness, and increasing accountability (Boston, Martin, Pallot & Walsh, 1991; G. Scott & Gorringe, 1989). The outward effects of these reforms on the hospital system consist of organisational changes, including the creation of hospital enterprises; changes to the way organisations are financed, including the use of taxes to purchase hospital products delineated according to diagnosis related groups [DRGs]; and changes to their management structures with a policy of general management replacing triumvirate management. Inevitably, these official changes have led to social changes to the system in general, and to the situated practice of accounting (Chua, 1988). In this study, an attempt has been made to describe and interpret these changes in the hospital system context, and to shed some light on the way in which accounting has come to be practised within that context. The theoretical posture of the study is a blend of rational, structuralist perspectives, and natural, interactionist ones (Boland & Pondy, 1983; Roberts & Scapens, 1985; Silverman, 1985; Denzin, 1989b). Consistent with this posture, the study strategy of control and design is a version of analytic induction (Denzin, 1989b; Silverman, 1985). The strategy comprised three phases during which a rough notion of accounting in hospital organisations was transformed into a working interpretation; data were gathered and analysed; and a thesis was compiled. The latter comprises thick descriptions and thick interpretations (Denzin, 1989a, 1989b; Patton, 1990) of the hospital system context and the situated practice of accounting; and a theory-in-use (Argyris, 1990; Argyris & Schon, 1974) which provides "explanations in terms of conditions of possibility" (Miller, 1990, p. 329) of what has been occurring in the hospital system, and the role of this situated practice in these occurrences. Underlying the study methodology was the notion of crafting both the study design and the theory which the study aimed to discover. The data were obtained using methods associated with naturalistic inquiry during time spent in the field. The use of these methods was prompted by a dearth of research published in this area relating to New Zealand, the wide range of perspectives among people participating or interested in the organisations, and the enormity of the changes to the system. The data were accumulated triangulately (Denzin, 1989b) from among different kinds of participants working on hospital sites (e.g., doctors, charge nurses, other health professionals and hospital staff with managerial responsibilities), from interested parties off-site (e.g, people working in the Department of Health, regional health authorities and organisations outside of the hospital system), and from official documents and published academic literature. The main vehicle used in the field was the nonschedule standardised interview (Denzin, 1989b), and inquiries focused, in turn, on practices relating to the budget, cost data reports and the annual report. In addition, interviews of a more general and exploratory nature, and some questionnaires, were used in the preliminary stages of the study. The picture which emerges from the study comprises four aspects: (a) a hospital system subjected to macro-level disturbances that have caused a mixture of effects in terms of structures, processes, interactions and outcomes; (b) an emergence of accounting since the mid-1980s in multiple roles, which are reflective and constitutive of organisational and social practices developing in the system (Ansari & Euske, 1987; Boland & Pondy, 1983; Burchell, Clubb & Hopwood, 1985; Chua, 1995; Kelly & Pratt, 1992; Loft, 1986; Roberts & Scapens, 1985); (c) qualified success for the situated accounting practice in the role of a political force in converting hospitals to a more effective form of organisation (Mintzberg, 1991); and (d) accounting practice at a fork in the road ahead, one way leading to its contamination of hospitals by inappropriate forces and forms (Mintzberg, 1991) based on production management; and the other leading to its emergence as an important support in a hospital system founded on a more conjoint organisational configuration (W. R. Scott, 1982) in which professionals and managers apply their craft cooperatively for the joint and several benefit of patients. These findings have implications which policy makers, health professionals and the public are urged to evaluate.

    View record details
  • The role of the external consultant in facilitating enterprise development : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Ph. D. in Human Resource Management at Massey University

    Massey, Claire (1999)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Today's organisations are faced with increasingly difficult choices about appropriate development strategies and structures. At the same time they are supported by a growing literature on management and organisational performance. Judging by the recent average growth in the revenues of the major international consulting firms (which was 34% in the period between 1998 and 1999 according to Kennedy Information, 1999), it appears that it is increasingly likely for organisations to call in external consultants to assist the organisation's managers to select appropriate development strategies from the range of available choices. It may be argued that this situation means that consultants are caught in the grip of two opposing forces: There is the possibility of providing clients with a better outcome than ever before, based on the advances of management thinking that have occurred over the course of this century. At the same time, clients' beliefs that continual advancements in organisational success are possible are putting pressure on the consulting industry to achieve "quick fixes". Whilst striving to perform effectively, consultants are being driven towards providing formulaic responses to complex organisational problems. One of the possible consequences is that they may not be making full use of the available knowledge about organisations, management and the practice of consulting. A further difficulty is that although the literature on the practice of consulting is rich, the theoretical knowledge base for consultants is still regarded as being incomplete. This situation provided the context for the study, in which the researcher sought to describe the roles that can be taken by a consultant during an assignment, and to explore the relationship between roles and subsequent organisational outcomes. Against this background the researcher identified an initial point of interest: the organisation that is engaged upon a search for organisational improvement. The term used to describe this was enterprise development (ED), which was defined as a situation in which an organisation's managers employ a consultant to undertake a set of activities with the objective of achieving a positive organisational outcome of some kind. The implicit research question was whether external consultants have a role to play in ED, and if so, whether there are ways to maximise the positive outcomes of their involvement. The researcher selected action research as the most appropriate methodology for working on client assignments, which also provided an opportunity for those participating in the study to gain from the process. As a starting point the researcher and the consultant "research partners" developed an initial proposition; "that it is possible to identify the factors that influence consultancy outcomes by engaging in participatory research with individual consultants". This proposition was developed over the course of three research cycles, and a diagrammatic presentation of these cycles in relationship to the research question can be found in Chapter 1 (page 31). In the first research cycle, the researcher worked alongside each of the three research partners on a single client assignment. They developed the "intervention profile" (IP) as a way of assessing the assignment's potential for an effective outcome. At the end of the research cycle the researcher and the research partners concluded "that assessing a particular client assignment with the help of the IP will assist a consultant to make choices about appropriate intervention strategies". In the second research cycle the researcher and the research partners developed the IP further, formulating a list of intervention "conditions" that may exist for each of the intervention profiles, and applying this extended framework to a client assignment. They concluded that applying the framework effectively is limited by the consultant's capability. At this point they developed the second proposition; "that a tool for assessing consultants' strengths and weaknesses will assist them to plan a programme of professional development that will improve their practice of organisational consulting". In the third research cycle the researcher and the research partners focused on the consultant's capability. Working through the "consulting approaches assessment" (CAA), a tool designed specifically for this study, the research partners identified their own approach to the practice of consulting. They concluded with a final proposition: "given that the way consultants approach the consulting process is one of the critical success factors, a consulting development programme that assists consultants to develop an intervention profile, assess intervention conditions and develop intervention strategies in the context of their own consulting approach will improve their practice of organisational consulting". The evidence of the six cases undertaken in this study suggests that there is more than one role that consultants can take with a client organisation that can contribute to ED. It is also clear that there are ways of maximising the positive outcomes of consultancy interventions. Here the study makes two specific contributions to the knowledge on organisational consulting that currently exists. Firstly, the IP and the CAA are additions to the literature, which allow practising consultants to apply the extensive literature on management and organisation to client assignments. Secondly, the researcher presents a model for organisational consulting which explicitly identifies the three different levels that consultants need to consider when undertaking client interventions (conceptualisation, strategy and practice), and categorises the existing body of knowledge on consultancy in terms of these levels. These contributions have fundamental implications for the training and development of organisational consultants, and their application has the potential to improve their value to the organisations that employ them.

    View record details
  • Effects of temperature on seasonal changes in growth and carbohydrate physiology of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctorate of Philosophy in Plant Science at Massey University

    Hughes, Avis Rosalie (1992)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    In a temperate climate, most of the visible, seasonal changes in asparagus growth are induced by or dependent on changing temperature regimes. Senescence of ferns in autumn occurred below 13C, but was prevented by 20C. Crowns required chilling at temperatures below 12.5C to release the internal dormancy which occurred during winter. Although budbreak was never completely suppressed, the minimum temperature at which budbreak could occur changed during winter dormancy. Budbreak did not occur at 12.5C in some cultivars at maximum dormancy. The optimum temperature for the growth of young plants was between 25C and 30C. A model was developed which simulated seasonal changes in carbohydrate accumulation and utilisation, and the changing source-sink relationships within male and female plants. The model used temperature, indirectly, to determine the times at which seasonal changes in plant growth occurred. The basic unit for carbohydrate production and allocation in cultivars with well defined rhizomes, e.g.'Rutger's Beacon', was a rhizome and it's attached developing axillaries. An axillary rhizome became independent very soon after it had developed fern. The basic unit may differ in cultivars such as 'UC157' which have less well defined rhizomes. The strength of correlative inhibition within a cultivar appears to affect both rhizome morphology and budbreak patterns during spear harvest. In summer, young fern had a higher mobilising ability for assimilate than older fern or roots in male plants. In late summer-early autumn, roots became a stronger sink than the fern. On female plants, reproductive sinks (i.e, berries) had the highest competitive and mobilising ability. Crown carbohydrate concentration appeared to reach a physiological maximum of 65% in late summer. Most of the carbohydrate pool was long chain fructans, i.e, with degree of polymerisation above eight. The size of the crown carbohydrate pool increased during autumn and senescence as crown dry weight increased. The concentration of disaccharide increased during senescence indicating that it may have a role in cold tolerance. There was little change in crown dry weight or carbohydrate concentration of chilled plants until after the plants had been chilled for five weeks and the minimum temperature for budbreak had decreased. Respiration then increased as internal dormancy was further released. Changes in the composition of carbohydrate reserves are associated with the chilling process, and may affect the release of internal dormancy. Dormant plants required exposure to temperatures below 12.5C to increase the monosaccharide concentration above 4.5% dry weight and to depolymerise long chain fructans. Both these factors would decrease the substrate for some energy requiring process which must occur before budbreak can occur. 'Rutger's Beacon' required approximately 500 chilling units (calculated using the Utah model) to release 50% of the basal buds from internal dormancy and permit growth at 12.5C. The chilling response curve for asparagus appears to be flatter than the Utah model. This thesis confirmed earlier work which indicated that improved agronomic performance may be related to increased partitioning into carbohydrate storage tissue i.e, the crown. Genotypic differences in depth of internal dormancy and spear growth rate will also affect yield. Differences in carbohydrate metabolism are not the reason for agronomic differences between male and female plants. The strong sink effect of berries on female plants reduces crown dry weight and thus the crown carbohydrate pool.

    View record details
  • Synthesis and characterisation of poly(acrylic acid) microspheres containing β-cyclodextrin

    Bibby, David C. (1999)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xviii, 160 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. "February 1999"

    View record details
  • Expectations and satisfaction in tourism : an exploratory study into measuring satisfaction

    Gnoth, Juergen (1994)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xi, 277 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Marketing.

    View record details
  • Geographies that matter: Pregnant bodies in public places

    Longhurst, Robyn (1996)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis has two objectives. First, I argue that there exists a dichotomy between mind and body and that the mind (rationality and masculinity) is privileged over the body (irrationality and femininity). This dichotomy underpins human geographical knowledge as it is currently constituted. I examine examples from time-geography, humanistic geography, medical geography and feminist geography in order to illustrate the ways in which the body is Othered. This Othering of the body in geography serves to marginalise certain individuals and groups, such as women, who are thought to be 'tied to their bodies' and, therefore, incapable of reason. It is a specific notion of knowing as disembodied that marginalises women in the production of geographical knowledge. A privileging of the mind over the body is one of the reasons why, despite feminist interventions, contemporary geography continues to be a largely masculinist discourse. The second objective of this thesis is to contribute to the creation of a 'sexually embodied geography' that contests hegemonic, disembodied, masculinist geographies. I do this by focusing on pregnancy. Using spot observations, focus groups, individual interviews, indepth case-studies, a questionnaire and academic autobiography I conduct a study of the 'lived' geographies of 31 women who are pregnant for the first time and live in Hamilton, AotearoaiNew Zealand. Many of these women tended to withdraw from public places such as night clubs, bars, pubs, restaurants, cafes, and from public activities such as sport and paid employment during pregnancy. Two possible reasons for these pregnant women's withdrawal from public places during pregnancy are: first, that pregnant women are frequently popularly represented as being 'seeping', 'ugly', abject bodies who are not to be trusted in the public realms; and second, pregnant women are frequently represented as being emotional, irrational, and forgetful (read: 'hysterical') and, therefore, not to be trusted in public space. This study offers an example of new possibilities in geography. It is a geography that focuses on the corporeal thereby displacing the tendency to privilege the mind as the dominant term in the mind/body dualism. Focusing on the sexed body may provide feminist geographers with one more way of challenging masculinism and raising questions of sexual difference in geography.

    View record details
  • Nearshore and inner shelf sedimentation on the east Coromandel coast, New Zealand

    Bradshaw, Barry Edward (1991)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    The east Coromandel coastline on the northeast coast of New Zealand has been characterised by localised erosion problems since its commercial subdivision. Increasing pressures have also arisen in recent years for possible use of the adjacent continental shelf as a repository for dredge and mining tailings, and extraction of commercial aggregate and mineral deposits. This has raised the question of dynamic links between the continental shelf and local beach systems I and resulting impacts on the coastline from such activities. The east Coromandel shelf study was therefore undertaken to investigate the modern and past shelf sedimentation processes, and relate these findings to local resource management issues. The results also contribute to the present international understanding of inner shelf sedimentation processes in 'storm-dominated' shelf environments. Surficial sedimentation patterns have been examined by a variety of methods, including: the use of sea-bed drifters and Aanderaa current meters to determine the shelf hydrodynamics; the collection of 563 samples to determine surface sediment textural patterns; a detailed examination of morphological features on the sea floor through a series of 3 side-scan sonar surveys in which 620 km of sonograph and echosounding trace have been obtained; diver surveys using depth of activity rods to provide information on the mobility of surface sediments under different sea conditions; the collection, of 174 km of continuous sub-bottom seismic profiles which have been used to determine sub-surface stratigraphic patterns; and an examination of the provenance of shelf sediments through a detailed examination of their light and heavy mineralogy. The east Coromandel coast is located on an active plate margin, resulting in the presence of a steep and rocky coastline fronted by a relatively narrow continental shelf (20 to 30 km wide), and a local geology dominated by Tertiary volcanics covered by a thin veneer of more recent volcanic air fall deposits. It is also located on a lee shelf in a mid-latitude zone of dominant westerly winds, with these prevailing weather patterns disrupted by high speed east to northeasterly winds associated with the infrequent passage of subtropical low pressure systems, occluded fronts, or more infrequent decaying tropical cyclones. This physiographic setting results in spatially and temporally highly variable sedimentation patterns, with sediment transport primarily controlled by the interaction of wave oscillatory and wind-generated currents during storm conditions. However, characteristics of tide-. and oceanic current-dominated conditions also occur in some areas. And conditions generally vary along the coast from being higher energy (current-dominated) on the southern exposed coast, to lower energy (wave- or current-dominated) on the northern embayed coastline. Shelf sedimentation is inferred to occur under three different scale events of fair weather, storm, and extreme storm conditions. The model proposed involves extreme storm conditions transporting large quantities of fine nearshore sands seawards onto the inner shelf surface, where they are slowly reworked along the shelf during annual storm events and back onshore during fair weather conditions. This latter onshore return of fine sands is proposed to result from an enhanced shear stress effect of long-period swell waves over coarse megarippled inner shelf sands. Shelf sedimentation patterns within the study area are inferred to have been primarily established by processes occurring at about the time sea level stabitised 6500 years B.P. At this stage, transgressive shelf sediments were reworked into equilibrium with the regional oceanographic conditions by the winnowing of fine sand from coarser material during storms, with the fine sands subsequently transported onshore by wave-induced currents during calm periods. Depending on the volume of sediments incorporated into transgressive sand bodies and the local shelf gradients, each embayment then developed into either an integral part of the shelf transport system (usually off large estuary systems), with fine shelf sands moving onshore and forming wide barrier spits, or a closed sedimentary system unaffected by shelf sedimentation patterns (pocket embayments). Shelf equilibrium was evidently attained by the fine sands forming a steep seaward dipping concave-up nearshore profile, and coarse sands developing a flatter inner shelf profile. An autochthonous mode of shelf sedimentation characterised the east Coromandel coast in early Holocene times, and is still evident under present conditions in most areas by the cyclical reworking of fine sands between the lower nearshore and inner shelf surfaces. Most east Coromandel embayments are, however, presently characterised by varying degrees of an allochthonous mode of shelf sedimentation. This involves the deposition of very fine grained, volcanic glass-enriched terrigenous sands, which are derived from either local catchments or Bay of Plenty river systems. The east Coromandel coast generally differs from most allochthonous shelf environments because the supply of terrigenous sediments has not as yet been sufficient to blanket the lower nearshore and inner shelf surfaces on the open ocean coastlines. Two separate modes of shelf sedimentation occur at present, with a nearshore inner shelf recycling of fine allochthonous shelf sands, and an open exchange of terrestrial autochthonous deposits from the upper nearshore surface to the mid shelf plain. The results of the study suggest that coastal erosion problems can largely be resolved by establishing stable incipient and frontal dune systems along the coast. and encouraging accretion by renourishment from adjacent infilling harbour deposits. The study has also shown that the dispersion of dredged sediments provides potential benefits to the coast in terms of promoting beach accretion, and that sand and mineral extraction can proceed without adverse coastal erosion effects, provided the extraction does not interfere with the natural shelf sedimentation system.

    View record details
  • Body Tourism in Queered Streets: Geographies of gay pride parades

    Johnston, Lynda (1998)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis begins with an examination of the construction of knowledge within tourism studies. I argue that tourism studies, like most social sciences, has been built on a mind/body dualism. The mind has been privileged and linked to rationality, heterosexuality and masculinity, while the body has been Othered and associated with irrationality, homosexuality and femininity. I critique tourism studies' literature, specifically hallmark tourism, postmodern tourism, ethnic tourism, sex tourism and gender and tourism, to argue that the body has been denied, desired and Othered by tourism studies' academics. Tourism studies, as academic discourse, tends to produce hegemonic, disembodied and masculinist knowledges. Against this theoretical backdrop, I examine an explicitly gendered/sexed and sexualised tourist event. I conduct a study of gay pride parades: Auckland, Aotearoa/New Zealand's HERO Parade and the Sydney, Australia Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras Parade. I use qualitative methods of data collection, specifically, participant observations, in-depth and semi-structured interviews, focus group interviews, questionnaires and newspapers, photographs, video recordings, television and radio discourses. There are three points to my discussion. I argue first, that the place of the parade becomes a contested site. Debates over the parade site derive from constructions of 'queer' bodies as deviant, dangerous and abject. Hence, 'gay' bodies become inappropriate bodies to inhabit (public) central business districts. Parade sites in 'gay' (read private) neighbourhoods, however, are perceived as less 'threatening' by city council officials. Second, I argue that rigid borders are maintained at the parade site between the queer bodies on parade (the 'hosts') and the watching, 'heterosexual' tourists. These tourists Other the queer bodies on parade. Heterosexual tourists occupy a dominant, unmarked position which is maintained through discourses of liberalism. Parading bodies which are less visibly 'gay', however, disrupt this unmarked position and trouble the binary between Self /Other, tourist/host, and straight/ gay, and hence explicitly embody tourists. Third, I disrupt binary notions of masculine I feminine bodies in gay pride parades by focusing on the ways marching boys' bodies can be read as 'fluid': both hyper-masculine and feminine. This study offers an example of new possibilities for tourism studies. Explicit inclusion of gendered/ sexed and sexualised bodies in tourism research problematises the mind/body dualism, thereby subverting the masculinism of tourism discourse.

    View record details
  • Design, development and optimisation of veterinary intravaginal controlled release drug delivery systems

    Ogle, Colin Roger (1999)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This Thesis begins by discussing the application of controlled drug delivery to the intravaginal delivery of hormones to control the oestrous cycle of farmed animals, with particular emphasis on the delivery of progestagens to cattle and sheep. The introduction highlights the recent advances made by animal physiologists in their knowledge of the oestrous cycle in cattle and sheep and how these advances have impacted upon the manner in which currently available intravaginal controlled release products are used. In addition it discusses the advances pharmaceutical scientists have made in response to the new knowledge. The CIDR®1900 Cattle insert is a commercially available silicone based intravaginal delivery system containing the natural steroid progesterone for fertility regulation in cattle. It was designed in 1987 to be inserted for 12 days. Advances made in oestrous cycle understanding by animal scientists have resulted in this product being inserted for much shorter treatment periods of 7 days. Rathbone et al. recently optimised the CIDR®1900 Cattle insert for seven day insertion periods. The outcome of these scientists work was a manufactured prototype which, when compared to the CIDR®1900 Cattle insert, contained a reduced initial drug load and a much lower residual drug load after use. For commercial production the prototype insert needed to be scaled up. This process required detailed pharmaceutical characterisation, invitro release assessment, invivo bioequivalency and chemical and physical stability studies to be performed on the scaled up product (CIDR®1380 Cattle insert) to ensure the success of the scale up process. This characterisation process forms Chapters Two and Three of this Thesis. Knowledge of the mechanism of release of a drug from a pharmaceutical product provides the formulation scientist with the necessary insight to optimise, further develop or recognise the potential and limitations of a product. Chapter Four explores the mechanism of release of progesterone from the silicone based CIDR® Cattle insert both invitro and invivo. Cumulative release data from both invitro and invivo studies were fitted against conventional mathematical models to determine the mechanism of release of progesterone from the CIDR® Cattle insert. In addition, an experimental method was developed to assess the validity of the models. The method involved taking thin consecutive horizontal slices from the surface of CIDR® Cattle inserts after various periods of release. Cumulative release of progesterone, both invitro and invivo, was linear when plotted against the square root of time, suggesting that release from the CIDR® Cattle insert occurred in accordance with the square root of time mechanism. However, experimental evidence from the horizontal slicing technique only supported the curve fitting evidence for invitro release. When the insert was investigated invivo, the slicing method indicated that a novel release mechanism was in operation which was better described by a zero order process. Chapters Five and Six of this Thesis direct their focus to oestrus control in sheep. Chapter Five utilises information gained from both Rathbone et al. and the work performed in this Thesis on the CIDR® Cattle insert to characterise and optimise the commercially available sheep equivalent of the CIDR ® 1900 Cattle insert (known as the CIDR® Sheep and Goat insert). The Chapter successfully characterises the CIDR® Sheep and Goat insert, defines the parameters of, and tests, an optimised version of this sheep product. The final Chapter of this Thesis investigates the use of poly-(ε-caprolactone) as a platform for the intravaginal delivery of progesterone to control oestrus in sheep. Silicone has certain limitations as a drug delivery platform, and with animal physiologists recent advances in knowledge, pharmaceutical scientists will need more versatile delivery platforms to develop intravaginal drug delivery systems which fulfil the future demands of the animal scientists.

    View record details
  • "Motherhood", "the family" and Murphy Brown : New Zealanders' receptions of an American sitcom text

    Michelle, Carolyn (1998)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This interdisciplinary study examines the role of American entertainment television in the social construction of 'motherhood' and 'the family' in New Zealand. It investigates how differently positioned viewers made sense of, and responded to, a particularly controversial episode of the American sitcom Murphy Brown. It also assesses the extent to which this programme was able to 'set the agenda' for discursive understandings of 'motherhood' and 'the family' in contemporary New Zealand society. Drawing on various insights derived from poststructuralist theory and audience reception studies, the first aspect of this tri-partite investigation examines the macro context of this episode's production in the United States in 1992, and identifies competing constructions of 'motherhood' and 'the family' circulating within that wider environment. The representation of these debates within the text itself is then assessed through an analysis of its narrative structure and discursive content. The second aspect of this project outlines the macro context in which this episode was broadcast in New Zealand, and identifies competing understandings of 'motherhood' and 'the family' in this country. The third aspect comprises a reception analysis in which in-depth individual interviews were used to explore participants' interpretations of this American sitcom text and their responses to its propositional content around 'motherhood', 'the family' and Murphy Brown. Twenty-two adults from a range of backgrounds participated in this qualitative audience research. On the basis of this research, it is argued that this particular American television programme and viewers in this country both play an active part in defining the social meaning of 'motherhood' and 'the family' in contemporary New Zealand. While such texts clearly work to establish certain parameters for audience receptions of their content, both cultural location and social group membership(s) provide New Zealand viewers with access to experiences, knowledges and discourses of the wider social world that potentially enable them to renegotiate and even reject the privileged meanings of American entertainment programming.

    View record details
  • Reduction of water and bed levels in the lower Waikato River

    Wo, You Gu (1994)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    The major aims of this thesis are to determine the historical qualitative and quantitative reduction in water and bed levels of the lower Waikato River, to identify probable factors influencing the reduction, and to predict the future water and bed levels at Huntly in relation to the Huntly Power Station management Sediments in the Waikato River are composed of gravelly pumiceous sands. In terms of the mean and median grain sizes, generally sands dominate the lower river b~ from the river mouth to the cross section at about 100 km upstream of the mouth, while gravels dominate the bed upstream onward. A hiatus in the longitudinal mean and median grain size distributions from sand to gravel is apparent around Horotiu. In the Waipa River, the texture of bed materials was found to be similar but probably finer to those in the lower parts of the Waikato River. On the basis that ∂n / ∂Q= ∂W/ ∂Q =∂S / ∂Q=0, where n, W, S and Q are, respectively, Manning's coefficient, width, energy slope and discharge, water level of each gauging can be adjusted to one for an index flow of 350 m³/s ( WLQ₌₃₅₀ ). Further assuming that ∂n / ∂T = ∂W / ∂T = ∂S / ∂T=0 where T is time, variations in the time series of WLQ₌₃₅₀ represent the mean bed level changes over time. These assumptions seem to be acceptable for those gauging data within a certain range of discharges in the lower Waikato River. A quantitative analysis of the available river survey data, water level profile measurements, and gauging records has indicated that, in general, there was a continuous trend of reduction in water and bed levels on the lower Waikato River since the 1960s. The reasons for these reductions likely include sand mining operation along the river, consequent disturbance of the river bed surface, long term sand extraction around Mercer and further downstream, upstream effects of the significant bed level lowering at Mercer, and downstream effects of the 1947 Karapiro Dam closure. Analysis of river bulk volume changes suggested that the amount of bedload transported into the river downstream of Ngaruawahia was about 160 000±24 000 m3/yr between 1964-1989. Nearly two-thirds of this was contributed by the bed materials stored in the upstream Waikato River course by an analysis of data from 1974-1989, and the remainder by the Waipa River and the catchment yield from the Hamilton basin. Two disparate time scales for water and bedload movements in practice result in singularperturbation characteristics of the system. With a quasi-steady flow approach, linearization of the water and bedload movement system produces a hyperbolic equation or even a parabolic equation (uniform flow). The parabolic equation is a good approximation of the hyperbolic equation under the condition of large values of time or a large distance from the original disturbance. Variations along the Waikato River of an average mean bed level within a certain length of channel are expected to be small. Therefore the linear models can be applied. In the domain between 48.25-94.45 km upstream of the Waikato River mouth, the parabolic model has been used numerically to predict the future bed levels at Huntly in December 2040 for different scenarios. Potential effects on operation of the present cooling water system have been assessed for given discharges at that time. The ratio of river width to water depth for the formation of alternate bars at the Huntly Railway Bridge has been found to be exceeding 100 by an analysis of the gauging data at this site and at the Ngaruawahia Cableway. This critical width-depth ratio, 100, is much bigger than those suggested in the literature. The corresponding conditions of discharge and mean water depth are, respectively, less than about 350 m³/s and 2.30 m. However further research is required to confirm these conclusions.

    View record details