291 results for ResearchSpace@Auckland, Masters

  • Evaluation of utilisation of the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV Programme in Central province, Kenya

    Ngugi, Catherine Njeri (2013)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: The PMTCT HIV programme has been one of the most successful HIV preventive interventions towards HIV-free future generations. However, even though the programme is virtually effective in developed countries, many developing countries are reporting child HIV infections due to the MTCT. The programme has existed in Kenya for more than a decade, yet in 2011, 12,894children were HIV infected due to MTCT Objective: To evaluate the PMTCT programme, especially the HIV testing from the antenatal period to the postnatal period among expectant parents attending Nyeri Provincial General Hospital in Central Province, Kenya. Design: Retrospective analysis of the hospital registers. Methods: Three hospital registers were analysed for the period from July 2009 to September 2012. The registers were for antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal care respectively. Each register documented the utilisation of PMTCT services by the expectant parents. Descriptive and inferential statistics were produced to analyse data from the registers. Results: The PMTCT services utilisation was sub-optimal. Of the 504 expectant mothers who attended the antenatal clinic, 59.9% came once, 80.4% had their first visit in the third trimester (between weeks 28 and 40) and only 6.9% were accompanied by their partners. All the women were HIV tested in their first visit but only 12.1% were rescreened after three months, and only 3.8% had been tested prior to the current pregnancy (p=0.000). No expectant mother was tested for HIV intrapartum or postpartum. The children of the 504 mothers who were HIV tested were those whose parent/s were known to be HIV positive or who had presented to a child welfare clinic with recurring symptoms suggestive of a failing immune system. Conclusion: Public health programs need to strengthen the PMTCT and HIV prevention programmes to ensure that HIV testing preconception and in pregnancy is fully implemented and strengthened, alongside continued education of the public through community programmes and the media. To avert further horizontal and vertical transmission of HIV, there is a need to address urgently the identified missed opportunities in the PMTCT program. These programmatic challenges require health system redesign and strengthening, resource allocation, addressing research gaps and reassessing the current PMTCT policies.

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  • Novel red fluorescent proteins of the sea anemone Entacmaea quadricolor for in situ imaging of bacteria

    Dalton, James (2006)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • The Special Court for Sierra Leone: Justice for whom?

    Mahony, Christopher (2007)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The thesis examined the divergence of conceptions of justice between civil society actors in Sierra Leone and personnel working at the Special Court for Sierra Leone.

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  • An investigation into the motivating factors behind the use or non use of institutional repositories by selected university academics

    Reid, Stephanie (2008)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • The Implementation and Integration of Information and Communication Technologies in Early Childhood Education: Teachers' Perspectives

    Pohio, Lesley (2009)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This study reports on the implementation and integration of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) within Early Childhood Education (ECE) from the perspective of a small group of early childhood teachers. Traditionally the bulk of the literature pertaining to ICT was predominantly focused on the compulsory sector, with any reference to early childhood education reporting on debates surrounding the pros and cons of young children’s use of computers.

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  • Effective pedagogical strategies for language revitalization in Māori-medium Professional Development Contexts

    Hemahema-Tamati, ST (2006)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • The value relevance of international financial reporting standards : evidence from New Zealand

    Bridges, Caroline (2009)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    In this thesis, I examine the value relevance of financial statements for companies that chose to voluntarily adopt International Financial Reporting Standards in New Zealand between 2005 and 2007, prior to it becoming mandatory for all companies. Specifically, I document the relative and incremental value relevance, respectively, of voluntarily adopting New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards as opposed to domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards on the book value of equity and net income for a sample of 34 companies. The main results of the empirical analysis find that (i) there is no evidence to suggest that the value relevance of the book value of equity and net income calculated under New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards, when taken together, is greater than the combined value relevance of the book value of equity and net income calculated under domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards (i.e., New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards do not have relative value relevance); (ii) the book value of equity calculated under New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards does not have incremental value relevance over and above the book value of equity calculated under domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards; and (iii) net income calculated under New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards does not have incremental value relevance over and above net income calculated under domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards. I also carry out an analysis of the conservativeness of the net income figure measured under New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards, and find that there is no significant difference in the timeliness or asymmetric timeliness (i.e., conditional conservatism) between net income calculated under New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards and domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards. Overall, my thesis finds little evidence that the voluntary adoption of New Zealand International Financial Reporting Standards provides accounting information that is more value relevant to that under domestically produced New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards, which is consistent with the conclusion of Hung & Subramanyam (2007) albeit in the German institutional setting. Hence, the benefits of early adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards in New Zealand are questionable.

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  • Parents, peers, personal aspirations and pedagogy: their impact on students' experiences of secondary school.

    O'Brien, Patrice (2011)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Students who entered West Coast secondary schools in 2008 began Year 9 with achievement in reading comprehension that was higher than national norms (Lai, 2009). By the end of 2008, STAR (reading comprehension) testing revealed that this cohort had begun to show a drop in achievement in reading comprehension against national norms and this continued with a further drop in Year 10 (Lai, 2009). Historically, there have also been relatively low levels of achievement by students in NCEA assessment in the West Coast region. The aim of the research was to use student voice to understand the pattern of achievement of Year 9 and 10 students in West Coast secondary schools. To capture student voice, Year 10 students (n=93) completed surveys about their experiences of secondary school. In-depth interviews were conducted with a sample of students (n=18). This provided data on the factors identified from local and international research that could influence achievement, for example, student aspirations, parental expectations and pedagogy. Achievement data on reading comprehension were also collected. Students perceptions of factors such as parental support for education, the influence of peer groups and student’s future aspirations were positive and did not suggest that these were implicated in the decreasing levels of achievement. In contrast, the use of student voice suggested that being unsure how to improve their work, teacher expectations that were lower than appropriate for this group of students and a lack of cognitive challenge may have impacted to some extent on student achievement. This research reinforces the importance of testing assumptions and highlights the value of using student voice to improve teaching and learning. It demonstrates that there is much to be gained from consulting students about their experiences of school. Hearing what students have to say about school and their learning has the potential to allow teachers to view their classrooms from a different perspective. This can be the catalyst for changes to teaching approaches and practices.

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  • Maori Women in Prison : Nga Wahine Ngaro

    Quince, Khylee (2009)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Major thesis assessing Corrections policy and practice in respect of Maori female inmates in New Zealand prisons.

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  • Nonlinear Elasticity: experimental results and finite element modeling of hard neoprene elastomer failure

    Pogacnik, Justin (2007)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Failure in hard neoprene can be a very serious occurrence in industry. Since the material is resistant to oils, it is a popular choice for O-rings and hoses for use in fuel and oil lines. Notable elastomer failures include that of the Challenger space shuttle's O-rings and the (TM)Firestone tires incident. Since elastomers are such a large part of daily life with a wide variety of uses, quantifying failure in these materials can mean the di erence between life and death, not just an inconvenient nuisance. It is desirable to not only determine the experimental failure properties of elastomer materials, but also to be able to use nite element analysis (FEA) to predict the behavior and failure of elastomers. In a world where engineering designs are becoming increasingly progressive and complex, engineers and scientists are relying more and more on FEA to predict the safety level of products. It is of utmost importance to ensure that the physical behavior of elastomers is successfully captured in FEA.

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  • Mild Traumatic Brain Injury among New Zealand Children: Improving Quality of Care in the Emergency Department Setting

    Sharpe, S (2009)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Aim: To examine the occurrence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among New Zealand children and to investigate the quality of healthcare delivered in the emergency department (ED) setting to children with mild TBI. Methods: A systematic review of the literature regarding the occurrence of TBI among New Zealand children was undertaken alongside a clinical audit examining the quality of healthcare delivered to children with mild TBI who were discharged home after assessment in a children's hospital ED in 2007. Medical records of a random sample of 60 children aged <15 years stratified by ethnicity and age were reviewed. ED processes of care for mild TBI were compared with best practice standards derived from guideline recommendations. Findings: The systematic literature review revealed important gaps in knowledge regarding the burden of mild TBI among New Zealand children. The clinical audit identified that processes of care designed to manage potentially life-threatening acute complications (e.g. selection of children for CT scanning to identify intracranial haemorrhage) were consistent with best practice standards. However gaps existed between current and best practice for aspects of care that could minimise risks of disability. For example, despite a high standard of documentation of data required for estimating the probability of TBI, this information was not applied to clearly identify children with definite or possible TBI. In addition, documentation deficiencies raised concerns regarding whether information is provided in a manner supportive of the cultures and languages of families/wh?nau, missed opportunities for injury prevention advice, and the adequacy of follow-up plans in the community. Conclusion: The identified gaps in research knowledge and quality of care in the ED setting require attention to develop effective integrated services that minimise the risk of disability following childhood TBI.

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  • Primary teachers' understandings of technological knowledge.

    Patterson, Moira (2009)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Das Unmittelbare Ansetzen Zur Tatbestandsverwirklichung Beim Versuch Gemäß §22 STGB

    Mandery, Maya (2008)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Signifyin' Slavery: the Literary Contexts of "Uncle Tom's Cabin"

    Hannah, Katherine (2004)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Available to authenticated members of The University of Auckland. An exploration of the literary contexts of Harriet Beecher Stowe's 'Uncle Tom's Cabin' using the texts of both public and private discourse to understand genre, audience and linguistic techniques.

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  • Once daily gentamicin in infants and children; an evaluation of safety and the role of therapeutic drug monitoring

    Best, Emma (2006)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    AIMS: To assess (i) the safety of once daily dosing (ODD) of gentamicin by systematic evaluation of ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity; and (ii) the usefulness of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in a paediatric cohort. METHOD: Infants and children with suspected or proven gram negative sepsis were enrolled prospectively to receive ODD gentamicin at 7 mg/kg/day. Neonates were excluded. Hearing and renal function were assessed at baseline, during and after therapy by otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and by either serum creatinine or glomerular filtration rate. Abnormal OAE were followed with audiometry. TDM was performed using an interval adjusted graphical method (Hartford nomogram) with levels taken between 6- 14 hours after dose. Assessment of efficacy (clinical and microbiological) was a secondary outcome measure. RESULTS: There were 106 episodes of therapy in 79 children (median age 5.6 years; range 1 month - 16 years), 60% of which were for febrile neutropaenia. Evaluation was complete in 88% (93/106) for ototoxicity and 92% (98/106) for nephrotoxicity. Two children (1.88%, 95% CI 0.10 - 7.13) experienced permanent hearing loss. Three children did not complete full assessment after preliminary abnormalities on OAE. Incorporating these cases gives a ‘worst case scenario’ incidence of 4.71% (95% CI 1.71 - 10.91) possible ototoxicity. One child (0.94%, 95% CI < 0.10 - 5.73) experienced transient nephrotoxicity. No ‘toxic’ serum gentamicin levels were detected, including in those children who experienced clinical toxicity. All children with detectable toxicity were undergoing treatment for malignancies and had received nephro or ototoxic medications prior to the gentamicin course. Complete or partial efficacy was seen in 93% (non oncology) and 78% (oncology) treatment episodes, equivalent to prior literature reports. CONCLUSION: In this systematically evaluated paediatric cohort receiving ODD gentamicin, toxicity occurred infrequently and only in those with identifiable risk factors. TDM did not identify children who developed clinical toxicity. The development of toxicity appears to be associated with factors such as underlying medical condition, prior courses of gentamicin, exposure to other oto or nephrotoxic medications, all of which may be more predictive of toxicity than elevated serum gentamicin levels. TDM in healthy children on short course gentamicin appears unnecessary, but may be warranted in conjunction with renal and hearing assessments in those with risk factors.

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  • Foraminíferos e sedimentos da Baía de Guanabara e Lagoa de Itaipu, Rio de Janeiro: variações ecológicas e dos níveis de poluição durante o Holoceno final e período histórico

    Figueira, BO (2006)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper presents a study of benthic foraminifera from seven witnesses to the Guanabara Bay, and nine samples from the bottom of Lake Itaipu, RJ. The benthic foraminifera were identified in the samples used for analysis and interpretation of an ecological environment that has been suffering from human impact since the time of discovery. We performed a total of four three evidence dating, which helped interpretations ecological over time. The variation of species in evidence, both quantitatively and qualitatively, it becomes important in determining the pollution standards. The diversity values ​​were low in all samples, while the TOC values ​​showed a large increase toward the top of the testimonies. A correlation between the analyzed areas was performed. Next to the APA Guapimirim (T3 and T4) were found in samples shallower Ammonia spp, in the middle portion of the T4, Ammotium salsum, and the deeper Elphidium spp., Proving the anthropogenic impact on the environment represented by the dominance of Ammonia tepida. In the core region of São Gonçalo (T2) changes in Haplophragmoides wilberti Trochammina inflata and demonstrate the modification of mangroves still existing in the region, while the testimonies coming to the island of Paqueta (T8, T10, T11) and Jurujuba Inlet (T13) the presence of warm Ammonia in surface samples and samples in deep Buliminella elegantissima suggest A.tepida as a bioindicator of pollution in the bay. In Itaipu Lagoon the results demonstrate the dominance of Ammonia spp., Elphidium spp. And Quinqueloculina spp, is influenced by sea.

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  • Independence and Accountability: Independent Agencies in New Zealand and the United States

    Sanders, Katherine (2007)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Vitamin D and the burden of disease in New Zealand

    Grey, Corina (2008)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Being and becoming Pākehā : a narrative inquiry into children's stories describing what it means to be Pākehā

    Fitzpatrick, Esther (2011)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The purpose of this research study was to explore how children make sense of, and construct a positive Pākehā ethnic identity. The study was in response, primarily, to two factors. Firstly, the recently implemented New Zealand Curriculum, which stipulated a vision for all children to develop positive identities (Ministry of Education, 2007). Secondly, the concerns articulated about the lacuna for Pākehā in developing a positive identity (A. Bell, 2006).

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  • Science communication in an age of risk: a case study of two biosecurity incursions

    McEntee, Marie (2006-05)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    In an age of risk where scientific experts are increasingly questioned and decisions challenged, the call for the emergence of a more democratic and participatory science is timely. This new style of science involves wider stakeholder input into scientific decision-making to ensure processes are more inclusive, interactive, transparent, socially robust and accountable. In a risk society it is believed media play a crucial role as the guardians of public interest and the site for public contestation of risks. This research examines the global debate about science, society, media and risk through an assessment of two New Zealand case studies where scientific bureaucracies, communities and media interacted over a biosecurity issue that involved health risks. During the past decade, residents of Auckland have been subjected to two major aerial spray operations involving the widespread application of biological insecticide, to control invasive exotic moths as part of New Zealand’s biosecurity response. The eradication of white-spotted tussock moth from east Auckland and the painted apple moth campaign in west Auckland, both generated high levels of media interest and public concern surrounding known and unknown risks associated with the aerial spraying of insecticide over populated areas. Using content analysis of newspapers and personal interviews with key stakeholders, this research examined the way media portrayed these biosecurity events and the factors that influenced the coverage. Using this information, the programmes were then examined within the wider participatory science framework. Results showed that media coverage was affected by the extent to which scientific bureaucracies included or excluded the public, media and outside expertise in programme delivery. When local stakeholders were excluded and official communication limited, media coverage was more critical, placed more emphasis on risk and acted as an avenue for opposition voices to express their views. Scientific bureaucracies need to step beyond the narrow operational focus of their statutory responsibilities, and engage meaningfully with all stakeholders affected by such programmes, to build consensus based on mutual trust and understanding.

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