23,577 results for ResearchSpace@Auckland

  • Evaluation of utilisation of the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV Programme in Central province, Kenya

    Ngugi, Catherine Njeri (2013)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: The PMTCT HIV programme has been one of the most successful HIV preventive interventions towards HIV-free future generations. However, even though the programme is virtually effective in developed countries, many developing countries are reporting child HIV infections due to the MTCT. The programme has existed in Kenya for more than a decade, yet in 2011, 12,894children were HIV infected due to MTCT Objective: To evaluate the PMTCT programme, especially the HIV testing from the antenatal period to the postnatal period among expectant parents attending Nyeri Provincial General Hospital in Central Province, Kenya. Design: Retrospective analysis of the hospital registers. Methods: Three hospital registers were analysed for the period from July 2009 to September 2012. The registers were for antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal care respectively. Each register documented the utilisation of PMTCT services by the expectant parents. Descriptive and inferential statistics were produced to analyse data from the registers. Results: The PMTCT services utilisation was sub-optimal. Of the 504 expectant mothers who attended the antenatal clinic, 59.9% came once, 80.4% had their first visit in the third trimester (between weeks 28 and 40) and only 6.9% were accompanied by their partners. All the women were HIV tested in their first visit but only 12.1% were rescreened after three months, and only 3.8% had been tested prior to the current pregnancy (p=0.000). No expectant mother was tested for HIV intrapartum or postpartum. The children of the 504 mothers who were HIV tested were those whose parent/s were known to be HIV positive or who had presented to a child welfare clinic with recurring symptoms suggestive of a failing immune system. Conclusion: Public health programs need to strengthen the PMTCT and HIV prevention programmes to ensure that HIV testing preconception and in pregnancy is fully implemented and strengthened, alongside continued education of the public through community programmes and the media. To avert further horizontal and vertical transmission of HIV, there is a need to address urgently the identified missed opportunities in the PMTCT program. These programmatic challenges require health system redesign and strengthening, resource allocation, addressing research gaps and reassessing the current PMTCT policies.

    View record details
  • Suicide Pavilions

    Esling, S; Chon, C (2013-12-05)

    Creative work
    The University of Auckland Library

    Artworks ‘Suicide Pavilions’ is a collaborative exhibition of new work between Auckland-based artists Simon Esling and Clara Chon comprising works on paper, a photograph, printed suicide notes and objects. The suicide pavilions themselves are delicate watercolour, ink, and pencil works on paper depicting contemplative spaces for those who harbour the thought of suicide. Central to these pieces is the idea spoken by the protagonist, Harry, in Herman Hesse’s 'Steppenwolf', ‘that to call suicides only those who actually destroy themselves is false’. Instead, it is the tension within the deliberation of suicide - the avoidance of suicide while holding the thought of it - that Esling and Chon have chosen to explore. The architectural atmosphere of Esling’s imagined illustrations plays on the contrasting aspects of the interior and exterior, and their accompanying structural connotations: lightness, darkness - the flow from one place to another (from one state of mind to the next), as well as their ability to elicit a general ambience or mood. In the drawings and suicide notes (which are both real and imagined) Esling captures those fleeting moments of relief, and inevitably, of falling shadow. The selected sculptural objects suggest something more visceral - they become the tangible points for the physical expression of the psychological friction of the suicide. With its requisite holes and straps, Chon’s crafted leather harness speaks to both the freedom and restraint inherent in the mind of the suicide, where a simultaneous desire exists to be freed from one world, yet remain in it. - Jamie Hanton, Director

    View record details
  • Study on optical fiber sensing for detecting liquid penetration into anti-corrosive resins

    Hashimoto, Y; Hioka, Yusuke; Kubouchi, M (2015-03-28)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Anti-corrosive thermosetting resins are commonly used in chemical plants to prevent corrosion failure of chemical equipment. As they are often used in contact with corrosive liquid for a long time, liquid penetration into the resins causes problems. On-line sensing to detect the penetrating liquid into the resins is useful to prevent accidents caused by the liquid reaching to the crucial parts of the chemical equipment and to estimate the life-time of the equipment. Penetration behavior of the liquid in an anti-corrosive resin can be described by Fick’s second law, which includes the diffusion coefficient. The method proposed in this study estimates the diffusion coefficient using optical fiber sensor modules embedded in the different depths of the anticorrosive resin while the surface of the anti-corrosive resin is immersed in the liquid. The optical fiber sensor modules contain pH indicators on the light path of the fiber and the spectrum of the transmitted light is monitored. The diffusion coefficient is estimated from the difference between the time instants where the two sensor modules detect the liquid penetration. Nevertheless the diffusion coefficient estimated by the proposed method in an experiment was about 40% smaller than that estimated by a conventional off-line measurement, the study reveals that the proposed method is able to estimate the diffusion coefficient by on-line manner. To further improve the estimation accuracy, the effect of the assumption set for the liquid concentration of the resin, which would have caused the error, is also discussed.

    View record details
  • HIV/AIDS and tourism: A qualitative approach

    Frey, Rosemary; Lewis, KA (2005)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • The impact of middle leadership practices on student academic outcomes in New Zealand secondary schools

    Highfield, Camilla (2012)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    It has been reported in the literature that disparities in student achievement within schools is often larger than the disparity across schools. This study draws upon the existing literature on middle leadership and within-school variation to establish the relationship between effective middle leadership in secondary schools and student academic outcomes. Student academic outcomes are compared across and within 41 urban Auckland schools over a three year period to determine the extent of within- and across-school difference in English, mathematics and science for 15-year-olds. The academic results for students are then compared at department level for a subset of 10 schools where the middle leadership practices within each of those departments has been investigated. In the New Zealand secondary school context, the public examination system for 15-17 year olds is the National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA). This qualification system provides publicly available assessment data that can be used to compare student academic outcomes within and across schools and make comparisons to national norms. The New Zealand school 'decile' system, which groups schools on the basis of the socioeconomic status and student cultural background, is used for comparative purposes. The first phase of this thesis describes the steps taken to determine the extent of within school variation for 41 New Zealand secondary schools over a three year period. This was achieved by comparing the academic results for 15-year-olds from the English, mathematics and science departments within and across each of the schools and comparing those results to national averages. In some schools the results across departments with the same student cohort show considerable variation by subject and in other schools the results across departments are similar. The comparison of department results to national results categorised within a socioeconomic group provides insight into the extent of 'added value' at whole-school and department level. These data reinforce the argument that student achievement below expected results is not confined to schools working in poor socioeconomic circumstances. In the second phase of the study, 10 of the 41 schools in Phase 1, self-select to take part in an investigation of middle leadership practices within their school. This involves members of the English, mathematics and science departments completing a quantitative questionnaire on the middle leadership practices that are known to impact positively on the quality of teaching that inevitably impacts on student achievement. The results of these questionnaires produced five factors of middle leadership: Collegial working environment, Goals and expectations, Focus on student academic results, Management of resources and Positive learning environment for students and teachers. The questionnaire responses from each of the 30 departments across the 10 schools have been compared to the student academic outcomes data at three levels of the qualification to test the relationship between middle leadership factors and academic outcomes. Statistical tests were performed to substantiate evidence of the patterns and relationships and found that some factors have strong positive correlations with academic outcomes and others are negatively associated. Middle leadership practices had no relationship with the NCEA Level 1 (15-year-olds) results but had a strong relationship with the academic outcomes at the higher level of the qualification. The multiple regression for Level 2 NCEA student achievement shows that decile of school can account for 62% of the variance in student achievement and when middle leadership practices are included in a simultaneous regression, 84% of the variance can be accounted for. Decile of school was a less important predictor for Level 3 NCEA student academic achievements (46%), but as with Level 2 when middle leadership practices were added the ability to predict student achievement rose to 62%. Therefore, a combination of school decile and middle leadership practices were a good overall predictor of student academic achievement at Levels 2 and 3 NCEA. The positive predictors for student academic achievement were the factors Goals and expectations, Management of resources and Positive learning environment for students and teachers. Identifying the successful leadership practices evident in schools and departments that predict academic student outcomes will provide direction to policy makers and professional development practitioners working in the field.

    View record details
  • Governing Visions of the Real. The New Zealand National Film Unit, Griersonian Documentary & State Publicity

    Weckbecker, Lars (2012)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This study traces how documentary film by the New Zealand National Film Unit (NFU) historically came to be calculated and employed as a governmental technique to cultivate 'visions of the real' that were to advance economic conduct and democratic government by shaping subjectivity and directing agency towards a desired future. The NFU was established during World War II, and throughout the 1940s and 50s, the period under study in this thesis, it was organised as the film production wing of State publicity within the executive of State government. Throughout this period, NFU documentary film was marked by a teleological transcendence of the material surfaces the camera could record in specific locations. It variously arranged, interpreted and evaluated actuality, hence encoding a certain 'vision' for popular audiences about what is and should be real. At the same time, the investments in and purposes of film production were rendered transparent and the films evaded controversy, heterogeneity, ambivalence and critique in favour of simplification, recognition, intuition and affect. Such practices, it is argued, need to be discussed in reference to historical problematisations of the operation of knowledge and power in the conduct of modern democratic society. Such problematisations are traced back to Walter Lippmann and John Grierson. The latter developed a programme for democratic government through the use of documentary film that shaped the approach to film production taken by the NFU. By drawing on Michel Foucault's concepts of the dispositive and governmentality, this thesis sets out to trace and discuss a shifting dispositive of 'visions of the real'. This dispositive encompassed a heterogeneous ensemble of calculations, reports, policies, arrangements, techniques, strategies, practices that related to and 'ordered' how New Zealand and its population came to be envisioned through NFU film. Specifically the projection of workers and Māori is discussed, since these groups became a focus of NFU film production. This thesis concludes that NFU documentary film, in a departure from earlier State film production, set out to render the interpretative and 'visionary' aspects of an embodied and subjective vision disposable and hence governable in order to produce a harmonious, cooperative, economic and docile population. In the process the vision cultivated through film became increasingly abstract, generalised, de-limited and normalised, while increasingly being unable to distinguish between actuality and its strategic realisation and treatment for governmental purposes.

    View record details
  • The Role of Transcription Factors in Regulating Adult Neurogenesis after Excitotoxic Brain Injury

    Jones, Kathryn (2012)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    While compensatory striatal neurogenesis is well documented in many injury models, cells of the correct lineage for endogenous repair are not always regenerated. To understand why, the molecular profile of subventricular zone (SVZ)-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs), and their response to injury was investigated. Expression of the transcription factors Mash1, Dlx2, Pax6 and Olig2 in transitamplifying- precursor cells (TAPs) and neuroblasts was examined following quinolinic acid (QA) lesioning of the adult rat striatum. It was demonstrated that TAPs responded to lesioning in a heterogeneous manner, with expansion particularly of the Dlx2+ subpopulation. Dlx2+ neuroblasts also increased at early time points compared to controls. Previous work identified SVZ-derived bipolar and multipolar cells within the lesioned striatum. I characterised and quantified migration and differentiation of retrovirally-labelled SVZ-derived green fluorescent protein (GFP) cells within the lesioned striatum. In addition to neuroblasts, migratory Olig2+ bipolar cells were observed, representing oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). Multipolar cells also expressed NG2, indicating OPCs were recruited into the lesioned striatum. Proneural genes can repress Olig2 lineage cells, and substantially increase neurogenesis when overexpressed in the adult brain. Proneural Dlx2-GFP and Pax6-GFP retroviruses were injected into the SVZ on the day of lesioning, or two days post lesion (dpl), when the greatest migratory response was observed in controls. Surprisingly, Pax6 overexpression decreased striatal neurogenesis from NPCs born on the day of lesioning, but increased oligodendroglial cells from NPCs born two dpl. Dlx2 overexpression had no effect on NPC migration from cells born at the time of lesioning. However at two dpl, a non-neurogenic time point in controls, Dlx2 increased numbers of striatal neuroblasts and the percentage of neurogenic cells in the lesioned striatum. These results indicated preferential recruitment of Dlx2+ NPCs, GABAergic lineage precursors and the correct cell type for QA-induced striatal regeneration. However, retrovirallyoverexpressed proneural genes were downregulated within the lesioned striatum, suggesting factors secreted from injured areas could alter cell fate. Quantitative-PCR analysis of signalling genes confirmed multiple SVZ alterations after injury, some with the potential to increase oligodendrocytelineage signalling. Understanding molecular signals regulating lineage after injury is essential before regenerative medicine can progress towards successful therapies.

    View record details
  • User involvement in cancer care: Exclusion and empowerment

    Gott, Merryn; Stevens, Tony; Small, Neil (2000-03-01)

    Book
    The University of Auckland Library

    This publication, based on a study conducted in the Trent Region of the NHS, identifies the various ways in which user involvement has developed in relation to cancer care. Most people in the UK will have direct experience of cancer, either as a patient themselves or when someone close to them is a patient. The findings presented here have widespread significance. However their relevance goes beyond cancer. When considering user involvement in relation to other areas of need, looking to the experiences of cancer care can provide guidelines. Specific guidelines are included on how to develop user involvement from both a user and provider perspective.

    View record details
  • Beyond Zero Tolerance: key issues and future directions for family violence work in New Zealand

    Fanslow, Janet (2005)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Summary: This report provides a broad outline of areas of family violence, such as child, intimate partner and elder abuse. An overview is provided of some of the pertinent issues surrounding these types of abuse, including prevalence, incidence, consequences, and risk and protective factors. This report highlights that to fully address family violence, interventions must go beyond the individual and the family to include recognition of community and societal factors. From a health perspective, this report identifies a number of gaps - perceived or otherwise - in the research, approaches and responses to family violence in New Zealand. These gaps must be explored, assessed and evaluated to ensure programme accountability. Theoretical frameworks to address violence are discussed as the author combines the Ecological Model and the Coordinated Community Action Model to produce a new integrated conceptual initiative. This three-dimensional model proposes a multi-levelled intersectoral approach to eliminating family violence. Finally, this report suggests that a collaborative approach, integrating research, policy, advocacy and practice will sustain family violence prevention strategies in the long-term.

    View record details
  • Scalar field as a model describing the birth of the Universe

    Galiyev, Shamil; Galiyev, T Sh (2013)

    Unclassified
    The University of Auckland Library

    We investigate a scalar field described by a cubic nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation. Using approximate solutions we study the models for the scalar fields and the scalar potentials. The evolution of the field is determined by the quantum perturbations, bifurcations and resonances. We believe that the solutions give coherent model for the emergence and initial evolution of the Universe. A scenario is developed, when the Universe begins in a state that differs greatly from that of the theories of the Big Bang and the inflation.

    View record details
  • Violations of the Rights of the Rapa Nui People and Rapa Nui Individuals according to the American Convention on Human Rights

    Tomas, Violet (2012)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    A separate report commissioned by the Observatorio Cuidadano to assess alleged violations by the Chilean government against the Rapa Nui people in 2010 and 2011 under the American Convention on Human Rights.

    View record details
  • Medication management in newly graduated nurses: Report on the results from a survey with Auckland District Health Board Nurses

    Honey, Michelle; Lim, Anecita (2013)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • The Starting Point: Baseline report on group A schools (Part one)

    Webber, Melinda; Madjar, I (2011)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Exploring student motivation, time attitudes, and ethnic beliefs: The ethnic identity project.

    Alansari, M; Rubie-Davies, C; Worrell, F; Webber, Melinda (2012)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • ‘Half-castes’ and ‘white natives’: The politics of Maori-Pakeha hybrid identities

    Bell, Shirley (2004)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Minimal Processing of Fruits and Vegetables

    Perera, Conrad (2007)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Urban Morphology, Architectural Typology and Cities in Transition

    Tian, Y; Gu, Kai; Tao, W (2014)

    Book
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • The New Zealand Bill of Rights

    Rishworth, Paul; Huscroft, GA; Optican, Scott; Mahoney, RR (2003)

    Book
    The University of Auckland Library

    "The New Zealand Bill of Rights" is a comprehensive account of over a decade of jurisprudence under the New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990. The Act shares many substantive and interpretive characteristics with its constitutional counterparts in Canada and the United States. As a result, the text draws significantly on North American law, as well as on relevant material from a variety of other jurisdictions - including the United Kingdom and South Africa - and from case law under the European Convention on Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Providing readers with a detailed examination of noteworthy court decisions, the authors advance a broad and balanced evaluation of the Act intended to prompt the assessment and development of rights in both the civil and criminal contexts.

    View record details
  • Optimisation of Fluid Therapy in Colorectal Surgery

    Srinivasa, Sanket (2011)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Fluid administration is an important aspect of perioperative care in colorectal surgery. It has been largely guided by experimental evidence from the 1950s and extrapolated observations from injured soldiers during the Korean and Vietnam War. Recent improvements in perioperative care have led to renewed scrutiny of perioperative fluid management and challenged conventional wisdom with regards to the ideal quantity of fluid to be administered for patients undergoing colorectal surgery. Chapter one introduces this topic with discussion of optimised perioperative care, fluid and electrolyte physiology, composition of intravenous fluids and their clinical implications. It discusses the history of fluid therapy and concludes that avoidance of fluid overload -fluid restriction– and individualised fluid therapy are considered as ideal fluid regimens in colorectal surgery, thus outlining the direction of the rest of the thesis- comparison of the two and exploring their place within the perioperative environment. The prevalent heterogeneity in perioperative care and its influence on fluid administration is demonstrated in chapter two. Chapter three explores the feasibility of intraoperative fluid restriction and establishes a baseline for future comparative studies whilst also showing an important association between increasing fluid amounts and adverse clinical outcomes. Chapter four shows interest and equipoise concerning the use of individualised fluid therapy in clinical practice. It also demonstrates that the Oesophageal Doppler Monitor (ODM) is the most favoured instrument to conduct individualised fluid therapy. Chapter five is a systematic review of the methodology of the published trials exploring ODM-guided fluid therapy in colorectal surgery. It outlines the methodology and limitations of prevalent evidence and allows for the design of prospective studies. Chapter six is a prospective study of individualised fluid therapy in rectal surgery. Chapter seven is a prospective, randomised trial of individualised fluid therapy versus fluid restriction in patients undergoing colectomy within an otherwise optimised perioperative care environment. The prospective studies show that individualised fluid administration and fluid restriction provide equivalent outcomes in an otherwise optimised environment. The findings of this thesis have important scientific and clinical implications which are discussed in chapter eight and nine.

    View record details
  • Natural products as inspirations for new chemotherapeutic agents

    Liew, Lydia (2012)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Chemical entities obtained from the natural environment have proven to be an excellent source of both chemical and biological diversity. This diversity translates into a treasure trove of natural products which can be transformed into useful and potentially life saving chemotherapeutic agents. The work presented in this thesis are results of investigations into natural products of two different classes, namely the polyamines and β-carbolines. The naturally occuring polyamine derivatives kukoamine A (2.84) and orthidine F (2.87) exhibit antiparasitic activity. A structure-activity relationship (SAR) study was carried out with analogues synthesised based on the structures of 2.84 and 2.87, which were then evaluated for antiparasitic activity. The first iteration of analogues demonstrated improved antimalarial activity over orthidine F (IC50 0.89 μM) with in vitro activities ranging from IC50 0.0086--0.61 μM with minimum cytotoxic effect. A second SAR study was carried out, optimising for antimalarial activity and identified additional analogues with potent in vitro activities (IC50 0.10--0.0013 μM) while retaining excellent selectivities against P. falciparum. However, further in vivo testing did not yield significant activity in the Plasmodium berghei mouse model of malaria. Hyrtiosulawesine (3.118) is a 1-acyl substituted β-carboline with inhibitory activity against the Crotalus adamanteus venom phospholipase A2 (PLA2) with IC50 14 μM. This is the first instance where a β-carboline alkaloid has been reported as a PLA2 inhibitor, representing a unique target as an anti-inflammatory drug. Structurally-related pityriacitrin (3.124) and pityriacitrin B (3.125) also contain a 1-acyl substituent and have been found with UV protective properties. The naturally occuring 1-acyl substituted β-carbolines (3.118, 3.124 and 3.125) were synthesised, along with a series of analogues and were evaluated for any SAR. The analogues did not demonstrate significant activity towards the Apis mellifera bee venom PLA2. However, moderate antimalarial activities (IC50 3--1.0 μM) were observed for the analogues, with a distinct SAR observed between the 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline and β-carboline type analogues. The analogues were also evaluated against the NCI panel of 60 human tumour cell lines. One analogue in particular formed as a side-product in the Pictet- Spengler reaction contains a novel structural scaffold, which stood out as being selective for the human colon cancer cell line (COLO 205).

    View record details