5,193 results for ScholarlyCommons@AUT

  • Markov Chain properties in terms of column sums of the transition matrix

    Hunter, JJ (2012-12-04)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Questions are posed regarding the influence that the column sums of the transition probabilities of a stochastic matrix (with row sums all one) have on the stationary distribution, the mean first passage times and the Kemeny constant of the associated irreducible discrete time Markov chain. Some new relationships, including some inequalities, and partial answers to the questions, are given using a special generalized matrix inverse that has not previously been considered in the literature on Markov chains.

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  • Markov Chain properties in terms of column sums of the transition matrix

    Hunter, JJ (2012-12-04)

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Questions are posed regarding the influence that the column sums of the transition probabilities of a stochastic matrix (with row sums all one) have on the stationary distribution, the mean first passage times and the Kemeny constant of the associated irreducible discrete time Markov chain. Some new relationships, including some inequalities, and partial answers to the questions, are given using a special generalized matrix inverse that has not previously been considered in the literature on Markov chains.

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  • Exploring noise sensitivity: cardiac correlates of noise sensitivity and the auditory evoked orienting response

    Mulgrew, Joseph (2014-05-12)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    A growing body of evidence suggests Noise Sensitivity (NS) moderates the relationship between noise exposure and stress-related disease. As NS is pronounced within several clinical disorders, its biological mechanisms are of clinical and epidemiological import. Central Neurovisceral Integrative System (NIS, Thayer & Brosschot, 2005) concepts were drawn from to argue that autonomic balance (AB) provides an influential biological mechanism underlying NS and, additionally, that AB and NS influence the Auditory Evoked Orientation Response (AEOR). Baseline Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and NS, as measured by the NS Questionnaire (Schütte, Marks, Wenning, & Griefahn, 2007), were collected from 103 Auckland University of Technology staff and students and were used to analyse the neurovisceral correlates of NS. Furthermore, 60 participants went on to provide cardiac data recorded during and post exposure to auditory stimuli of varying valence, which were used to analyse the influence of autonomic balance and NS on the AEOR. The results of the study provide some limited support for both propositions. Findings are discussed with reference to AB, total regulatory capacity, emotion, and orientating. Although questions are left unanswered, future research directions are postulated that could culminate in the development of both screening and treatment protocols with pronounced clinical applications.

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  • Lesbian, gay and bisexual clients’ experiences of discussing sexual identity in therapy

    Tsai, Sandy (2014-05-19)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The current study explores lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) individuals’ experiences of discussing sexual identity in therapy. Current literature indicate that the absence of sexual identity issues being identified and discussed could be a significant barrier to effective therapy with LGB clients. However, little research has explored how sexual identity is conceptualized in therapy by LGB clients and their therapists, and how this influences their therapeutic outcomes. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), LGB clients’ experiences of discussing sexual identity in therapy was investigated. Results clustered into three overarching themes: 1. Sexual identity as self in the making; 2. Sexual identity as a barrier; and 3. Sexual identity as increased awareness of oppression. Discussion of sexual identity is important for LGB clients in therapy, regardless of whether it is the main focus of their presenting issues. These discussions help them explore their sexual identity formation processes, which result in a stronger sense of identity due to a better understanding of sexual identity as an aspect of themselves. LGB clients who lack such opportunities to discuss sexual identity in therapy experience heteronormative assumptions and biases from their therapists, which increased their awareness of themselves as individuals of sexual minority and empathy towards others under oppression. The current study concludes that therapists should remain open-minded and explorative when helping LGB clients discuss their sexual identities in therapy, but always in context to their presenting issues so that conceptualizations and sense-making of sexual identity is centred in the clients’ subjective experiences

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  • Turning points in therapy with Bulimia Nervosa clients: a qualitative analysis of the therapist's perceptions

    Mysliwiec, Nadia

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This research explored therapeutic turning points as experienced by therapists working with clients diagnosed with Bulimia Nervosa. A growing body of research reveals that turning points make important contributions to change, transformation and recovery during therapy (King et al. 2003). This research aims to develop a deeper understanding of how turning points and mindfulness-based techniques effect the treatment of this complex eating disorder. While there is existing research on the turning points that occur during therapy with eating disorder clients there is a paucity of research on the turning points that occur specifically with clients diagnosed with Bulimia Nervosa. Studies have documented various changes in clients during and after treatment for bulimia, however, most of this research stems from quantitative data and little from the actual experiences of clients and their therapists. Therefore, this study conducted in-depth interviews with five experienced psychologists and psychotherapists working in this field. Using Braun and Clarke’s (2006) six-step guide to thematic analysis, five major themes emerged from the therapists’ discourses. Firstly, therapists believed that it was essential for their clients to build social relationships with others, and that one of the first turning points was the initial trust and collaboration between client and therapist. Secondly, therapists said that an important turning point in therapy was when clients felt that they wanted to change. This need was often driven by a client’s shame and guilt related to their bulimia and the detrimental consequences of their illness. Thirdly, it was crucial for clients to experience a feeling of success. An initial turning point, as experienced by the therapists, was when a client could resist the urge to binge and purge. This allowed the client to feel empowered and hopeful, in turn increasing their motivation and allowing space for the clients to realise that their lives could be different. Fourthly, therapists strongly believed that “negative” turning points were just as useful as positive ones. Lastly, therapists supported the use of mindfulness and acknowledged the positive influence it had on turning points. A key turning point was when clients could let go of their rigid thinking and be with their emotions. This often lead to “ah-ha” moments, ultimately facilitating the realisation that bulimia is a choice they could have control over. This study has added to the growing field examining the turning points that occur in therapy with clients diagnosed with Bulimia Nervosa and has yielded much needed information for practice and future research.

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  • Teenage girls' daily engagement with mass media: implications for identity construction and well-being

    Gooch, Andrea

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    A process of identity formation often defines teenage years where young people transition into adulthood. Multiple factors such as family environment and sociocultural context contribute to shaping teen girls’ identities, what they believe in and how they see themselves as fitting into the world around them. Mass media plays a big part in constructing social realities, often depicting narrow and limited depictions of masculinity, femininity and ideal girlhood. Young people, who may have less experience and critical awareness when it comes to media messages, may take on stereotypical or problematic images as representing reality. This research project explores from a social constructionist perspective, teenage girls daily engagement with the mass media and the implications of this for their identity construction, health, and well-being. Six face-to-face interviews were conducted with teen girls aged between 14 and 17 years old. These girls were asked to collect media images over one week and their responses to these images were discussed. An inductive thematic analysis was conducted and four dominant themes were identified within the talk: ‘It’s all about appearance’; ‘Attracting the boys’; “Inspirational content”; and ‘The pressure to be “trendy”. These themes are discussed demonstrating the difficult terrain teen girls face in navigating the vast and pervasive nature of mass media in constructing their personal identity. Further research is necessary into the nature of teen girls’ engagement with mass media with comparative data required from a teen boy population to expand and support initial insights gained from this project.

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  • What is the relationship between psychodynamic psychotherapy and the 12 steps of Alcoholics Anonymous? A heuristic enquiry

    Hunter, Phoebe

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This dissertation is a heuristic enquiry into the relationship between psychodynamic psychotherapy and the 12 Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous. I make use of my experience as a client of psychodynamic psychotherapy and as someone working the 12 Steps in order to investigate the relationship between them. The research chronicles how I arrived at Alcoholics Anonymous in the context of having spent several years as a client of psychoanalysis. It examines in detail how I make use of the Steps and psychotherapy as distinct but complementary paths to recovery from alcoholism. It explores some of the literature pertaining to psychotherapy and the 12 Steps, specifically emphasising the role of spirituality in recovery and the tensions that can arise between psychodynamic psychotherapy and spirituality. It also explores spirituality within the context of Alcoholics Anonymous for people who do not identify with the concept of an external deity as is written in the 12 Steps. Within psychotherapy there has been confusion and contradiction in how to respond to people with addiction and in Alcoholics Anonymous there has been hostility and mistrust of psychotherapy. From my own experience of entering therapy and struggling with addiction, I became aware of a gap or disjunction in psychoanalytic thinking around treating addiction. I have offered an account of my lived experience in the expectation it will be meaningful and have practical use for people who are seeking help and for the therapists hoping to treat them. I hope that psychotherapists will be able to feel more confident in what they might be able to offer clients and more aware of the limits of what they can offer, so as to feel more encouraged to seek help from other sources if necessary. In making transparent the ways psychotherapy and the Steps operate in my life, I aim to show how both can be usefully integrated to the benefit of both clients with addiction issues and the therapists treating them.

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  • Aging just is: Illuminating its that-being, how-being & what-being

    Wright St Clair, V (2011-10-14)

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    Duplicate of http://aut.researchgateway.ac.nz/handle/10292/2285

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  • Energy management system for solar energy on a hybrid bus

    Gao, Shengyu

    Masters Research Projects thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Because the solar is eco-friendly and the hybrid vehicles have high efficiency, using solar energy in hybrid vehicles, which are urban buses in this project, could obtain both economy and environment benefits. Determine the parameters of the hybrid bus and calculate the required power. These power and solar energy data are analysed to verify the feasibility of the project. Due to the features of the hybrid bus and solar energy, a special power management system is designed following some control strategy. The system is also verified to be effective and reliable by the simulation results.

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  • Lead time measurement and analysis

    Oak, Devendra

    Research Project
    Auckland University of Technology

    Lead time is critical KPI for Clear Vision Communications defined as the time between job start date and job invoicing date. This is a critical study for measurement and analysis of lead time. It is observed that lead time follows a lognormal distribution. Lead time trend is assessed over different months and is found to be decreasing. Lead time, profit and sale price for technicians are assessed and some possible outperformers or underperformer are identified. Possible links for employee survey with lead time, suggestions for better measurement and analysis of lead time along with suggestions for process improvement and optimization are suggested in for future work.

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  • What constitutes good practice in teaching academic literacies?

    Kirkness, A (2011-08-26)

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    In the multicultural student body at English-medium tertiary institutions today, teachers find that they can no longer make assumptions about student preparedness for tertiary learning. Many students do not have the academic literacy skills in English to enable them to learn effectively Thus the teaching of these skills needs to be included in discipline programmes. But who is to teach them, subject teachers or language teachers? If subject teachers, then how can they be given the additional support they need to promote language development in their teaching? If language teachers, then how can they ensure that they teach the literacy skills that the particular subject requires? This paper focuses on the various models used at the Auckland University of Technology to cater for the English language needs of students in different faculties. It discusses structures and processes that support the teaching of academic literacy skills as central to developing students’ ability to master their discipline. It presents models of language teachers delivering courses in academic literacy skills alongside the subject classes (adjunct course) and of subject teachers including academic literacy skills in mainstream programmes (integrated course). It identifies examples of good practice and formal and informal academic development events that arise in the design of courses with a dual focus on discipline content and language.

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  • Spatiotemporal Environments – Narratives of the underpaid worker in New Zealand

    Sinfield, D (2011-12-07)

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    The International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences examines the nature of disciplinary practices, and the interdisciplinary practices that arise in the context of ‘real world’ applications. It also interrogates what constitutes ‘science’ in a social context, and the connections between the social and other sciences. In this project and conference presentation it moves concerns with narratives of underpaid work into spatiotemporal environments. Audio recordings of worker’s stories are fused with typographical treatments and imagery to produce a series of short films. The advantage of this approach is that these texts are more widely available and operate outside of the cultural exclusivity of the art gallery and the graphic design field. This is an international conference that has been running for 6 years which is organised by Common Ground Publishing. Each year this conference is held in various countries throughout the world and this year it will be held in New Orleans, USA. Speakers are also invited to publish their journal article (which is peer reviewed) with the publication associated with this conference.

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  • Pricing VIX Futures with stochastic volatility and random jumps

    Lian, G (2011-11-21)


    Auckland University of Technology

    Since the inception of the volatility index (VIX) by the CBOE, in particular, the introduction of the VIX futures by CBOE in 2004, various pricing models with stochastic volatilities have been proposed to value VIX futures. However, rarely could an analytic closed-form solution be found, especially for models that include jumps in both VIX and its volatility. This study fills a gap in the field of pricing VIX futures by deriving a closed-form exact solution for the fair value of VIX futures under stochastic volatility model with simultaneous jumps in the asset price and volatility processes. Our newly-found analytical solution is written in a simple integral form, which can be numerically computed very easily. Numerical comparisons show that the results from our exact formula perfectly match up those from Monte Carlo simulations, while the popularly used convexity correction approximation may lead to significant pricing errors. The derivation of this formula for VIX futures with a very general dynamics of VIX represents a substantial progress in identifying and developing more realistic VIX futures models and pricing formulae. With the newly-found pricing formula available to us, especially with its great computational efficiency, we were also able to conduct some empirical studies, aiming at examining the pricing performance of four stochastic volatility models with or without jumps. We demonstrated how to estimate model parameters, upon using the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method to analyze a set of coupled VIX and S&P500 data. Through these empirical studies, we find that adding simultaneous jumps in the asset price and volatility processes can indeed enhance the pricing performance in some cases, whereas only adding jumps in volatility process alone produces little pricing improvement. Our empirical studies also provide quantitative evidence that while the price of VIX futures can be well replicated by any of those four models studied with some degree of di erence in terms of pricing performance, they lead to a slight mis-match of the “right-tail” of the VIX observed directly from the empirical data when the same set of parameters determined from the MCMC method is used.

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  • Using a boat instrumentation system to measure and improve elite on-water sculling performance

    Coker, Jennifer (2010-09-07)

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Sculling performance is largely determined by the magnitude and timing of blade force application, i.e. the size and shape of the sculler’s force profile. Discovering specific force profile characteristics that relate strongly with boat velocity in elite scullers, and determining how best to measure them, would allow recommendations for improved performances. The objective of this thesis was to expand knowledge regarding biomechanical measurement of sculling force profiles and to understand how the PowerLine™ boat instrumentation system could be used effectively to measure and improve elite on-water sculling performance. A literature review showed that effective rowing force profiles are large, smooth, rectangular, and have a peak force in front of the perpendicular oar position. Laboratory validity testing showed that PowerLine™ was valid for use with elite scullers, displaying a standard error of the estimate of less than 0.90 kgF for force and less than 0.5° for angle measures. On-water reliability testing established smallest worthwhile effect sizes for PowerLine™ variables for elite scullers completing 500-m trials, including 0.44% for stroke power and 0.5° for angular variables. Scullers in double sculls were more variable than single scullers so consistency in stroke power was recommended as a focus for crew scullers. Sculler analyses using PowerLine™ was better when using the average of five strokes rather than single strokes. Step wise linear regression analyses presented models for two elite scullers explaining 84% and 85% of their variation in boat velocity. However, the relationships between sculling performance and biomechanical stroke variables, including different measures of catch technique, were not consistent between elite scullers and cannot be generalised. Analyses of changes in means for four elite scullers showed that biomechanical stroke variables did differ significantly between single, double and quad sculls and therefore training and selection should be boat class specific. In elite double sculls, correlations between change in performance and change in bow versus stroke peak force synchronization indicated that it is likely to be beneficial to performance if the stroke peaks with their force earlier and with the handles further to the stern than the bow seat. Switching the seating order in these double sculls resulted in mean boat velocity changing by up to 5.8% of world record time signifying the importance of seat-specific trialling. Extensive differences between elite scullers in the strength and direction of relationships between performance and PowerLine™ variables showed that full analyses of all variables must be conducted individually for each sculler. The importance of seating order in double sculls, and the benefits of the stroke seat peaking before the bow, have implications for crew selection, seat allocation, and technical recommendations. Seat trials for crew sculling boats must be seat-specific and include racing in all seating orders. Further research is necessary to verify and explain the synchronisation requirements of crew sculling boats before more scientific seat allocation can be achieved in these boats. Sculling force profiles from PowerLine™ can be used effectively to measure and improve elite on-water sculling performance.

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  • The role of the internet in enabling linkages between tourism and local food in Vanuatu

    Garcia Gonzalez, Marta (2013-07-09)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The Internet enables communities in developing countries to directly communicate with potential visitors at a relatively low cost. The Internet also plays a significant role in the development of a sustainable tourism industry and can enhance the consumption of local food in destinations. The rise of culinary tourism and the demand for participatory experiences offer the opportunity to strengthen linkages between tourism and local food; such developments cannot, however, occur without effective dissemination of information. The purpose of this research is to explore the role of the Internet in enhancing the use of local food in the tourism industry in Vanuatu. The study presents a conceptual framework to explore and create links between tourism and local food through the use of the Internet. The study identifies 500 tourism organisations and businesses, of which 190 have a website. An audit of the 190 tourism websites – 39 destination and 151 business sites – is conducted from an interpretivist perspective. Content and discourse analyses are used to analyse images, texts and hyperlinks to ascertain the way local food is promoted by the Vanuatu tourism industry and the importance placed on it. The study also includes the analysis of 346 online reviews of tourists’ feedback about their experience of local food when staying in local bungalows. This research reveals that the potential of the Internet to link tourism to local food in Vanuatu is not being maximised. Although there is an increasing presence of local food in tourism websites, the analysis of text descriptions and images shows that the key features promoted are related to ocean views and marine activities. A limited number of tourism businesses have a menu in their websites and fewer still promote their restaurants’ local cuisine as a valuable tourist experience. There is also a lack of internal and external hyperlinks to enhance relevant food information and guide visitors to other websites of communities’ interests, such as local producers, events and festivals. Low local Internet presence appears as a major challenge to linking local tourism businesses’ websites to potential food networks. The lack of local tourism businesses’ websites also constrains the promotion of authentic local food experiences to provide a sense of place to visitors. The study shows that the way food is promoted in tourism websites varies across the different islands: familiar “Western” food is depicted in websites of businesses based on Efate, whereas the authenticity and uniqueness of local food is shown in the websites of businesses on the outer islands. Promoting a greater variety of food experiences has the potential to make Vanuatu more attractive as a tourism destination. Tourism websites can still promote and integrate local food-related activities to improve visitor yield. The examination of tourists’ online reviews shows there is tourist demand for local food experiences, but that this demand is not being fully met. A meaningful use of the Internet to promote diverse and distinctive food-related tourism activities would enhance visitors’ experiences and benefits for local residents; however, in Vanuatu, such potential remains largely untapped.

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  • FULSOME: fuzzy logic for software metric practitioners and researchers

    MacDonell, SG; Gray, AR; Calvert, JM (2011-09-03)

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    There has been increasing interest in recent times for using fuzzy logic techniques to represent software metric models, especially those predicting the software development effort. The use of fuzzy logic for this application area offers several advantages when compared to other commonly-used techniques. These include the use of a single model with different levels of precision for the inputs and outputs used throughout the development life-cycle, the possibility of model development with little or no data, and its effectiveness when used as a communication tool. The use of fuzzy logic in any applied field, however, requires that suitable tools are available for both practitioners and researchers-satisfying both interface- and functionality-related requirements. After outlining some of the specific needs of the software metrics community, including results from a survey of software developers on this topic, this paper describes the use of a set of tools called FULSOME (FUzzy Logic for SOftware MEtrics). The development of a simple fuzzy logic system by a software metrician and its subsequent tuning are then discussed using a real-world set of software metric data. The automatically generated fuzzy model performs acceptably when compared to regression-based models

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  • Deferred gratification', 'Wildcards' and 'Packaging': innovative teaching strategies for first year product design students

    Withell, AJ; Charlton, NB (2011-08-16)

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    This paper describes a strategic approach to teaching design that addresses the difficulties of building and maintaining motivation and engagement in first year product/industrial design students, and creating the learning context in which they can come to terms with the ‘idea’ of the design process. The paper critically considers the observations and experiences of the authors during the co-delivery of the first-year studio course of the Bachelor of Product Design at Unitec, New Zealand. The success of the strategy is illustrated with reference to improving student work and learning outcomes. Student perceptions are used to help interpret these practical examples of learning, with reference to broader educational approaches. Product/industrial design students require a variety of approaches and teaching interventions that are particular to their interests, concerns and perceptions of self. Innovative strategies are required to ensure that a meaningful engagement with design process is achieved. The challenge for first year studio lecturers is to devise teaching methods that make palatable the need to accept ‘deferred gratification’ in terms of hard design outcomes, via a rich and engaging, but fundamental learning process. A number of teaching methods are presented that engage the principles of experiential and situational learning and that introduce students to a number of practical skills and conceptual insights. The delivery and structure of the studio programme is further underpinned by reflective learning practices and the creation of an environment conductive to an effective community of learning/practice. Through this approach, students are asked to consider the immediate value of learning self-awareness, and to see ‘learning’ as an important long term professional competency. Given New Zealand’s particular limitations regarding large scale manufacturing, the emphasis on independent but collaborative, transferable thinking skills is particularly important. The process is in this case far more significant as a learning outcome, as it equips students to be involved in a wide range of design related fields, but as a ‘non-tangible’ outcome is considerably more difficult to teach to students with a hands-on orientation.

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  • Curved layer fused deposition modeling in conductive polymer additive manufacturing

    Diegel, O; Singamneni, S; Huang, B; Gibson, I (2011-08-18)

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    This paper describes a curved-layer additive manufacturing technology that has the potential to print plastic components with integral conductive polymer electronic circuits. Researchers at AUT University in New Zealand and the National University of Singapore have developed a novel Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process in which the layers of material that make up the part are deposited as curved layers instead of the conventional flat layers. This technology opens up possibilities of building curved plastic parts that have conductive electronic tracks and components printed as an integral part of the plastic component, thereby eliminating printed circuit boards and wiring. It is not possible to do this with existing flat-layer additive manufacturing technologies as the continuity of a circuit could be interrupted between the layers. With curved-layer fused deposition modeling (CLFDM) this problem is removed as continuous filaments in 3 dimensions can be produced, allowing for continuous conductive circuits.

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  • Did the earth move for you too? Understanding post-earthquake changes in retail shopping behaviour

    Ballentine, P; Parsons, AG; Zafar, S (2013-12-12)

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    Christchurch, the second largest city in New Zealand, was rattled by three major earthquakes in a span of six months from September 2010. With significant loss of life, collapsed buildings and damaged infrastructure, consumers were confronted with the notion that retail spaces, in the event of an earthquake, had the potential to be unsafe and a source of possible personal harm. This paper presents the results of a qualitative study that explored how consumers modified their retail shopping behaviour following a sequence of earthquake events over the 2010/2011 timeframe in Christchurch, New Zealand.

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  • The Auckland economy: situation and forecast, November 2009

    Nana, G; Sanderson, K; Leung-Wai, J; Shirley, I; Wilson, D; Neill, CM; Slack, A; Stokes, F; Norman, D; Lynn, A (2012-01-27)

    Report
    Auckland University of Technology

    BERL and the Institute of Public Policy at Auckland University of Technology (AUT) have combined to pull together an economic forecast for the Auckland region economy. Latest employment data released last week confirm that the much-heralded end of the recession remains little more than a technicality. This is as true for the Auckland economy as it is for its national counterpart. The net 13,000 jobs shed from the Auckland economy over the past year mean annual employment contracted by nearly 3 percent over that period. Looking ahead, hopes of an export-led recovery for the New Zealand economy have been dashed by an exchange rate that defies any rational assessment of the fundamentals. Consequently, the short-term outlook for the Auckland economy is best described as unstable. Clearly, the next few months will be better than the first half of 2009, but there will be little to celebrate. We forecast: a sombre export picture for manufacturing; modest, at best, employment growth; a subdued outlook for retail trade; import growth slightly above national; net inward migration gains; moderate house price growth; growth in house building activity; guest nights treading water.

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