51 results for UC Research Repository, Undergraduate

  • An exercise in perception

    Clairmont, Philip A (1970)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Subject chosen for this thesis is the interior of a room and its myriad aspects. When experienced subjectively it can appear as an outer protection or barrier for inner turmoil, providing security, shelter and privacy, or the direct opposite, four walls unnaturally imprisoning that which should be free. Objectively it provides a startling array of forms shapes and textures, both functional and nonfunctional, rigid and organic. The visual tensions influence and condition the actions and thoughts of the human figure within this environment. A room contains within its four walls residue of human thoughts, actions and emotions, a visual catalyst of memories and associations ; past and present. A room is in a constant state of evolution expressing itself in movements from light and dark - a place where time and space can be measurable. I have tried using a variety of means: signs and symbols, dots, dashes, line and tone to capture at once the stationary together with the transitory nature of observed appearances. I have dwelt on and emphasised those ambiguities which have arisen out of the process of creating an image and may reveal something of another reality.... of those submerged realities behind appearances and beyond normal consciousness. The language of an artist is able to cast a glimmer of light on those essential truths.....truths which normally elude civilised man. This thesis provides for sensory and visual appreciation rather than intellectual gratification (thus the emphasis on visual rather than written work). It comprises of a series of drawings, covering some aspects of one particular interior .... in this instance, my livingroom - an immediate environment. The drawings are essentially a visual record of sensory thinking, emotional and free-form imaginative interpretation of commonplace objects. The drawings follow a sequence, both chronologically and in thought development towards painting in which the experience gained of the room, crystallises in paint, size and colour adding dimension. The drawings should perform a dual role, one of providing a direct link with unconscious creative processes, and one of showing a developing awareness of the vital forces and movements that motivate a painting and validate the act of creating it. A variety of techniques have been used, each in its turn revealing some significant facet of the interior. Mixed media drawings predominate, for this media with its own unique properties, is capable of providing a bridge ..... an interlocking of concept and technique where image and media are inseparable.

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  • The Sons of Liberty from a Bottom-Up Perspective: Reviewing New Social Scholarship Fifty Years Later

    Leeson, Benjamin James (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    New social history had a profound effect upon the nature of American historiography. Its bottom-up approach radically challenged the traditional historical narrative, producing a string of dynamic studies throughout the 1960s and 1970s. New social historians increasingly focused their studies on the localised experiences of marginalised groups, heralding in the highly influential cultural turn of the early seventies. Yet despite its resounding significance, scholars have a tendency to brush over the complexities and nuances of new social history. Rather, they simplify the school to a few corresponding traits, thus undermining the multifaceted character of this rich historiographical tradition. This dissertation intends to amend such misconceptions. A number of scholars have attempted to define new social history. Yet the school itself naturally evades precise definition. New social history was both individualistic and pluralistic. As such, any attempt to conceptualise the school renders a result riddled with deficiencies. This dissertation will examine how the new social historians approached a singular historical phenomenon, namely, the Sons of Liberty. By focusing solely on the Sons of Liberty, this dissertation will uncover a profusion of divergent interpretations that not only exemplifies the multifaceted character of new social history, but also enables us to appreciate the rich complexities of this historiographical tradition.

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  • Assessment of New Zealand's Forest Codes of Practice for Erosion and Sediment Control

    Pendly, Melissa Lin (2012)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    New Zealand’s forest industry operates under several codes of practice for erosion and sediment control. Inconsistency between regional forestry regulations led industry to lobby for the Proposed National Environmental Standard for Plantation Forestry (PNESPF). A national code of practice may also need to be introduced to give effect to the PNESPF. This dissertation focuses on what type of code of practice should be adopted, and under what conditions. The conditions required for a code of practice to succeed in protecting the environment were identified. The ‘external’ social and legal conditions were identified through analysis of three case studies from the international primary sector, whilst the ‘internal’ conditions relating to the development, content and implementation of a code of practice were identified through review of literature. These ideal internal conditions formed the basis of the criteria used to assess New Zealand's codes. Six of New Zealand’s forest codes of practice were classified by their type, the motivation for a corporation to comply with them, and enforcing agency. The internal conditions of these codes were then assessed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the existing documents. Overall, the codes had well-defined objectives, good planning information and clear communication. The weaknesses included regulatory approach, comprehensiveness, foundation (particularly stakeholder involvement), monitoring information and review process. The proposed national code of practice, if introduced, should be a prescriptive code. A prescriptive code is better than an outcome-based code because it is difficult to prove liability for sedimentation and erosion. Compliance with a prescriptive code should be like liability insurance, so that if a corporation is fully compliant with a prescriptive code of practice, it should not be held liable for adverse environmental impacts. This is a preliminary recommendation only, as the external conditions operating in New Zealand still need to be investigated.

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  • Canterbury – Full Steam Ahead 1863 – 1878 : The History of the Canterbury Provincial Railways

    Cross, Alastair Adrian (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This research essay examines and investigates the history of railway transport in New Zealand by utilising the Canterbury Provincial Railways (in operation 1863-1878) as operated by the Canterbury Provincial Government as a case study. The Canterbury Provincial Railways are considered by New Zealand historians and in particular transport historians to be the beginning of the modern-day New Zealand Railways network and the start of the rail-making era of New Zealand History. I consider the role that the Canterbury Provincial Railways have played between 1863 and 1878, and to what extent the railways benefited the region of Canterbury. In addition, the place of other Provincial attempts at railway construction are also briefly considered and their place in New Zealand’s railway history next to that of the Canterbury Provincial Railways. All previous revisions of the Canterbury Provincial Railways’ history have either been to look at it in a regional rail perspective or to solely focus on the railway, but not within the wider context of Canterbury region, which this research essay seeks to do. Overall, this research essay seeks to develop better the understanding of the place the Canterbury Provincial Railways plays in the wider history not only of the Canterbury region but also New Zealand too.

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  • Blast From Byzantium : The Alexiad on Crusader-Byzantine Relations During the First Crusade

    Reynolds, Gordon (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In order to rest and regroup the pilgrim masses of the First Crusade collected in the city of Constantinople, modern day Istanbul. Thousands answered the call for help from the Byzantine Emperor, Alexios I Komnenos, far more than he anticipated. These crusaders were culturally different from the Byzantines, in need of provisions, fanatical followers of the Latin Church and well armed. This tense situation was made more troubled as Bohemond of Taranto, who had waged a war against Alexios a decade prior, arrived leading a major contingent of the expedition. The complexity of the relationship between these uneasy-­‐allies has been the topic of much debate amongst historians. This historiographical discourse has been intensified by the dearth of written sources from Byzantine eyewitnesses, the only significant source being The Alexiad, by Anna Komnene. Until recently the majority of historians studying the period treated The Alexiad as an unreliable account. Considered by many to be littered with chronological errors and tainted by the musings of an exceptionally opinionated author. Viewpoints like these are rooted in a culture of distrust surrounding The Alexiad and perhaps a conscious movement by commentators to distance themselves from the pro-­‐Hellenic writings of Steven Runciman. This dissertation is an effort to establish the cultural and political context within which Anna Komnene was writing and how her perspectives were entirely representative of contemporary Byzantine thought. As such, The Alexiad can be seen to be a highly valuable resource in studying the Crusade.

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  • Peter the Great and British Perceptions of Russia: A study of how the image of Peter informed British ideas of Russia

    Ng, Wai Nam Boswell (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In British eyes, Russia was considered a non-entity before Peter the Great came into the scene. Aside from trade, it was largely irrelevant to British interests. Very few aspects about the nation appealed to the British. Indeed, Russia was considered the home of a group of ignorant, drunken, and brutish people governed by an absolute monarchy. However, by the end of Peter’s reign, Russia was seen in a more positive light. Through the rule of Peter, Russia was able to replace the hitherto powerful Swedish Empire in northern Europe and was firmly established in the Baltic Sea with a powerful navy at its disposal. At the same time, the reforms that characterized Peter’s reign so much also led to a shift in how the British perceived Russia in cultural terms. Breaking a trend that existed close to two centuries, the British began to view Russia as a nation that was progressing towards civilisation at a significant pace. Yet Peter’s image in British eyes was significant in encouraging such changes. Many saw Peter as the heart and soul of Russia, giving rise to a tendency to assess Russia from how they perceived Peter. Throughout his reign, the British came to know Peter for a number of things. He was seen as a competent and ambitious ruler who aimed to raise his empire to the highest degree possible. At the same time, he was also seen as an autocratic reformer who was forcing civilisation upon a backward country. With such images at the back of British minds, it was easy for them to invoke an image of a Russia that was threatening and more civilised than before. These perceptions of Peter therefore helped inform British ideas of Russia in a political and cultural context.

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  • Defining the enemy : intellectuals, soldiers and their attitudes towards the rules of engagement.

    Foss, Nicholas William (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This dissertation examines the different attitudes of soldiers and intellectuals towards the laws of war and the rules of engagement, with a particular focus on defining the enemy. In the past there has been a focus on the broader theories of the laws of war and how they work on paper. This is why studying the attitudes of soldiers who have firsthand experience of the rules of engagement is useful in understanding the moral issues in war. The general attitudes of intellectuals and soldiers towards the laws of war are first examined, relying on the past historiographical work of Michael Walzer and John Fabian Witt. This is followed by an examination of the moral ambiguities generated by war in a historical context, using specific examples from past conflicts. Soldiers’ autobiographies from the War on Terror are a rich source of analysis They reveal how the rules of engagement imposed by the legislators do not necessarily correspond to the soldiers’ perspective on the battlefield which leaves soldiers vulnerable to charges of murder.

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  • Putaringamotu/Riccarton Bush : from wilderness to native bush reserve

    Morrison, Melissa A (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This research essay examines the significance of Putaringamotu/Riccarton Bush to the various facets of Canterbury’s history to which it is connected. Putaringamotu/Riccarton Bush is a place of significance to the history of Canterbury as it helps to tell the story of the environment, Maori and the first pioneers of the Canterbury Plains. This research essay draws upon a number of primary sources, such as legislation and personal correspondence, in order to answer the question of why an area of native bush within the city of Christchurch is still significant and relevant today. The answer to this question lies in the ability of the Bush to tell the story of the Canterbury Plains, and those who have called the area home, from the 1300s until the present day. Putaringamotu/Riccarton Bush is the only remnant of the Kahikatea Swamp forests which once covered the Canterbury Plains and therefore contributes to the environmental history of New Zealand. The Bush also uncovers the cultural and social practices of local Maori before the arrival of the first European settlers. However, the reason that Putaringamotu/Riccarton Bush remains so significant today is because of its connection to the pioneering foundations of Christchurch. The Bush inspired and influenced the Deans brothers, Canterbury’s first successful pioneers, and the Canterbury Association, to choose the Plains as the location of the city of Christchurch. It is highly probable that had the Bush not existed upon the Plains then the city of Christchurch may have been established elsewhere. The current use of Putaringamotu/Riccarton Bush as a conservation area and meeting place ensures that each of these facets of Canterbury’s history are acknowledged and remain relevant and significant within Christchurch today.

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  • Toxic tabloids toxicology, the press, and the public in nineteenth-century England.

    Easton, Holly (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This dissertation examines the way in which the English public in the nineteenth century engaged with criminal toxicology, through the medium of the newspapers. It aims to fill a gap in the historiography of toxicology, by combining the approaches of single-case analysis and statistical analysis to assess public opinion and action. This dissertation argues that the public’s engagement with criminal toxicology occurred through the context in which they encountered it, namely the judicial system. In addition to this, public engagement was built upon an informed understanding of the role of toxicology in the courtroom and was capable of producing tangible change. Through examining four sensational cases of criminal poisoning over the nineteenth century, this dissertation traces the development of the general public’s understanding of toxicology and resulting reactions to it. Throughout the century, the newspapers gradually disseminated more information about trials and the toxicology involved in them to the public, which they were able to act upon, by means of placing pressure on the authorities to reconsider the outcomes of contentious trials and the laws that had contributed to them. Overall, the public engaged increasingly with toxicology through the judicial system, agitating for and successfully creating change, in the interests of ensuring justice was done in individual cases and in the future.

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  • ‘If we never meet again’ : the migration experiences of Emma Barker in nineteenth-century Canterbury.

    Martens, Paulien (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Studies of migration from England to New Zealand in the nineteenth century have tended to neglect the stories of women. My study addresses this gap by examining the migration story of Emma Barker and her family, and analysing in what ways family dynamics resulted in a gendered experience of migration. It explores gender in a relational manner by comparing and contrasting Emma’s experiences with those of her husband, Alfred. This study also adds to the historiography of the Western family and illuminates broader issues of marriage, parenthood and migration networks. It is based on a sequence of letters written by the Barker family to their extended family in England and highlights the importance of personal correspondence in writing migration histories. This study argues for more nuanced stories of migration that challenge accounts which emphasise the alienating aspect of migration for women.

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  • Inherent contradictions : English women’s literatures’ depictions of First World War service

    Blakey, Katharine (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This dissertation examines the idealisation of middle-class men’s and women’s service during the First World War through the study of five novels written by English women between 1916 and 1918. Historiography on women in the war tends to focus on whether the war represented a “watershed” moment for women’s rights. This dissertation argues that although the war was not a watershed moment, it did create an environment which enabled the contestation of women’s traditional domestic role. Chapter One shows how the novels idealised enlistment as men’s greatest service to the war, reflecting prevalent attitudes within society and reinforcing men’s traditional masculine role. In contrast, Chapter Two shows how women’s service threatened traditional notions of domesticity. Concerns for working-class women’s moral and sexual transgressions influencing middle-class women, underlies the novels promotion of war service’s potential moral benefits. Simultaneously, they emphasise the temporary nature of war service, and women’s eventual return to traditional domesticity. The concurrent idealisation of women’s service and their return to the public sphere shows the war not as a “watershed”, but as an environment which reasserted masculinity and challenged traditional ideas of middle-class women’s domesticity.

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  • Politicising history : an historiographical analysis of the Sino-Tibetan relationship.

    Smart, Grace (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This dissertation compares the historiography of the Sino-Tibetan relationship as written by a number of Chinese, Tibetan and Western historians. The relationship between China and Tibet has been written about extensively, however the highly politicised nature of modern debate has resulted in an inability of historians to reach a consensus regarding the status of Tibet. This dissertation will use the 1950-1951 occupation of Tibet by China as a foundation from which to compare the historiography of the Sino-Tibetan relationship during the Chinese Tang, Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties, and during the Republic of China. This dissertation will also discuss which historiographical schools and modes of thought have influenced historians. Tibetan historians have been strongly influenced by modern Tibetan ethnocentric nationalism, and by Western romanticised constructions of Tibet. Chinese historians have been influenced by a combination of traditional Chinese thought and Marxist thought. The hegemony of Western political ideas has also caused Tibetan and Chinese historians to frame their arguments around Western concepts. Western historians attempt to be objective, however tend to agree with the interpretation of Tibetan historians. This is largely due to the influence of the romanticised image of Tibet in the West, which creates the idea that Tibet is a peaceful and traditional place which has been violated by Chinese aggression.

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  • Wattle function and territoriality in the South Island saddleback (Philesturnus carunculatus)1

    Lloyd-Jones, David (2014)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The South Island saddleback (Philesturnus carunculatus) is an endangered bird endemic to New Zealand. Both males and females possess wattles, which are colourful fleshy structures that hang from the lower beak. Although a wide range of birds have wattles, the selection pressures and behavioural function of these biological ornaments remain poorly understood. In this study, behavioural observations, morphological measures, and a playback experiment were used to investigate how wattles are used by South Island saddlebacks in their natural habitat. Wattles were found to be monomorphic when body mass was accounted for, and they were observed to engorge in both aggressive and non-aggressive visual displays. In the playback experiment, wattle engorgement in saddlebacks was significantly associated with territorial intrusions in males but not in females, although females were significantly more likely to engorge their wattles and display in the absence of their mate. Larger males with bigger wattles did not have significantly stronger territorial responses. These results provide the first experimental evidence for the functional role that wattle engorgement plays in saddleback signalling behaviour. The markedly similar visual display behaviour between sexes, which is used in both aggressive and non-aggressive contexts, provides insight into possible selection pressures acting in the evolutionary maintenance of wattles.

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  • He aha te kai o te rangatira i te ao hurihuri? : what is the food of chiefs in a changing world?: leadership in Te Tau Ihu in the late twentieth century.

    Williams, Madi (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This research examines the nature of Māori leadership in Te Tau Ihu during the late twentieth century. A Te Tau Ihu focus has been chosen as I whakapapa to Ngāti Kuia, Ngāti Kōata, and Ngāti Apa ki te Rā Tō. The existing historiography on Māori leadership is focused on national scale leaders and fails to adequately take into account local factors. This dissertation analyses how leadership manifested in late twentieth-century Te Tau Ihu. The research was conducted using a combination of oral history and kaupapa Māori methodologies and thematic interviews were undertaken with three current Te Tau Ihu leaders. These interviews directed the research and highlighted the leadership roles and attributes that were necessary during this period. The key conclusion to emerge was that there are crucial differences within Māori leadership, depending on the iwi, region, and context. Within Te Tau Ihu leadership roles were primarily centred around a fight for cultural recognition and the initial steps of the Treaty Settlement process. They were filled by volunteers who had a range of attributes such as charisma, communication skills, bravery, manaakitanga, and humility. It was the combination of these roles and attributes that enabled Te Tau Ihu iwi to move forward so successfully into the twenty first century.

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  • ‘A clubbed skull or a good shipwreck, there is the death for a missionary… but to die a leper should be more precious still…’ : heroic missionary deaths of the 20th century at the Pacific Leprosy Asylum, Makogai Island, Fiji.

    Hawarden, Rosanne (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Through Bishop Julien Vidal of Suva, Fiji, the Missionary Sisters of the Society of Mary (SMSM) provided nursing services to leprosy sufferers in the Makogai Island leprosarium, Fiji from its inception in 1911. In a period when the cause of leprosy was known but an effective remedy was not available, Pacific leprosy patients who suffered stigmatisation and rejection by their communities, were forcibly segregated through formal legislation to remote island leprosaria. Religious and humanitarian organisations aligned leprosy control measures with their goals to evangelise and fundraise amongst the faithful. The Catholic Church became known for the care of leprosy patients with staff recognised for devoting their lives to a self-sacrificing religious martyrdom. Early histories presented a sanitised view of the arduous work involved in running a ‘total’ institution. Mythologised tales of lived events on Makogai Island were couched in religious terminology. The process of mythmaking by missionary organisations has received some attention, notably by Young and Luder, but has not focussed on missions to leprosy sufferers. Young considered the necessary conditions for missionary legends to develop while Luder analysed the mythmaking of Polynesian peoples and use of sacred imagery to cloak deeper knowledge reserved for elites. Examination of the records of Bishop Vidal exposes the layer of insider knowledge that was kept within official circles, including information on the high rates of illness amongst the nuns, whose hygiene regimes required the use of toxic chemicals. Very few missionaries died from leprosy, whereas drowning was a common fate. Two specific deaths on Makogai Island, the death of a priest in a shipwreck and a nursing sister from leprosy, were progressively mythologised. The violent death of a European priest was more likely to be mythologised than that of a ‘native’ nun who contracted leprosy. The rousing phrases of Bishop Vidal are more aspirational than actuality.

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  • 'The imperial character' : Alexius I Comnenus and the Byzantine ideal of emperorship.

    Rolston, Elisabeth Michelle (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The twelfth century saw what has been acknowledged by historians as a change in the nature of Byzantine emperorship with the reign of Alexius I Comnenus (1081-1118) and his succeeding dynasty. The rule of the Comneni has been associated with an emphasis on military achievement and a greater dynastic focus. While the practical changes to imperial rule under the Comneni have been well documented by historians, a focus on the character of the emperor and his depiction in historical writing has not yet received scholarly attention. The reign of Alexius was documented by two twelfth-century historians, Anna Comnena and John Zonaras. Their works offer two markedly different interpretations of Alexius's character and his suitability to occupy the imperial office. Anna Comnena's Alexiad draws on Biblical and Classical traditions to establish Alexius as the model of an ideal emperor. John Zonaras's Epitome Historiarum sets different standards for private men and for emperors. While Alexius's character is sufficiently virtuous for a private man, he falls short of the standard imposed for an emperor. This research shows that both writers create an ideal of emperorship in which the character of the emperor plays a vital role. The nature of this ideal, and the influences that inform it, are unique to each writer. Anna and John identify similar character traits in Alexius. Their point of difference, however, is whether they believe Alexius's character is suitable for the imperial office, and the extent to which he fulfils their ideal standard of emperorship.

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  • Locked out of the changing room? : a gendered history of surf lifesaving in Canterbury 1917-1990.

    Simatos, Elena Marie (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Since its beginning in the early twentieth century, surf lifesaving in New Zealand has been a predominantly male sport. This research essay examines the position of women in the Canterbury Surf Life Saving Association (CSLSA). It studies the Minutes and Annual Reports of the CSLSA in order to shed light on male attitudes toward female participation in the sport. The male attitude towards female surf lifesavers has generally been negative, although the degree of this negativity has varied across different surf clubs in New Zealand and Australia. The CSLSA was heavily focused on its public image, and this image was predominantly masculine. Women were often seen by men as lacking the physical capabilities required to participate in surf lifesaving. This research essay also addresses domestic roles within the surf clubs that allowed women to have some involvement in the clubs. It also discusses how factors such as the outbreak of World War Two allowed for women to become active surf lifesavers and begin to have a voice. There were some successful women within the CSLSA, yet only two women achieved significant recognition within the Association’s Minutes and Annual Reports. The main focus of this research essay is to determine male attitudes towards women within surf lifesaving in Canterbury.

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  • Women, migration, and madness : a case study of Seaview Lunatic Asylum, 1872-1915.

    Julian, Renée (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This dissertation examines the interconnections between migration, madness, and femininity through a case study of the women committed to Seaview Lunatic Asylum on New Zealand’s West Coast from 1872 to 1916. Psychiatric histories that include discussions of the effects that migrating to the goldfields can have on migrant’s mental health have been a recent development, although a number of these studies tend to focus on men. Moreover, while there have been studies of the connections between migration and insanity on nineteenth-century goldfields in Otago and Victoria, this has never been attempted for the West Coast. In order to bridge this gap, I examine women’s migration and mobility patterns during the West Coast rushes in addition to demographics within the asylum and the West Coast population to locate the Seaview women with the framework of broader cultural and societal trends. I then consider the ways which ‘social stressors’ and dominant attitudes towards femininity and ethnicity on the goldfields are reflected in women’s experiences of madness. The Seaview women were highly mobile, both nationally and internationally, and were part of strong Trans-Tasman migration patterns. Like many other nineteenth-century asylums, diagnoses of insanity became highly gendered because of the influence of colonial views of femininity, making perceptions and experiences of women’s madness different from men’s. Asylum records also mirror the blurred ethnic boundaries that characterised the West Coast in this period, and ‘social stressors’ such as the harsh environmental conditions on the goldfields, domestic concerns and working conditions greatly influenced the deterioration of women’s mental health and committal to Seaview.

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  • Reformation and romance : Scottish national. identity in a nineteenth century British age of reform, through the Edinburgh political press.

    Anderson, Jonathan (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In the nineteenth century, Scottish national identity among the political elite of Scotland was a contested field. Rather than there being a single conception of ‘Scottishness’ among this elite, the Whigs contributors of the Edinburgh Review and the Tory contributors of Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine each embodied a distinctive Whig and Tory Scottish identity: a Whig identity based on Scotland’s future progress within the United Kingdom and dismissive of Scotland’s ‘backward’ pre-Union heritage; and a Tory identity that romanticised and celebrated Scottish history, while casting itself as the ‘defender’ of Scottish nationhood within the United Kingdom. This study explores these different Scottish identities. It considers both how they responded to, and how they were changed by the British age of reform. Three reforms in particular – the Test and Corporation Acts repeal of 1828, Catholic Emancipation in 1829, and the Great Reform Act of 1832 – form the focus. Using magazine articles authored by prominent Scottish Whigs and Tories of the day, the research shows how these identities shifted. Scottish Whigs ardently supported all three reforms, seeing it as representing Scotland’s ‘British progress’ and ‘enlightenment’. But their arguments also employed language of Scottish exceptionalism and patriotism that they claimed to oppose. Scottish Tories, zealously opposed to reform, expressed opposition using Scottish patriotic language, particularly by portraying reforms as representing a threat to Scotland’s ancient nationhood. This dissertation argues that by the end of this reforming era, the victorious Scottish Whig identity had adopted the patriotic arguments of the Scottish Tories, who ultimately faded. It provides valuable insight into how Scotland’s governing elite viewed Scottish identity and nationhood, particularly within a wider British context, and how these identities shifted as part of the transformative effects of reform on Scotland and Britain.

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  • Gendered nationalism, egalitarian revolution : women in the political discourses of Gandhi and Ambedkar.

    Wills, Frank Kerry (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This dissertation examines how women were positioned in the political discourses of B. R. Ambedkar and M. K. Gandhi through an analysis of their speeches, articles, and correspondence. Comparisons between these two men have focused on their conflicting views of the Indian caste system. However, both Gandhi and Ambedkar commented extensively on the place of women in Indian society. A comparison of their respective views reveals a shared goal of realising social, political, and legal equality for women. However, they articulated different means of achieving that goal. This dissertation argues that differences between Gandhi’s and Ambedkar’s respective discourses on women emerged from their divergent political ideologies. Chapter one shows that Gandhi’s discourse on women was a complex and fluctuating product of competing influences, including his role as leader of the Indian nationalist movement, the impact of contemporary events, and his tendency toward conservatism. This suggests that his discourse on women was subject to many of the same concerns as his general politics. Chapter two shows that Ambedkar’s discourse on women was heavily influenced by his emancipatory, modernising, egalitarian, and social interventionist political ideology. The interface between caste and gender in Ambedkar’s writing is also examined. It is argued that he identified correlations between caste and gender-based discriminations. Overall, despite the appearance of similarities between Gandhi’s and Ambedkar’s respective discourses on women, their respective discourses on women evinced separate influences and ideologies.

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