51 results for UC Research Repository, Undergraduate

  • ‘He’ll do the right thing’: A discussion of Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan’s relationship with the Evangelical community

    Hart-Smith, Alexander (2013)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Historiographical scholarship of previous presidents is never short in supply. James Earl Carter and Ronald Wilson Reagan are no exception to this assertion and have been extensively studied by historians. Similarly, the role of religion in politics in the United States is rarely neglected by historians. The role of the Religious Right in politics and the explanation for its emergence has also been well documented by academics. There is however a surprising lack of investigation into the specific issue of how Regan, the arguably less religious man, became more commonly identified with the Religious Right than Carter. Using both a mixture of primary and secondary sources this paper attempts to answer the question of why Carter's electoral success with Evangelicals was so short-lived. Utilizing remarks from the Presidents, their former advisors, debates and prominent Evangelical leaders this dissertation seeks to offer a new insight into why the support for Jimmy Carter was so ephemeral. This dissertation will offer a rather simple resolution to the complex question of why Evangelicals shifted their support to Reagan. The Religious Right were not just interested in the election of a pious President but wanted to transform the governance of a nation after two decades of growing secularism. Ultimately it appears that Carter's decision to campaign on little more than his moral image propelled him into the White House as this title of this thesis suggests because voters and most specifically Evangelicals believed,

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  • Assessment of New Zealand's Forest Codes of Practice for Erosion and Sediment Control

    Pendly, Melissa Lin (2012)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    New Zealand’s forest industry operates under several codes of practice for erosion and sediment control. Inconsistency between regional forestry regulations led industry to lobby for the Proposed National Environmental Standard for Plantation Forestry (PNESPF). A national code of practice may also need to be introduced to give effect to the PNESPF. This dissertation focuses on what type of code of practice should be adopted, and under what conditions. The conditions required for a code of practice to succeed in protecting the environment were identified. The ‘external’ social and legal conditions were identified through analysis of three case studies from the international primary sector, whilst the ‘internal’ conditions relating to the development, content and implementation of a code of practice were identified through review of literature. These ideal internal conditions formed the basis of the criteria used to assess New Zealand's codes. Six of New Zealand’s forest codes of practice were classified by their type, the motivation for a corporation to comply with them, and enforcing agency. The internal conditions of these codes were then assessed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the existing documents. Overall, the codes had well-defined objectives, good planning information and clear communication. The weaknesses included regulatory approach, comprehensiveness, foundation (particularly stakeholder involvement), monitoring information and review process. The proposed national code of practice, if introduced, should be a prescriptive code. A prescriptive code is better than an outcome-based code because it is difficult to prove liability for sedimentation and erosion. Compliance with a prescriptive code should be like liability insurance, so that if a corporation is fully compliant with a prescriptive code of practice, it should not be held liable for adverse environmental impacts. This is a preliminary recommendation only, as the external conditions operating in New Zealand still need to be investigated.

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  • The Sons of Liberty from a Bottom-Up Perspective: Reviewing New Social Scholarship Fifty Years Later

    Leeson, Benjamin James (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    New social history had a profound effect upon the nature of American historiography. Its bottom-up approach radically challenged the traditional historical narrative, producing a string of dynamic studies throughout the 1960s and 1970s. New social historians increasingly focused their studies on the localised experiences of marginalised groups, heralding in the highly influential cultural turn of the early seventies. Yet despite its resounding significance, scholars have a tendency to brush over the complexities and nuances of new social history. Rather, they simplify the school to a few corresponding traits, thus undermining the multifaceted character of this rich historiographical tradition. This dissertation intends to amend such misconceptions. A number of scholars have attempted to define new social history. Yet the school itself naturally evades precise definition. New social history was both individualistic and pluralistic. As such, any attempt to conceptualise the school renders a result riddled with deficiencies. This dissertation will examine how the new social historians approached a singular historical phenomenon, namely, the Sons of Liberty. By focusing solely on the Sons of Liberty, this dissertation will uncover a profusion of divergent interpretations that not only exemplifies the multifaceted character of new social history, but also enables us to appreciate the rich complexities of this historiographical tradition.

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  • Executioners of Convenience - The Wehrmacht's Atrocities on the Ostfront. Genocide and Ideology in a War of Annihilation, 1941-1943

    Cheer, Michael (2013)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Abstract This thesis explores to what degree the Wehrmacht was involved in atrocities on the Eastern Front and the structures that led to this involvement. The goal is to show that the men of the Wehrmacht were incorporated more completely into a genocidal 'war of annihilation' than has been previously thought. It will be demonstrated that the Wehrmacht Heer on the Ostfront cannot be understood as a traditional army conducting a conventional war. However, it was not made up of rabidly anti-Semitic 'willing executioners' either. This research is based mainly on perpetrator testimony, including secret POW recordings, official Wehrmacht documents and soldiers testimonies. Upon examination of these documents, it becomes clear that Wehrmacht Heer units during the Ostkreig were instructed and prepared not only to assist the SS and Einsatzgruppen in prosecuting the Final Solution, but also to act independently as a kind of 'vanguard' of annihilation in their area of operations. In contrast to existing interpretations however, this thesis will argue that in general soldiers did not commit war crimes due to Nazi indoctrination/ingrained anti-Semitism or through peer pressure and brutalisation but because of indiscriminate rules of engagement set within an extremely rigid military structure, which explicitly equated Jews with Bolshevik partisans while considering Soviet POWs and civilians to be expendable.

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  • To be Made Disabled, A Discourse Analysis of Intellectual Disability in New Zealand, 1900 - 1960

    Burt, Lucy (2013)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The New Zealand historiography on intellectual disability has been expanded in the twenty years by histories of the residential institution and the foundation of advocacy groups. However, there is still a limited field of history regarding how the intellectually disabled were discussed in twentieth century New Zealand. This thesis will discuss how the identity of the intellectually disabled was constructed as a social category, through different discourses, in twentieth century New Zealand. It shall be argued that from 1900 to at least 1960 those who created medical, government and public discourse also maintained the power to create the identity of the intellectually disabled. This argument will take the form of a discourse analysis and will draw on both primary and secondary sources. The primary sources will include government documents, medical literature and newspaper content. The secondary sources will cover material which provides context, and / or which has discussed the construction of intellectual disability. It will be argued that discourses centred on an idea of a 'problem' within the intellectually disabled individual. Also, the medical discourse and 'medicalized' understandings of intellectual disability will be seen to influence public and government discourse. Further, a tension will be shown in these discourses between the desire to assist the intellectually disabled and their families, as well as to protect the New Zealand community from these people.

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  • Immaculate Perceptions : Gender and Sanctity in Jacobus de Voragine’s Legenda aurea

    Wilson, Cressida Lilian (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    During the medieval period saints played a significant role in the religious culture of Western Europe. During the thirteenth century a Dominican monk named Jacobus de Voragine compiled and edited a collection of hagiographies, named the Legenda aurea, or ‘Golden Legend’. The lives of women saints included in this text highlight gender-specific concepts of sanctity. The sanctity of women was constructed in a distinctive way, and saints provided a model for religious women to imitate. Historians have largely ignored both female saints and the Legenda aurea as areas of research, despite the popularity they inspired in medieval society. Certain themes permeate the vitae so frequently that it appears Jacobus intended to promote particular tropes of female sanctity. Saints who were virgins were probably included to appeal to a young female audience, possibly to encourage them to join the fledgling Dominican nunneries. The economic concerns of the order are also highlighted through Jacobus’ emphasis on the saint’s renunciation of wealth, as the Dominicans survived on alms. Noble and widowed saints could have appealed to an older audience of economically autonomous women. By emphasising a return to apostolic types of sanctity Jacobus is promoting his order and safeguarding the economic interests of the Dominicans.

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  • The biologies of two species of weta endemic to the Snares Island : Zealandrosandrus subantarcticus Salmon (Orthoptera : Stenopelmatidae) and Insulanoplectron spinosum Richards (Orthoptera : Rhaphidophoridae)

    Butts, Christine A. (1983)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The life histories, behaviour, diet, habitat, and diurnal activity patterns of two species of Snares Island weta, Zealandrosandrus subantaraticus and Insulanovlectron spinosum, are presented. The males and females of Z. subantarcticus had 12 instars. The males of I. spinosum had 9 instars while the females had 10 instars. Eclosion, moulting, inter- and intraspecific interactions, oviposition, and cannabalism are described. The diet of both species included arthropods, plant material, and dead seabirds. Descriptions of abdomina-femoral stridulatory apparatus for both species are presented. Reproductive parameters and sex ratio of both species were examined. Diurnal activity patterns showed an increase in activity half an hour after sunset and a decrease half an hour before sunrise for both species. These species of weta from the Snares Island showed similarities in aspects of their biologies to those of mainland species

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  • A History of the Seabrook McKenzie Centre Christchurch 1973-2013

    Hughey-Cockerell, Ngaio (2013)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The history of the Seabrook McKenzie Centre is closely connected with a thirty-year campaign by parents and professionals for official recognition of specific learning disability as a category and for a remedial service to address the needs of children affected to be provided within mainstream schooling in New Zealand. This paper focuses on the contribution of the two professional women, Dr Jean Seabrook and Mary Cameron-Lewis who stand out, along with the patron and benefactor Sir Roy McKenzie as making a substantial contribution to the development of the Centre. Inadequate recognition by the Department of Education of children with specific learning disabilities led to the need for a separate, private, facility. This essay discusses the significance this played in contributing to the opening of the initial Centre, the subsequent expansion of the Seabrook McKenzie Centre, and the eventual opening of a school. It argues that the lack of official recognition and provision of support for these children's learning needs played a major role in the history of the Centre's establishment and continues to be a factor in its operation today.

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  • Past within the Plot: Two Narrative Historians and their Discontents

    Vesty, Julian (2013)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This dissertation examines the coexistence of 'narrative', popular history, which aims to tell a story to edify and entertain, with 'structural' history, which gained precedence in the university from the nineteenth century onward. Using the case studies of Simon Schama and Niall Ferguson, popular historians who transitioned from early 'structural' works to 'narrative' books and finally documentary, the precise nature of narrative is examined through the theory of literary historical tropes developed by Hayden White, where a political perspective engages an 'emplotment' where a form of narrative develops. After examining how tropes apply to the life experience, ideology and resulting emplotment of Schama and Ferguson, it looks at the academic criticisms of their narratives, in text and television documentary - namely, that the organisation of data into a compelling story negates accuracy and objectivity in the name of entertainment. Subsequently, the similarity of Schama and Ferguson's narrative style is compared to pre-academic historical writings from before Leopold von Ranke. The final argument is that the popular history espoused by Schama and Ferguson is a re-emergence of the older, pre-academic style, based on narrative, which predates the structural history which displaced it. This dissertation concludes by examining how the two historiographies might coexist, arguing that the new narrative can offer excitement and purpose to the structural historian, giving relevance to the rigorous work of structural history.

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  • Re-excavating Wairau: A study of New Zealand repatriation and the excavation of Wairau Bar.

    Hickland, Shaun (2013)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Repatriation is an increasingly significant issue in the museum world. It is concerned with the return of cultural artefacts that have been previously traded or sold into foreign countries or institutions, either at the behest of the indigenous people or the initiative of the institution holding them. This dissertation explores the role of repatriation in modern New Zealand museums and its role in furthering the often contentious relationship between Maori and museum staff. It has a specific focus on the excavation and repatriation of human remains at Wairau Bar in Marlborough. It critiques an unpublished history of the Bar written by independent historian David Armstrong, which was commissioned by Rangitane in 2009. My overall argument disputes Armstrong's portrayal of Roger Duff, ethnologist at the Canterbury Museum, as the leader of a surreptitious excavation who was consistently underhand and secretive in his dealings with Rangitane. I counter Armstrong's claims to demonstrate that Duff valued an open and transparent relationship with Rangitane and respected their cultural attitudes to ancestral remains. I conclude that these remain core values in both modern repatriation policies and museum relations with Maori. My contextual discussion draws largely on secondary scholarship and journal articles while my conclusions about Wairau Bar are largely based on primary archives and Armstrong's report.

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  • Andrew Miller and his Eagles - American Citizens, British Subjects and Rights in the ImpressmentControversy

    Rennie, Connor (2013)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In 1812 impressment was left as the implied cause for the outbreak of war between Britain and the United States of America. Scholars have focused on how impressment was involved in diplomacy. There remains, however, a lack of investigation into the justification of impressment. This dissertation explores the impressment of Americans by the Royal Navy and the resulting fallout. The research will focus on one group in particular: naturalised American citizens. The aim is to show that the conflict over impressment stemmed from Britain and America possessing different conceptualisations of citizenship and rights. The dissertation examines the history of impressment in Britain and the doctrine of indefeasible allegiance together with American arguments against the doctrine. This research is based on the correspondence of politicians, treatises, laws and secondary scholarship. Using these sources a narrative of diplomacy and rights will be constructed. Upon the examination of the evidence it becomes clear that American claims about the unjustness of the impressment of naturalised American citizens are wrong. While there was a dispute if naturalisation could occur, the fact is that the American government loudly disputed the British right to reclaim a large number of naturalised sailors when by the laws of America these sailors were not naturalised.

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  • A Most Excellent Thing: The introduction of brown trout (Salmo trutta) to Canterbury, New Zealand 1864-1872

    Kos, Jack (2013)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This essay examines the process undergone in the Canterbury province in the late 1860s and early 1870s to import Salmo trutta (brown trout) ova from Tasmania, to hatch them out and to distribute them throughout the waterways of the province. This essay seeks to answer two questions. First, how were trout introduced? Second, why was their introduction of such significance to colonists at the time? To answer these questions this essay draws upon a comprehensive range of primary sources including Society records and newspapers. The successful importation of trout represented one of the key early achievements of the fledgling Canterbury Acclimatisation Society at a time when several other attempted introductions were failing. The process undertaken to import the ova, rear hatchlings and distribute the �young trout� tested the scientific knowledge of the 1860s and 1870s. It necessitated significant interaction with international acclimatisation groups primarily in Australia but also further afield. This essay also attempts to convey the significance of the importation to Canterbury. Such was the public interest that the coverage of trout in print media extended to the hatching of individual ova or the sighting of escaped trout. Trout were afforded a romanticised status in colonial New Zealand society, largely as a result of their construction as a quintessentially British object. Their importation was motivated by several factors, namely the re-creation of a British ecology in New Zealand, the recreational opportunities they afforded and the food source they provided.

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  • You Wouldn't Know There Was a War On. A Cultural History of New Zealanders Serving in Bomber Command during the Second World War.

    Kimberley, Aidan (2013)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The intention of this project is to reconstruct the culture of New Zealanders serving in Bomber Command of the RAF during the Second World War. Similar work has emerged on the culture of British airmen but cultural histories looking specifically at New Zealand airmen are yet to emerge. In conducting a cultural history of this subject, this paper looks more closely at the airmens' behaviour, routines and emotions. To achieve this, it will focus on three main aspects of the New Zealanders' culture: rivalries, leisure and attitudes. Rivalries were commonplace and include sporting contests, which were encouraged as a morale boosting tool, tensions between members of aircrews, and also a bitter rivalry between Englishmen and New Zealanders which was caused by unpopular decision making by a handful of English commanders. Forms of leisure were particularly varied. Tourism was an activity New Zealanders commonly indulged in, as was visiting friends and extended family on leave, and frequenting the local concerts and stage shows. However it became clear that they had not quite grown out of their rebellious teenage selves as unsanctioned activities such as joy riding and pranks emerged. In the final chapter it is shown that the cheerful demeanour the men tried to present was the result of self-censorship to protect their families, and that once they began experiencing horrifying situations this demeanour became much harder to maintain.

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  • Race relations in New Zealand Through an Analysis of Broadsheet Magazine 1972-1989

    Hayes, Kimberley (2013)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This research essay addresses race relations within the context of New Zealand second wave feminism, 1972-1989. The 1970s and 1980s are decades recognised for the increased tension in the relationship between Maori and Pakeha society. I argue that race relations were a crucial aspect of second wave feminism in New Zealand at this time. This history is signified by an important primary source, the New Zealand feminist magazine Broadsheet. I argue that the progression that Maori women made over time to gain a space within New Zealand second wave feminism reflected deeper issues of race relations in wider New Zealand society. Themes that emerge from a close analysis of Broadsheet magazine include Maori women's questioning of the relevance of New Zealand second wave feminism for them, the important contribution that Maori women made to New Zealand second wave feminism, and the growing but necessary confrontation between Maori and Pakeha women.

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  • 'A Light Sniff Might Mean Death’ : Soldiers’ Responses to Poisonous Gas Throughout the First World War

    Annesley, Ellis Jayne (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This research paper examines soldiers’ responses to poisonous gas throughout the First World War. Accounts from British and Dominion, American and German soldiers who fought along the Western Front have been collected to analyse the psychological impact gas had upon a variety of men throughout the conflict. Contemporary letters and diaries as well as post-war oral testimonies and memoirs form the basis of the evidence used. The topic encompasses three strands of historical scholarship and engages with each to explore more thoroughly the responses obtained. Emphasis is placed on the psychological impact of gas upon the individuals assessed. Ultimately, this dissertation demonstrates that upon its introduction, poison gas was capable of instilling fear into men whether previously exposed to its consequences or not. However, this psychological power was to significantly diminish following the production and distribution of anti-gas protective measures in late 1916. Despite decreasing anxiety, gas retained its title as a ‘terror weapon’ from effectively inspiring fear into men who were unprotected, ill-prepared, and subsequently vulnerable, in the face of the poison.

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  • Investigation of Potentially Expansive Soils, 'The Birches' Subdivision, Rangiora, New Zealand

    Clendon, Nicholas (2001)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    'The Birches' is a recently developed subdivision in the township of Rangiora. Early in 1997 a Benkelman Beam test on Lowes Place, one of the two major access roads into 'The Birches', produced deflection results as high as 12.76 mm. In addition to this was the raising of a section of footpath 10-20 mm up from the curb. Early 1998 saw longitudinal shrinkage cracks appear in a house access driveway, while later in 1998 two house experienced cracking and movement of the interior wall linings, subsequently requiring redecoration. These types of damage are typical of the damage caused by expansive soils, and an investigation was put in place to evaluate these potentially expansive soils. There are no previous cases of swelling soil problems in Rangiora or on the Canterbury Plains, so a field investigation program using crack monitoring, shallow moisture pits and trenches was implemented. A range of samples were gathered from three trenches, including bulk, long and short tube, and block samples. The laboratory methods for analysing these samples included a scanning electron microscope for the identification of microscopic layering, the plotting of grading curves to establish grain distribution, the establishment of dry density, and laterally confined vertical swell levels. The aim of this was to establish both a cause, and the controlling factors of the observed soil volume expansion. The trenches revealed massive, homogenous, silty clay units, with numerous rootlets throughout. The SEM study showed no layering or bedding to be present, but showed evidence of possible bioturbation or leaching. XRD analysis discerned the clay mineralogy was, on average, 20% kaolinite and 80% muscovite. Both of these are very stable minerals, and showed no swelling properties when glycolated. This indicates the causes of volume expansion in these soils are structural. Remoulded samples were also tested, and proved to be more susceptible to volume expansion when moisture content was increased. This is because the process of remoulding destroys the stablility of the lattice structure of the soil, which has formed through repetition of the shrink/swell process. The presence of leaching and bioturbation, and the presence of kaolinite, indicates acidic leaching. The historical data, combined with the evidence of previously high levels of vegetation in the area, as indicated by the presence of rootlets in the silty clay unit, suggests the depositional environment was that of a swamp margin.

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  • Wattle function and territoriality in the South Island saddleback (Philesturnus carunculatus)1

    Lloyd-Jones, David (2014)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The South Island saddleback (Philesturnus carunculatus) is an endangered bird endemic to New Zealand. Both males and females possess wattles, which are colourful fleshy structures that hang from the lower beak. Although a wide range of birds have wattles, the selection pressures and behavioural function of these biological ornaments remain poorly understood. In this study, behavioural observations, morphological measures, and a playback experiment were used to investigate how wattles are used by South Island saddlebacks in their natural habitat. Wattles were found to be monomorphic when body mass was accounted for, and they were observed to engorge in both aggressive and non-aggressive visual displays. In the playback experiment, wattle engorgement in saddlebacks was significantly associated with territorial intrusions in males but not in females, although females were significantly more likely to engorge their wattles and display in the absence of their mate. Larger males with bigger wattles did not have significantly stronger territorial responses. These results provide the first experimental evidence for the functional role that wattle engorgement plays in saddleback signalling behaviour. The markedly similar visual display behaviour between sexes, which is used in both aggressive and non-aggressive contexts, provides insight into possible selection pressures acting in the evolutionary maintenance of wattles.

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  • Native forest monitoring : tracking changes in native forest remnants.

    Arnold, T. A. H. (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Native forest monitoring is undertaken by forest companies as a requirement for certification of their forests by groups such as the FSC. It is important for companies to be able to track changes that are occurring to native forest remnants that are often spread throughout their operational plantation forest estate. Pan Pac tasked me with completing their 2016 native forest monitoring programme and review the results that have been collected since the programme was implemented in 2002. The objective of this was to both gain a better understanding of how the composition of the remnants in their5 estate is changing and to make recommendations on how the programme could be improved in the future. The majority of the 11 Permanent Sample Plots (PSPs) measured were in good or stable condition, several of which showed strong regeneration of the understory over the past 14 years. Three of the sites have been affected by heavy ungulate browsing (deer and/or goats), which has resulted in the continued suppression of the understory vegetation. While all current canopy layers of the PSP have not changed significantly, current and future disturbance such as ungulate browse could result in a change in composition from the current forest makeup. Ungulate browsing has been identified as the biggest driver of change in the native forest remnants within Pan Pac’s estate. To further examine to magnitude of this, exclosure plots could be established in impacted remnants to assess the effect of removal of browsing pests as a basis for Pan Pac to make decisions about future ungulate control. Continued monitoring of native forests is key to be able to identify as well as understand what is happening with native forest remnants. Tracking composition change is important as it allows the forest manager to target management practices such as ungulate control to combat non-natural changes that are occurring.

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  • Genetic parameter estimates for growth traits of Eucalyptus bosistoana : assessment of two progeny trials in Marlborough, New Zealand.

    Burgess, Jack (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper presents a follow up study to that was already completed by Luis et al. (2011). Luis et al (2011) investigated the survival of E. bosistoana half-sib families within two progeny trials in Marlborough, New Zealand. The study investigated genetic growth parameters of the same two progeny trials. Trees at Craven (progeny trial) were statistically taller and larger in diameter than Lawson (other progeny trial), which is likely to be a result of thinning occurring one year earlier at the Craven and Lawson North sites than at the Lawson East site. The progeny trials were set up into randomized incomplete blocks which allowed effective calculations of fixed and random effects from a mixed-effect linear model. The family, incomplete block and residual variances from the mixed-effect model made heritabilities of growth traits possible to calculate. Narrow sense heritabilities for diameter at breast height ranged from 0.13 to 0.18, while tree height heritabilities ranged from 0.1 to 0.17. The inter-site correlation of family performance was weak to moderate for both height;  Craven : Lawson North = 0.28  Craven : Lawson East = 0.44  Lawson East : Lawson North = 0.27 And diameter at breast height (dbh); Craven : Lawson North = 0.32 Craven : Lawson East = 0.39 Lawson East : Lawson North = 0.36 Heritabilities were weak to moderate for growth traits but there was substantial variation so selection is still likely to provide sufficient gain. Further studies will need to consider researching the genetic parameters of wood qualities of E. bosistoana.

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  • An investigation into the system production balance within three mechanised harvesting case studies.

    Malietoa, K. K. (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Safety issues and high costs of traditional harvesting methods have been driving mechanisation increases in New Zealand. However, productivity increases from mechanisation alters system productivity balance. This can result in underutilised machinery and cause an increase in harvesting costs in real terms. A time study was carried out to understand the system productivity balance between felling, extraction and processing and the factors affecting system component productivity rates, for three case studies. The three case studies observed were (1) a semi-mechanised cable yarder extraction operation, (2) a fully-mechanised swing yarder operation and (3) a fully-mechanised ground based operation. There were large production imbalances between felling, extraction and processing in all three case studies. Felling was the most productive system component, being 98%, 37% and 88% (case studies 1 to 3 respectively) more productive than the bottleneck. System bottleneck for case studies 1 and 3 was extraction, and processing for case study 2. The number of stems bunched, number of stems shovelled, wind throw interference and machine position shift affected felling cycle time. For every stem bunched, average productivity decreased by 35% (24m³/PMH) and 21% (20.9m³/PMH) for case studies 2 and 3 respectively. Every additional stem shovelled reduced felling productivity by 7.4m³/PMH for case study 2. Haul distance, the number of stems extracted and site factor affected extraction productivity. Haul distance and the number of stems extracted had significant impact on hourly productivity for all case studies. Site factor affected hourly productivity by 6.9m³ and 56.7m³ for case studies 1 and 3 respectively, largely attributed to the cable system employed and ground conditions. Processing was affected by the number of logs cut per stem and if delimbing occurred. Delimbing and each additional log processed, decreased productivity by 16% and 14% respectively. These three case studies showed that mechanised systems are often not well balanced and result in system components being underutilised. Companies can consider task strategies, or machine sharing between systems to minimise the effect on cost.

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