455 results for Doctoral, 2007

  • The cultural transmission of cookery knowledge : from seventeenth century Britain to twentieth century New Zealand

    Inglis, Raelene (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xv, 354 leaves :ill., map ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Anthropology.

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  • Introducing a new subject: The case of environmental education in Taiwanese junior high schools

    Yueh, Mei-Chun Michelle (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    The introduction of environmental education in schools has been the focus of a long campaign worldwide since the late 1960s. The difficulties in teaching environmental education, including the choice of curriculum models, and the obstacles to changing contemporary schooling patterns have been well documented. The traditional process of new subject emergence has been detailed in the literature; whether or not environmental education should or could follow this traditional pattern of subject emergence in schools is the focus of this thesis. In Taiwan, the introduction of environmental education in junior high schools occurred as part of a nationwide curriculum change in 2002. This research used an interpretive approach to explore the views and practices of staff in three typical Taiwanese junior high schools at this time. The focus of the research was to study what happened at the level of classroom teaching and school development. The research program was designed to interview both administrators and teachers before, during and after the first year (2002 school year) of curriculum implementation in each of the three case study schools. Three rounds of interviews were conducted over a period of three years (Sept. 2001 - June 2004). As well as interviews, national and school documents were collected; and announcements and decisions from the Ministry of Education and schools were documented. Also, because the reform encouraged the development of school-based curriculum, a questionnaire was given to the one school which chose environmental education as their school-based curriculum in order to better understand the emergence of environmental education in this school. The findings show a paradox in Taiwanese junior high schooling: although each school placed considerable value on environmental education, the data showed that the introduction of environmental education via an infusion strategy during a time of national curriculum change had minimal impact in the three Taiwanese case study schools. A cross-case analysis indicated the reason for this failure was the lack of effectiveness of eleven supporting themes often discussed in the emergence of a new subject: the possibility of gaining external examination credit and entry to a university department; the prioritising of the subject in school timetabling and programming; the development of a systematic syllabus; the presence of proactive support from central government leadership; the provision of teacher professional development; the inclusion in the informal as well as the formal curriculum in a school; the inclusion of environmental education in non-formal education in society; the presence of clear subject characteristics and definition; the presence of substantial school-based material interests; the gaining of support from an external constituency, especially parents; and the presence of an emergence process that couples internal value evolution with external compulsion. The Taiwanese case studies raised three particular and additional themes for the emergence of environmental education, specifically: the need to set up long-term partnerships with local groups that have an interest in or responsibility for the local environment (e.g. societies, agencies and non-governmental organisations) to achieve local environment involvement; the need for a whole school approach through curriculum integration to achieve the transformative nature of environmental education; and the need to build up a sound cooperative network that includes people at all levels of the education system and society to achieve a national cooperation network. These three particular themes derived from the nature of environmental education as a holistic, integrative and interdisciplinary subject. In summary, the findings not only confirmed the themes important for the emergence of environmental education and other contemporary school subjects, but they also raised particular themes pertinent to the emergence of environmental education. When these three particular themes are not taken into account, the effective emergence of environmental education in contemporary schooling, as exemplified by Taiwanese junior high schools, will be difficult to achieve in mainstream education.

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  • Developing a recovery ethos for psychiatric services in New Zealand

    Smith, Mark Andrew (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis is about developing a recovery ethos for psychiatric services in New Zealand. The argument of the thesis is that currently a procedural ethos is dominant in psychiatric services in New Zealand, based on eclectic ways of facilitating recovery. Recovery from mental illness, is based on the criteria of symptom reduction and functioning and can be further refined to have a client and professional perspective. Rather than using an eclectic approach to facilitating recovery the thesis argues for a pluralistic approach, where the virtues, the relationship with professionals, client narrative and the psychiatric community become central to decision making, rather than principle based procedures. The thesis is an argued, applied philosophical thesis in terms of methodology. The scope of the thesis is psychiatric services and the focus is broadly ethical decision making. There are three main divisions to the thesis. Part 1 is concerned with clarification of the main terms used in the thesis. This involves exploring the historical background to the concept of recovery, clarifying the concept of recovery itself and providing an argument for giving greater prominence to the term mental illness over the term mental disorder. Part 2 identifies the main problem of the thesis, namely the procedural ethos, and the problems it is causing clients suffering from mental illness in facilitating their recovery. Part 3 shows what is involved in developing a recovery ethos for psychiatric services in New Zealand.

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  • Beyond Romance's Utopia: The Individual and Human Love

    Stock, Carolyn (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis is a critique of romantic love theoretically premised on the analytical psychology of Carl Jung and the humanistic psychoanalysis of Erich Fromm. The aim of this critique is to explore whether there are grounds for postulating a conception of love beyond the current romantic framework. As the critique is primarily concentrated at the depth level, romantic love is examined via the medium of Cinderella folklore, with particular focus on Andy Tennant's 1998 film adaptation of Cinderella, Ever After. Based on a Jungian approach to the psyche and psychic products, the methodological framework incorporates the three following tools: The tool of interpretation at the subjective level, in which the characters of the Cinderella fairy tale are read symbolically rather than taken to denote literal fictitious characters; the tool of constructive analysis, in which it is argued that romantic love is more than 'nothing but' a boy/girl love story or 'nothing but' a myth depicting patriarchal oppression; and the tool of amplification, in which archetypal similarities between the Christian myth and the Cinderella fairy tale are highlighted. The central argument of this critique is that while romantic love does not provide a viable model of relatedness if taken and practiced literally, the romantic myth nonetheless contains within it the basis for a fuller and richer experience of love and relatedness if read subjectively. The rationale for a depth critique of romantic love is based upon the Jungian postulate that phenomena such as dreams and myths issue fundamentally from the unconscious psychic realm, and further upon Jung's recognition of a psychological developmental process he refers to as 'individuation' activated by engagement with the products of the unconscious. A symbolic/psychological reading of romantic love brings to light that romantic desire toward another is an outward manifestation of an inner desire for individual realisation, and is expressive of the individual's own capacity for wholeness. The value of a symbolic reading of romantic love is appreciated if it is conceived that it is precisely individual realisation that forms the basis for what is referred to by Erich Fromm as productive or knowledge-based love, argued here to be the ideal and only firm basis for human relatedness generally and intimate relatedness specifically.

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  • The Concept of Development in Ulawa in Solomon Islands and its Implications for National Development Policy and Planning

    Rohorua, Frederick Isom (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    'Social development' and 'economic development' are complex concepts, concepts that may be interpreted very differently in different contexts and at different times. Not only may the processes involved be different in different contexts, so too may be the criteria by which success is judged. It is argued here that successive Solomon Islands governments have striven for social and economic development without taking full account of the real nature of Solomon Islands society. What is needed is national development policy, planning and implementation that arise out of, and take fully into account, the historical, geographic and cultural context of Solomon Islands. On the whole, the socio-economic structure of Solomon Islands society is currently underpinned by a tri-partite hierarchy in which, for the majority of Solomon Islanders, kastom (traditional beliefs and practices) and church (the beliefs and practices endorsed by the church) take precedence over the state as legitimate forms of authority. This inevitably poses problems for state-led development. If socio-economic development activities are to be successful in achieving a better quality of life for all Solomon Islanders, including those who live in rural areas, they must take full account of the role of kastom and church in the lives of the people. This must include an understanding of the differing concepts of development of people in different areas of the country such as those of Ulawa islanders that are discussed here. The thesis begins with an introduction to the research (Chapter 1) in which the theoretical framework is located broadly within the postmodern paradigm. In Chapter 2 the essentially qualitative and interpretive nature of the methodology is outlined and explained. Chapter 3 provides a critical review of international development literature in which it is argued that official definitions and descriptions of development are based on production and deficit models. The need to accommodate an indigenous and organic concept of development, one that takes account of the diversity of human experience, is stressed. Chapter 4 provides an outline of Solomon Islands society. Here, the historical narrative is complemented by three metaphors - 'island', wantok and betelnut - which serve to reinforce and explain the nature of Solomon Islands society and the ways in which that society has been shaped by historical processes. Chapter 5 is devoted to a discussion of modern development activity in Solomon Islands, the main focus being on the period immediately preceding and following independence. Chapter 6 explores, with particular reference to Ulawa Island, indigenous concepts of development and the impact of national development activities on rural-dwelling islanders. It also engages the issue of state reform, proposing a model based on a two tier system, with central government in its current form dealing directly with the people at constituency rather than provincial level. Finally, Chapter 7 summarizes the main conclusions reached. It is noted that the failure of both pre- and post-independence governments to take full account of the nature of Solomon Islands society has been a major factor in the lack of effective development in the islands.

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  • Kakai Tonga 'i Okalani Nu'u Sila: Tongan Generations in Auckland New Zealand

    Brown Pulu, Teena Joanne (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis is written in the format of a three act play. The author has elected this structure to frame the ethnographic data and analysis because it seemed befitting for telling my own life story alongside the memories of three generations of my matrilateral and patrilateral Tongan family residing in Auckland New Zealand. Thus, actors and scenes play out the thesis storyline in three parts where each act is titled Prologue, Dialogue and Epilogue. The Prologue, part one of this three act play, is three chapters which sets in motion the main actors - the research participants, and the scenes - the ethnographic context in which data was collected. It represents an ethnographic mosaic of memory and meaning as co-constructed by actors in recounting how they make sense of their place, their time, in a transnational history, that is, a family of stories among three Tongan generations residing largely in Auckland New Zealand. The Dialogue, part two of this three act play, is four chapters which maps out the theoretical and ethnographic territory that actors and scenes border-cross to visit. By this, I mean that research participants are political actors subject to social factors which shape how their memories and ensuing meanings are selectively reproduced in certain contexts of retelling the past and its relevance to understanding the present. The Epilogue, part three of this three act play, is the curtain call for the closing chapter. It presents an ending in which a new 'identity' entry made by the youngest Tongan generation creates possibilities for social change not yet experienced by prior generations residing in Auckland New Zealand. This thesis is woven into an overarching argument. Here, three generations of my matrilateral and patrilateral Tongan family residing in Auckland New Zealand intersect through two modes of memory and meaning. First, family reconstruct collective memories of 'identity' and 'culture' to make sense of how their ancestral origin, their historical past, is meaningful in their transnational lives and lifestyles. Second, inter-generational change among Tongan family residing in Auckland New Zealand is a social-political product of the transnational condition experienced by ethnic-cultural groups categorised as 'minorities' in the developed world.

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  • Understanding and Enhancing Customer-Agent-Computer Interaction in Customer Service Settings

    Olsson, Anette (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Providing good customer service is crucial to many commercial organizations. There are different means through which the service can be provided, such as Ecommerce, call centres or face-to-face. Although some service is provided through electronic or telephone-based interaction, it is common that the service is provided through human agents. In addition, many customer service interactions also involve a computer, for example, an information system where a travel agent finds suitable flights. This thesis seeks to understand the three channels of customer service interactions between the agent, customer and computer: Customer-Agent-Computer Interaction (CACI). A set of ethnographic studies were conducted at call centres to gain an initial understanding of CACI and to investigate the customer-computer channel. The findings revealed that CACI is more complicated than traditional CHI, because there is a second person, the customer, involved in the interaction. For example, the agent provides a lot of feedback about the computer to the customer, such as, “I am waiting for the computer” Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the customer-computer channel by adding non-verbal auditory feedback about the computer directly to the customers. The findings showed only a small insignificant difference in task completion time and subjective satisfaction. There were indications that there was an improvement in flow of communication. Experiments were conducted to investigate how the two humans interact over two different communication modes: face-to-face and telephone. Findings showed that there was a significantly shorter task completion time via telephone. There was also a difference in style of communication, with face-to-face having more single activities, such as, talking only, while in the telephone condition there were more dual activities, for instance talking while also searching. There was only a small difference in subjective satisfaction. To investigate if the findings from the laboratory experiment also held in a real situation and to identify potential improvement areas, a series of studies were conducted: observations and interviews at multiple travel agencies, one focus group and a proof of concept study at one travel agency. The findings confirmed the results from the laboratory experiments. A number of potential interface improvements were also identified, such as, a history mechanism and sharing part of the computer screen with the customer at the agent's discretion. The results from the work in this thesis suggest that telephone interaction, although containing fewer cues, is not necessarily an impoverished mode of communication. Telephone interaction is less time consuming and more task-focused. Further, adding non-verbal auditory feedback did not enhance the interaction. The findings also suggest that customer service CACI is inherently different in nature and that there are additional complications with traditional CHI issues.

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  • Sequestration of metal and metalloid ions by thermophilic bacteria

    Hetzer, Adrian (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This Ph. D. thesis presents results and conclusions from studies 1) investigating the interaction between metal and metalloid ions and thermophilic bacteria, and 2) characterizing microbial populations in a geothermally active habitat with relatively high concentrations of metalloid ions and compounds. In initial cadmium ion toxicity assays, the minimal inhibition concentration for 46 thermophilic bacteria of the genera Aneurinibacillus, Anoxybacillus, Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Geobacillus, and Thermus were determined. The highest tolerances to cadmium ions (Cd2+) in the range of 400 to 3200 micro;M were observed for species belonging to the genus Geobacillus. The thermophilic Gram-positive bacteria Geobacillus stearothermophilus and G. thermocatenulatus were selected to describe further biosorption reactions between cadmium ions and chemically reactive functional groups (potential ligands) within and onto the bacterial cell walls. Data obtained from electrophoretic mobility, potentiometric titration and cadmium ion adsorption experiments were used to quantify the number and concentrations of ligands and to determine the thermodynamic stability constants for the ligand-cation complexes. The first reported surface complexation models (SCMs) quantifying metal ion adsorption by thermophilic microorganisms predicted cadmium adsorption and desorption by both studied Geobacillus strains over a range of pH values and for different biomasses. The results indicated the functional group, with a deprotonation constant pK value of approximately 3.8, to be more dominant in cation biosorption accounting for 66 and 80% of all titrable groups for G. thermocatenulatus and G. stearothermophilus, respectively. The generated SCMs are different from model parameters obtained from mesophilic species that have been studied to date and might indicate a different biosorption behavior for both studied Geobacillus strains. Another objective of this thesis was to characterize microbial populations in the hot spring Champagne Pool, located in Waiotapu, New Zealand. The thermal spring is approximately 65 m in diameter and discharges water at 75eg; C and pH 5.5, which is oversaturated with arsenic and antimony compounds that precipitate and form orange deposits. Recovered nucleic acids and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) concentrations obtained for Champagne Pool water samples indicated low microbial density and were in good agreement with relatively low cell numbers of 5.6 plusmn; 0.5 x10^6 cells per ml. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses revealed the abundance of Sulfurihydrogenibium, Sulfolobus and Thermofilum-like populations in Champagne Pool. Two novel bacteria and one novel archaeon were successfully isolated with a distant phylogenetic relationship to Sulfurihydrogenibium, Thermoanaerobacter, and Thermococcus, respectively. Genotypic and metabolic characteristics differentiated isolate CP.B2 from described species of the genus Sulfurihydrogenibium. CP.B2 represents a novel genus within the Aquificales order, for which the name Venenivibrio stagnispumantis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. V. stagnispumantis is a thermophilic, chemolithothrophic bacterium, that utilizes molecular hydrogen as electron donor and oxygen as electron acceptor and displayed growth in the presence of up to 8 mM NaAsO2 (As3+) and more than 20 mM Na2HAsO4.7H2O (As5+). However, growth was not observed when Na2HAsO4.7H2O and NaAsO2 were provided as the sole electron acceptor and donor pair. Arsenic resistance was conferred by the genes arsA and arsB

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  • Processes of Pakeha change in response to the Treaty of Waitangi

    Huygens, Ingrid Louise Maria (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    The sense of crisis that marks our times may be seen as a crisis for dominant groups whose once-secure hegemony is being challenged by marginalised others. It is in theorising the reply from the dominant group to the voices of the oppressed that existing Western conceptions of social change fall silent. The dominant Pakeha group in Aotearoa New Zealand has used discourses of benign colonisation and harmonious race relations to resist 165 years of communication from indigenous Māori about their oppression and a dishonoured treaty for settlement. My research documents the appearance of the Treaty of Waitangi into the Pakeha consciousness, and the now 30 year-long response by a Pakeha antiracism movement to educate their own cultural group about its agreements. Targeting government, community and social services organisations, activist educators used Freire's (1975) approach of conscientising dialogue to present a more critical view of colonisation, and to encourage participants to consider the complicity of their organisations in ongoing structural and cultural racism. Based on my membership of local and national networks of activist educators, I was able to organise and facilitate data gathering from three sources to investigate processes of Pakeha change in: (i) unpublished material describing the antiracism and Treaty movement's historical theorising and strategies over 30 years, (ii) a country-wide process of co-theorising among contemporary Treaty educator groups about their work and perceived influence, and (iii) a collection of organisational accounts of Treaty-focused change. The collected records confirmed that a coherent anti-colonial discourse, which I have termed 'Pakeha honouring the Treaty', was in use to construct institutional and constitutional changes in non-government organisations. My interpretation of key elements in a local theory of transforming action included emotional responses to counter-cultural information, collective work for cultural and institutional change and practising a mutually agreed relationship with Māori. I concluded that these emotional, collective and relationship processes in dominant group change were crucial in helping to construct the new conceptual resources of 'affirming Māori authority' and 'striving towards a right relationship with Māori'. These counter-colonial constructions allowed Pakeha a non-resistant and facilitative response to Māori challenge, and enabled a dialogue with Māori about decolonisation. By examining in one research programme the genealogy and interdependencies of a new discourse, my research contributes to theorising about the production of new, counter-hegemonic discourses, and confirms the crucial part played by social movements in developing new, liberatory constructions of the social order. My research calls for further theory-building on (i) emotional and spiritual aspects of transformational learning, (ii) processes involved in consciously-undertaken cultural change by dominant/coloniser groups, and (iii) practising of mutually agreed relationships with indigenous peoples by dominant/coloniser groups. My research has implications for theorising how coloniser and dominant groups generally may participate in liberatory social change and decolonisation work, and the part played by the Western states in the global struggles by indigenous people for recognition of their world-views and aspirations. It remains to be seen whether counter-colonial discourses and organisational changes aimed at 'honouring the Treaty' with indigenous peoples will be sufficiently widely adopted to help transform Western dominating cultures and colonial projects. In the meantime, acknowledging and documenting these counter-colonial discourses and their constructions opens up increasing possibilities for constructing, from a history of colonisation, a different future.

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  • When citizen politics becomes uncivil: Between popular protest, civil society and governance in Jamaica

    Johnson, Hume Nicola (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis focuses on the problem of incivility within the domains of citizen politics and civil society by exploring the proclivity for popular protest in Jamaica and the intersections between popular citizen protest, civil society and governance in this context. It scrutinizes the tenor of contemporary civilian politics and assesses the consequent impact on the quality of civil society more broadly. The thesis challenges the assumption within accepted definitions of civil society that civic participation is always positive. It does so by examining the manner in which citizens engage collectively to defend their interests and make claims upon the state, as well as the extent to which this model of political participation serves the agenda and promise of civil society. Through an in-depth, country-specific, empirical case study, the thesis examines micro social processes of power at community level to raise questions about who should be represented in civil society and how the voices of the marginalized are to be heard. In this regard, it explores the role of social inequality, feelings of social injustice and political exclusion as contributory factors in the existing tenor of citizen politics in Jamaica. It also examines the challenges facing the contemporary state and the impact of violent protests on state engagement, public action and political performance. The study analyses the lived experiences, observations and perspectives of a wide cross section of Jamaican citizens, gleaned from face-to-face interviews, focus group discussions, as well as a range of secondary material, including audio-visual data, to illuminate this process of struggle and underscore the factors which drive violent protests in this political context. The thesis concludes that maximum disruption, including violence, has not only become the basis of civil protest in Jamaica, but that the varied and contradictory responses of the state bureaucracy and political actors (Members of Parliament, activists, other political iii officials), as well as the mass media, have directly contributed to the style and tenor of protest politics in Jamaica. This state of affairs reduces popular citizen participation over genuine concerns to mob-style incivility and undermines civil society as a source of positive and responsible citizenship. The growing political importance of grassroots-based citizen participation and community building within the context of a global imperative to forge 'democracy from below' lends theoretical and normative credence to emerging concerns about the current character of popular citizen mobilizations and protest. This study thus establishes the basis for a presumption in favour of civility, civil discourse and civil action as fundamental to the construction of civil society. In doing so, it extends current scholarly understandings of civil society to Third World contexts, with a specific emphasis on Jamaica.

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  • The influence of Hall currents, plasma viscosity and electron inertia on magnetic reconnection solutions

    Senanayake, Tissa (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Abstract This thesis examines magnetic reconnection in the solar corona. Magnetic reconnection is the only mechanism which allows the magnetic topology of magnetized plasmas to be changed. Many of the dynamic processes in the Sun's atmosphere are believed to be driven by magnetic reconnection and studying the behaviour of such phenomena is a key step to understanding the reconnection mechanism. In Chapters 1 to 3, we discuss the physical and mathematical framework on which current magnetohydrodynamic reconnection models are based. The aim of the thesis is to investigate theoretical models of magnetic reconnection using variety of analytic and numerical techniques within the theoretical frame work of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In Chapter 4 we use a line-tied X-point collapse model for compressible plasmas to investigate the role of viscosity on the energy release mechanism. This model also provides the basis for the investigation of Chapter 5 which explores the impact of Hall currents in the transient X-point energy dissipation. Chapter 6 is concerned with how reconnection is modified in the presence of generalized Ohm's law which includes both Hall current and electron inertia contributions. In contrast to the closed X-point collapse geometry adopted for compressible plasmas previously, we find it more convenient to explore this problem using an open incompressible geometry in which plasma is continually entering and exiting the reconnection region. Specially, we find the scaling of the Hall-MHD system size analytically, rather than numerically as in the X-point problem of Chapter 5. Chapter 7 summarizes the results of investigations in Chapters 4, 5 and 6.

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  • Syntax-driven argument identification and multi-argument classification for semantic role labeling

    Lin, Chi-San Althon (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Semantic role labeling is an important stage in systems for Natural Language Understanding. The basic problem is one of identifying who did what to whom for each predicate in a sentence. Thus labeling is a two-step process: identify constituent phrases that are arguments to a predicate, then label those arguments with appropriate thematic roles. Existing systems for semantic role labeling use machine learning methods to assign roles one-at-a-time to candidate arguments. There are several drawbacks to this general approach. First, more than one candidate can be assigned the same role, which is undesirable. Second, the search for each candidate argument is exponential with respect to the number of words in the sentence. Third, single-role assignment cannot take advantage of dependencies known to exist between semantic roles of predicate arguments, such as their relative juxtaposition. And fourth, execution times for existing algorithm are excessive, making them unsuitable for real-time use. This thesis seeks to obviate these problems by approaching semantic role labeling as a multi-argument classification process. It observes that the only valid arguments to a predicate are unembedded constituent phrases that do not overlap that predicate. Given that semantic role labeling occurs after parsing, this thesis proposes an algorithm that systematically traverses the parse tree when looking for arguments, thereby eliminating the vast majority of impossible candidates. Moreover, instead of assigning semantic roles one at a time, an algorithm is proposed to assign all labels simultaneously; leveraging dependencies between roles and eliminating the problem of duplicate assignment. Experimental results are provided as evidence to show that a combination of the proposed argument identification and multi-argument classification algorithms outperforms all existing systems that use the same syntactic information.

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  • Beginning Teacher Learning and Professional Development: An Analysis of Induction Programmes

    Langdon, Frances June (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the first two years of beginning teachers' professional development and learning. The study sought to document and understand the conditions and discursive practices of seven purposely selected schools that were implementing robust beginning teacher induction programmes. The focus was on induction, located in a comprehensive national system, to reveal the practices and tensions experienced by beginning teachers as they advanced their learning and development. It is anticipated that the seven case studies, along with the working theory of sound induction will add to the body of knowledge in the field of teacher learning and professional development and contribute to the debate about teachers' work and quality teaching. Few studies have investigated beginning teacher (BT) induction in comprehensively resourced systems. Much of the research investigates fragmented parts of BT experiences. The literature shows that when a holistic examination of induction is carried out it tends to be predominantly in the secondary school context. In-depth research into year one and year two teacher learning and professional development in sound primary school induction programmes was not found. The study provides a working theory of beginning teacher learning and, as Renwick (2001, p. 33) suggested, exemplars to maximise the effectiveness of schools to employ and support beginning teachers . Sound induction has the potential to positively influence teacher practice as research evidence indicates early career experiences affect future practice. The research is a multi-site collective case study that takes an interpretative, qualitative stance drawing on constructionism to inform the interplay between sociological and psychological theoretical disciplines, which make the information visible in different ways. The case studies scrutinise in depth, individual school contexts and are instrumental in providing better understanding and theorising about the collective case of beginning teacher induction. The primary sources of data were individual and focus group interview transcriptions. In addition, there were the accompanying notes and related school documentation. i Data analysis was an iterative process of inductive and deductive reasoning to make meaning that moved beyond description to identify categories and themes that emerged both within schools and across schools. Evidence of sound BT induction was found although variation in induction practices between schools was noted. Beginning teacher induction went beyond advice and guidance to incorporate educative mentoring in collaborative, collegial schools where high expectations prevailed. The findings suggest that teacher learning should be informed but not constrained by lock-step models of learning and development. Aspects of development as a professional were advanced and, in other respects, marginalised by the education policy focus on children's achievement. Feedback and children's learning and achievement underpin beginning teachers' judgements about their development as teachers. The socio-economic school contexts were less important than the quality of leadership, school cultures, expectations and the confidence of individual novice teachers. The study raises questions about the nature of teachers' work and teacher, government and societal expectations. It is anticipated that these findings will increase understanding of, and provoke debate about beginning teacher learning and their development as professionals.

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  • Becoming a Teacher: An Investigation of the Transition from Student Teacher to Teacher

    Grudnoff, Alexandra Barbara (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis seeks to gain greater knowledge of the process of transition and development that beginning primary teachers undergo over their first year of teaching. The research focus is on investigating and understanding this process from the standpoint of the beginning teacher. Of particular interest is an examination of how the teacher preparation programme, contextual features of the school, and participants' own beliefs and biographies influence and impact on their transition to teaching and their professional and identity development as first year teachers. This longitudinal study takes an interpretive approach to investigate the first year teaching experiences of 12 beginning teachers in 11 primary schools. The qualitative methodology used in this thesis shares characteristics with a case study approach and utilizes procedures associated with grounded theory. Data were gathered systematically over a year by way of 48 semi-structured, individual interviews, two focus group interviews, and 48 questionnaires, supplemented by field notes. The collected data were analyzed, coded, and categorized, and explanations and theory that emerged from this process were grounded in the data. The findings of this study have three broad sets of implications for the education and induction of beginning teachers. Firstly, they question the role that practicum plays in the transition from student to teacher. The findings suggest that the practicum component of teacher preparation programmes should be re-conceptualized and redesigned to provide authentic opportunities for student teachers to be exposed to the full range of work demands and complexity that they will encounter as beginning teachers. Secondly, becoming a successful teacher appears to depend on the quality of the school's professional and social relationships, particularly in terms of the frequency and type of formal and informal interactions that ii beginning teachers have with colleagues. While the major source of satisfaction and self-esteem came from seeing the children whom they taught achieving socially and academically, the beginning teachers also had a strong need for affiliation, which was enabled through positive, structured interactions and relationships with colleagues. The study also indicates that employment status influences the way that the beginning teachers view their work and themselves as teachers, with those in relieving positions displaying greater variability in terms of emotional reactions and a sense of professional confidence than those employed in permanent positions. The third set of implications relate to beginning teacher induction. The study points to variability in the quality of induction experiences and challenges policy makers and principals to ensure that all beginning teachers are provided with sound and systematic advice and guidance programmes which are necessary for their learning and development. While the study confirms the critical role played by tutor teachers in beginning teacher induction, it suggests that the focus is on emotional and practical support rather than on educative mentoring to enhance new teachers' thinking and practice. This thesis provides a comprehensive and nuanced view of how beginning to teach is experienced and interpreted. It paints a complex picture of the relationship between biography, beliefs, preparation, and context in the process of learning to teach. The study contributes to the literature on the education of beginning teachers. It highlights the need for developing a shared understanding amongst policy makers, teacher educators, and schools regarding the multiplicity and complexity of factors that influence the transition and development of beginning teachers.

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  • Students' motivation to learn, academic achievement, and academic advising

    Henning, Marcus A (2007-10-10)

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Numerous models of academic advising address the complex nature of student retention and attrition. Most tend to ignore the subtleties of implementing motivational and self-regulatory changes associated with academic advising. This present study investigates the learning experiences of university students and their use of academic advising. The research incorporates an educational model as its primary investigative lens, namely Hirsch's (2001) multiple intervention model. The study further examined critical areas of learning and advising, specifically motivation, self-regulation, academic difficulty, and academic achievement.This research was conducted at a New Zealand university and comprised of three studies. In the first study, 14 participants were interviewed about their academic problems, readiness for study and use of learning and study strategies. In the second, a total of 317 participants completed a demographic survey and two questionnaires measuring aspects of motivation and self-regulation. In the third study, 147 participants completed follow-up self-report questionnaires. The mixed-paradigm analyses were twofold. Study 1 utilised a meaning-centred approach to classifying and understanding the interview responses. Studies 2 and 3 incorporated multivariate and categorical statistical procedures.Interview narratives from Study 1 suggested that students experiencing academic difficulty tended to voice more problems, to be less ready for study and to be more avoidance oriented than students not experiencing academic difficulty. In Study 2 students indicating low motivation levels for study had more self-perceived problems in the areas of concentration, self-monitoring, use of educational materials and developing time management than students with higher motivation levels. In addition, students with academic difficulty appeared to have more problems with motivation and use of study material than students with no evidence of academic difficulty. Students' motivation levels tended to vary over time indicating that students may perceive their rationale for study as an unfixed or malleable entity. Student attitude at the beginning of the academic semester significantly predicted grade outcome. Motivation and self-regulation response measures obtained immediately prior to the examination period, however, were unable to predict end-of-semester grade averages. In Study 3 completion of short group-based study skills programmes appears to have a link with end of semester grade average, but there were no significant shifts in measures of motivation and self-regulation. Students accessing one-to-one academic advising services were usually students with higher levels of motivation for study. The use of one-to-one academic counselling, however, was not determined by academic difficulty.Overall, the studies contribute a systematic and integrative process of investigating the area of academic advising. The research highlights the importance of goal orientations and students' initial perceptions about the value of their course of study in relation to academic achievement and in reference to the seeking of academic assistance from academic advising services. The findings suggest that although Hirsch's (2001) model provides a valuable framework to investigate ways students study and learn, it requires additional refinement especially in areas of categorisation and application before it can be confidently endorsed. The findings also indicate that academic advisory services provide a valuable service for students in terms of academic achievement, but further research is required in the areas of cultivating motivation and self-regulation changes, and especially in the area of affect development. Finally, the study confirms the worth of mixed-paradigm research and the need for more in depth research in the multifaceted world of academic advising.

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  • Te hau ora o naga kaumatau o Tuhoe: a study of Tuhoe kaumatau mental wellness

    McNeill, Hinematau (2007-01-17)

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Tuhoe is considered to be one of the last bastions of 'traditional' Maori language and culture. The main purpose of the research was to examine the mental health status of Tuhoe kaumatua (elderly). Even before the research was undertaken anecdotal evidence indicated that a significant feature of the Tuhoe aging population was the apparent absence of mental health problems. Kaumatua are however particularly susceptible to physical diseases that afflict modern Maori, regardless of geography or tribal origin. To explore the health status of Tuhoe kaumatua, the study needed to take into account external cultural influences and, in particular, the colonial experience. This justifies a comprehensive theoretical approach that includes European philosophical influences which, it will be argued, have impacted on Maori lifeways. Notwithstanding, the study draws principally on Maori conceptualisations of the world, mainly because kaumatua mental wellness was considered to be inextricable to Tuhoe language and culture. The research attempted to isolate those factors that sustain kaumatua mental wellness. In determining the causal factors of wellness it soon became apparent that the practice of traditional Maori healing, embedded in ancient esoteric knowledge, was of considerable significance. This feature is apparent from the outset. The opening karakia of the Tuhoe tohunga (specialist/healer), Hohepa Kereopa invokes ancient Maori atua (Gods) and endows the work with an aura of spiritual protection. He has stipulated that both the karakia (prayer) and mihi (greeting) remain in Maori (Tuhoe dialect) because he believes that the essence of these rituals are best preserved in the Maori language. Throughout this entire body of work Hohepa Kereopa maintains a discernible and enduring presence.

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  • New Zealand travel agents in the internet era: impacts, responses, and relationships

    Garkavenko, Vladimir (2007-10-08)

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The impact of information and communication technologies (ICTs) is a significant issue in today's tourism industry. The development of the internet has made information easily accessible to consumers, and has therefore established a direct link between consumers and suppliers. As a result, traditional travel distribution channels are changing rapidly. A major feature of this change is "disintermediation", with principals such as airlines, hotels and rental car chains bypassing intermediaries and sell directly to consumers. Travel agents (TAs) are considered to be particularly vulnerable to this process. ICTs have the potential to replace their core competencies, which include transaction processing (ticketing and settlement) and information provision (raw product information provided by suppliers).This thesis focuses on the impact of ICTs on the TA sector, and specifically on the New Zealand TA case. A theoretical approach based on regulation theory combined with a mixed method approach was used to investigate the main issues in New Zealand. The research included a case study to identify the principal issues and trends in the TA sector, in-depth interviews with TAs and industry specialists to refine the main issues and allow the formulation of some theoretical assumptions, in-depth interviews with consumers regarding the role of TAs in the internet era and the quality of service they provide, and a fully-structured, national on-line survey of TAs to verify the assumptions made in the earlier interviews and test the applicability of the post-Fordism model for the New Zealand TA sector.Based on the findings, it is argued that disintermediation is particularly pronounced in the relationship between airlines and travel agents. To minimise the risk of disintermediation and improve business performance, TAs need to reposition themselves and review their core strategies to compete efficiently in the changing business environment. The thesis reveals that consumers perceive TAs as mainly "transaction facilitators". Nevertheless the thesis show that process of "reintermediation" is a reality for some New Zealand TAs.An application of regulation theory to the New Zealand TA case reveals that in its traditional form, the regulation theory cannot explain the complexities found in the modern TA environment. The thesis reveals several distinct modes in TA perceptions of their business environment and their survival strategies, which indicates a heterogeneous, clustered population. A "formula for success" is developed for TAs in New Zealand. In this respect, TAs that perceive ICT as a strategic tool and are orientated towards consumers appear to have a business advantage.

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  • Alternative accountability in the Ugandan community-led HIV/AIDS programme

    Awio, Godwin (2007-10-25)

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Internationally, many public sector reform initiatives have been undertaken over the last three decades under the label New Public Management (NPM), with improvements in accountability and management among their main objectives. This thesis draws on social capital theory to examine the potential of a Ugandan community-led HIV/AIDS programme to supplement NPM approaches to public service delivery and accountability. Hermeneutics methodology is used to guide the research design and the interpretation of evidence.The findings of this study suggest that Uganda's community-led HIV/AIDS initiatives operate within a "bottom-up" accountability framework, characterized by the community taking a role in budgeting, program implementation, reporting, project-oversight, and audit activities. In regard to accounting practices, this study reveals that Ugandan community projects use basic and simple accounting procedures. The findings suggest that simple communal accountability mechanisms can compensate for the types of formal control mechanisms typically promoted within NPM-style reforms. The findings also suggest that multiple accountability relationships can operate in the form of both hierarchical and lateral accountability practices and that these multiple accountability relationships lead to tighter control and accurate accountability, even though formal accountability mechanisms may be weak.This study identified some challenges for community-led service delivery initiatives, including the potential for corrupt practices in some community groups and variations in the level of participation of group members in the execution of various tasks. Further, several areas for further research have been identified. These include the measurement of social capital within community groups and the establishment of measures of group capacities.This study has revealed the latent accountability technology of a "bottom-up" communitarian accountability framework and demonstrated its potential as a complement to NPM models of service delivery and accountability. As an accountability innovation, it needs to be keenly watched as further field experiences emerge over time and reveal more of its potential in developing countries, and perhaps beyond.

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  • Corporate social responsibility in Islam

    Mohammed, Jawed A (2007-10-24)

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Notions of corporate social responsibility (CSR) have been suggested to be consistent with an Islamic view of society. Indeed, values and principles that have been central to Islam since the time of the holy Prophet Mohammed (Peace and Blessings be upon him) may serve as a foundation for notions of corporate social responsibility (CSR) similar to those in the West. Much contemporary discussion of CSR, however, has not recognized this. These discussions have largely been based on a Western orientation informed by Western religious values. Moreover, CSR has evolved literally in response to particular issues or problems that are specific to businesses in a Western context. This led to a lack of a comprehensive global context within which a wider perspective of CSR should be positioned. On the other hand, the notion of social responsibility and justice has been an integral part of Islamic society for nearly 14 centuries. However, the Islamic literature remains scattered, fragmented and lacks a coherent framework that would allow such a concept in Islam to be systematized. While Islamic philosophy is rich in precepts pertinent to CSR, these precepts have not yet been formally synthesized to present a systematic model with an explicit notion of CSR in Islam. Thus, there exists a gap in both the Western and Islamic literature. This was fruitfully exploited in this study to advance the understanding of the concept of CSR in a wider cultural and religious setting. This study explored this new territory and presented a conceptual framework of CSR in Islam based on Shariah (the Islamic legal and social system) derived from the holy Qur'an and Hadith. It provided both, a counterpart and a comparable base in the study of various issues relevant to CSR and international business from a much wider global perspective. It also provided significant insights into Islamic jurisprudence (Fiqh) regarding business practice. The consistency of the conceptual framework of CSR in Islam with contemporary business practices was explored using a survey of Islamic banks located in different parts of the world. The survey revealed that many current practices of Islamic banks mirror the expected behaviours or practices generated in the Islamic framework. In fact, it was possible to discern that the organizations surveyed implement the Islamic code of conduct rather extensively. Against this background, a consistency with the framework of CSR in Islam presented in this study was identified. Such consistency, however, was driven by legal requirements in adherence to Shariah rather than an explicit understanding or pursuit of CSR. The lack of a systematic framework with explicit notions of CSR from an Islamic perspective caused hindrance in implementing CSR practices in Islamic organizations. It follows that this study was a modest step towards filling this lacuna by presenting a systematic and coherent framework of CSR in Islam.

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  • Transport-related physical activity, health outcomes, and urban design: descriptive evidence

    Badland, Hannah M (2007-09-09)

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Environments that support physical activity (PA) engagement are now seen as an important part of the solution for accumulating daily physical activity which confers health benefits, particularly transport-related PA (TPA). Despite this recognition, understanding the determinants of health-related PA has traditionally focused on identifying associations between the social environment and non-specific PA domains. As such, prior to commencing this thesis little was known about the relationships between the built environment and overall PA engagement within the New Zealand context. Little was also known about associations between TPA attitudes and behaviours, and urban design. This research sought to overcome this paucity of knowledge by investigating associations between overall PA and TPA engagement and perceptions, health outcomes, urban design, and socio-demographic variables from a public health perspective. The body of research was initiated with two literature reviews that formed the context for the following six empirical chapters. Data in the empirical chapters were drawn from three self-report surveys using adult samples. The research commenced by examining associations between urban design and overall PA engagement, and then narrowed towards TPA-specific relationships. TPA relationships were identified through the development and implementation of a reliable survey that captured associated behaviours and attitudes. Several new findings were drawn from this body of work. Overall, 21% of adults recognised they could replace automobile journeys on at least two days per week, and walking was deemed an acceptable travel alternative. Adult TPA engagement levels were low; 7% commuted to place of work/study and 32% travelled to the convenience shop by TPA modes. Furthermore, when compared with those who commuted to an occupation by TPA, respondents who used motorised travel were less likely to be classified as active (odds ratio (OR)=0.5) and be of normal body mass index (OR=0.5). No significant health relationships existed for convenience shop travel. As well, 4% of adults reported no automobile availability. When this group was compared with those with unrestricted automobile availability, they were less likely to be classified as active (OR=0.3), but were more likely to engage in TPA modes to access destinations (occupation, OR=6.3; convenience shop, OR=9.8). Occupation-related commute distances also revealed interesting findings. Overall, 50% of respondents perceived they could, and 10% of the sample actually did, commute by TPA modes for distances less than five kilometres, and relationships were strongly mediated by distance. Other urban design variables were objectively assessed with TPA engagement for occupation-related commute distances less than five kilometres. Those who travelled along the most connected street networks were more likely to engage in TPA modes (OR=6.9) when compared with respondents travelling along the least connected networks. No relationships were found with other urban design variables and TPA engagement.This research substantially contributes to this research area by identifying associations between overall PA and TPA engagement and perceptions with urban design. It is likely that shifting the perceptions of adults who recognise they can employ TPA modes, into actual TPA engagement will result in promising population health gains. Future PA initiatives with adults should consider promoting walking for transport as a sustainable solution. A lack of TPA interventions is evident; however, methodological issues need to be resolved before developing such initiatives. Although strategies aimed towards changing perceptions may be valuable for future TPA interventions, it is likely macro-scale urban design modifications (e.g., improved job-housing balance, highly-grained street networks) and legislation (e.g., automobile restrictions) will have the greatest success for increasing TPA engagement in the adult population.

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