797 results for Doctoral, 2010

  • Teacher cognition about technology-mediated EFL instruction in the Thai tertiary context : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Second Language Teaching at Massey University

    Suwannasom, Thitirat (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Drawing on theories of teacher cognition and sociocultural frameworks, this study investigates Thai university English lecturers’ cognition about integrating Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in English language instruction and writing instruction in Thai tertiary contexts. A more specific goal is to investigate technology-using teachers’ personal principles and practices in their teaching contexts. The study was guided by the following research questions: What is the nature of Thai tertiary teacher cognition about the use of technology in EFL instruction? What is the nature of Thai tertiary teacher cognition about the use of technology in EFL writing instruction? How do Thai tertiary teachers perceive their practices and roles in relation to their technology-mediated EFL instruction in particular settings? In Thai tertiary education, what are the sociocultural aspects that shape teacher cognition and practice about technology-mediated EFL teaching? A teacher cognition questionnaire was designed and administered to 47 Thai EFL lecturers in seven public universities; semi-structured interviews and scenario-based tasks were conducted with seven lecturers; unstructured interviews and observations were carried out with three teachers who used technology in their classroom teaching in order to gain a better understanding of their situated perceptions about the use of technology in particular teaching and learning contexts. The results reveal that university EFL teachers’ views of technology are highly shaped by both their teaching environment and individual beliefs about English language learning. When teachers apply technology in their instruction, they also apply their personal principles or maxims that guide their practices. In addition, a number of sociocultural aspects emerged in teachers’ views about technology use in their EFL teaching contexts giving rise to theoretical implications about how teacher cognition is conceptualised. Some of the major implications for practice include: the need to encourage EFL teachers to reflect on their teaching principles relevant to their working contexts; the value of providing teachers with models of technology use in tertiary EFL teaching; and the maximisation of the use of available technology to support local practices. Implications for methodology include the use of multiple context-specific instruments and methods to elicit teachers’ underlying beliefs and perspectives about technology-mediated teaching.

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  • The development of a music therapy school consultation protocol for students with high or very high special education needs : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Music, New Zealand School of Music

    Rickson, Daphne Joan (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Music therapy school consultation is positioned to become a significant practice for music therapists. Historically, music therapy work with children who have special education needs in New Zealand has focused on those who attend special schools or units and, according to the published literature, seems to have taken place in clinic settings or withdrawal rooms. The current emphasis on inclusive education demands that music therapists consider other ways of working. Further, a paucity of music therapists and the geographic isolation of many students who attend their local schools suggest that the large majority of students who would benefit are unable to access music therapy services. The aims of the current study therefore were for a music therapist to empower members of special education teams to use music experiences which had been especially planned to assist children to meet individual developmental or academic goals, and to describe how the process was perceived, understood, used, and valued by participants. A further aim was to develop and trial a protocol for music therapists undertaking consultation work. Eight registered music therapists interviewed in stage one of the study, to aid the development of the initial protocol, had differing views and attitudes about consultation, and findings confirmed the need to clearly define the practice. The initial protocol was therefore fragile, based on limited understandings from sparse music therapy consultation literature and the author‟s previous experience of working with team members in isolated areas. In stage two, four consecutive case studies enabled the protocol to be trialled in the field and, using an action research approach, to be developed further. Accumulated learning outcomes led to the development of a music therapy school consultation protocol based on social learning theory which emphasises the interdependent relationships between the consultant‟s (music therapist), consultees‟ (identified team members), and clients‟ (students) behaviour, their internal personal factors, and environmental factors. The establishment of collaborative relationships, and an ecological assessment which is based on the theory that human development is influenced by environmental systems (Bronfenbrenner, 1989), are critical components of the protocol. Thus the music therapist spends a full week at each student‟s school. Findings demonstrate that interacting with team members as they went about their daily lives led to deeper understanding of their needs and in turn enabled pragmatic, accessible, and meaningful music activities and strategies to be successfully implemented. A „clinical‟ music therapy session remains an important part of the protocol, but findings suggest its primary significance is in highlighting students‟ strengths so that team members develop fresh understandings and increasingly positive views of students that enhance their mutual relationships. Team members became more motivated, energised, self reflective, and able to support as well as challenge their students‟ development. They were thus able to continue to use, develop and evaluate their use of music strategies, after the music therapist left the field. Music therapists are currently unprepared for the triadic relationships and the emphasis on adult empowerment that is fundamental to consultation. The findings therefore have significant implications for music therapy practice and training. These implications, including areas for future research, are discussed herein.

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  • Analysis of fungal inteins

    Bokor, Annika Anna Maria (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xxvi, 298 leaves :col. ill ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Biochemistry. "November 1, 2010"

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  • Primary production of intertidal marine macroalgae: factors influencing primary production over wide spatial and temporal scales

    Tait, Leigh Wayne (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Oxygenic photosynthesis is responsible for virtually all of the biochemical production of organic matter in both marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Despite the large amount of research on phytoplankton, macroalgae have received less attention despite them being, on a per-area basis, one of the most productive ecosystems on earth. Furthermore, there has been a tendency of studies to measure primary production in single thalli, or monospecific stands. The lack of studies examining in situ production of whole assemblages using photorespirometry, as is common practice in soft-sediment systems, may be related to a lack of suitable apparatus. This research aimed to develop unique techniques and an apparatus for measuring primary production of intact macroalgal assemblages in laboratory and field conditions. Photorespirometry chambers were developed and tested on in situ macroalgal assemblages, giving information on the role of species identity, biodiversity, irradiance and community structure on overall primary production. Furthermore, the successful application of these methods was used to model annual primary production over local and regional scales, as well as the potential effects of human disturbance on production. In this study, photosynthesis-irradiance relationships (P-E curves) of intact intertidal algal assemblages showed no signs of saturation at high irradiance levels, as is typically seen in single species curves. Furthermore, diverse macroalgal assemblages showed a two-stage rise in production, with a significant enhancement of production at high irradiance. Evidence from this study suggests that the three-dimensional structure of natural assemblages, functional diversity and their interaction with a complex light environment is responsible for the unique P-E curves. The increased efficiency of light use in complex assemblages suggests an important role of species complmentarity in enhancing production with species diversity. This research also shows the potential consequences of disturbance on macroalgal assemblages, with the loss of several species causing a major decline in net production. The methods developed in this thesis have allowed simple modelling of annual rates of primary production and the parameters driving production of macroalgae over long time-scales. Respiration rates have a particularly large influence on production models and indicate that increasing temperature due to climate change could have significant consequences for net carbon fixation of macroalgae. This research gives valuable insight into the production of marine macroalgae and reinforces the notion that they are amongst the most productive systems on earth. These results revealed the importance of examining natural communities, as opposed to randomised assemblages and suggest a vital role of species diversity and community composition. Although there was no functional redundancy of the canopy forming species there did appear to be significant redundancy within the subcanopy assemblage. The identity of subcanopy species had little effect on production, but over longer temporal scales, as species come and go, they may help buffer the communities in terms of primary production. Furthermore, the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem function (primary production), although driven by diversity, is moderated by resource levels. The complex relationship between irradiance, diversity and production shows the importance of resource levels in the enhancement of function with increasing biodiversity. Due to fundamental differences in terrestrial and marine systems, I was able to examine the effects of discrete levels of irradiance on production, which indicated an important role of complementary light use. This study represents advancements not only in the understanding of primary production in macroalgal assemblages, but also has implications for how diversity may enhance function in other autotrophic systems. The important role of enhanced efficiency of photon capture in multi-canopy layer communities may prove an essential process in ecosystems as diverse as macroalgal beds and tropical rain-forests.

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  • Signal-linear representations of colour for computer vision

    Grant, Robert (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Most cameras detect colour by using sensors that separate red, green and blue wavelengths of light which is similar to the human eye. As such most colour information available for computer vision is represented in this trichromatic colour model, Red Green Blue or RGB. However this colour model is inadequate for most applications as objects requiring analysis are subject to the reflective properties of light, causing RGB colour to change across object surfaces. Many colour models have been borrowed from other disciplines which transform the RGB colour space into dimensions which are decorrelated to the reflective properties of light. Unfortunately signal noise is present in all acquired video, corrupting the image information. Fortunately most noise is statistically predictable, causing offsets from the true values following a Poisson distribution. When the standard deviation of a noise distribution is known, then noise can be stochastically predicted and accounted for. However transformations inside cameras and transformations between colour models often deform the image information in ways that make the noise distributions non-uniform over the colour model. When computer vision applications need to account for non-uniform noise, wider tolerances are required overall. This results in a loss of useful information and a reduction in discriminative power. This thesis has a focus on the linearity of signal noise distributions in colour representations which are decorrelated to the reflective properties of light. Existing colour models are described and each of their components examined with their strengths and weaknesses discussed. The results show that the proposed Signal Linear RGB (SLRGB) colour model achieves a transformation of the RGB colour space with uniform noise distributions along all axes under changes to camera properties. This colour space maintains a signal noise with a standard deviation of one unit across the space under changes of the camera parameters: white balance, exposure and gain. Experiments demonstrated that this proposed SLRGB model consistently provided improvements to linearity over RGB when used as a basis for other colour models. The proposed Minimum Weighted Colour Comparison (MWCC) method allows reflectively decorrelated colour models to make colour comparisons which counter the deforming effects of their coordinate systems. This was shown to provide substantial improvements to linearity tests in every case, making many colour models have a comparative noise linearity to undeformed colour models. The proposed Planar Hue Luminance Saturation (PHLS) and Spherical Hue Luminance Saturation (SHLS) colour models are decorrelated to reflective properties of light and allow for signal linear colour comparisons. When used for pixel classification of coloured objects the PHLS and SHLS colour models used only 0.26% and 0.25% of the colour volume to classify all of the objects, with the next best using 0.88% without MWCC and 0.45% with. The proposed Gamut Limit Invariant (GLI) colour model extends the decorrelation of reflective properties of light further by correcting for colours which are too bright and are clipped by the limits of the RGB space. When clipping occurs the properties become no longer decorrelated and shift. GLI models these changes to estimate the original values for clipped colours. The results show that this method improves decorrelation when performing pixel classification of coloured objects with varying proportions of clipped colours. Overall, the results show that the proposed framework of colour models and methods are a significant improvement over all prior colour models in enabling the most accurate information possible for processing colour images.

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  • The Chinese Approach To Web Journalism: A Comparative Analysis

    Xin, Jing (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis explores the distinctive forms of journalism that have emerged in mainstream news websites in mainland China. Two case studies, the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games and the H1N1 influenza pandemic in 2009, are employed to identify features in Chinese and Western news online. Specifically, a comparison is made between the in-depth news sections of popular mainstream news websites in China and those in the United States, the United Kingdom, and New Zealand. The study finds that the Chinese version of mainstream web news genre differs significantly from the Western version. This thesis argues that journalists’ practice is strongly context dependent. Distinctive economic, organizational, social and cultural factors contribute to shaping Chinese web journalism in a way that contradicts the notion of a homogeneous worldwide journalism or of a single set of norms for journalism. The study challenges the dominance of the political explanatory framework that considers political factors as the most important approach to study Chinese web-based media. In the face of a sparse literature and sporadic studies concerning the development of the internet as a novel platform in China for news production and transmission, this thesis aims to bring more academic interest to an overlooked research area and to contribute to a broader understanding of the actual diversity of global communication research.

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  • An Investigation of the Use of Cooperative Learning in Teaching English as a Foreign Language with Tertiary Education Learners in China

    Ning, Huiping (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis adapts cooperative learning methods for the College English teaching context in China. Its focus is on investigating the effects of cooperative learning on students' English language proficiency, learning motivation and social skills, in comparison with traditional whole-class instruction, by employing a pre-test-post-test control group quasi-experimental design. The first chapter clarifies the context for the research, which includes an introduction about the importance of English language teaching in China, a description of the widely used traditional approach, as well as its negative consequences. Observations are made regarding the characteristics of College English teaching and recent nationwide College English reform, which have spurred a transformation of the traditional approach at the tertiary level, with a focus on enhancing students' listening and speaking abilities in English. This is followed by a brief overview of cooperative learning, as well as its potential to contribute to College English teaching. The overall aim of the research and the specific research questions addressed are presented at the end of this chapter. The second chapter consists of a review of the literature regarding the history of cooperative learning, the fundamental theoretical underpinnings of cooperative learning, major cooperative learning methods, basic elements of cooperative learning, and its positive outcomes. This chapter also elaborates on key issues in implementing cooperative learning in the classroom and the cultural appropriateness of cooperative learning in China. In accordance with the specific context for this research, this chapter addresses the relevant connections of cooperative learning to second and foreign language teaching, tertiary education, and large-class instruction. An extensive review is also included regarding recent studies on using cooperative learning in second and foreign language teaching around the world as well as in China. The review locates a gap in the existing studies; the effectiveness of cooperative learning in teaching English as a foreign language to tertiary learners in China, which constitutes the focus of this thesis. The third chapter starts with some key concepts essential for quantitative methodology used in this research. It is followed by an introduction of participants and the general research procedure, which includes a pilot study and a main study employing a pre-test-post-test control group quasi-experimental design. Details of the intervention procedure are provided, focusing on different teaching methods used in the cooperative learning classroom and the traditional classroom. This chapter also provides details of the three measures used in this research: the College English Test, the Language Learning Orientations Scale, and the Social Skills Scale for Chinese College English Learners. At the end of the chapter there is an explanation of specific techniques and principles for data analysis. In chapter four, results are presented based on analysis of the data from the three measures. In general, the results focus on seven aspects: mean scores, standard deviations of pre- and post-test scores for each group, effect sizes of Cohen's d from pre- to post-test for each group, alpha values of paired-samples t-tests for each group, alpha values of interaction effect between group and time from ANOVAs, alpha values of post-test difference between groups from one way ANCOVAs, and means plots for each of testing areas. The findings provide evidence in favour of cooperative learning in some areas, for instance, in teaching speaking, listening and reading, in generating intrinsic motivation, and in incorporating students' equal participation and individual accountability into learning. The final chapter includes a discussion of the findings on the three measures in relation to the findings of previous research. It goes on to discuss implications for the practice of English language teaching, with a focus on the challenges of using cooperative learning in Chinese tertiary institutions. These challenges mainly include designing appropriate cooperative learning tasks, extra workload involved in preparing and implementing cooperative learning lessons, limited teaching hours and a large curriculum to cover, as well as students' use of the first language in teamwork. The chapter ends with a discussion about the major contributions and limitations of the current study, as well as recommendations for future research.

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  • Martial Dance Theatre: A Comparative Study of Torotoro Urban Māori Dance Crew (New Zealand) & Samudra Performing Arts (India)

    Hamilton, Mark James (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis examines two examples of martial dance theatre: Mika HAKA performed by Torotoro (New Zealand), and The Sound of Silence performed by Samudra (India). Both productions were created for international touring, and this thesis looks at their performance at the Edinburgh Fringe Festival (UK). The companies’ choreography integrates native and foreign dance with their hereditary martial arts. These disciplines involve practitioners in displays of prowess that are also entertaining spectacles. They have an expressive dimension that makes them contiguous with dance – a potential that Torotoro and Samudra exploit. The companies address their audiences with combative and inviting movements: Torotoro juxtapose wero and haka (Māori martial rites) with breakdance; Samudra combine kaḷarippayaṭṭu (Kerala’s martial art) with bharatanāṭyam (South Indian classical dance). Their productions interweave local movement practices with performance arts in global circulation, and are often presented before predominantly white, Western audiences. What is created are performances that are generically unstable – the product of cultural interactions in which contradictory agendas converge. In its largest scope, martial dance theatre might include military parades and tattoos, ritual enactments of combat, and folk and classical dance theatre. These performances propagate images of idealised men that create statements of national and cultural identity. They, and the martial disciplines they theatricalise, are also implicated in the performative construction of gender, ethnicity and race. Torotoro and Samudra’s performances, influenced by queer and feminist agendas, offer insights into martial dance theatre’s masculinist potential, and its contribution to the intercultural negotiation of identities. Prominent European theatre practitioners have sought to employ the martial arts to develop Western performers. If these culturally specific disciplines are expressive and performative disciplines, then what are the implications and complications of this transcultural project?

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  • An evaluation of means of inquiry into the biological evolution of consciousness

    Wilcke, Juliane Charlotte (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    How can the biological evolution and functions of consciousness be studied? The purpose of this thesis was to determine not only what means of inquiry are available to do so but also how good they are or, more specifically, how promising they are with respect to the research goal of giving a scientifically respectable evolutionary explanation of consciousness. Because no suitable or easily adaptable evaluation system or set of evaluative criteria was available, I constructed a systematic tool for evaluating the promise of means of inquiry. The evaluation tool has three dimensions--relevance, efficacy, and practicality--with two criteria each, which are assessed independently (except for the relevance criteria) and synthesised into dimensional and promise scores. This tool served to evaluate, and advise on, 23 means of inquiry that have been used in the investigation of the evolution of consciousness, including its adaptation status and evolutionary functions. The core of the thesis is formed by the evaluation tool and its application. After establishing the need for an evaluation of means of inquiry in this area and presenting the evaluation tool constructed for this purpose, I apply the tool to arguments that consciousness is an evolutionary adaptation, to general reasoning strategies, and to evolutionary strategies. This thesis core is preceded by a contextual introduction to consciousness and evolutionary theory and by the dismissal of some sceptical positions. It is followed by a comparative review of the evaluation results and an evaluation of the evaluation tool. The main contributions of this research consist of the promise evaluation tool for means of inquiry, which is underpinned by a new evaluative theory and available for use by other researchers; and, through the tool's application, an improved understanding of means of inquiry and recommendations about which of them to use for the present research goal.

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  • Global Energy Modelling : A Biophysical Approach (GEMBA)

    Dale, Michael Anthony Joseph (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The aim of this thesis is to take a broad conceptual overview of the global energy system and investigate what the aims of sustainability might entail for such a system. The work presented uses a biophysical economic approach in that the dynamics of the global economy are investigated using the tool box of the physical sciences, including the laws of thermodynamics and the methods of energy analysis. Modern society currently uses approximately 500 exajoules (EJ = 10^18 J) of total primary energy supply (TPES) each year. This energy consumption has been increasing at roughly 2% per year for the past two hundred years. TPES is currently dominated by three non-renewable energy sources: coal, oil and gas which, together with energy from nuclear fission of uranium, make up around 85% of the energy market. Consumption of finite resources at a continuously growing rate is not sustainable in the long-term. A trend in policy direction is to seek a transition to renewable sources of energy. This thesis seeks to explore two questions: are the technical potentials of renewable energy sources enough to supply the current and/or projected demand for energy and what would be the effect on the physical resource economy of a transition to an energy supply system run entirely on renewable energy sources? The Global Energy Model using a Biophysical Approach (GEMBA) methodology developed here is compared and contrasted with other approaches that are used to study the global energy-economy system, including the standard neoclassical economic approach used in such models as MESSAGE and MARKAL. A number of meta-analyses have been conducted in support of the GEMBA model. These include: meta-analysis of historic energy production from all energy sources; meta-analysis of global energy resources for all energy sources; meta-analysis of energy-return-on-investment (EROI) for all energy sources. The GEMBA methodology uses a systems dynamic modelling approach utilising stocks and flows, feedback loops and time delays to capture the behaviour of the global energy-economy system. The system is decomposed into elements with simple behaviour that is known through energy analysis. The interaction of these elements is captured mathematically and run numerically via the systems dynamics software package, VenSim. Calibration of the model has been achieved using historic energy production data from 1800 to 2005. The core of the GEMBA methodology constitutes the description of a dynamic EROI function over the whole production cycle of an energy resource from initial development, through maturation to decline in production, in the case of non-renewable resources, or to the technical potential in the case of renewable resources. Using the GEMBA methodology, the global energy-economy system is identified as a self-regulating system. The self-regulating behaviour acts to constrain the amount of total primary energy supply that the system can produce under a renewable-only regime. A number of analyses are conducted to test the sensitivity of the system to such changes as: an increase of the technical potential of renewable resources; technological breakthroughs which would significantly increase the EROI of renewable resources; a decrease in the capital intensity of renewable resources and; an increase in the energy intensity of the economy, A statistical analysis reflecting the wide range of values of both the estimates of EROI and technical potentials of renewable energy sources has also been undertaken using a Monte Carlo approach. The results from the modelling suggest that not all levels of energy demand projected by the WEA can be supplied by an energy system running solely on renewable energy. The Monte Carlo analyses suggest that reduction in total energy yield over current (2010) levels might occur with a 20-30% possibility. The middle and high growth scenarios from the WEA are greater than 95% of all scenarios modelled, hence seem unlikely to be sustained by an energy system running solely on renewable energy. This finding has implications for the future direction of both engineering and technology research as well as for energy policy. These implications are discussed.

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  • Nostalgia in Contemporary Chinese Cinema (1993-2008): A Reflection of China's Socio-Cultural Postmodernity

    Jiang, Shen (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Since Deng Xiaoping's "South Tour Speech" which he delivered during his inspection of special economic region in southern China in 1992, China's reforms and opening-up have entered a period of stable and rapid development. These undoubtedly are driving a comprehensive range of areas of social transition in Chinese society, including state affairs, social activities, mass culture, and globalization. All these factors may have a significant impact on the situation of Chinese film, but in the meantime, local cinema will inevitably present contemporary China and its social culture in a certain way. This thesis chooses a period of time from 1993 to 2008 and examines "nostalgia", a unique area of contemporary Chinese cinema, as its basis for discussion. In the light of Western and postmodern cultural theories, this study aims to explore the current state of nostalgia film and its postmodern elements in China and to extend the discussion to social areas and cultural studies. The conclusion reached by the discussion includes two major aspects. First, through historical reconstruction and superficial pastiche, China's past (or its nostalgia) has inevitably presented certain distortions when facing the global mass cult and Chinese communist leitmotiv ideology. Second, contemporary China has reached the stage of a visually featured, postmodern consumer society.

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  • A Market Mechanism for the Optimal Control of Groundwater and Surface Water Pollution from Nitrates

    Ranathunga Arachchige, Ranga Prabodanie (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Nitrate discharges from diffuse agricultural sources have long term effects on groundwater and surface water quality. Market-based instruments have been proposed as a means of balancing the demand for nitrate intensive farming and the capacity of the natural water bodies to dilute nitrates. Trading is complicated by the dispersed, delayed, and protracted effects of diffuse sources. Market mechanisms proposed to date have failed to incorporate these physical characteristics of nitrate pollution correctly. We propose a new market mechanism for allocating and pricing nitrate discharge permits, based on the design of modern electricity markets which use LP models to find optimal prices and dispatch schedules. The system operates as a centralized auction. The sources submit bids to the auction indicating the benefits gained from each unit of nitrate discharge. The auction operator runs an LP which maximises the benefits from trade, subject to a set of environmental and operational constraints. The LP solution produces the optimal prices and allocations relative to the economic values indicated in the bids. Our contributions include alternative LP models to suit different hydro-geological and socio-economic conditions. We present a generalized LP model which can include constraints that describe nitrate residence and transport in groundwater and surface water, the ability of water bodies to accept nitrates, and the operational limitations of the commercial sources. We show how to adapt available methods to incorporate the complex physical systems into an optimisation model. We present a double-sided market model which allows the polluters to buy permits, and environmental agents to lease out the ability of the natural water resources to accept nitrates. The model allows the providers of environmental services to participate in the market as sellers. We build up and prove the concepts by explaining the prices and allocations produced by the LP models. Based on the theory of nodal pricing applied in electricity markets, we discuss the price structures and relationships and show how the prices would reflect the spatial and temporal effects of diffuse nitrate discharges. We interpret the information generated from the outcomes of trading and discuss how the available tools and information can be used by the market participants to optimize their bids. We expand the proposed market model to include point sources, and identify the factors that determine the extent to which the point and nonpoint sources can trade with each other. In addition, we develop measures of the extent to which the diffuse sources themselves can trade with each other. We demonstrate the models and the resulting prices and allocations, using a catchment nitrate transport model.

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  • Understanding and Modelling Manual Wheelchair Propulsion and Strength Characteristics in People with C5-C7 Tetraplegia

    Hollingsworth, Laura Jean (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Spinal Cord Injuries (SCIs) are debilitating injuries where damage to the spinal cord causes a loss of mobility and feeling in muscles innervated below the injury point. Tetraplegia refers to an SCI in the cervical region of the spinal cord that impacts on the functionality of all four limbs. ‘Complete’ tetraplegia results in complete paralysis of the legs, partial or complete paralysis of the arms and trunk, and in the most severe cases, the neck. The independence of people living with tetraplegia is heavily dependent on assistive and mobility devices. Understanding the strength characteristics of people with tetraplegia is crucially important for the suitable and effective design of mobility and rehabilitative devices such as wheelchairs. A study using a stationary dynamometer and video capture measured kinetic and kinematic characteristics of wheelchair propulsion for 15 subjects with C5-C7 tetraplegia. This study differentiated between subjects with different injuries, at two different test resistances, and was more comprehensive than other reported studies on MWC propulsion. Some of the subjects in the study with C5-C6 injuries had no elbow extension capability, while others had undergone a deltoids-to-triceps tendon transfer procedure called TROIDS, which restores some elbow extension capability. No differences were found in any of the push phase metrics between those who had undergone the TROIDs procedure, and those who had not, suggesting that TROIDs provides no significant benefit for mobility. As expected, subjects with C7 tetraplegia recorded velocity and power outputs significantly higher than those for subjects with C5-C6 tetraplegia. To better understand the strength characteristics over the full range of motion in the sagittal plane, and thus potentially modify the design of mobility devices to better suit these characteristics, a novel method for gathering strength data in multiple directions and positions was developed. This method had advantages over other commonly used methods. In particular, it was inclusive of complex muscle and joint interactions that would otherwise be very difficult to build into a model. Sagittal horizontal push strength was measured using this method for 8 able bodied and 4 tetraplegic subjects. There were clear trends in the data from the able-bodied subjects, and a fourth order polynomial (R-squared = 0.8) was fitted to the data for modelling purposes. Data for the tetraplegic subjects varied significantly from the able-bodied data, but inter-individual variation was such that no model would provide a satisfactory fit to the data indicating a very high degree of patient-specific behaviour. One multi-directional data set, consisting 1584 measurements in the sagittal plane, was gathered for an able-bodied subject. The main trends in this measured data were successfully captured by a model consisting of twelve fourth-order polynomials. Building on these measurements, and employing a human model in the constraint modelling environment, SWORDS, this thesis develops a conceptual design tool for comparing the effectiveness of different hand force paths. Initial simulations using hypothetical hand paths indicated that the proposed method for predicting the direction of the applied force needs to be verified, and likely refined, for hand paths that differ significantly from the traditional wheelchair push-rim path. This proposed procedure has the potential to be a powerful tool for optimising and modifying the design of wheelchairs or human powered devices to utilise previously untapped abilities for any given population.

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  • Elwyn Richardson and The Early World of Art Education in New Zealand

    MacDonald, Margaret (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This study examines the work of Elwyn Stuart Richardson, director and teacher of Oruaiti School between 1949 and 1962, an experimental school in Northland, New Zealand and places it with the context of the history of art education in New Zealand. After documenting the historical and educational reform contexts of the first half of the twentieth century, Richardson’s philosophy of art education is framed through an analysis of moments of his early life, schooling and teaching experiences. Richardson (1925-) is best known for his book In the Early World published by the New Zealand Council of Educational Research in 1964. The book describes his work as a teacher at Oruaiti and highlights his pedagogical belief that the most powerful learning arises out of children’s own lives and experiences, that learning through the arts raises students’ potential for self-knowledge, critical discernment, imagination, understanding, awareness and empathy for others, and that the arts have an important role to play in the fostering of community and social reform. The administration of art and craft education in the New Zealand primary school during Richardson’s years at Oruaiti was shaped by early advances in manual and technical education. The development of these reforms and the varied educational doctrines school officials used to advocate for the inclusion of these subjects in the curriculum are examined from 1885 to 1920. As well, significant educational policies and events in the 1920s provided exposure to progressive education ideology from abroad. These initiatives contributed to the great interest in child art which grew out of the New Education movement of the 1930s. New ideas about the development of artistic ability in children led to innovative policies in art and craft education that transformed teaching practices and the place of art and craft in New Zealand schools during the 1940s and 1950s. The newly formed Art and Craft Branch of the Department of Education in 1946 reorganised the administration of art education to change public perceptions of art, create contexts of art appreciation and develop community education in tandem with primary school art education. Examining Richardson’s educational biography is another lens used to understand his philosophy and pedagogy. Oruaiti's status as an experimental school is explored through the unique relationship of Oruaiti School to the Art and Craft Branch of the Department of Education. Further, Richardson’s developing educational philosophy, in particular his ideas about artistic ability in children and the growth of aesthetic standards, is explored relative to the teaching practices of his day. The study also uncovers the critical role that science played in Richardson’s educational pedagogy and curriculum and the profound influence Richardson’s early educative experiences were to have on the development of his educational philosophy. Locating Richardson’s work within its historical context demonstrates both that he worked in an environment which was hospitable to educational experimentation in the field of art and crafts, and that, on many levels, he transcended the educational practices of his times.

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  • On the Ecology and Restoration of Podocarpus cunninghamii in the Eastern South Island High Country

    Williams, Alwyn (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Podocarpus cunninghamii is an endemic New Zealand conifer that, in pre-human times, formed extensive forest communities across the eastern South Island high country. Anthropogenic disturbances have reduced the distribution of Podocarpus cunninghamii communities such that they now exist mainly as small and isolated remnants within a highly modified, predominantly pastoral landscape. Very little is known of the ecology of high country Podocarpus cunninghamii communities, and without this information it is not possible to develop an ecological basis for their restoration. This thesis explores the ecology of Podocarpus cunninghamii in the eastern South Island high country, investigating factors that potentially affect the restoration of Podocarpus cunninghamii within this environment, with special attention paid to the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Field investigations of Podocarpus cunninghamii communities showed that they contain a high degree of floristic and structural variation determined by soil and climatic variables. Analysis of age and size class distributions suggest that Podocarpus cunninghamii has more than one regeneration strategy, and can regenerate within intact forest following the opening of small canopy gaps or can undergo large-scale recruitment following catastrophic disturbance. Field and glasshouse experiments investigating growth and nutrient responses of Podocarpus cunninghamii to different AMF inoculants found that Podocarpus cunninghamii responses are dependent on both AMF type and grass competition. Finally, investigation of Podocarpus cunninghamii carbon stocks showed that they are less than that of other New Zealand forest types, but are greater than that of grazed pastures. Successful restoration of high country Podocarpus cunninghamii communities will require the incorporation of associated species based on local environmental conditions, and will also need to allow for disturbance processes. AMF may have an important role to play in restoration by reducing seedling production times and by increasing the competitiveness of Podocarpus cunninghamii when in competition with exotic grasses.

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  • New Tools for Training News Reporters: An interactive Scoring e-Textbook Based on Online Assessment

    Munro, Yevgenia (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This research develops a new approach to the development of training inexperienced journalists in news writing using a web-based platform of instruction delivery. E-training is growing in the world as an instructional setting, and offers not only financial benefits, but also a range of specific advantages over the traditional classroom type of setting. Such advantages include the ability to personalise the content of training to the trainees' current competencies, to facilitate regular multi-faceted monitoring of the changes in these competencies and to combine learning with the immediate practising of what was learned. Two e-training tools have been created and validated in this research: the news text assessment system (NTA) - a comprehensive and effective online scoring rubric, i.e. a matrix describing different levels of competency in several dimensions of the assessed performance - to assess the quality of news writing; and a scoring e-textbook (SET), an asynchronous news writing training tool. The SET is built around the NTA as its core element and contains hundreds of self-learning modules including exercises, examples, instructional texts, and quizzes to be used in a non-linear fashion according to the specific needs of trainees. Both the exercises and the NTA are elements of corrective feedback, which in psychological literature has been shown to be most effective in changing the subsequent performance of trainees. The two tools help both the trainee and the instructor. They assist the instructor to identify and address journalists' weak and absent competencies in news writing and consistently upgrade the learning modules when needed. They help trainees to monitor their progress and to learn from their own mistakes in the short periods of spare time they have during their work or in other time they can spare for the training. To create the NTA, 53 top journalism experts, both practitioners and academics, used the prototype of the assessment rubric with 30 criteria of news writing to assess the quality of several supplied news stories. The results were then subjected to statistical analysis and the NTA rubric was created as a compromise between its comprehensiveness and user-friendliness. To evaluate the NTA and the SET, an experiment was conducted with journalists in one post-Communist country in the form of an action research project, where this researcher was also the instructor. The experiment consisted of four months of training and reflection on its results by both the journalists and the researcher. The results show improvement in news writing competencies to an internationally 'acceptable' news writing standard for most of the trainees. The suggested tools have been well received and the trainees appreciated the interactivity that was provided during the training.

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  • Relationships between personal values, and depressed mood and subjective wellbeing.

    Jarden, Aaron John (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The central objective of this thesis was to explore relationships between personal values, and depressed mood and subjective wellbeing, and to determine if the notion of values can be more useful in the fields of clinical and positive psychology. An initial literature review of values identified the potential importance of values in relation to mood and wellbeing, but also showed that more research was required to clearly establish such links. Two survey studies using Schwartz’s model of values (Schwartz, 1992), and one longitudinal study investigating relational aspects of values, were conducted to explore these relationships. Study 1 was a New Zealand paper-based study and investigated links between the importance of, and satisfaction with, values and depressed mood and subjective wellbeing. Study 2 was a larger international internet-based study which sought to replicate important findings from Study 1 and investigate links between people’s knowledge of their values and the extent to which they were living in alignment with values. Study 3 consisted of a sub-sample of participants from Study Two who completed a subset of Study 2 assessment measures six months later. This study explored how relational aspects of values (knowledge of values, living in alignment with values) related to changes in depressed mood and SWB over time. Cumulatively the results from these studies re-orientate our thinking towards an increased utility for the notion of values in the areas of clinical and positive psychology. Regarding depressed mood, these studies found links between greater depressed mood and lesser importance of Self-Direction, Stimulation and Hedonism value types. The importance of values as a whole was not associated with depressed mood; however being satisfied, knowing values, and living in alignment with values were associated with less depressed mood. Regarding subjective wellbeing, these studies found links between greater subjective wellbeing and greater importance of Self-Direction, Stimulation, Hedonism, and Benevolence value types. The importance of values as a whole was not associated with subjective wellbeing; however being satisfied, knowing values, and living in alignment with values were associated with greater subjective wellbeing. A causal relationship was found between living in alignment with values and latter subjective wellbeing, but not for knowledge of values and later subjective wellbeing. In addition, no major deviations in the coherence of values’ systems between individuals with and without depressed mood, or for individuals with and without high subjective wellbeing, were found. Strengths, implications, and limitations of the studies are noted for the fields of clinical and positive psychology, and suggestions for future research are made.

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  • The role of crack willow in the wetland water balance, Moutere region, New Zealand

    Amaravathi, Kiran Kumar (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Waiwhero wetland (16 ha) is one of the largest wetlands in the Rosedale Hills, 35 km north-west of Nelson, New Zealand. It has an extensive cover of Salix fragilis L. (crack willow) and has been hypothesised to be a source of groundwater recharge for the Moutere aquifers, an important local groundwater system. However the wetland could also be a groundwater discharge zone, because of the geological boundary that it straddles. The overall aim of this study was to determine the direction of groundwater flux of the wetland by measuring the water balance, with particular emphasis on the transpiration rates from the crack willow trees. The average daily transpiration (measurement was for 230 days) of crack willows in the wetland (6.4 mm/day) was close to twice the potential evapotranspiration (PET) for grassland (3.9 mm/day). The highest measured willow transpiration rate was 12.4 mm/day and the lowest was 0.8 mm/day. High transpiration from crack willows was due to the horizontal energy fluxes (advective energy), tree physiological characters and high soil water content. The study established that the wetland is a groundwater discharge zone with, on average for the two summer periods (2008 and 2009), the net groundwater discharge being 4.8 mm/day. The daily water balance results between two major rainfall events showed that the initial discharge source was from the surrounding hills and later stabilized at around 6 to 14 mm/day. It was believed to be a contribution from the shallow and deep aquifers or a combination of local region inflow and aquifers. The water balance showed that the main loss of water through the hydrological system of the wetland during summer was from the high transpiration of willows (7.7 mm/day). The extent of water savings estimated for the 16 ha wetland through a hypothetical situation of willow removal, and the assumption that it is filled with open water without any canopy cover, was 688 m3/day. However this water savings rate if applied to a large area of crack willow stands would be quite high. On similar lines it is important to understand the transpiration rates of other wetland tree species in New Zealand. This information would help in preparing regional council plans for the introduction of tree species in the wetland for better management of the water resources and sustainable ecosystem management.

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  • Rich and well, poor and sick? The relationship between income and self-rated health from the New Zealand household panel Survey of Family, Income and Employment (SoFIE)

    Imlach Gunasekara, Fiona Helen (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Background This thesis investigates the relationship between income and health in New Zealand adults, using longitudinal data from the household panel Survey of Family, Income and Employment, 2002 to 2005. Evidence for a cross-sectional relationship between income and health is strong, but may be affected by confounding. Longitudinal data, with repeated measures on the same individuals, can be analysed to control for much of the confounding that biases cross-sectional analyses, giving a more accurate estimate of the causal impact of income on health. Methods and Results The outcome used was self-rated health (SRH), a five-level ordinal variable. The primary analytical method used was fixed effects regression modelling, which controls for time-invariant confounders, but applying this method to an ordinal outcome was challenging. Two fixed effects ordinal models were compared. These found that an increase in income of $10,000 increased the odds of better SRH by 0.6% (95% confidence interval -0.3% to 1.5%; ‘hybrid’ proportional odds model) to 0.9% (95% confidence interval -0.4% to 2.3%; amalgamated conditional logistic regression model). Random effects proportional odds models, which did not adequately control for bias from unmeasured time-invariant confounders, gave larger and statistically significant income estimates. Conclusions A modest (and statistically insignificant) association of changing income with changing SRH in New Zealand adults was found over the short-term, having controlled rigorously for confounding. The small size of the income estimate was consistent with results from other longitudinal studies. However, this thesis (and similar research) may have underestimated the putative causal association between income and health due to measurement error in income and changes in income over time. Likewise, SRH, as a general health measure, prone to ceiling effects and measurement error, may not be an ideal repeated measures outcome. Changes in SRH over time occur in response to changes in both mental and physical health and short term income changes may have different effects on mental and physical health outcomes. Long term income rather than short term income changes may be more relevant for health and time lags longer than one year between changes in income and effects on health were not accounted for.

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  • The influence of skill and low back pain on peak and cumulative spine loads during wool harvesting

    Pal, Poonam (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Sheep shearing is a physically demanding occupation, with high energy expenditure, spinal loads and risk of back injury. The cost of injury compensation and rehabilitation for this workforce is considerable. Although research shows the use of a commercially available trunk harness will significantly reduce spinal loads, there has been no investigation of worker skill on spinal loads and risk of injury. A higher skill level is accepted by the wool harvesting industry as improving quality of work and productivity. Others within the industry consider that increased skill lowers risk of injury by improving animal control and working in less demanding postures. Some research has shown a positive effect of skill within other occupations and tasks; such as a reduction in energy expenditure, spinal cumulative loads and asymmetric movements while others have shown no such effect. The aims of this research are to quantify lumbo-sacral cumulative and peak forces experienced by workers in the wool harvesting industry, and to determine how skill and a history of low back pain requiring clinical intervention (LBP-Clin) impact on these loads. Following ethical approval a total of 140 participants (80 shearers and 60 wool handlers) were recruited and surveyed during formal shearing and wool handling competitions in Southern New Zealand. Each subject was then video-taped while executing 3 to 5 consecutive trials (dependent on skill level and competition requirements) of their normal task cycle. These video clips were analysed by using posture binning and load analysis software (3D Match) that incorporated 3D kinematics, external hand forces and anthropometric data to calculate the peak and cumulative loads on the L4/L5 segment. Cumulative loads were then extrapolated to an 8-hour work day. Correlation analysis was performed to determine collinearity between e xplanatory (independent) variables. Univariate linear regression models were initially used to determine the individual influence of skill and LBP-Clin on cumulative and peak spinal forces while multivariate linear regression models were used to determine the combined influence of skill and LBP-Clin on cumulative and peak spinal forces. For shearers mean peak lumbo-sacral compression, joint anterior shear, joint anterior reaction shear, and extensor moments for shearers were 3828.7N, 230N, 458.3N, and 185.1Nm respectively. For wool handlers these peak lumbo-sacral loads were 3194.2 N, 189.2 N, 391.4 N and 165.1 Nm. Mean cumulative compression, force weighted compression, joint anterior shear, joint anterior reaction shear, and extensor moments for shearers were 82.6 MN.s, 84.8 MN.s, 5.4 MN.s, 11.8 MN.s and 4.2MNm.s while these mean cumulative scores were considerably less for wool handlers at 48.7 MN.s, 48.9 N.s, 2.53 MN.s, 5.7 MN.s and 0.023 Nm.s. Skill was associated with decreased peak catch and drag compressive force for junior, intermediate and senior shearers and also decreased cumulative extensor moments for junior and senior wool handlers. LBP-Clin was only associated with an increased peak extensor moment during the catch and drag for shearers while LBP-Clin had no significant influence on any peak or cumulative force for wool handlers. The interaction variable for skill and LBP-Clin also showed no significant influence on peak or cumulative forces for either shearers or wool handlers. Although this study demonstrates minimal influence for skill or LBP-Clin (or their interaction) on cumulative and peak cumulative and anterior shear forces, the prevalence of LBP-Clin within each skill level increases considerably (particularly for shearers). Interestingly increased skill is also strongly predictive of a considerable increase in productivity (or tally). Thus increased skill appears to be primarily beneficial in terms of increased wool production and task efficiency. Further research with a larger within-skill sample size and prospective design is needed to confirm these results. Other biomechanical factors such as body position within working postures, time spent in different postures, harvesting techniques, and non-sagittal postures and forces (medio- lateral shear and reaction forces) may also be linked to skill and LBP-Clin. Exploring the effect of these other biomechanical factors continues within the occupational biomechanics research team at the University of Otago. Similarly personal and psychosocial factors are recognised as being linked to injury and injury risk within the overlapping fields of ergonomics and occupational health. The part they play in injury risk within the wool harvesting occupations is unknown and is also under exploration. A recommendation for the wool harvesting industry is to continue with formal skill training as it does not appear to expose the worker to increased cumulative or peak spinal loading and it is strongly associated with productivity. However the marked increase in working lifetime prevalence of LBP-Clin in this physically demanding occupation is clearly a problem and it may be that exposure to such high compressive and shear forces (independent of skill) exceeds yet to be determined cumulative loading thresholds that lead to risk of low back injury. While postural demands and non-sagittal forces during traditional shearing also need to be investigated, development of alternative upright posture wool harvesting strategies is an industry identified direction for reduction of injury risk that is biomechanically sound and now under investigation.

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