14,250 results for Doctoral

  • Asymmetric synthesis using 4,4,6-trimethyl-1,3-dioxanes

    Lorimer, Rachel Manu (1998)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. (2'R,6'R)-2'-Anthraquinonyl-4',4',6'-trimethyl-l',3'-dioxanes 132, 133, and 134 were synthesized from quinizarin 29 in optimized yields of 64, 56, 65, and 69%, respectively via reductive Claisen rearrangements of the appropriate allyloxy anthraquinones.A mechanism for the rearrangement has been proposed on the basis of experimental outcomes. The acceleration of the rearrangement under reductive conditions is proposed to be a consequence of internal hydrogen bonding in the activated quinone. Lewis acid mediated cyclizations of the chloroallyl dioxanes 131 and 132 were accomplished using neat titanium(IV) chloride and gave anthracyclinones 267, 268, 270, and 271 directly, but with poor selectivities. However, the dropwise addition of a solution of titanium(IV) chloride in dry dichloromethaneto 134 at -82"C generated anthracycline 282 in 67% yield. The reaction proceeded with good regio- and stereoselectivity. It was concluded that the direct synthesis of anthracyclinones in such reactions requires conditions which are incompatible with those necessary for highly selective carbon-carbon bond formation. The regio- and stereoselectivity of 282 was unambiguously determined on the basis of the 2D NMR data. The intermolecular additions of allyltrimethylsilane to 2-hexyl- and 2-phenyl-4,4,6-trimethyl-1,3-dioxanes 293 and 294 were investigated under varying reaction conditions. Homoallylic alcohols were generated directly from titanium(lV) chloride mediated allylations of 293 but the stereoselectivities of the reactions were poor. Milder Lewis acids did not efficiently promote the reaction. It was concluded that 4,4,6-trimethyl-1,3- dioxanes have little potential as chiral auxiliaries for the asymmetric synthesis of homoallylic alcohols. The interactions between dioxanes 293, 294, 313, and 314 and Lewis acids were investigated at -80, -100 and- 120"C. It was demonstrated that the trimethyl dioxanes are relatively unreactive towards Lewis acids and that the presence of an equatorial hydrogen at C2 or C4 of a dioxane ring is necessary for the selective formation of a stable 1:1 BF3-acetal complex. These results strongly suggest that Lewis acid mediated openings of trimethyl dioxanes are unlikely to proceed with high selectivity. The good selectivities observed in cyclizations of 282 were proposed to be a consequence of the overall conformation of the highly functionalized anthraquinone 134.

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  • Structural studies of the fibrillar architecture of normal and softened bovine articular cartilage

    Chen, Min-Huey (2000)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Articular cartilage functions successfully as a compression load-bearing tissue by virtue of the functional interplay between a 3-dimensional structure of collagen fibrils and the entrapped water-swollen proteoglycan molecules. Crucial to this entrapment process is a mechanism or set of mechanisms that maintain the collagen fibrils in a finely divided interconnected configuration that immobilises the macro-molecular proteoglycan complexes. Any loss of interconnectivity in the collagen network that might reduce the constraints on the swelling tendency of the proteoglycan domains will lead to a lower matrix stiffness. There are some structural similarities between this less stiff or abnormally softened cartilage and the degenerative osteoarthritic matrix, although ultrastructural studies to date are somewhat limited. The primary objective of the research reported in this thesis was to investigate the fibrillar architecture in the general matrix of both the normal and abnormally softened cartilage matrices. The fibrillar architectures of the normal and abnormally softened general matrices were compared using Nomarski light microscopy (LM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with combined stereoscopic reconstruction, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As reported earlier by Broom (1984b), a pseudo-random network developed from an overall radial arrangement of collagen fibrils is the most fundamental ultrastructural characteristic of the normal general matrix. By contrast, this present investigation has shown that the most distinctive feature of the softened matrix is the presence of parallel and relatively unentwined fibrils, strongly aligned in the radial direction. A structural model illustrating the transformation from the normal to the softened matrix is proposed based on the important property of lateral interconnectivity in the fibrils which involves both entwinement and non-entwinement based interactions. The distribution of proteoglycans in the normal and the softened matrix was compared. The distribution of Type II collagen was investigated using immunohistochemical staining combined with confocal imaging. It is concluded that the Type II fibrils do persist in the altered matrix thus adding further experimental support for the proposed transformation model. The swelling behaviour of the general matrix of both normal and abnormally softened articular cartilage was compared by subjecting tissue specimens under different modes of constraint to a high swelling bathing solution of distilled water and comparing structural changes imaged at the macroscopic, microscopic and ultramicroscopic levels of resolution. Near-zero swelling was observed in the isolated normal general matrix with minimal structural change. By contrast, the similarly isolated softened general matrix exhibited large-scale swelling in both the transverse and radial directions. This difference in dimensional stability was attributed to fundamentally different levels of fibril interconnectivity between the two matrices. The structural transformation model was further developed to accommodate fibrillar rearrangements associated with the large-scale swelling in the radial and transverse directions in the softened general matrix.

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  • Control and optimisation of coagulant dosing in drinking water treatment

    Edney, Daniel B. L. (2005)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Correct coagulant dosage is necessary for the efficient operation of conventional drinking water treatment plants, yet no accurate or automated way of determining this exists. Streaming current (SC) is a measurement of charge on particles in water and is useful in feedback control of coagulant dosage. Analysis of the movement of change within a SC sensor can provide some explanation of its slow response, while signal processing utilising Fourier analysis improves the instrument's bandwidth. Presently inaccurate manual jar tests are the only way determine the SC required for best coagulation. An online automated jar tester is presented to improve on this. It uses an automatic sampling system that takes a sample from the process stream. An optimisation algorithm makes repeated step adjustments to the SC set point and gradually moves it in the direction of improving jar test results. The system was evaluated on both a small-scale model and a full-scale plant. Noise in the test measurements means the optimal set point cannot be located accurately enough, but the results indicate that this is possible. Greater accuracy would allow optimisation of turbidity and costs for multiple chemicals. A representative neural network model can be made of the dynamic relationship between coagulant dosage and streaming current in a scale model, with an alkali dosed to simulate a disturbance. In a rapid mixer, the measured response is significantly slower than the true response. Several common types of linear controller are designed and their performance at set point tracking and disturbance rejection is compared on this system. Model predictive control with a Kalman filter performs best in these tests, while the self-tuning regulator has benefits when the rate of set point change is slower. A non-linear feed-forward radial basis function network that adapts to the system's steady-state inverse can effectively augment a linear controller for this system. Adaptation rules based on vector eligibility are derived from dynamic back-propagation and extended to the general dynamic non-linear case. This can result in a useful and efficient feed-forward neural controller for dosing systems that can be represented by a Wiener model.

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  • Transition metal clusters in zeolites

    Yong, You Sing, 1958- (1987)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The adsorption and decomposition of Mo(CO)6 in zeolites X, Y, KL, Na-mordenite and Na-ZSM5 had been followed gravimetrically and spectroscopically. Mo(CO)6 was readily adsorbed into the pore structures of faujasites and zeolite KL but not into Na-mordenite and Na-ZSM5. Infrared studies showed that the adsorption produced a common adsorbed Mo(CO)6 species whose Oh symmetry was lowered. Subsequent activation in-vacuo at 100??C caused loss of approximately two carbonyl ligands per molybdenum which could be reversed by addition of carbon monoxide. Heating at or above 200??C caused complete and permanent decarbonylation. Zerovalent molybdenum clusters were produced within the pore structures of alkali metal-exchanged zeolites but for HY and LaY, oxidised molybdenum ions were also produced. Further uptake of Mo(CO)6 occurred on subsequent exposure of faujasite samples containing molybdenum to the vapour at room temperature. By repeated adsorption and decomposition of Mo(CO)6, zeolite sample containing up to 157 molybdenum per unit cell had been prepared. The carbon monoxide hydrogenation activity and selectivity of molybdenum-zeolite catalysts varied with zeolite structure and exchanged cation. Molybdenum-alkali metal-exchange zeolite catalysts were more selective to alkenes and liquefied petroleum gas range hydrocarbons (C2-C4) than molybdenum-HY and molybdenum-LaY catalysts. Using a combination of gas chromatography and infrared spectroscopy, a mechanism was postulated for the formation of hydrocarbons.

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  • New methods for analysing generalised linear models with applications to epidemiology

    Holden, Jennifer Kay (2001)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The aim of capture-recapture methods in epidemiology is to accurately estimate the total number of people who have a specific disease. These methods were first developed by ecologists interested in estimating the total population size of various animal species. Capture-recapture methods have a relatively short history, at least in terms of application to epidemiological data sets. If applied correctly they can be of great benefit, and are invaluable for planning and resource allocation. The aim of this thesis is to enhance the existing methods used in epidemiological capture-recapture problems. This research explores new methods for analysing generalised linear models, within the capture-recapture framework, with applications to epidemiology. In particular, we critically examine two New Zealand data sets. We compare two small sample adjustments for capture-recapture methods, and find that the Evans and Bonett adjustment can be a useful tool for sparse data. We employ stratified capture-recapture analyses to alleviate problems with heterogeneity and reporting patterns. In addition, we consider a type of cost-benefit analysis for the reporting sources. Two proposed methods of internal validity analysis are scrutinised. We find that one of these is counter-intuitive and of no use, however, the other method may be of some use in at least indicating the direction of any bias in the capture-recapture estimates. We use simulation to explore the effects of errors on patient records, and find that even relatively small percentages of errors can affect estimates dramatically. We conclude with a study of the optimal number of sources to use in epidemiological capture-recapture analyses. We argue that using three sources is not necessarily optimal, and that using four sources is also entirely manageable. This thesis outlines a strategy for analysing epidemiological data sets using capture-recapture methods, and includes aspects of model fitting and selection, cost-benefit analysis, diagnostic checking through simulations of the effects of record errors, and the effects of collapsing lists, as well as a critical check of the capture-recapture assumptions. This investigation demonstrates the potential of capture-recapture methods to provide accurate estimates of the size of various disease populations.

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  • Writing home to her mother and father: Fabrizia Ramondino???s Althe??nopis and Clara Sereni???s Casalinghitudine

    Green, Paula, 1955- (2004)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Within a context of Italian women's literary, intellectual, and feminist thought, the dissertation employs two specific literary texts that transgress generic borders, Clara Sereni's Casalinghitudine (1987) and Fabrizia Ramindino's Alth??nopis (1988), to elucidate paternal and maternal negotiations as a projected model of writing home. Motivated by feminist trespasses upon and resistances to the "fathered" academic canon, the dissertation provides a third literary example through my renegotiation of the theoretical argument in poetic form. Printed on tracing paper, my poetic text overlays and haunts the dissertation with subjective intersections, poetry, and prose that emerge from my research and that constitutes a significant part of my poetry collections published to date. My academic argument draws upon an interdisciplinary heritage by enlisting the thought of French, Italian, and Anglo/American feminisms alongside Italian cultural, literary, and history studies. Part One locates the mother and the maternal in the context of Western feminist theories, Italian feminist thought, and Italian culture. With close reference to the primary texts, it analyses the implications of the missing mother, the surrogate mother, the uncanny in the mother/daughter relationship, maternal kinesis, maternal thresholds, and maternal junctures in terms of a woman writing home. Part Two considers the ramifications of the father figure in the work of six intellectuals (Simone de Beauvoir, Adrienne Rich, Nancy Chodorow, Julia Kristeva, H??l??ne Cixous, and Luce Irigaray), in an Italian cultural, historical, legal, political, and literary context, and in the light of Italian feminist approaches to the father. Maintaining close links with the two primary texts, I analyse the missing father, the father as authority, and the manner in which in writing home, writing the father traverses and transgresses thresholds such as the cooking pot, the body, and the written page. With a debt to Rosi Braidotti and Adriana Cavarero, I conclude that in writing home, a woman renegotiates both the maternal and paternal through what I have named the practice of equilibrium writing. For the woman writer, equilibrium writing comprises writing out of her roots, writing as both weaving and unweaving, writing out of kinetic movement in order to write a provisional and subjective centre, and writing conjunctions and coalitions. In an extension of Italian feminist approaches to "authority," I contend that such a textual negotiation of the mother and the father constructs a state of auto/authority for the woman writing.

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  • Whakataukii: Maori sayings

    McRae, Jane. (1988)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The texts of Maori oral tradition preserve special information for communication within Maori society. The forms in which that information is communicated are varied and in named types. Whakataukii are one of those types and they are one means of making public and preserving knowledge about Maori society. The knowledge which is contained in whakataukii, or referred to by them, ranges from simple observations of daily life, to philosophical concepts and records of history. This thesis proposes that whakataukii are a genre of Maori oral tradition. By examination and interpretation of a selection of sayings arranged in two categories, one which relates to Maori society as a whole and the other which relates to individual tribes, it considers the role of these texts in transmitting cultural information. Oral texts are often represented as unsophisticated forms of language, dependant for sophistication on a development to writing. Sayings are generally studied as colloquial texts and are seldom the subject of the serious interpretative study given to written literature. In this thesis the sayings of Maori oral tradition, with their culturally distinct but highly developed use of language, are regarded as comparable in their own sphere to compositions of written literature.

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  • Electron microscopy of Rous sarcoma virus

    Burgess, Susan Claire Gillies (1976)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. 1. The most appropriate methods were investigated for producing Rous sarcoma virus of suitable quantity and quality for use in the study of the viral RNA by electron microscopy. The roller bottle method of Smith and Bernstein (1973) which was adopted, produced virus yields of up to 5mg per litre of transformed cell culture supernatant after 24 hour incubations, and 0.2mg per litre of culture supernatant after 4 hour incubations. 2. The method of purifying RNA tumour viruses which resulted in the least damage to the virions was found to be isopyncic and velocity sedimentation in Ficoll density gradients containing 5mM tris-HCl and 1mM EDTA pH 8.5. The use of solutions of sucrose or >0.1M salt resulted in both osmotic changes in the virus and viral aggregation. 3. The lipoprotein coat of the Rous sarcoma virus was shown by freeze-fracturing and electron microscopy to have properties similar to those of plasma membranes, except that the number of intramembranous particles was smaller. The hydrated diameter of Rous sarcoma virus was estimated from freeze-fracture replicas of purified virions to be 140nm. 4. Vesicular contaminants, derived from serum, were present in Rous sarcoma virus preparations that had been purified from transformed cell culture supernatants. The isolated contaminants resembled virus when examined by both freeze-fracturing and negative-staining, but were readily distinguished from virus in thin sections. The virus-like serum vesicles were present in sera from several different sources. When treated with detergent and subjected to polyacylamide gel electrophoresis, the vesicles were found to contain polypeptides that possessed similar electrophoretic mobilities to those of Rous sarcoma virus polypeptides. It is probable that extraneous nucleic acid molecules, observed in preparations of Rous sarcoma virus RNA were the result of VLSV contamination of virus suspensions. 5. Contamination of purified virus suspensions by virus-like material derived from serum was reduced by centrifugation of the serum prior to its addition to cell culture medium. Virus suspensions, purified from cell supernatants from which the contaminating vesicles had been removed, were resolved in sharp bands at p = 1.07 g/ml in Ficoll density gradients; in the analytical ultracentrifuge they sedimented as homogenous populations with a sedimentation value of 740s20,w and were observed by electron microscopy to be relatively free of contaminants. 6. The maximum length of molecules from preparations of both 60-70s and 30-40s viral RNA prepared in 80% and 50% formamide respectively was 2.5??m, but both preparations were not homogeneous since they contained other, smaller molecules. 7. A model is proposed in which the difference in physical properties between the native (60-70S) form and the denatured (30-40S) form of the viral RNA is suggested to be the result of two possible conformations of a single RNA molecule. This model is an alternative to the prevailing model in which the RNA tumour virus genome is proposed to contain a number of RNA molecules of equivalent size.

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  • Les formules exclamatives dans les farces (1450-1550): le parler expressif entre en sc??ne

    Weir, Andrew (1992)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The French farce of the period 1450-1550 contains a cornucopia of verbal expressions that we may term 'exclamatory???; swearing, oaths, curses, insults, supplications, interjections, exhortations, scatology, invocations of saints, and so on. Yet this literary form, considered by researchers be a repository of spoken French of the later Middle Ages, remains largely unexplored from this standpoint. Indeed, there are few studies of 'expressive' modern language in existence, due largely to the inferior status given to this linguistic register by the majority of researchers. This thesis seeks to examine and quantify the formulaic nature of exclamatory discourse in the farces. By adopting a broader definition of the word 'exclamation' than that currently accepted, we seek to unite the disparate and fragmentary attitudes of the few researchers who have expressed the view that this aspect of discourse merits further analysis. It is asserted that examination of formulae (i.e. leitmotivic usages) allows an objective assessment of affective language; the formulaic constructions are shown to be themselves subject to formulaic modification. A database of 7668 quotations (68,500 words) from 99 farces is used to establish a taxonomy which shows usage in context. The taxonomy is organised around headwords, which form the nuclei of the various expressive domains. From this taxonomy, 858 formulae are extracted and described. The relative frequency of occurrence of the phrases in the taxonomy is portrayed in graphical form. The field of research from 1900 to the present is examined. The attitudes of researchers are shown to have undergone evolutionary rather than revolutionary development in the course of the century; the abovementioned divergence of methodologies (and definitions of the field of research), is asserted to have hindered an advance of research in this area. Possibilities for further research are suggested, for example in the field of comparative inter-lingual studies.

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  • Spectroscopic studies of chemically synthesised polyaniline and its ability to act as radical scavenger

    Gizdavic-Nikolaidis, Marija (2005)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Note: Thesis now published in various journals, details in the Access Instructions file. During the past almost three decades, conducting polymers have been the subject of intense scientific and industrial research and development worldwide. A general background of the fundamental principles and concepts of conducting polymers and their applications is presented in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2, the characterization of chemically synthesised emeraldine base polyaniline (EB-PANI), acetone-extracted to remove impurities, is examined. Spectroscopic studies PANI at different levels of oxidation are reported, and the structural changes in as-synthesised EB-PANI upon doping with HCl and iodine vapour are investigated. A maximum in the number of unpaired electron spins was found in 1M HCl doped PANI, corresponding to emeraldine salt PANI (ES-PANI), which indicates that bipolarons form at higher doping levels. Also, a maximum conductivity of 0.478 S cm-1 was observed for 1M HCl doped PANI, and no significant change in the conductivity was observed at higher doping levels. A new mechanism of iodine doping of EB-PANI was proposed, which occurs by the oxidation of the benzenoid diamine units, instead of the quinoid diimine units as previously proposed. In Chapter 3, the incorporation of planar Cu(II) complexes as dopants into ES-PANI was investigated by means of EPR and IR spectroscopy. A decrease in the intensity of the EPR signals from polarons in Cu(II) complex-doped PANI samples was observed, while the Cu(II) anion concentration increases and favors the formation of bipolarons in Cu(II) complex-doped PANI systems. The reactions of EB-PANI following different levels of reduction or HCl doping with CuCl2 aqueous solution are also investigated and new reaction mechanisms are proposed. The conductivities of the resulting samples have also been measured and discussed. The ability of aniline and PANI samples to act as antioxidants using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical method are investigated by means of UV-VIS, FTIR and EPR spectroscopy in Chapter 4. A study of the kinetics of the reaction between DPPH and aniline showed that the reaction is first order with respect to DPPH and approximately second order with respect to aniline. A further investigation of the mechanism of the aniline/DPPH reaction and products of the reaction (aniline oligomers and DPPHH) by magnetic resonance techniques is discussed in Chapter 5. This study has resulted in the identification for the first time of uncapped dimers and trimers of aniline oligomers in solution by EPR spectroscopy. In Chapter 6, for the first time, the applicability of various 13C and 15N solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) techniques in the investigation of the changes in the structure of PANI that occur upon reaction with DPPH radicals was investigated and discussed. The results indicate partial oxidation of PANI samples upon reaction with DPPH, which is consistent with previously obtained FTIR and EPR data in Chapter 4. In Chapter 7, some further research directions and projects involving chemically synthesised PANI are briefly described.

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  • Human resource management in Chinese-western joint ventures

    Chen, Shaohui, 1966- (2004)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The international human resource management models developed in the last decade pursue a contextual analysis of the standardisation (global integration) of multinational parent companies??? human resource management policies and practices and localisation (local differentiation) of host countries' practices. However, as a popular but unique international alliance, the process by which international joint ventures determined HRM policies and practices remained unclear. This research utilizes a resource dependency perspective to explore the company-specific determinants of Chinese-western joint ventures' HRM formation, by investigating JV parent companies HRM decision drivers in terms of contractual and non-contractual resources, expertise, consistency requirements, and internationalization experience. Through five in-depth case studies, this research demonstrated that HRM standardisation or localisation is a function of the IJV parents??? HR decision drivers. Additional variables, contextual factors and future research directions are discussed. Contributions of this research include a balanced consideration of both partners in the international joint venture to counter the ethnocentric lens of MNC-subsidiary relationships. The research recasts standardisation and localisation as a continuum that should express the interests of multiple partners, rather than the interests of one in a host country context.

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  • Gendered Resistance: A Comparative Study of Four Twentieth-Century Women???s Autobiographies

    Baisn??e, Val??rie (1994)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. This thesis examines comparatively the first parts of four twentieth-century women's autobiographies that have never been studied together: Simone de Beauvoir's Memoires d' une jeune fille rangdee (1958), Maya Angelou's I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings (1969), Janet Frame's To the Is-Land (1982) and Marguerite Duras's L'Amant (1984). Its aim is to show how these women resisted or subverted the established order in their childhood and adolescence and how, through their autobiographical practice, they challenge some assumptions about women's creativity. For this purpose, this study involves a discussion of the reception of each autobiograph, a close analysis of their narrative techniques, and an examination of the institutions in which each protagonist grew up, mainly family, school and/or church. Among these institutions, I emphasise the role of interpersonal relationships within the family, and in particular the mother/daughter relationship. This thesis draws attention to various strategies used by these women to resist subjection: through their bodies, through language, or simply through an escape from the institution, with three of these protagonists choosing to grow up in the street rather than in the family or in the school. Similarly, the way the presence of the narrator is established in the text challenges the reader's perception of the woman writer. I conclude that for these women, the search for identity is not a search for a role or a position but for a place, though they find it in the margins of society.

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  • Diagnostic writing assessment: the development and validation of a rating scale

    Knoch, Ute (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Alderson (2005) suggests that diagnostic tests should identify strengths and weaknesses in learners' use of language, focus on specific elements rather than global abilities and provide detailed feedback to stakeholders. However, rating scales used in performance assessment have been repeatedly criticized for being imprecise, for using impressionistic terminology (Fulcher, 2003; Upshur & Turner, 1999; Mickan, 2003) and for often resulting in holistic assessments (Weigle, 2002). The aim of this study was to develop a theoretically-based and empirically-developed rating scale and to evaluate whether such a scale functions more reliably and validly in a diagnostic writing context than a pre-existing scale with less specific descriptors of the kind usually used in proficiency tests. The existing scale is used in the Diagnostic English Language Needs Assessment (DELNA) administered to first-year students at the University of Auckland. The study was undertaken in two phases. During Phase 1, 601 writing scripts were subjected to a detailed analysis using discourse analytic measures. The results of this analysis were used as the basis for the development of the new rating scale. Phase 2 involved the validation of this empirically-developed scale. For this, ten trained raters applied both sets of descriptors to the rating of 100 DELNA writing scripts. A quantitative comparison of rater behavior was undertaken using FACETS (a multi-faceted Rasch measurement program). Questionnaires and interviews were also administered to elicit the raters' perceptions of the efficacy of the two scales. The results indicate that rater reliability and candidate discrimination were generally higher and that raters were able to better distinguish between different aspects of writing ability when the more detailed, empirically-developed descriptors were used. The interviews and questionnaires showed that most raters preferred using the empirically-developed descriptors because they provided more guidance in the rating process. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for rater training and rating scale development, as well as score reporting in the context of diagnostic assessment.

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  • Changes in organisational design in New Zealand privatised organisations

    Erakovi??, Ljiljana (2001)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Between 1985 and 1995, the New Zealand economy went through comprehensive changes. Economic reforms were oriented towards macro-economic adjustments, economic stabilisation, and market-oriented development policies. The public sector was the main arena of the reforms with great emphasis on reducing state intervention in economic affairs. Deregulation and privatisation were recognised as the instruments of macro-economic policies, introducing a market-oriented approach into the public sector economy. By 1988, twenty-four government trading enterprises including utilities, transport, and finance were corporatised. In a seven-year period, the government sold most of its commercial assets, including seventeen government-owned organisations, accounted for a total sale of NZ$ l3 billion. The objective of this thesis is to elaborate theory about changes in organisational design as initiated by changes in ownership nature, and to reflect on the complex interaction of political, economic, management, and technological factors in influencing organisational structure. The central purpose of the research is to explore the different pathways taken by New Zealand organisations through the process of transition from government departments to state-owned enterprises, and then to privately-owned companies. The research is undertaken through multiple case studies, the cases selected from the population of New Zealand corporatised and privatised companies. The resulting representative sample consists of sixteen organisations. The analysis relates to the 1985-1995 period, with data collected retrospectively from different sources. Content analysis of organisational documents is performed using QSR NUD*IST computer software. The research suggests three pathways of restructuring: incremental, radical, and reductive. It is shown that diversity in organisational pathways through the process of transition depends on the organisations' embeddedness in their institutional and technical environments, historical conditions of their existence, the indeterminacy of government actions, and the new owners' strategic intents. The incremental pathway refers to changes that occurred in the state-owned enterprises that had historically operated in a competitive environment. For these entities the shift to private ownership meant selective organisational movements towards efficiency improvement and further market expansion. The radical pathway refers to those organisations that after the status change experienced dramatic changes in all areas of business activities. The shift in ownership status made possible significant development of the organisations, from those operating in protected domestic markets, to large, internationally recognised corporations. The reductive pathway refers to those organisations that, in the period before status changes, were totally dependent on the public sector as both customer and supplier. The strategic orientation of their new owners reduced their business activities and resulted in them losing their independent organisational identity.

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  • Globalisation and the Return to Empire: an Indigenous Response = Te torino whakahaere, whakamuri

    Stewart-Harawira, Makere (2002)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. This thesis may be regarded as both a history of the present and a signifier for the future. Developed during a time of dramatic global upheavals and transformations, it is concerned with the political economy of world order and the ontologies of being upon which world order is predicated. As the framework for the world order of nation states, international law was the means whereby indigenous peoples within colonised territories reconstructed from sovereign nations to dependent populations. Undperpinning this body of law and the political formations of world order were sets of social and political ontologies which continue to be contested. These ontologies are frequently at variance with those of indigenous peoples and shape the arena within which the struggle for self-determination and the validation of indigenous knowledge, values and subjectivities is played out. Contextualised within the international political and juridical framework, the thesis utilises critical theoretical traditions to examine the participation of indigenous peoples in the construction of world order and new global formations. Positioned from a Maori perspective, the thesis also tracks the historical role of education in the development of world order and considers the role and form of Maori educational resistance. In engaging with these issues across macro and micro levels, the thesis identifies the international arena, the national state and forms of regionalism as sites for the reshaping of the global politico/economic order and the emergence of Empire. Allied to this are the reconstruction of hierarchies of knowledge and subjectivities within new Manichean divides. Key questions raised in the thesis concern the positioning of indigenous ontologies and epistemologies within the emergent global order, and the nature of resistance or response. Calls for a new ontology of world order are increasingly being articulated in response to the multiple and increasing crises of globalisation. This thesis argues that, far from irrelevant, traditional indigenous social, political and cosmological ontologies are profoundly important to the development of transformative alternative frameworks for global order.

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  • Exploring the artwork-world: perichoretic rehearsals of the divine encounter

    Jack, Matthew, 1963- (2004)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Christian religion and art enjoy a persistent relationship. Trying to account for this, I investigate the possibility that an aesthetic experience might facilitate a religious experience. I look at different kinds of experiences which typically are called "religious", and review some theories of religious experience. Even though my concern is not to use religious experience as a justification for religious belief, I settle, temporarily, for William Alston's account, which characterises religious experience as mystical perceptual experience. Alston's theory, however, underemphasises the role played in religious perceptual experiences by the experiencer's background beliefs. Arguing that background beliefs always play a part in how religious presentations are interpreted, I develop a theory called Alston-B. Within the structure of Alston-B, which identifies two highly integrated phases of perception (presentation and interpretation), I explore how artworks might play a part in these activities. The most persuasive theories, however, point away from understanding aesthetic experiences as a matter of observation. They point, rather, towards understanding them as imaginative personal encounters, or whole-person explorations of "worlds". While the force of this paradigm shift is felt, I examine three central background beliefs from the Protestant theological tradition. Alston-B, with its proper understanding of the importance of background beliefs in religious experience, requires that particular beliefs be admitted into enquiries about the nature of particular religious experiences. My examination of the background beliefs turns up material that suggests, in a way paralleled in my exploration of art theories, that the religious encounter is not so much a perceptual event as much as it is a perichoretic exchange. My investigation, then moves its focus from how a perceptual experience of art might serve a perceptual experience of God, to how a perichoretic encounter with art might serve a perichoretic experience of God. Drawing on Nicholas Wolterstorff's concepts of action, artwork-world, and projection, I argue that an encounter with an artwork can act as a rehearsal for the experience of God, since a "good" artwork provides its audience with a high degree of structural similarity (with regard to personal interaction) to the human encounter with the divine.

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  • New Zealand defence acquisition decision making: politics and processes

    Greener, Peter (2005)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The spectre of block obsolescence of major weapons platforms loomed throughout the 1980s, facing successive governments with significant challenges as they worked to make sustainable decisions on replacement or upgraded equipment for the New Zealand Defence Force. This thesis identifies the critical factors that have shaped and influenced defence acquisition decision-making processes from the election of the Fourth Labour Government in 1984 and the subsequent ANZUS crisis, through to the events of 9/11 and the following 'war on terror'. The thesis explores and analyses decision-making processes in relation to six acquisition decisions which have been made over a twenty year period. These are the decisions on the ANZAC frigates; the military sealift ship HMNZS Charles Upham; the second and third decisions on the ANZACS; the lease of the F-l6 strike aircraft; the upgrading of the P-3C Orion maritime patrol aircraft; and the purchase of armoured vehicles for the Army - the LAV IIIs. A model of decision-making processes is developed and evaluated in order to undertake the analysis, with the model demonstrating its utility in analysing complex processes throughout the course of the thesis. From here the thesis concludes that whilst many factors are brought to bear, New Zealand's own view of the world, external relationships, and the timing of decisions are amongst the most significant elements impacting on the decision making process, whilst individual actors play a significant part in shaping the process. Although there has been a great deal of publicity in recent years about rivalry between the Services and the place of bureaucratic politics, it nevertheless is apparent that officials have continued to work with rigour over time to provide the best judgement and advice possible to Ministers. Three out of six of the case studies which have been analysed, the ANZAC frigates, the upgrade of the P-3 Orions and the LAV III, have been or are in the process of successful implementation. In each case officials have worked to ensure that they provided the Government of the day with the most appropriate advice upon which to base decisions, although that advice has not always been popular. The analysis of each case study demonstrates key aspects of the decision-making process providing specific insights into the way defence decisions are made.

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  • An experimental study of speech enhancement for speech intelligibility of elderly listeners by steady-state suppression

    Kobayashi, Kei (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Telecommunications Inc.: Korea's Challenge to Qualcomm

    Kim, Sung-Young (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Building on the success of the 1990s, in the past decade the Korean state has attempted a transition from a strategy based on catching-up to one based on innovation in the domestic telecommunications industry, which I call ???Telecommunications Inc.???. Concomitant with this shift is a new set of challenges for the state in supporting companies that seek to reap first-mover advantages. How, if at all, has the Korean state supported the technological upgrading ambitions of domestic firms in the telecommunications industry in an era of greater economic openness? The core contention of this study is that the Korean state has coped with economic openness through adapting institutions. The existence of a ???quasi-pilot agency???, the extension of new linkages to a wider array of private sector participants, and the emergence of ???technology-centred forums??? represent the fine-tuning of organisational arrangements to cope with the pressures of global technology-based competition. The emergence of WTO rules appears to have helped recast rather than ruled out developmental strategy in the Korean telecommunications industry. The Korean state has coped with the rise of the global trade regime by adopting development strategies based on ???exploiting???, which entails increasing state activism in areas not explicitly prohibited and proactively embracing rules that encourages greater state activity. The Korean state has coped by ???modifying??? such rules to meet strategic industry objectives; either by using overt measures that take advantage of loopholes and ambiguities contained in the legal texts of the WTO and by using covert below-the-radar measures. I demonstrate my argument through an examination of the goals, underlying strategic motivations and the strategy involved in the Korean Government???s promotion of three technological standards related to telecommunications software, fourth generation mobile broadband, and mobile broadcasting.

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  • Pelvic floor muscle function in elite nulliparous athletes.

    Kruger, Jennifer (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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