14,394 results for Doctoral

  • Therapeutic potential of neural progenitor cell transplantation in a rat model of Huntington’s Disease

    Vazey, Elena Maria (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Huntington’s disease [HD] is a debilitating adult onset inherited neurodegenerative disorder with primary degeneration in the striatum and widespread secondary degeneration throughout the brain. There are currently no clinical treatments to prevent onset, delay progression or replace lost neurons. Striatal cell transplantation strategies under clinical evaluation appear viable and effective for the treatment of HD. However, the future of regenerative medicine lies in developing renewable, expandable multipotent neural cell sources for transplantation. This Thesis has investigated a range of novel developments for enhancing the therapeutic potential of neural progenitor cell transplantation in a quinolinic acid [QA] lesion rat model of HD using two cell sources, adult neural progenitor cells and human embryonic stem cell [hESC] derived neural progenitor cells. Chapter Three identified a novel method for in vitro lithium priming of adult neural progenitor cells which enhances their neurogenic potential at the expense of glial formation. Chapter Four demonstrated that lithium priming of adult neural progenitor cells altered their phenotypic fate in vivo after transplantation, enhancing regional specific differentiation and efferent projection formation. The therapeutic potential of this strategy was demonstrated by accelerated acquisition of motor function benefits in the QA model. Chapter Five then demonstrated the ability for post transplantation environmental enrichment to modify therapeutic functional outcomes in the QA lesion model, and through lithium priming and enrichment demonstrated that adult neural progenitors are amenable to combinatorial interventions which can alter their phenotypic fate and enhance anatomical integration. Chapter Six investigated the in vivo effects of in vitro noggin priming of hESC derived neural progenitor cells and identified enhanced safety and neuronal differentiation in the QA lesioned striatum after noggin priming. Furthermore Chapter Seven provided evidence for functional reconstruction and therapeutic functional benefits from transplantation of noggin primed hESC derived neural progenitor cells and also highlighted the need for systematic evaluations of hESC derived transplants to optimise their safety in vivo. These results are beneficial in demonstrating the realistic therapeutic potential held by these two cell sources. They demonstrate how transient interventions can enhance therapeutic outcomes of neural progenitor cell transplantation for HD and have developed the understanding of neural progenitor cell transplantation as a therapeutic tool, bringing transplantation from different cell sources closer to eventual translation for HD sufferers.

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  • The Embedded Faith Journeys of Generations X and Y within New Zealand Church Communities

    Johnstone, Carlton Graeme (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Whole document restricted, see Access Instructions file below for details of how to access the print copy. Generations X and Y have been described as constituting a ‘black hole’ in congregational life. The literature emphasises that generations X and Y are interested in spirituality but not institutional religion. There is now a substantial body of literature arguing that generations X and Y find churches ‘irrelevant’, ‘absent of God’, ‘too rigid’, and ‘laughably out of touch’ with their lives. This thesis argues that generational accounts of religion often fail to make an important distinction between the churched and unchurched in relation to generational distinctiveness. This is a distinction often drawn by sociologists of religion, pointing to two quite different cultures, one communally orientated towards faith communities and the other orientated towards personal freedom and a privatised spiritual quest. Generations X and Y in this thesis refer to a generational unit who share a particular type of faith: owned and embedded within a church community. Employing a methodological approach of in-depth religious life story interviews this thesis is a sociological investigation into the way Christian faith journeys of GenX and GenY are embedded within New Zealand church communities. It is argued that their faith does not make sense outside of this embeddedness. Embedded faith provides a framework for making sense of the participants’ religious biographies. Embedded faith is contrasted to a more privatised understanding of faith and religion popular within sociology of religion. The active dimension of embedded faith is demonstrated through an exploration of modes of engagement with worship and preaching. This thesis builds upon qualitative studies that continue to demonstrate the salience of the collective act of religious involvement and social belonging. One of the challenges of embedded faith however, is finding a church to embed it within. This thesis provides understanding and insight into the relationship between embedded faith and church switching. It explores the way that church switching is an intentional act of disembedding and re-embedding faith and the reasons for this practice.

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  • Torrent of Portyngale: a critical edition

    Montgomery, Keith David (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Torrent of Portyngale is a late medieval romance, preserved in a single manuscript, MS Chetham’s 8009. It is a complex mix of romance themes: adventure, loss and restoration, family and social status, piety and hypocrisy, woven around the love between Torrent, the orphaned son of a Portuguese earl, and Desonell, heir to the throne of Portugal. Cohesion to so wide a range of thematic material comes from the author’s careful elucidation of the religious and moral significance of the text’s events. While popular literature with a didactic purpose is not uncommon in medieval literature and elsewhere in romance (cf. Sir Amadace), modern criticism has failed to fully appreciate the purposeful combination of the two in Torrent of Portyngale. Torrent is perhaps the most critically neglected member of the Middle English verse romances. This is, in part, due to the state of the text, which suffers from extensive scribal corruption. The first modern edition, by James Halliwell (1842), was also careless and did little to create a good impression. The poem’s most recent editor, Eric Adam (1887), appreciated the shortcomings of Halliwell’s work and sought to restore Torrent. He incorporated evidence from fragmentary early prints of the text and drew on the fruits of nineteenth–century romance scholarship. Despite his good editorial intentions, however, it is now clear that he also made errors and editorial decisions that have coloured the way in which Torrent has been viewed since. The substantial body of twentieth and twenty–first century scholarship on Middle English romance and medieval studies in general has diminished the value of Adam’s edition to the point where it may be regarded as obsolete and a new edition long overdue. This fresh edition of Torrent has been prepared from microfilm of the manuscript. It re–examines the text’s phonology, morphology, syntax, dialect and vocabulary, to indentify and evaluate overlooked clues to help answer such fundamental questions as its date (scholars have dated it from the mid– fourteenth century to the first half of the fifteenth century) and provenance (it has been mapped from East Anglia to South Lancashire). Both the unflattering reputation that Torrent of Portyngale has gathered in modern times and the long–held notion that it is lacking in originality are challenged by the thorough re–examination of the state of the text, its scribes and their practices and evaluating them against prior and current romance scholarship. This new analysis provides a window through which Torrent can be viewed and valued as a product of its time, allowing it to be judged more accurately against its contemporaries and offering many new insights into a text that was clearly once popular.

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  • Influences on Midwifery Practice for the Management of Women in Labour

    Freeman, Lesa Maree (2004)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The research comprises a series of three studies to explore the practice of midwives ascertain what factors influenced midwives' decision making during the management of labour, and the partnership relationship between the midwife and the woman. A cross sectional design was employed using the predominant methods of interview, questionnaires and thinking aloud tape recordings as triangulation of data. Sample size comprised 104 independent, team and hospital based midwives who were providing labour care to 100 low obstetric risk nulliparous women in the Auckland metropolitan area, New Zealand. Results of this research identified that numerous factors both intrinsically and extrinsically had the potential to influence midwifery practice. The practice of the midwives in providing the labour care was found to be relatively homogenous despite the style of care provided (independent, team, or hospital based). On the other hand, the setting in which the majority of midwives practised (mainly large obstetric hospitals) identified practice influenced by the medical model of care. The influence of technology and the medical model of care, however, did not impact on the women working in partnership with the midwives. This was found to have occurred because the midwives adopted a humanistic approach to care, utilising technology alongside relationship-centred care. In determining what influenced midwives working in partnership with women, it was found that little emphasis was placed on the need for the midwives and the women to have equal status in decision making. Also, it was not deemed essential to have continuity of carer to achieve a relationship of partnership. Birth plans were found to be a beneficial tool for the sharing of information and structuring discussion. However, to assist women to express their preferences and be involved in the decision making process it is proposed that this could be achieved through a conceptual model of shared decision making. This shared decision making model meets the core objectives outlined in Changing Childbirth of continuity, choice, and control, and provides a partnership framework for midwives and women to recognise and utilise differences in their experience and knowledge to achieve their aims.

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  • Dynamics of benthic invertebrate communities in a northern New Zealand kauri forest stream ecosystem

    Towns, D. R. (1976)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The structure and function of benthic invertebrate communities in the Waitakere River, a kauri forest stream ecosystem, was studied in association with physicochemical parameters from May 1973 until March 1976. Emphasis was placed upon life histories of the dominant species, so that changes in community structure along the stream could be characterised. Analysis of vegetation along the forested watercourse showed a predominance of podocarps and kauri (Agathis australis) in the canopy, with tree ferns dominating in the subcanopy. As the stream flowed into open farmed areas, algal blooms, which were mainly present in summer in some forested sites, became more widespread and persistant. These appeared to influence the composition of the invertebrate communities. Physicochemical analyses of water from several sites in the Waitakere River and its tributaries (from January to December 1974, and in July 1975 and February 1976) provided no evidence that algal blooms could be associated with nutrients derived from agriculture. In the classification of Williams (1964) the waters were "calcium poor" (generally species), life history patterns and the presence of spatial and temporal overlap of related species (members of the genus Deleatidium). It is suggested that most of these characteristics occur throughout New Zealand, and are related to the types of detritus entering New Zealand streams, and the effects of long geological isolation.

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  • Reading readings: some current critical debates about New Zealand literature and culture

    Paul, Mary (1995)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Whole document restricted. Thesis is now published as a book. Paul M. (1999) Her Side of the Story: readings of Mander, Mansfield and Hyde. Dunedin: Otago University Press. http://www.otago.ac.nz/press/ for more information. This thesis examines contemporary interpretations of a selection of important texts written by New Zealand women between 1910 and 1940, and also a film and film script written more recently (which are considered as re-readings of a novel by Mander). The thesis argues that, though reading or meaning-making is always an activity of construction there will, at any given moment, always be reasons for preferring one way of reading over another-a reading most appropriate to a situation or circumstances. This study is motivated by a desire to understand how literary criticism has changed in recent years, particularly under the influence of feminism, and how a reader today can make a choice among competing methods of interpretation. Comparisons are drawn between various possible readings of the texts in order to classify methods of reading, particularly nationalist and feminist reading strategies. The over-all tendency of the argument is to propose a more self-critical and self-conscious approach to reading, and to develop a materialist and historical approach which I see as particularly important to the New Zealand context in the 1990s.

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  • Sponge lipids

    Lawson, Mishelle Patrice (1984)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The fatty acid content of 30 species of Porifera, including samples of Hexactinellida and Lithistida for which no fatty acid data previously existed, have been examined. Sponges are unique among animal phyla in diversity of fatty acids with generally high levels of LCFAs (C24-30), high unsaturation (mainly polyunsaturation), and high incidence of branched and odd chain fatty acids. Further, peculiarities in the proportions of individual acids of particular chain lengths distinguish the phylum. Hexactinellid fatty acid traits corresponded closely to those of Demospongiae while the calcareous species was atypical in exhibiting comparatively low levels of LCFAs and unsaturation. Seasonal and geographical influences on components of the fatty acid profile limit the extent to which this information can be utilised in a chemotaxonomic sense. The major trends in seasonal variation of fatty acid content were in an increase in the levels of unsaturated fatty acids and a decrease in the levels of LCFAs during winter. The effects were less pronounced in a subtidal than intertidal species and are considered to be related to environmental temperature. LCFAs predominated in the phospholipids but also were present in high amounts in neutral lipids. The major changes in fatty acid content of the total lipid with season were reflected in the fatty acids of the phospholipids. Also, LCFAs were concentrated in cellular membranes of the sponge. Temperature-induced seasonal changes in LCFA and UFA composition could be explained as an attempt to maintain .the membranes from which these acids originate, in an optimal state of physico-chemical function across the environmental temperature range. This interpretation is supported by observation of an increased content of higher melting point lipids in the sponge in summer. The sensitivity of sponge membranes to temperature was demonstrated by thermal-induction of phase separations in membrane lipids. A major phase separation in both isolated lipids and membranes occurred within a ca. 8 °C of the normal growth temperature range of the sponge. It indicated that membrane lipids exist in a fluid state in the living sponge so that any variation in environmental temperature would affect the lipid fluidity of the membrane and hence physiological membrane processes. This also lends support for some control being exerted on the lipid fluidity of sponge membranes. Any such control must be non-behavioural since sponges are poikilotherms. Minor changes in the proportions of different phospholipids with season were indicated and are also likely to affect the physical properties of membranes which contain them. In general, the lipid yield from sponges as a proportion of the total dry weight is highly dependent on the skeletal composition, specifically the ratio of the structural to living tissue. Therefore lipid yield is not a reliable parameter for classifying sponges. The occurrence of terpenoid metabolites has proved more informative taxonomically and characterised those groups with a low sterol content, e.g. Dictyoceratida. A coincidence of occurrence of terpenoids and high levels of C25 of fatty acids was noted.

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  • Ecology and Conservation of The Ouvea Parakeet, Eunymphicus cornutus uvaeensis (Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia)

    Robinet, Olivier Louis (1997)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The Ouvea Parakeet Eunymphicus cornutus uvaeensis, is an endangered bird endemic to Ouvea, Loyalty Islands, in the New Caledonian archipelago. Its population is estimated to be 300-600 birds, mainly in patches of forest in the north, with few parakeets in the centre and the south of the island. Its main habitat is high forest mixed with Melanesian fields. Within habitat distribution is very patchy, with an apparent site attachment during the breeding season. Radio tracking revealed that the home range of juveniles was small, and no dispersal was observed. The diet of the parakeets comprises the seeds and fruits of more than 23 plant species, including Ficus spp., Carica papaya and Rhamnella vitiensis. These plants have a long and asynchronous fruiting season, leading to an apparent abundance of food during the year. The number of breeding pairs was correlated with the density of potential nest sites in the three study areas, suggesting a nest site limitation. The length of the breeding season (August until January) allows the occurrence of double clutches. The parakeets nest in secondary cavities of only five species of trees (90% n Syzygium pseudopinnatum and Mimusops elengii). The clutch size is 2.9 eggs (range 2-4), of which on average 2.6 chicks hatch, 1.65 fledge, but only 0.75 per breeding pair is still alive 30 days after fledging. The main causes of loss are starvation of the third sibling due to hatching asynchrony, human harvest, and raptor predation after fledging. Ouvea is free of Ship Rat Rattus rattus and Norway Rat R. norvegicus. Kiore R. exulans, the rat present, is responsible for only a few predations at nests. The main predators are the Brown Goshawk Accipiter fasciatus, and humans that capture chicks to sell them as pets. 15-30 chicks are still captured every year and sold outside Ouvea. A population viability analysis of the Ouvea Parakeet shows that, with the current carrying capacity, this harvest is not sustainable and would eventually lead to extinction. Long-term survival would be best secured by establishing another population of 4-500 birds in the south of Ouvea, by increasing carrying capacity through habitat protection, nest site provision and restoration, decreasing the harvest and preventing the introduction of Ship Rat in Ouvea.

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  • The Management of Senior Managers: How Firms in New Zealand Acquire, Defend and Extract Value from their Senior Managerial Resources

    Gilbert, John (2006)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The main aim of this study was to develop an understanding of current practice in New Zealand firms with regard to the management of managers, in particular the senior management team consisting of the CEO and direct reports. Although theory drawn from organizational economics, human resource development and strategic human resource management do provide useful perspectives, there is not, as yet, a well developed or coordinated theory on the management of managers. In this study a theoretical framework is developed, which identifies three broad goal domains for the management of managers and the key strategic tensions that firms may have to deal with in order to achieve their goals within these domains. The theoretical framework also proposes a taxonomy of company styles that describes different patterns of practice that might be expected in firms at various stages of development or in different contexts. The empirical research is centred on case studies of practice in four mid-sized New Zealand firms selected to represent a cross-section of established companies in different sectors and with some variation in patterns of ownership. The main findings are that current practice is largely consistent with the predictions of the theoretical framework and that the firms in the study face pronounced challenges with regard to the recruitment and retention of managers. In particular, the difficulties are compounded by the relatively shallow pool of talent available in a small economy, which makes it difficult for firms to establish robust managerial internal labour markets capable of supplying the bulk of the firms' senior managerial needs. Other findings of note are that there is little evidence of clearly perceived agency issues of the kind raised by the organizational economics literature and that processes and systems for identifying managerial talent in general, and for developing managers at the senior level, are not well developed. The broad conclusions are that firms in a small economy face particular difficulties in making the transition from an emergent stage to having fully evolved internal capabilities to bring managers with superior talent through to senior positions.

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  • Productivity improvement in the New Zealand heavy engineering industry

    Seidel, R. H. A. (Rainer H. A.) (1988)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. An analysis of the industrial productivity of New Zealand heavy engineering companies is presented, and methods for improving the overall productivity of the heavy engineering industry and similar industries with job-shop type production are developed. The industry's productivity problems had been obvious for years. However, due to the lack of data and inadequacy of existing productivity improvement approaches, it had never been possible to quantify the extent of these problems, to analyse their causes and to develop methodologies for long-term improvement. The present investigation consists of two major aspects. The scientific element is concerned with the development of a methodology for productivity improvement appropriate to the situation of heavy engineering in New Zealand. This is supported by practice-oriented work in the industry, consisting of data acquisition activities in general, and of pilot studies in selected companies in order to assemble, analyse and evaluate specific data on productivity problems, and to apply and test the results thereof. The development of a methodology for productivity improvement is based on an extensive survey of literature on productivity measurement and improvement methods. The results of this survey, which was performed in parallel with the collection of industrial data, indicate that existing methods are not adequate to satisfy the requirements of productivity improvement in the local heavy engineering industry. On this basis, in-depth pilot studies in ten heavy engineering companies were performed. The objectives and methodology of these pilot studies are described in detail, as their results have a sizeable impact on the overall methodology chosen for this research. One of the most important conclusions drawn from the pilot studies is that productivity problems in the New Zealand heavy engineering industry cannot be solved by concentrating solely on workshop fabrication and technological factors. Generally these problems have complex cause-and-effect structures, and a multitude of non-technological factors from outside the workshop are involved. In order to account for these interrelated factors, a systems engineering approach was used, which offers a suitable basis for a productivity improvement methodology applicable to the situation as identified in the pilot studies. A main step in the system engineering approach is the development of a systems model which is used for structuring the complex inter-relationships found in practice. On the basis of this systems model of heavy engineering productivity a Productivity Assurance Programme is developed. This programme combines elements of quality assurance methods and the 'productivity cycle' principle of continuing improvement. The main elements of the Productivity Assurance Programme are matrices developed for the evaluation of the requirements of productive heavy engineering operation, and for the analysis of the productivity levels of the company where they are applied. The combination of these aspects provides a decision base on which organisational improvements can be founded. Due to its modular structure and the flexibility in defining specific productivity requirements, the applicability of the Productivity Assurance Programme is not limited to New Zealand heavy engineering companies, but also covers other job shop type industries with similar productivity problems. I case study illustrates the application of the Productivity Assurance Programme in practice.

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  • Contemporary Developments in Catholic Missiology : the Story of the Sisters of Our Lady of the Missions of the Province of Aotearoa New Zealand, 1861-2000

    Smith, Susan Elizabeth (2002)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Significant changes have occurred in the Catholic practice and theology of mission since the second Vatican Council (1962-65). To appreciate better the extent of these changes, I have charted major shifts in the story of mission of the Sisters of Our Lady of the Missions, founded in Lyon in 1861. In particular, I have examined the various theologies that informed these shifts. This micro-study of one particular Catholic group offers an entry-point into a consideration of contemporary Catholic theologies of mission and missionary practice. Since Vatican II, there has been a growing awareness of the universal and salvific presence of the Spirit in creation and history. I will seek to show how this has affected Catholic missiological reflection through an examination of the work of selected Catholic theologians. These theologians direct attention to the mission of the Spirit, and to the relation between the Spirit and the Son in the mission of the Triune God. This pneumatological emphasis often has been overlooked in theologies of mission that are more overtly ecclesiological or christological in their orientation. I then examine selected New Testament texts in order to discern the legitimacy of such pneumatological emphases in emerging trinitarian theologies of mission. While New Testament texts indicate that the mission of the Spirit is both antecedent and consequent to the mission of Jesus, the examination of scriptural texts in this research concentrates on the antecedent mission of the Holy Spirit in selected Johannine, Matthean and Lukan texts. My research suggests that an emphasis on the mission of the Spirit permits an understanding of mission that can expand the parameters associated with ecclesiocentric and christocentric models of mission.

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  • The Diaries of Geneviève Bréton 1874-1914

    Burnet, Catherine Margaret (2002)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. This thesis establishes a critical edition of the diaries of Geneviève Bréton (1849-l9l8) written between 1874 and 1914. As 'diary' and 'journal' are synonyms, the words are used interchangeably throughout the thesis. Geneviève Bréton was an educated, privileged and literary woman, the third child in a prestigious Parisian family. In this thesis, I argue that her diaries or private writing play the role of an alternative to, for a woman, socially stigmatized public writing. Although she wrote compulsively throughout her life, experimenting with the novel, she devotes most attention to the diary genre, exploring it beyond its conventional parameters as a feminine outlet. Diaries provide a compromise for Bréton as she finds a way around the limitations imposed by sexual difference and cultural mores in nineteenth-century France. As a woman, and as a wife, she accepts the social and cultural imperatives of her environment but, where possible, on her own terms. I argue that for Bréton, the daughter of publishers and friend of writers, the diary genre is a surreptitious entry into their world, her private form of literary expression and creation. I suggest that she recognises this fact at the end of her life when she herself undertakes the preparation of her 1867-1871 journals for publication. The 1874-l9l4 diaries are held in manuscript form in the archives of the Bibliothèque Nationale de France in Paris. The first five years of the diaries, based on the material prepared by Bréton, were published in 1985. The present work will facilitate further publications. The corpus of the later diaries, transcribed over a four-year period in the National Library archives in Paris, is preceded by a three-part introduction: a presentation and discussion of the methodology chosen to transcribe the diaries; an analysis of the nineteenth-century family, social, and literary contexts that influence the writing; and the development of a thesis on the rationale behind the existence of the diaries, their character, content, and volume. Bréton began the task of editing and retyping her journals. This edition of the subsequent journals carries on the undertaking of 'publishing and republishing Silenced texts' Julia Swindells, 'Liberating the Subject? Autobiography and "Women's History": A Reading of the Diaries of Hannah Cullwick' in The Personal Narratives Group eds., Interpreting Women's Lives: Feminist Theory and Personal Narratives, 1989, p.24.: that of drawing out the untold stories of creativity and rebellion against confinement which are part of history and literary history.

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  • A spore atlas of New Zealand ferns and fern allies

    Large, M. F. (1989)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. This work constitutes a detailed study of the spores, of the ferns and fern allies, both native and adventive, which grow in New Zealand, from the Kermadec Islands in the North, to the Chatham Islands in the East and the Subantarctic Islands in the South. Twenty live families with sixty five genera, two hundred and eleven species (of which c.20 are introduced) and three subspecies are included. Seven species are heterosporous the remainder are homosporous. Trilete spores are found in c.104 species representing c.30 genera. Perine is present in most taxa (with the exception of Gleichenia) and ranges from the large and sac-like form as seen in Cyathea smithii, to the thin and reduced form seen in Adiantum. Monolete spores are found in c.109 species representing c.37 genera (two genera are included twice, Isoetes which has trilete megaspores and monolete microspores and Lindsaea which has both monolete and trilete species). Perine is present in most taxa (except Sticherus spp.) and ranges from a fine deposit as seen in the Psilotaceae, to an enlarged form, heavily winged, as seen in the Aspleniaceae. Sculpture in all taxa (with the exception of the Lycopodiaceae and some members of the Ophioglossaceae, which may have ornamentation distributed distally), is present on both distal and proximal faces. One adventive taxon Equisetum arvense L. has an unusual circular laesura and elaborate elaters. Light micrographs of acetolysed and fresh spores along with scanning electron micrographs, are included for each taxon. Keys presented, are based on gross spore morphology and are applicable to fresh and acetolysed material. Descriptions include a list of synonymous species, details of spore shape, laesura/ae details, perine/exine sculpture and thickness (where sections allow), size (measured from n=50 spores per population), for samples treated with cotton blue (lactophenol aniline blue formula), mounted in glycerine jelly and acetolysed samples, mounted in silicone oil. Percentage size differences for acetolysed material mounted in glycerine jelly are also noted, along with previous spore dimensions recorded in the literature. Descriptions also contain chromosome number, where known, a list of previously recorded descriptions, a brief indication of geographic location and a list of vouchers for each sample. Experiments on the size and morphology of fern spores in reaction to different preparation techniques are discussed. Fresh spores of seven species, four trilete (Adiantum fulvum, Cyathea smithii, Hymenophyllum flabellatum and Lycopodium volubile) and three monolete (Blechnum chambersii, Paesia scaberula and Tmesipteris elongata), were assessed wth regard to the effect of three standard pretreatments (lactophenol aniline blue, 10% KOH, acetolysis) and two mounting media (glycerine jelly and silicone oil). Changes in morphology and size of the various wall layers were noted in comparison to spores observed fresh in water. Results indicate that variation includes shrinkage e.g. silicone oil and expansion of both exine and perine in glycerine jelly. Both effects are modified by previous treatments.

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  • Aspects of the structure of the Ùa Pou dialect of the Marquesan language

    Mutu, Margaret (1990)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Thesis now published as a book. Margaret Mutu with Ben Teʻikitutoua (2002). Ùa Pou : aspects of a Marquesan dialect. Canberra, ACT: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies. ISBN 0858835266. This thesis is made up of three parts; the first is an outline and discussion of the various approaches taken in the description of Polynesian languages in the last 30 years. It provides background discussion of the model of description used in the rest of the thesis. The second deals with the phonology of the 'Ua Pou dialect, concentrating in particular on two areas; the phonetics of the glottal stop phoneme, and penultimate vowel extension. The latter is a feature which has received no mention in any literature to date but is the most noticeable suprasegmental phonetic difference between the Marquesan dialects and the other Eastern Polynesian languages. The last four chapters describe the structure of phrases in the 'Ua Pou dialect. The first two of these deals with the centripetal particles of the noun and verb phrase respectively, that is, the particles within phrases which modify the base of that phrase. Particles which relate phrases to other phrases, that is, the prepositions and ai, are dealt with separately in the last two chapters since their description requires some comments on the syntax of the language.

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  • Queueing and Storage Control Models

    Sheu, Ru-Shuo (2002)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. This thesis is divided into two parts. The first part is about the control of a special queueing network which has two service nodes in tandem on each service channel. With capacity at each service node being finite, we compare som different control policies to find the admission and routing policies that minimise the blocking rate in the queueing system. We obtain limit theorems as the number of channels becomes large. The stochastic optimization technique we apply here is the Lagrangian method, using the Complementary Slackness Conditions to choose the optimal action. In the second part we consider two reservoir control problems. In the first, the cost function is a single simple linear function, and the second has two different cost functions and the choice of them forms a finite-state Markov chain. We find the optimal policies to determine how many units of water should be released from the reservoir under these two different models. We model the reservoir as a Markov decision process. The policy-iteration algorithm and the value-iteration algorithm are the main methods we apply in this part. In both problems we apply stochastic optimization techniques. The reservoir model uses a standard Markov decision process model, with the associated methods of policy-iteration and value-iteration to find the optimal state-dependant policy. In the routing problem we also interested in state-dependent policies, but here we wish to look at the system in the limit as the number of queues becomes large, so we can no longer us the technique of Markov decision processes. We look, instead, at the limiting deterministic problem to find the optimal policy.

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  • Microdisturbance to forest seedlings in New Zealand due to litterfall and animals

    Gillman, Lennard N. (2002)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Natural and artificial seedlings were monitored for damage by litterfall and animals over two years in five temperate forests in the North Island, New Zealand. Mortality was also recorded for natural seedlings. Two of the forest sites were Agathis australis/mixed angiosperm forest (Huapai and Cascades), two sites were mixed podocarp/angiosperm forest (Pureora and Ohakune), and one site was Nothofagus forest (Rotokuru). Litterfall damage rates of natural seedlings were similar to those of nearby artificial seedlings, and site means for the two were highly correlated (R2=0.95, P30x1.5 cm) surface area and macro-leaf-fall weight were both correlated with litterfall damage to artificial seedlings (R2>0.96, P<0.005 for both), but total macro-litterfall weight (ie. including deadwood) was not. This suggests that the rate of macro-leaf-fall is the primary factor that determines the litterfall damage regime. Macro-leaf-fall is in turn influenced by climate, because both the abundance of large leaved species and their productivity are linked to climate. However, protective vegetation within 2 m of the ground can reduce the risk of seedling damage by up to 75%. At Huapai and Pureora the rate of damage to artificial seedlings under different species combinations were compared. At Huapai, the risk ranged from 39%/yr beneath canopies with both Agathis australis and Cyathea dealbata down to 2%/yr beneath canopies without A. australis, C. dealbata, or Rhopalostylis sapida. At each site 20 seedling pairs of the two most abundant seedling species were selected. One of each pair was experimentally damaged by pinning to the ground in order to simulate litterfall damage. Pinned seedlings had a higher mortality over two years than the unpinned control group. However, resilience to damage, in terms of survival and height regained, varied substantially between species. Unexpectedly, pinned Nothofagus menziesii and Hedycarya arborea seedlings grew much faster in response to damage than nearby unpinned seedlings of the same species. Heterogeneity in litterfall risk among microsites, and differential resilience to litterfall damage among seedling species, indicates that some species have a greater chance of surviving litterfal in particular microsites than others. The litterfall damage regime, therefore, has the potential to contribute to regeneration niche differentiation and may thereby contribute to plant species richness.

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  • Multi-Vendor System Network Management: A Roadmap for Coexistence

    Gutierrez, Jairo A. (1997)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. As computer networks become more complex, and more heterogeneous (often involving systems from multiple vendors), the importance of integrated network management increases. This thesis summarises the efforts of research carried out 1 ) to identify the characteristics and requirements of an Integrated Network Management Environment (INME) and its individual components, 2) to propose a model to represent the INME, 3) to demonstrate the validity of the model, 4) to describe the steps needed to formally specify the model, and 5) to suggest an implementation plan for the INME. One of the key aspects of this thesis is the introduction of three different and complementary models used to integrate the emerging OSI management standards with the proven-and-tried network management solutions promoted by the Internet Activities Board. The Protocol-Oriented Network Management Model is used to represent the existing network management supported by the INME: ie, OSI and Internet-based systems. The Element-Oriented Network Management Model represents the components that are used within individual network systems. It describes the managed objects, and the platform application program interfaces (APIs). This model also includes the translation mechanisms needed to support the interaction between OSI managers and Internet agents. The Interoperability Model is used to represent the underlying communications infrastructure supporting network management. The communications between agents and managers is represented with this model by using the required protocol stacks (OSI or TCP/IP), and by depicting the interconnection between the entities using the network management functions. This three-pronged classification provides a richer level of abstraction facilitating the coexistence of the standard network management systems, allowing different levels of modeling. complexity, and improving the access to managed objects. The ultimate goal of this thesis is to describe a framework that assists developers of network management applications in the process of integrating their solutions to an open systems network management platform. This framework will also help network managers to minimise the risks involved in the transition from first generation network management systems to more integrated alternatives as they become available.

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  • Maori Settlement on South Kaipara Peninsula

    Spring-Rice, Wynne (1996)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. This thesis is a regional study using several kinds of evidence, The focus of the work is the South Kaipara peninsula, on the west coast north of Auckland and the successive Maori peoples whose home it was, There are four major sections: the social environment, the natural environment, archaeological research and, drawing these three together, a multi-disciplinary approach to analysis. The first section comprises three chapters. Chapter 1 traces the doings of the ancestors, using traditions and whakapapa gathered during the latter part of last century. Chapter 2 studies early eyewitness accounts, the advent of Europeans and the changes they effected. Chapter 3 considers the serious consequences of nineteenth century land alienation on the Maori inhabitants of the peninsula, and of population decrease through warfare, European diseases and economic change. The second section contains two chapters. Chapter 4 provides a background to subsequent chapters and covers geomorphology, soils, climate, flora and fauna. Chapter 5, using ethnographic material, explores the resources which would have been important to the Maori people, and the impact which successive groups made to the environment over time. Section 3, of two chapters, describes the archaeological research undertaken on the peninsula since the late 1950s. Chapter 6 includes results of the intensive site recording which began in 1975, and was largely completed in 1978. An overall analysis of the different kinds of sites and their locations is made in relation to soils, topography and height above sea level. Chapter 7 describes and analyses a midden sampling project which produced radiocarbon dates, palaeoenvironmental and shellfish species studies, and a detailed examination of the common cockle which occurred in all middens. The fourth section, Chapter 8, analyses settlement patterns. Because of the very large number and concentration of sites, the peninsula is divided into 14 geographic units so that aspects of these could be compared. Included are 1) landscape and topographic features, 2) historical settlement information, 3) the recorded sites and their frequencies, and 4) site type locations and frequencies. The findings for the areas are compared and conclusions drawn to suggest an overall culture history of the Maori people of the South Kaipara Peninsula.

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  • Sandstone architecture and development of the Tunanui slope basin-fill, Hikurangi forearc, New Zealand

    Timbrell, Grenville (2003)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. This thesis describes the facies, architecture and development of the Tunanui Formation, a deep-marine, sand-rich, slope basin-fill of Middle Miocene age (NZ stages Clifdenian to Lillburnian). The study area is located in the northern Hawke Bay region of the East Coast Basin, North Island, New Zealand, and is within the forearc domain of the Hikurangi active margin. It is part of a structurally complex and now largely emergent accretionary wedge with sediments dating from basal Miocene to present. Due to renewed plate subduction and compressive movements along the margin in the Neogene, highly restricted intra-slope basins developed between rising thrust ridges of the inner-forearc. The Tunanui deepwater-clastics were originally deposited as flat-lying sediments within one such elongate slope-basin, atop the deformed sedimentary prism. These rocks are now present within the subsurface of offshore Hawke Bay and extend N/NW to the onshore areas. Structural inversion has produced outcrops of Tunanui sediments in the core of two major anticlines, the Mangaone and the Morere Highs. In the Morere Anticline along the Paritu Coast south of Gisborne, spectacular sea-cliff exposures provide a unique opportunity to investigate the nature and development of over 1000 m thickness of sandy, deepwater, slope basin-fill representing almost the entire stratigraphic section of the Tunanui Formation. Rocks in this remote region have not been previously described in any detail. A database of thousands of digital field photographs, together with 71 stratigraphic logs and some deep borehole information has enabled the production of a series of detailed correlations for the Tunanui sections. In turn, the number of logs available has made possible the construction of a large-scale (over c.25 km in length) stratigraphic cross-section, slightly oblique to the basin axis, through the deepwater clastic succession. Interpretation has allowed a series of deductions to be made concerning the nature of the 'Tunanui Basin' fill and its development, the types of gravity flow elements present and in most field areas, the production of a detailed sandstone architecture for the Tunanui deposits. Five phases of basin fill are recognised. These range from highly restricted, over-thickened sandstone packages, deposited under conditions of high slope gradient and complex basin-floor topography, within the lower parts of the sequence, to laterally continuous 'fan-like' deposits, and thinner-bedded sandstones within the upper part of the Tunanui section. A c.250 m thick sequence that is slightly younger than the upper Tunanui Formation, containing numerous channel-forms (the Tangawa Formation), is present on the East Coast of the Mahia Peninsula c.17 km to the south of the Paritu Coast outcrops. The architecture of the Tangawa Formation, and its regional structural position, indicates that it was the 'spill' of the Tunanui basin-fill into an adjacent down-slope sediment trap within the forearc terrane. This depocentre was also controlled by deep-seated imbricate thrust faulting in common with the Tunanui Basin. Several different types of deepwater channel-forms are present within what is a limited stratigraphic range. The vertical sequence reflects an overall progression within a muddy slope from deeply incised, erosive systems, to laterally offset-stacked channels of a mixed erosional depositional type.

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  • Detection and choice

    Alsop, Brent Llewellyn. (1988)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Davison and Jenkins (1985) suggested that behaviour allocation between concurrent alternatives was affected by the the degree to which animals could discriminate between the response-reinforcer contingencies associated with each of those concurrent alternatives. The present study evaluated their models for free-operant concurrent-schedules performance and discrete-trial signal-detection performance. In Experiment 1, pigeons were trained in six sets of conditions. In each set of conditions, two intensities of white light were used as the sample stimuli in a discrete-trial signaldetection procedure. The relative reinforcer frequency for correct choice responses was varied across conditions. The same two stimuli were then arranged as the discriminative stimuli in a switching-key concurrent schedule. The relative reinforcer frequency was varied across conditions. Then the intensity of one of the white lights was varied, and these procedures were repeated for the next set of conditions. Analysis of the data from the signal-detection procedures showed that the effect of varying relative reinforcer frequency decreased as discriminability between the stimuli increased. A new model of signal-detection performance, based on the Davison and Jenkins' (1985) model of concurrent-schedule performance, accounted for this interaction. There was ordinal relation between measures of stimulus discriminability obtained from the signal-detection procedure, and measures of the effect of varying relative reinforcer frequency obtained from the concurrent-schedule procedures.

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