14,394 results for Doctoral

  • Fictionalising the facts : an exploration of the 'place' of Aotearoa/New Zealand in the post-war autobiographical fiction of Anna Kavan

    Sturm, Jennifer (2006)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. This PhD thesis explores the Aotearoa / New Zealand influence in the post-World War II writing of English author, Anna Kavan. In response to her provocatively worded 1943 Horizon-published article on the socio-cultural features of that country, I sought evidence of the source of her apparent disdain. Imperialist in tone and disparaging of the post-colonial Other, the article contributed to the reflective dialectic of national identity of her temporary home. The discovery of unpublished and not previously discussed short stories, written during Kavan’s stay in Aotearoa / New Zealand, revealed a contrarily positive perspective, and offered an anomalous body of material that illuminate the early wartime experiences of the residents of Auckland's North Shore. Comparison between the stories in the manuscript and work published by Kavan since World War II exposed the compellingly autobiographical nature of her writing. This revelation was underscored by a second discovery, that of a previously-unseen cache of correspondence, letters sent from Kavan to her Aotearoa / New Zealand lover, the conscientious objector and author, Walter [Ian] Hamilton. The letters, unpublished short stories, and published work, collectively manifest an intertextuality which reinforces their status as autobiographical. Close analysis has determined that much of Kavan's 'fiction’ is in fact thinly disguised life-writing, a construct which would otherwise be unnoticed, in the absence of back-grounding evidence. This thesis further proves Kavan's authorial appropriation of thematic aspects of the Aotearoa / New Zealand vocabulary, geography, and historical aesthetic. The thesis also corrects extant inaccurate biographical material, particularly with respect to the years 1939 - 1943. Discovery of a small collection of photographs, featuring Kavan in a New Zealand context, has added impetus to the move to install her as a transient constituent on the continuum of New Zealand literature.

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  • Stress-strain and strength properties of an Auckland residual soil

    Meyer, V. (Vaughan) (1997)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The stress-strain and strength properties of a residual soil sampled from the North Shore, Auckland, were investigated through stress and strain-controlled triaxial tests. Emphasis was placed on determining the behavioural characteristics of the soil under conditions of very low effective stress. The soil sampled was a silty clay, derived from the Waitemata Series, with the following average properties: natural water content 45.5%; initial bulk density l707 kg/m3; density of soil particles 2.63 t/m3; plastic limit 32; and liquid limit 60. The peak shearing resistance of the soil was observed to be accurately defined using the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, even at very low confining pressures. In addition, the Waitemata clay exhibited a measurable tensile strength of between 7.7 and 12.0 kPa. These results lead to the conclusion that the observed cohesion intercept for the soil could be relied upon for design purposes. The natural variation in void ratio of the Waitemata clay led to the use of total volumetric strain for improved stress-strain correlations. A modified critical state relationship for the soil was subsequently presented, with a unified soil model being used to predict the behaviour of the Waitemata clay. This model demonstrated the ability to replicate the general stress-strain and peak characteristics of the soil. The Waitemata clay did not display the yielding characteristics which are common to residual soils, rather the soil demonstrated continuous yielding behaviour. Anisotropy of the Waitemata clay was also found to be negligible. The use of volumetric strain in the calculation of consolidation properties required only simple modifications to existing consolidation formulae. Bender element tests enabled the small strain shear modulus of the soil to be evaluated. Comparisons of Gmax with the undrained shear strength produced a linear correlation (Gmax =284su) which was significantly lower than expected.

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  • Molybdenum-base metal-bismuth mineralisation at Eliot Creek, Karamea Bend, and Taipo Spur, North-west Nelson, New Zealand

    Rabone, Stuart Darwin Clifford. (1977)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Molybdenite mineralisation in North-west Nelson is associated with small granite intrusives. Molybdenite occurs within the Separation Point Granite Batholith (Cretaceous) at Mt Evans (Canaan). Other occurrences are within lower Palaeozoic metasediments near the eastern margin of the Karamea Granite Batholith (late Palaeozoic-ear1y Mesozoic) - at Eliot Creek, Roaring Lion River, and Karamea Bend; or within the Karamea Batholith, at Taipo Spur and Mt Radiant. The molybdenite mineralisation and its genetically associated intrusives have been dated (K - Ar) as Cretaceous (~110 m.y.) at Eliot Creek and Taipo Spur. The Karamea Bend occurrence is of the same age. With the exception of Taipo Spur, where molybdenite is associated with pyrite-magnetite, a basemetal-bismuth mineral assemblage is associated with the molybdenite. At Mt Radiant and Mt Evans bismuth minerals (emplectite and aikinite respectively) occur in mutual association with molybdenite in a single paragenesis. At Karamea Bend and Eliot Creek. a later paragenesis of base metal sulphides and bismuth minerals (aikinite, bismuth-bearing acanthite, and bismuth-zinc fahlore at Karamea Bend; schapbachite, joseite-type sulphosalts and native bismuth at Eliot Creek), is superimposed on, or peripheral to, the earlier molybdenite mineralisation. Mapping of hydrothermal alteration at Eliot Creek, Karamea Bend and Taipo Spur shows the presence at all three of an inner potassic potash feldspar zone (with hydrothermal biotite at Taipo and Karamea Bend). At Karamea Bend and Eliot Creek this is surrounded by a phyllic-type albite-muscovite zone; whereas at Taipo the potassic zone is margined by an epidote-albite sericite zone of propylitic type, in which the molybdenite mineralisation is concentrated. In contrast, it is preferentially associated with the potassic zone in the other two cases. Studies of fluid inclusions in sulphide-associated quartz in the various deposits indicate that hydrothermal alteration and formation of disseminated molybdenite mineralisation occurred at temperatures ranging from 330° to 390°C, occasionally up to ~450°. Molybdenite veins. at Mt Radiant and Mt Evans were, similarly, formed at c. 370°C, whereas vein molybdenite at Eliot Creek was deposited at somewhat lower temperatures, 270° to 330°C. Base metal sulphides and bismuth sulphosalts at Eliot Creek were formed at much lower temperatures, ~200°C. Fluid inclusions further show that the hydrothermal fluids had low salinities (<26 wt.% NaCl eq.) and high CO2 activities (by ubiquitous presence of liquid CO2), for the molybdenite and base-metal-bismuth depositional stages. During molybdenite mineralisation in the higher range of temperatures, fluids were at or above the critical point, as indicated by dry-vapour inclusions. Alteration mineralogy and sulphide assemblages indicate that the hydrothermal solutions depositing molybdenite were moderately to weakly acidic, and that deposition of base-metalbismuth mineralisation was related to pH changes resulting from changes in CO2 activity consequent on fracturing and pressure release. The granitic intrusives which have given rise to the molybdenite mineralisation are characterised by several unusual chemical features: as regards major elements, the unaltered intrusives are adamellites with very high Na2O/K2O ratios, having a chemical composition comparable to trondhjemites. Trace element compositions are also unusual, particularly in the presence of extremely high strontium and rather high barium. In the unmineralised parts of the adamellites, molybdenum is at specialised levels at the three localities investigated (Eliot Creek, Karamea Bend, and Taipo Spur) While Eliot Creek also shows tin specialisation. Consideration of the distribution, situation and size of the molybdenum-bearing intrusives, and of their peculiar chemistry, collectively indicate a probable origin by differentiation from basaltic lithospheric material in the deeper parts of a subduction-zone environment.

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  • The development of the common law defences of fair comment and qualified privilege to a defamation action with particular reference to New Zealand

    Tobin, Rosemary (2002)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. This thesis examines two important common law defences to the defamation action: fair comment, now known as honest opinion in New Zealand, and qualified privilege. It does not purport to be an exhaustive study of the law of defamation. The thesis traces the development of the two defences over the last two centuries, and the discernable shift in the balance the law of defamation achieves between freedom of expression and reputation towards freedom of expression and away from the protection of private reputation as New Zealand became a mature democracy. The fair comment defences applies to matters of defamatory communications of opinion. The change of nomenclature to honest opinion more accurately reflects the inherent nature of the defence. From the inception of the defence if the subject matter of a communication was in the form of opinion, honestly held, it could be widely disseminated, provided the topic was of public interest. The defence began with literary criticisms, but then expanded to encompass comment on public figures, particularly political figures insofar as the comment concerned their public life. It is argued that the suggestion which has recently been made by the courts that the subject matter of the opinion need no longer be on a matter of public interest is both misguided and wrong. The qualified privilege defence, based on reciprocity of duty/interest in the occasion of communication, concerns the publication of false and defamatory matters of fact. For this reason the courts were traditionally reluctant to permit the defence when the communication received wide publication. Towards the end of the 20th century, however, this changed with the greater recognition accorded freedom expression in a mature democracy. Courts in England, Australia and New Zealand acknowledged that all members of the public had an interest in political discussion, particularly as it related to political figures, and that the media had a corresponding duty or interest in disseminating such information. The courts recognised that this had the potential to leave those who sought public office with little recourse when their reputation was attack in the media. Each jurisdiction adopted a different solution to this problem. I argue that the New Zealand Court of Appeal's solution has left the law in an unsatisfactory state and requires statutory intervention by the legislature.

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  • Signalling mechanisms coordinating nutritional status and lactation

    Stewart, Kevin William (2004)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The pathways by which nutritional status is signalled to the mammary glands and the metabolic sites targeted by these pathways have not been identified. Understanding of these pathways is of particular importance in species such as rodents and ruminants in which mammary metabolism is extremely sensitive to food availability. The studies in this thesis investigated mechanisms by which nutritional state was signalled to the mammary glands using the lactating rat as an experimental model. An in vivo preparation for analysis of the effects of altered nutritional state on substrate supply to, and uptake by, the inguinal mammary glands was established, as this had not been accurately performed before in rats. This preparation was used to record a large fall in mammary glucose uptake with food deprivation and a rapid restoration of uptake after refeeding. Results demonstrated that mammary glucose uptake, and hence mammary metabolism, was not closely linked to glucose supply in lactating rats. Glucose supply is unlikely to be a key factor signalling nutritional state to the mammary glands. Experiments in which the cutaneous branch of the posterior division of the femoral nerve innervating the inguinal mammary glands was severed showed that these neural pathways did not contribute to the maintenance of mammary metabolic activity in the fed and refed states or to the suppressed activity in food deprived rats. Neural signalling is unlikely to have a direct role in controlling mammary metabolism in rats. An in vitro method for measuring the uptake of glucose by rat mammary acini was developed. Insulin administration increased glucose uptake in acini from both fed and food deprived rats. Treatment with a crude gut extract enhanced uptake of glucose in acini from food deprived, lactating rats, but not in acini from fed rats. It was concluded that insulin and/or a factor from the gut may be involved in signalling the mammary gland of the restoration of nutrient supply when food deprived rats are refed. Proteomic studies were performed to investigate the effect of food deprivation and insulin on the abundance of intracellular proteins in acini from fed and food deprived, lactating rats. Analysis of over 800 protein spots detected 7 that were regulated by food deprivation, 26 that were regulated by insulin, and 9 in which the regulation was different in acini from fed and food deprived rats. None were regulated by both food deprivation and insulin. This suggests that decreased blood insulin concentration during food deprivation is unlikely to be the only signal that results in decreased mammary metabolism. Identification of proteins affected by food deprivation and insulin has led to new insights into some of the intracellular mechanisms regulated by these factors.

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  • A Study of near-surface ozone concentrations in the city of Auckland, New Zealand

    Adeeb, Farah (2006)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. This research provides insight into large-scale spatial variation of ozone (O3) distribution in the Auckland region and was designed to increase our understanding of O3 behaviour and distribution in a coastal-urban situation. The research was also carried out with a view to assisting regulatory agencies optimize future monitoring networks, and to help identify locations where human health and natural resources could be at risk in the future. Although the research was limited to one region, the results are valuable for improving the conceptual understanding of formation of high ozone concentrations in a more general sense in the New Zealand and Southern Hemisphere. The work reported in this thesis is aimed at studying O3 concentrations and the influence of the most relevant meteorological variables on an average coastal New Zealand city where precursor emissions are mainly due to traffic exhaust. It deals with the use of Principal Component Analysis method for determining O3 concentrations as a function of meteorological parameters. The study region includes the entire Auckland isthmus, and extends from Whangaparaoa in the North to Pukekohe in the South. Surface O3 data from four sites (Whangaparaoa, Musick Point, the Sky Tower and Pukekohe) for a 4-year period(October 1997 to October 2001) for the Auckland region were examined. Ambient concentration of O3 was characterized in terms of diurnal, weekday/weekend, seasonal and spatial variations in concentration using O3 measurements from the four air quality sites. The monthly average ambient background O3 concentrations at the monitoring sites during this study ranged from 16-30 ppb, much lower than those found in the Northern Hemisphere. The measured seasonal O3 record in the Auckland region, in common with many other remote sites in the Southern Hemisphere, exhibited a summer minimum and a winter maximum. Background concentrations of O3 (as seen in air of marine origin) made a significant contribution to the observed ambient concentrations. A unique feature of Auckland's air quality was the dilution of polluted city air due to the mixing of east coast air into the cleaner west coast circulation leading to overall lower average O3 concentrations in summer. The magnitude, frequency and spatial extent of maximum O3 concentrations were identified, and the observed patterns linked to the prevailing meteorological, topographic, and emission characteristics of the region. However, at no time at any site or season did the O3 concentration exceed the l-hour New Zealand Ministry for the Environment guideline of 75 ppb. O3 depletion was observed to occur at the urban sites, with O3 scavenging by nitric oxide believed to be the dominant depletion mechanism. The seasonal cycle was characterized by elevated O3 concentrations in the winter (nighttime level >24 ppb) and low mixing ratios in the summer (nighttime levels in the range 14-20 ppb). The afternoon O3 maxima found at the three low elevation sites under the impact of "Auckland city" plume were on average, 1.5 to 1.7 times higher than those associated with the "marine sector". A state of the art diagnostic meteorological model, namely CALMET, was used to generate wind fields for the Auckland region. These wind fields were then used to construct backward trajectories on days when high O3 concentrations (episodes up to 6l ppb) were observed. The un-even distribution of the meteorological monitoring sites provided justification for running the diagnostic model CALMET and exploring the utility of using such a model when topography/land use prohibits monitoring sites in certain sections of the domain. It was found that the high O3 events recorded at the monitoring sites during the study period coincided with transport episodes originating from Auckland's urban and industrial areas. For the occurrence of high O3 concentrations at downwind sites, it was found that not only wind direction from the urban areas of Auckland, but that high solar radiation was important as well. On four out of the five cases when photochemical production of O3 was found to occur, high O3 concentrations were associated with a particular type of diurnal evolution of wind direction wind fields associated with the sea breezes. In addition to the analysis of ambient o3 concentrations and O3 episodes, field measurements were carried out in an attempt to detect and subsequently understand the interaction between particulate matter and O3 in the Auckland region, a multivariate statistical analysis approach was utilized. Particulate matter in the size range 2.75-6.25 μm accounted for over 70% of the total aerosol concentration at all sampling sites. Surface area of particulate matter variable (especially in the size class 2.75-4.25 μm) was statistically significant in explaining variation in O3 concentration. However, the net change in the adjusted R2 indicated that the effect of adding particulate matter in the multiple regression model for the present dataset was relatively minor except at Musick Point.

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  • Mechanisms of cell death in Alzheimer's disease

    MacGibbon, Geraldine Anne (1998)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Related published articles. MacGibbon GA, Cooper GJS, Dragunow M. Acute application of human amylin, unlike β-amyloid peptides, kills undifferentiated PC12 cells by apoptosis. NeuroReport 1997; 8:3945-3950. MacGibbon GA, Lawlor PA, Walton M, et al. Expression of Fos, Jun and Krox family proteins in Alzheimer's disease. Exp Neurol 1997; 147:316-332. MacGibbon GA, Lawlor PA, Sirimanne E et al. Bax expression in mammalian neurons undergoing apoptosis, and in Alzheimer's disease hippocampus. Brain Res 1997; 750:223-234 Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, which is characterised clinically by dementia and progressive memory loss, and pathologically by neuronal degeneration, plaques (insoluble β-amyloid (Aβ) protein) and neurofibrillary lesions (abnormally phosphorylated tau protein). The mechanisms by which cells die in AD remain largely unknown and controversial. There is some evidence to suggest that cell death in AD brains may occur by apoptosis, and that Aβ might be involved in this process. Apoptosis, a type of cell death characterised by distinct morphological and biochemical features, is often the result of 'programmed cell death' (PCD). Many gene families have been proposed to be involved in the PCD pathway, including the caspase family, inducible transcription factor (ITF) family (including Jun, Fos and Krox genes), and members of the Bcl-2 gene family (including the death promoting gene Bax). It is possible, therefore, that some of these genes may play a role in cell death in AD. The hippocampus is one of the first regions of the brain to be affected in AD, showing cell loss mainly in the CA1-2 pyramidal cell layer. In this thesis, the hippocampus from AD and Control cases has been examined for markers of apoptosis and genes thought to be involved in PCD. In addition, the actions of Aβ, human amylin (a structurally similar protein to Aβ) and the Aβ precursor protein (APP) have been examined in cell culture in an attempt to elucidate their mechanisms of action and relate this to the pathogenesis of AD. AD hippocampi showed increased DNA fragmentation as assessed by TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labelling (TUNEL), but TUNEL-positive cells in AD generally did not exhibit 'typical' apoptotic morphology, and there was no evidence of the oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation characteristic of apoptosis. This indicates that 'typical' apoptosis may not be the predominant cell death mechanism in AD. However, there was some evidence of atypical 'broken' nuclei, which may represent a form of apoptosis that presents with a different morphology in aging tissue. This study found no conclusive evidence of increased expression of Fos or Jun family members in the CA1 region of AD hippocampi, however there were increased levels of the putative 'apoptosis-specific protein' and krox24 mRNA in this area which could be related to the cell death. There was no change in Bax expression in the CA1 region of AD brains (although increased Bax expression was observed in this region in a rat hypoxic-ischemia model where the CA1 neurons die by apoptosis). However, there was a decrease in Bax expression in the granule cells of AD hippocampi which could be related to the relative preservation of these cells in AD. Bax and ITF expression was observed in tangles, senile plaques and Hirano bodies in AD hippocampi, which may be related to the formation of these features and/or the pathogenesis of AD. There appeared to be changes in the cellular location of proteins in post-mortem tissue that made determination of ITF levels extremely difficult. In addition, patterns of ITF expression differed when different antisera directed at the same protein were used. These observations indicate that caution must be exercised when studying protein changes in post-mortem tissue. Application of insoluble Aβ to cultured cells, and overexpression of APP or familial AD-linked APP mutants in cultured cells, did not cause toxicity or alter c-Jun gene expression. However, human amylin was toxic to cultured cells, and had different effects on c-Jun gene expression depending on the cell type. This shows that structurally similar proteins do not always act by a similar mechanism, and that care must be taken when choosing a cell culture system to study disease-related events. The finding that neither insoluble Aβ nor APP/AD-linked APP mutants caused acute toxicity to cultured cells, coupled with the lack of relationship between TUNEL staining and Aβ deposits in post-mortem AD tissue, indicates that deposited insoluble Aβ and/or increased amounts of Aβ may not represent the toxic event in AD. This thesis provides a detailed investigation of several factors that could be involved in the cell death process in the hippocampus in AD. The results presented find no conclusive evidence for ‘classical’ apoptosis and/or increased ITF expression in the hippocampus in AD, but the changes in expression of krox24 mRNA, ‘apoptosis-specific protein’ and Bax suggest that programmed cell death may well be a mechanism which is involved in the pathogenesis of AD.

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  • The mechanism of death evoked by human amylin in pancreatic islet B cells

    Bai, Ji Zhong (1999)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Subscription resource available via Digital Dissertations. Amylin is a 37-amino acid peptide usually cosecreted with insulin from pancreatic islet β-cells. It is implicated in the regulation of normal glucose metabolism and thought to induce pathological features of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). In particular, human amylin (hA) deposits as islet amyloid, and is associated with the loss of insulin-producing islet β-cells in NIDDM. The biochemical mechanism of hA-evoked death in cultured RINm5F pancreatic islet β-cells has been investigated in this thesis. Synthetic hA but not rat amylin (rA) aggregated in aqueous solution, formed fibrils, and evoked β-cell death in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The cell death exhibited apoptotic features, including inter-nucleosomal DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial dysfunction, delayed membrane lysis, aurintricarboxylic acid suppression and cell membrane blebbling. Cytotoxicity of hA was inhibited by Congo red (an amyloid-binding dye), 8-37hA fragment (fibril-forming but non-toxic), 1-40βA or 25-35βA (Alzheimer-associated peptide), but neither by sorbitol (inhibitory to hA fibril formation), rA nor its 8-37rA peptide (non-fibril-forming and non-toxic). Preformed large amyloid deposits of hA were less potent in causing β-cell death than small aggregates. These data suggest that hA induces β-cell apoptosis via small aggregates through a possible membrane receptor pathway. Inhibitors of protein and mRNA synthesis did not inhibit hA-evoked apoptosis, but rather enhanced or directly triggered β-cell death during prolonged exposure. Likewise, Ca2+ modulators, which alter intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), failed to prevent hA cytotoxicity and were ultimately cytotoxic themselves. Fura-2 loading and 45Ca2+ uptake studies indicated that hA did not mobilise intracellular Ca2+ during its toxicity. These results indicate a protein synthesis- and Ca2+-independent process of hA toxicity RINm5F islet β-cells. The studies reported in this thesis have established a new in vitro model of hA-evoked apoptosis using cultured RINm5F pancreatic islet β-cells. A new model of NIDDM pathogenesis is presented and discussed.

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  • Management Rhetoric as Performance, Perspective and Persuasion: A Scriptive Reading of Management Theory Texts

    Monin, Nanette (2001)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The texts of management theory are extensively cited and paraphrased in academic research and teaching, and in business practice. They have only occasionally been subjected to critical interpretation. My inquiry signals this space in management research and then enters into it. I ask how critical reading can effectively explore text-making in management theory, and whether text analysis might discover previously unrecognised meaning in management theory. Having established that critical management scholarship has not accessed the literary theory that would support explorations of text-making in management, I transport relevant theory across the disciplinary divide. Drawing on a wide range of literary theories, I develop an approach to critical reading, a method of text analysis, that I have called ‘scriptive reading’. Scriptive reading is a form of rhetorical analysis that acknowledges the role of dominant (standard) readings in textual interpretation; moves on to a critical reading that explores aspects of performance (author-reader relationships), perspective (worldviews) and persuasion (persuasive rhetorical strategies) in the text; and, in a final reflexive reading, considers the potential impacts of a particular reading experience on reading outcomes. In keeping with reader-response theory the shift is from the writer to the reader of the text. For analysis I select six influential management theory texts – authored by Frederick Taylor, Mary Follett, Peter Drucker, Henry Mintzberg, Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Charles Handy. Reading scriptively, I identify ten variously shared performance characteristics in these texts; isolate ten precepts that are common to the perspective generally shared by them, and demonstrate that all six texts employ similarly persuasive rhetorical strategies. My findings focus on the narratives of management theory exposed in the six readings. I discover that five of the six texts have built a narrative around a utopian root metaphor. The sixth text, authored by Mary Follett, does not construct a utopian worldview, but it does share common performance attributes and persuasive strategies. Although widely acknowledged to be theoretically profound and relevant, Follett’s text has not historically enjoyed the status of the other five. I conclude that reader identification with the subtexts of management theory may have more influence on scholarly recognition of them than do the performance attributes and the persuasive rhetorical strategies of the texts. The significance of my conclusions suggests that scriptive reading provides readers of management theory with a useful method of text analysis.

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  • High Valent Early Transition Metal Complexes as Catalysts for Organic Transformations

    Glenny, Mark W. (1999)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. A series of oxo-phenoxide complexes with the general formula [WO(OAr)Cl3]X (Ar = C6H4tBu-4, C6H3Me2-2,6, C6H3Me2-2,5, C6H2tBu2-2,6-Me-4, C6H3tBu-2-Me-4, C6H3Cl2-2,6,C6H3iPr2-2,6) have been prepared by addition of HOAr to WOCl4. The chloro bridged complex [WOCl2(µ-Cl)(OC6H3Me2-2,6)]2 (2) has been structurally characterised and the oxo and phenoxide ligands shown to be in a mutually cis arrangement. Debutylation occurs with 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol however a monophenoxide, [WOCl3(OC6H2tBu2-2,6-Me-4)]x (4), was prepared with LiOC6H2tBu2-2,6-Me-4. Variable temperature NMR studies of 4 show the tert-butyl groups lock the aryl group preventing free rotation. The ethylene polymerisation ability of the complexes was investigated (activities of 0.22-0.96 g mmol-1 hr-1 atm-1). Titanium aryl imido complexes, Ti(NAr)Cl2(py)3, [Ti(NAr)Cl2(py)2]2 and Ti(NAr)Cl2(tmeda)]x were prepared via tert-butylimido/arylamine exchange reactions. Structural characterisation of the dimeric bis-pyridine adducts (Ar = C6H4Me-2, C6H4tBu-2 and C6H4Ph-2) showed an interesting balance of steric and electronic effects. Conversion of the tris-pyridine adducts to the dimeric bis-pyridine adducts is accomplished by recrystallisation which results in loss of the labile trans pyridine from the former complexes. Complexes substituted with the tmeda ligand, [Ti(NAr)Cl2(tmeda)]x (when Ar = C6H4tBu-2 x = 1 while when Ar = C6H4Ph-2, x = 2), display solid state structures where crystal packing forces are important. Dimerisation results with the phenyl substituted arylimide, possibly as a result of electronic factors. In solution these complexes appear to exist in a monomer-dimer equilibrium. The precursor to these complexes, [Ti(NtBu)C1(µ-C1)(NH2tBu)2]2 (22), was also structurally characterised and shown to be a chloro bridged dimer rather than the previously suggested imido bridged species. Supporting these complexes on functionalised polystyrene beads results in poorly characterised products. The 1-alkene polymerisation ability of these complexes was investigated (activities of 3.2-12.7 g mmol-1 hr-1 atm-1) and found to be similar to previously tested imido species. Addition of benzoyl isocyanate to solutions of WOCl4 affords WOCl4(N≡CPh) in quantitative yield. Nitrile adducts of WOCl4 are also formed upon reaction with other acyl isocyanates (4-tert-butylbenzoyl isocyanate and 2-chlorobenzoyl isocyanate). WOCl4(N≡CPh) was structurally characterised showing the oxo and nitrile ligands to be in a mutually trans arrangement. Smooth conversion of acyl isocyanates to nitriles can be effected with catalytic amounts of WOCl4 or WOCl4(N≡CAr) (Ar = C6H5, C6H3tBu-4). Theoretical calculations of the reaction pathway show that entropic, rather than thermodynamic, considerations are important. WOCl4(N≡CPh) was also prepared from addition of benzamide to solutions of WCl6, a formal dehydration reaction. WO2Cl2(N≡CPh) can be prepared by addition of benzamide to WOCl4 in a similar manner. The mechanism of formation probably involves O-coordination of the amide followed by dehydrohalogenation. [Me2NCH2CH2NMe2CH2Cl]Cl, the non-cyclised product of nucleophilic attack of tmeda on CH2Cl2, was isolated and structurally characterised. Spectroscopic evidence for a metallacyclic amide species produced from the reaction of [WOCl4] and 2-tert-butylisocyanate suggested that imido ligand substituents are not necessarily innocent. A range of tungsten imido complexes, [W(NAr)Cl4]x (Ar = C6H4Me-2,C6H4tBu-2, C6H4Ph-2, C10H7), was produced and further functionalisation was carried out. The complex W(NC6H4Ph-2)(NHC6H4Ph-2)Cl3(C14H9NH2-9) (54), formed in the reaction of [W(NC6H4Ph-2)Cl4]x with N-trimethylsilylbiphenylamine, was structurally characterised and the presence of the imido, amido and amine ligands confirmed. Reduction of the monomeric imido complexes with sodium-mercury amalgam in the presence of trimethylphosphine afforded complexes of the type W(NAr)Cl2(PMe3)3 (Ar = C6H4Me-2, C6H4tBu-2, C6H4Ph-2,C10H7). Structural characterisation was obtained for the complex W(NC6H4tBu-2)Cl2(PMe3)3. Exchange of the labile cis trimethylphosphine ligands in the complexes W(NAr)Cl2(PMe3)3 with π-acceptor ligands (ethylene and diphenylacetylene) can be effected upon thermolysis or, in the case of ethylene, under irradiation with intense visible light to afford complexes of the type W(NAr)Cl2(CH2=CH2)(PMe3)2 (Ar = C6H4tBu-2, C6H4Ph-2) and W(NC6H4tBu-2)Cl2(PhC=CPh)(PMe3)2. The latter complex contains the alkyne as a 2-electron donor ligand. The complex [Ta(NC6H4tBu-2)Cl4(py)][pyH] (63), formed in the first tert-butylimido/arylamine exchange reaction involving a tantalum species, was structurally characterised and shown to contain the four chloride ligands cis to the imido ligand. The structure of ZrCl4(tmeda) (64) was also determined, confirming the pseudo-octahedral coordination environment of the zirconium atom.

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  • Computing exact approximations of a Chaitin omega number

    Shu, Chi-Kou (2004)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    A Chaitin Omega number, Ω, is the halting probability of a universal Chaitin (self-delimiting Turing) machine. Every Ω number is both computably enumerable and random. In particular, every Ω number is non-computable. In this thesis, we describe a method to compute the exact values of the first 64 successive bits of a natural Chaitin Omega number. We first describe a model of computation which has been defined and proved to be a universal Chaitin machine U. We then propose a method (procedure) which combines iterative executions of an algorithm with mathematical analysis to get the exact values of the first successive 64 bits of the corresponding Chaitin ΩU number of U. This particular defined Chaitin machine U is essentially a register machine and has been implemented in Java. We call it the canonical compressed model (or compressed model) as it allows only ‘canonical’ program strings to be processed in U. Thus, many input strings which are illegal, hence useless, are ignored and never involved in the computational process. In addition, the compressed design shortens the length of all instructions so that relatively short strings now contain somewhat complex programs. A simulator for U, written in Java, is a primary part of the project. The algorithm is executed iteratively, computing step by step an increasing sequence of rational numbers (in binary) to approximate Ω U. In the n-th step, the algorithm produces four main output files: all halting strings, looping strings, run-time errors, and prefix strings (incomplete programs). In each step, all prefix strings (of the previous step) are read and processed one by one. Each string is extended by 7 bits (ASCII code representations for symbols) to generate new strings that are examined one by one to detect any lexical, syntactic, semantic, or run-time error in each of them. Any of those strings with an error detected is discarded to save storage space and execution time. We solve the Halting Problem for all programs for U of length less than or equal to 84 bits so we can calculate an increasing sequence of exact approximations converging to ΩU. By means of a mathematical analysis the first successive 64 bits, 0000001000000100000110001000011010001111110010111011101000010000 of the 84 bits are proved to be the exact first bits of ΩU. Actually, more bits can be obtained by this procedure if the disk space is sufficient for it to go on, but this procedure cannot be extended indefinitely. In order to assure that our computing result is correct, we have proved that all input strings of length less than or equal to 84 executed in U over 100 steps are not halting programs.* *This dissertation is a compound document (contains both a paper copy and a CD as part of the dissertation). The CD requires the following system requirements: Adobe Acrobat; Microsoft Office.

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  • Occurrence and Characterisation of Enterococci in Terrestrial and Aquatic Environments

    Anderson, Sally Ann (2000)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The use of enterococci as a microbiological indicator of water quality requires an understanding of the sources, persistence, and ecology of this group of bacteria in the environment. This research describes a series of investigations undertaken to describe the abundance, occurrence, and diversity of enterococci from aquatic and terrestrial environments. A screening protocol for environmentally sourced enterococci was developed to describe species and sub-species variability. This protocol combined classical microbiological methods of selective culture and biochemical characterisation, with molecular techniques including gene probe screening for identity and RAPD-PCR for genotypic diversity. Preliminary studies on the occurrence of enterococci in terrestrial and aquatic environments suggested that these organisms are ubiquitous. However, abundance varied between individual samples taken from terrestrial (e.g. leaf litter, sand, seaweed, animal faeces) or aquatic (marine or freshwater) environments, complicating the ability to predict the enterococci load from these sources. Enumeration of enterococci from bathing beach environments indicated occasionally high levels from seaweed and sand, where levels of up to 660 CFU/100 g (wet weight) were recorded from aged and degrading seaweed but not from fresh seaweed samples. Restriction enzyme analysis (REA) of isolates from degraded seaweed indicated a dominance of clonal populations and supported the notion of replication or survival of strains. Laboratory studies conducted to investigate enterococci persistence and growth on seaweed were not conclusive, although there was some evidence to suggest enterococci replication was occurring. This was indicated by molecular fingerprinting (REA analysis), which showed that the inoculated strain persisted for the full duration of experiments (up to 28 days). The isolation of non-inoculum strains from seaweed treatments, combined with increased abundance of these strains with incubation, suggested the persistence or replication of enterococci that were naturally occurring on seaweed. To investigate the occurrence of enterococci in bathing environments a statistical analysis of Auckland Regional Council (ARC) bathing water quality data was undertaken. This analysis indicated a strong positive correlation between enterococci and turbidity, and hence turbidity may serve as a useful physical measure to indicate deteriorating water quality. Surveys of three marine bathing beaches on Auckland's North Shore (Long Bay, Mairangi Bay, and Rothesay Bay) indicated the abundance of enterococci in all bathing beach environments surveyed. These included marine and fresh water, sand, seaweed, and stream sediment, and a significant association between enterococci levels found in the sand and in the seaweed. Enterococci screening protocols were evaluated for use in describing enterococci species and sub-species diversity in bathing beach environments. This investigation showed a diversity of enterococci from all beach environmental sources, with highest levels of species diversity from marine and stream water. Enterococci diversity did not provide clues as to the sources in marine water samples. RAPD-PCR analysis and phenotypic screening of enterococci isolates did not indicate a pattern of niche-specific associations of enterococci strains, and there was no strong evidence from this study that enterococci sub-species associate with specific environments. However, the presence of identical genotypes indicated that enterococci can persist and possibly replicate in environments such as sand and seaweed. Calculation of similarity coefficients from Ent. faecalis and Ent. casseliflavus sub-species groupings indicated a greater level of sub-specific similarity between selected environments, for example, seaweed:sand, marine water:stream water, seaweed:marine water, although this was not a guarantee that environments were biologically or ecologically associated. Where an elevated level of enterococci is measured in the absence in identifiable pollution source the separation of pigmented from non-pigmented enterococci was proposed as an indicator of the environmental or faecal nature of the enterococci within the sample. Although not tested under controlled conditions, this concept was found to have good utility for discriminating sources from elevated marine bathing water samples. Enterococci from one of 13 elevated ARC marine water samples examined was shown to be environmentally derived, with 5 of the 13 samples attributed to putative human or animal faecal sources. With further validation, this concept may be a useful means of determining source.

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  • Traumatic brain injury rehabilitation outcomes across cultures

    Faleafa, Monique (2004)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. This exploratory study investigates Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) rehabilitation processes and outcomes among culturally diverse outpatients in community-based rehabilitation who have sustained a Mild to Moderate TBI. The major aims of this study are twofold: firstly, to determine whether community-based rehabilitation outcomes following TBI differ across Mäori, Pacific and Pakeha cultures; and secondly, to determine and identify any service delivery needs for Mäori and Pacific people in TBI rehabilitation that may be distinct from Pakeha. A fixed comparative non-experimental design was utilised where participants were selected using direct control based on their self-identified ethnic group resulting in sub-samples of 11 Mäori, l1 Pacific and 11 Pakeha (n=33). A "Close Other" from their care-giving support network was selected by the participant to take part in the study (n=20). Each participant completed the Neurobehavioural Cognitive Status Examination (Cognistat), the Brain Injury Community Rehabilitation Outcome Scales (BICRO Scales), the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-31), the Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd Edition (BDI-II), the Impact of Events Scale Revised (IES-R) and a semi-structured qualitative interview, while a "Close Other" completed a BICRO "Carer" questionnaire. Results indicate that all participants were at a homogenous level of overall cognitive functioning but Pacific peoples scored significantly lower than both Mäori and Pakeha on two Language subtests and significantly lower than Pakeha on the Memory subtest. Statistical analysis suggests that both Years of Formal Education and English as a Second Language are important factors contributing to these differences. Individual handicap increased following TBI and decreased following rehabilitation, with no significant difference across cultures and suggesting efficacy of rehabilitation. Of the total sample, 42% scored in the clinically depressed range (half of whom were Pakeha) and 24% of the sample showed mild signs of post-traumatic stress (of whom almost 90% were Mäori or Pacific). Although 97% of participants were generally satisfied with their overall rehabilitation service, Mäori and Pacific people were significantly less satisfied with their Physical Surroundings and the Quantity of Services they received. In conclusion, there appears to be universalities in TBI experience and global rehabilitation outcomes that transcends individual cultures. However, there are micro-level cultural variations that have valuable implications when planning culturally appropriate rehabilitation services for the future. For Mäori and Pacific People, acculturation levels will determine the extent to which these implications apply.

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  • Methods and techniques for parameter and distribution function estimation in cascaded digital channels with and without memory

    Berber, Stevan M.,1950- (2001)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Future telecommunication networks will employ digital transmission techniques. Such networks will provide a number of benefits including the ability to integrate voice and non-voice messages. The transmission channel of this network can be represented by a cascaded channel composed of a number of elementary channels connected in series. Therefore the modelling of such a channel is of particular interest. The influence of noise and other impairments in the cascaded binary channel cause errors which may be represented by a binary signal called the error sequence. Consequently, an important step in digital channel modelling is estimation of parameters and distribution functions which characterise the statistical properties of error sequences in the channel. Thus, the development of efficient methods for this estimation is a problem of long term interest which should be properly solved. This thesis presents methods and techniques for parameter (primarily the probability of error) and distribution function (primarily the error gap complementary distribution function) estimation using the error sequences obtained by measurement or simulation in elementary or cascaded channels. Theoretical analysis and testing confirm that it is possible to control the accuracy and reliability of estimation. Two principal and practical methods for the probability of error estimation are developed: the modified Monte Carlo method (MMC); and the method based on Chebyshev inequality (MCI). In contrast to the traditional Monte Carlo method based on classical statistics, the methods developed in this thesis aim to specify the sample size required to achieve the desired accuracy. The methods developed are based on the dependence of the sample size on the estimated value of a parameter being estimated. Hence the sample size is a random variable and the confidence limits factor (which specifies the width of confidence interval in respect to the estimated value) is a constant. Based on these methods, this thesis proposes and demonstrates two techniques for parameter estimation. The traditional Monte Carlo method has been primarily used for the probability of error estimation in channels without memory. In this thesis the capabilities of this method are extended to the case of estimating the probability of error in channels with memory and cascaded channels. However, even with this extension, this method is not practical due to its complexity and limitations on the qualification and quantification of the accuracy and reliability of estimation. Also, the extended method is unable to satisfactorily estimate the probability of error in cascaded channels with memory; nor could it improve the speed of the estimation process. Two methods and two techniques for distribution function estimation are developed in this thesis. They are demonstrated by estimating the error gap complementary functions of simulated data. For this purpose, simulators of binary channels with and without memory have been developed. The methods and techniques are characterised by their simplicity in application; ability to quantify the accuracy and reliability; time efficiency; and real time capability. The wider application of the methods and techniques developed in this thesis are demonstrated on three examples: a distribution function estimation using data obtained by indoor wideband radio propagation measurement; BER characteristics measurement; and measurement of the residual probability of error in transmission systems using error correcting codes. From the results obtained in the thesis some recommendations for future work in the field of digital channel modelling and simulation are discussed.

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  • Studies in New Zealand Late Paleogene–Early Neogene Radiolaria

    O'Connor, Barry M. (1996)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Chapter 1 is included in 01front, along with pages 38,93, 130 for additional information. Chapter 2 + of the thesis is now published and subject to copyright restrictions. Radiolaria from Late Eocene to Early Miocene localities in New Zealand are detailed in a series of studies in an attempt to broaden our knowledge of New Zealand Late Paleogene-Early Neogene Radiolaria, and a new technique for investigating Radiolaria is described. Chapter One introduces the studies and the rationale behind each, details the history of radiolarian work in New Zealand, and provides discussion of several points that surfaced during the studies. The points discussed are: radiolarian literature; plate production; scanning electron micrographs versus transmitted light photomicrographs; skeletal terminology; systematic paleontology and the description of new species; radiolarian classification; usefulness of strewn slides. Each study constitutes a published in press, or in review paper and is presented as a chapter. As each chapter is able to stand alone, their abstracts are given below. The reference lists for each paper/chapter have been amalgamated into a master list at the end of the thesis and so do not appear at the end of each chapter: Chapter Two - Seven New Radiolarian Species from the Oligocene of New Zealand Abstract: Seven new radiolarian species from the Oligocene Mahurangi limestone of Northland, New Zealand, are formally described. They are: Dorcadospyris mahurangi (Trissocyclidae), Dictyoprora gibsoni, Siphocampe missilis, Spirocyrtis proboscis (Artostrobiidae), Anthocyrtidium odontatum, Lamprocyclas matakohe (Pterocorythidae), Phormocyrtis vasculum (Theoperidae). Chapter Three – New Radiolaria from the Oligocene and Early Miocene of Northland, New Zealand Abstract: Thirteen new radiolarian species, two new genera and one new combination from the Oligocene and early Miocene of Northland, New Zealand, are formally described - The species are – Heliodiscus tunicatus (Phacodiscidae), Rhopalastrum tritelum (spongodiscidae), Lithomelissa gelasinus, L. maureenae, Lophophaena tekopua (Plagiacanthidae), Valkyria pukapuka (Sethoconidae), Cyrtocapsa osculum, Lophocyrtis (Paralampterium)? inaequalis, Lychnocanium neptunei, Stichocorys negripontensis, Theocorys bianulus, T. perforalvus, T. puriri (Theoperidae); the genera are – Plannapus (Artostrobiidae) and Valkyria (Sethoconidae); the combination is Plannapus microcephalus (Artostrobiidae). Standardised terminology is proposed for internal skeletal elements and external appendages. Emendations are proposed for the family Artostrobiidae and the genera Heliodiscus, Lithomelissa and Cyrtocapsa. Heliodiscus, Cyrtocapsa and Lychnocanium are established as senior synonyms of Astrophacus, Cyrtocapsella and Lychnocanoma respectively. Chapter Four – Early Miocene Radiolaria from Te Kopua Point, Kaipara Harbour, New Zealand Abstract: Radiolaria from the Early Miocene Puriri Formation at Te Kopua Point in the Kaipara area, Northland, New Zealand are documented. Six new species are described - Spongotrochus antoniae (Spongodiscidae), Botryostrobus hollisi, Siphocampe grantmackiei, (Artostrobiidae), Carpocanium rubyae (Carpocaniidae), Anthocyrtidium marieae (Pterocorythidae) and Phormocyrtis alexandrae (Theoperidae). Carpocanium is established as the senior synonym of Carpocanistrum. Chapter Five – Radiolaria from the Oamaru Diatomite, South Island, New Zealand Abstract: Radiolaria from the world-famous Oamaru Diatomite are documented with 24 new species described and three new genera erected The new species are Tricorporisphaera bibula, Zealithapium oamaru (Actionommidae), Plectodiscus runanganus (Porodiscidae), Plannapus hornibrooki, P. mauricei, Spirocyrtis greeni (Artostrobiidae), Botryocella pauciperforata (Cannobotryidae), Carpocanopsis ballisticum (Carpocaniidae), Verutotholus doigi, V. edwardsi, V. mackayi (Neosciadiocapsidae), Lithomelissa lautouri, Velicucullus fragilis (Plagoniidae), Lamprocyclas particollis (Pterocorythidae), Artophormis fluminafauces, Eucyrtidium ventriosum, Eurystomoskevos cauleti, Lophocyrtis (L.) haywardi, Lychnocanium alma, L. waiareka, L. waitaki, Pterosyringium hamata, Sethochytris cavipodis and Thyrsocyrtis (T.?) pingusicoides (Theoperidae). The new genera are Tricorporisphaera, Zealithapium (Actinommidae), and Verutotholus (Neosciadiocapsidae). Emendations are proposed to the family Neosciadiocapsidae and the genus Eurystomoskevos, and Pterosyringium is raised from subgeneric to generic level. Radiolarian faunal composition confirms a Late Eocene age for the Oamaru Diatomite. Chapter Six – Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy: A New Technique for Investigating and Illustrating Fossil Radiolaria Abstract: Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), a technique newly applied to the study of fossil Radiolaria, offers the radiolarist clear views of single optical planes of specimens, unhindered by many of the optical effects of conventional light microscopy, while obviating the need to section or break specimens. Resulting images are of a clarity unsurpassed by conventional light microscopy and, as they are saved on computer, are easily viewed, manipulated, enhanced, measured and converted to hard copy. Used in conjunction with common radiolarian study methods CLSM is a powerful tool for gaining additional information with relatively little extra effort. Chapter Seven conveniently summarises taxonomic, stratigraphic and geographic data of all new taxa described, incorporating information gained from the studies and relevant literature. Appendices present the following: data pertaining to all illustrated specimens in this thesis from the University of Auckland Catalogue of Type and Figured Specimens; distribution of Radiolaria at Te Kopua Point; distribution of species and a species list for the Mahurangi Limestone.

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  • 'To map out the "venereal wilderness"' : a history of venereal diseases and public health in New Zealand, 1920-1980

    Kampf, Antje (2005)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Note: Thesis now published. (2007) Kampf, Antje. Mapping Out the Venereal Wilderness: Public Health and STD in New Zealand, 1920-1980. Berlin: Lit-Verlag. http://www.lit-verlag.de/isbn/3-8258-9765-9. Whole Document not available at the request of the author. This thesis traces the public health debate about venereal disease in New Zealand from 1920, when the first venereal disease clinics were established, to 1980 before the first AIDS/HIV cases emerged. Studies of venereal disease in New Zealand have concentrated on issues of morality and on the political and social debates; this thesis focuses on treatment procedures and Health Department campaigns. The thesis explores the role of doctors in relation to venereal disease. While advancements in drug therapy benefited patients, medical authority was undermined by demanding and defaulting patients, inadequate medical education, and a low status of the profession. The medical profession developed epidemiological studies and defined 'at risk' groups in post-war decades. Despite claims to be 'scientific', the assessments were informed by stereotypes which had changed little over time. The thesis evaluates the scope of preventative health campaigns. Defined as a public health issue by the 1920s, venereal disease was seen as an individual responsibility by the 1960s. During this time the use of legislation declined, and education and contact tracing increased. The control of infection was limited owing to financial and administrative problems, defaulters and opposition from doctors. Those deemed most at risk were not reached by government educational campaigns, leaving much to the work of welfare groups and individual doctors. The health campaigns targeted groups like Maori and servicemen. The historiography has tended to overlook Maori, and, when military campaigns are discussed, to focus on females. This thesis attempts to redress the balance. Maori had, at least until the 1950s, different treatment experiences from non-Maori patients, although this did not necessarily imply discrimination. The military did attempt to control servicemen, though each Service had different experiences. This thesis stresses the complexity of the gender issue. There was a change from blaming females for infection in the early twentieth century to increasingly pointing to male responsibility. Despite these changes, even with the concept of individual risk pattern by the 1960s, and the understanding that men could be asymptomatic carriers, women were persistently seen as the 'reservoir'. A gender bias persisted.

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  • Mechanistic Studies of HF Adsorption on Alumina

    Gillespie, Alistair Ross (1997)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Aluminium smelters emit upwards of 6 kg of gaseous hydrogen fluoride per tonne of aluminium metal produced. Since the 1960's, many aluminium smelters have used the dry scrubbing process to capture the HF on the surface of smelter grade alumina. In this way, dispersion of the emitted HF is prevented and the fluoride is returned to the aluminium electrolysis cells. The surface adsorption reactions on which the dry scrubbing process relies have been studied by various researchers. It is common knowledge that there occurs a relatively strong bond between HF and alumina and that the quantity of water in the gas effects the maximum fluoride adsorption capacity of the alumina. It has also been considered that FIF adsorption is a combination of strong chemisorption and reversible physisorption at the temperatures at which the dry scrubbing process operates. Some researchers have postulated the formation of Al-F bonds at the alumina surface, while others have postulated the existence of hydrogen bonds between surface fluoride or hydroxyl ions and molecular H2O and HF. However, these models do not agree with the experimental data which was gathered during the course of researching this thesis, nor do they agree with much of the experimental data presented earlier. The major finding of this research was that hydrogen fluoride adsorption is irreversible under the temperature and gas composition conditions of the dry scrubbing process. The maximum fluoride adsorption capacity of smelter grade alumina depends on the relative humidity during adsorption, as well as the specific surface area of the alumina. Both factors indicate that HF adsorption is a surface process. The most likely product of reaction is a thin layer of crystalline aluminium hydroxyfluoride, AIFx(OH)3-x 6H2O, formed in an aqueous reaction at the alumina surface. The reaction mechanism involves the steps of: H2O adsorption to form an aqueous layer on the alumina surface; HF adsorption to acidify the surface water layer; dissolution of the alumina surface to form AlO2- and AlO2-; precipitation of AlFx(OH)3-x.nH2O. The overall adsorption rate appears to be controlled by the rate of the surface chemical reactions rather than by transport phenomena such as fluid phase mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion. At relative humidity greater than 35% the adsorption capacity of smelter grade alumina increases dramatically and small crystallites of AIFx(OH)3-x.6H2O and AIF3.3H2O are formed. Under these conditions the reaction mechanism is similar, except that water-filled pores provide an environment which is conducive to the formation of larger crystallites of product. At temperatures below 450°C the aluminium hydroxyfluoride hydrate phase dehydrates, and at temperatures above 450°C hydrolysis of aluminium hydroxyfluoride results in the release of HF. Samples which are produced under dry scrubbing conditions and aged under ambient conditions, are indefinitely stable. However, when aged at high humidity the product layer is transformed into distinct crystallites of aluminium hydroxyfluoride by a dissolution/re-precipitation mechanism involving water filled pores. Samples which are hydrofluorinated at greater than 35% humidity show continued growth of A1Fx(OH)3-x 6H2O and AlF3.3H2O under all storage conditions due to residual water condensed within the alumina pores.

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  • Writing on the Loose: Reading Florian Illies's Generation golf, Maurice G. Dantec's Périphériques, Joschka Fischer's Mein langer Lauf zu mir selbst, and Frédéric Beigbeder's Windows on the world as examples of creative nonfiction

    Kölling, Angela (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Thesis now published as a book. http://www.weidler-verlag.de/Reihen/APSL/APSL-da/ap171-Kolling/ap171-kolling.html This thesis brings together four diverse contemporary works, Generation Golf (2000) by Florian Illies, Périphériques (2003) by Maurice G. Dantec, Mein langer Lauf zu mir selbst (1999) by Joschka Fischer, and Windows on the World (2003) by Frédéric Beigbeder; and in so doing it demonstrates that these two German and two French authors combine belletrist endeavours with critical socio-political arguments in a way that corresponds to the literary form which Anglo-American writers refer to as 'creative nonfiction'. In particular, it shows that the authors recognisably share the desire to pull together critical social commentary in nonfiction form with the moral and aesthetic enterprise of the modern novelist. Current scholarship appreciates hybrid forms such as literary journalism, autofiction, nonfiction novels because they raise important formal, ethical and ontological questions. However, while they evaluate the relationship between fact and fiction in contemporary French and German writing of this kind, most scholars separate questions regarding the social merits of a text from its literary ones. This thesis adopts the creative nonfiction approach because it recognises that hybrid forms assume sharp, socio-literary positions. It defines creative nonfiction in the form of seven dynamics, which identify the distinct literary techniques that the authors use as a means to reject the constraints of weary intellectual conventions. Looking at these texts through the pluralist lens of creative nonfiction reveals that they make useful contributions to our understanding of the relationship between nonfiction and culture. Through their factual accuracy, these texts become acute documents of history and, through their literary versatility, they surpass the imaginative constraints of fact - hence this study carries the title 'Writing on the Loose'. Hybrid forms remind us that truth is an elusive concept and creative nonfiction invites us to consider this elusiveness as a valuable resource which allows us to re-imagine ourselves and our social communities.

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  • Furthering the role of corporate finance in economic growth

    Kamiryo, Hideyuki, 1930- (2004)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Subscription resource available via Digital Dissertations. My research question is: Why do countries with similar rates of saving differ in economic growth? My thesis addresses this question by formulating an endogenous growth model using the Cobb-Douglas production function. My model disaggregates the rate of saving into the retention ratio and the household saving ratio and connects these ratios with three new parameters representing respectively the efficiency of financial institutions, the decision-making of managers, and barriers to technology diffusion. These three financial parameters make it possible to distinguish between quantitative and qualitative investments and to measure the growth rates of output, capital, and technological progress. Endogenous growth in technology neutralizes diminishing returns to capital. The Cobb-Douglas production function assumes diminishing marginal productivity under constant returns to scale. My model, however, measures the growth rate of per capita output under the balanced growth state/constant returns to capital situation. This situation is guaranteed when the relative share of profit is within the critical relative share of profit. A set of combination of the three financial parameters holds under diminishing returns to capital, yet the diminishing returns to capital situation turns to the balanced growth state situation by using delta defined as the elasticity of quality improvement with respect to effective labour units attached to a machine. An extreme case corresponds with the Solow and O'Connell (including Harrod-Domar) models, where the three financial parameters are all 1.0, with no technological progress. Simulation results demonstrate several new fact-findings. These fact-findings come from the characteristics of my model or the relationships between the growth rate of “per capita” output in the long-run (hereunder the growth rate) and the three financial parameters and delta, where the growth rate converges by setting delta = the relative share of profit. First, if the rate of saving increases, the growth rate also increases linearly. This is more definitely evident than the result of Mankiw, Romer, and Weil [1992]. Second, under a fixed rate of saving, the growth rate changes significantly differently if each of three parameters changes: the relative share of profit, the growth rate of population, and the retention ratio. In particular, the change in the retention ratio influences the growth rate positively or negatively depending on the relationship between the three financial parameters that reflect corporate behaviour and the nature of financial institutions. In this respect, I cannot find literature that relates the retention ratio or dividend policy to the growth rate in the Cobb-Douglas production function. Also the change in the growth rate of population does not influence per capita growth at all. This finding is also more definite than that found in the literature. In short, the three financial parameters play an important role in economic growth. When we divide saving into corporate saving and household saving, the rate of saving as a whole is not independent of the growth rate. A proportion of corporate saving and a proportion of household saving are used for investment in quality, which accelerates productivity enhancement. Consequently, the characteristics of the corporate sectors and financial institutions of a country play a significant role in determining its long run growth rate of per capita income (even under a fixed rate of saving).

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  • Polyelectrolyte Copolymer Hydrogels: Synthesis, Characterisation and Drug Delivery System Based on 2-Acrylamido-2-Methyl-1-Propane Sulphonic Acid

    Zhang, Chi (2003)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The literature on polymer gels and hydrogels since the beginning of last century has been reviewed, and the properties of polymers and gels based on 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulphonic acid (AMPS) summarized. Copolymer gels were synthesised, using gamma radiation initiation, from aqueous solutions of the comonomers acrylamide and AMPS. The progress of copolymerisation and crosslinking was followed by measuring the viscosity of reaction mixtures that had been irradiated for different times and hence had received different doses. The variation of viscosity with dose has been interpreted in terms of main chain growth and the onset of crosslinking and gelation. It was observed that the viscosity of irradiated reaction mixtures decreased substantially on standing at ambient temperature. That behaviour has been attributed to breaking of non-permanent bonds formed during irradiation and subsequently broken over the ageing period. The environmental responsiveness of the gels formed by gamma radiation initiation was assessed by observation of the volume phase transition triggered by increasing the proportion of acetone in aqueous acetone media in which the gels were immersed. Free-radical copolymerisation of aqueous solutions of comonomer AMPS and Nisopropylacrylamide (NIPA) was initiated with ammonium persulphate at 70°C. Reaction times that varied with comonomer mixture composition gave a series of copolymers corresponding to low conversion. The copolymer composition data set was used in conjunction with the Kelen-Tϋdos and Finemann-Ross methods, assuming the terminal model to be valid, to give the monomer reactivity ratios r(AMPS)=0.24 and r(NIPA)=1.12. The reactivity ratios show that copolymers made from comonomer mixtures with more than 25 mol% AMPS consist of relatively short monomer sequences. The dependence of glass transition temperature on copolymer composition was determined using differential scanning calorimetry and the experimental data compared with Tg predicted from the Fox equation. High-field (400 MHz) 1H-NMR spectroscopy was used to probe the early stages of polymerisation and gelation at 70°C in a D2O solution of AMPS and NIPA, crosslinker N,N1-methylenebisacrylamide (MBAA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). The change in signal intensity of vinyl protons of the monomers and crosslinkers, and the methylene proton signals from PEG were recorded as a function of reaction time. The relative initial rates of reactant consumption showed that the crosslinking monomer was consumed more rapidly than either AMPS or NIPA, so that crosslinking of the copolymer chains took place predominantly in the early stages of copolymer chain growth. The PEG signal was found to be invariant with time, confirming that PEG did not participate in the polymerization reaction but acted as the linear interpenetrating component in semi-interpenetrating network gels. The kinetics of gel formation and other rheological properties of copolymer and SIPN pregel solutions were analysed using parallel plate rheometry. The variation of shear moduli and other rheological parameters during reaction under dynamic shear was interpreted in terms of chain growth and crosslinking reactions. In relation to the sol-gel transition, viscosity, tan(δ), G' and G" were used to assess the kinetics of gelation. The densities of copolymer and SIPN dried gels were measured for a range of copolymer chain compositions and found to be similar in magnitude (within about 10%) for gels with the same copolymer chain composition. The surface morphology of both types of gel, in dried form, was examined using scanning electron microscopy. The swelling ratio of SIPN gels in water was found, in general, to be proportional to the AMPS content of the copolymer chains. The influence of initiator and crosslinker concentrations in the pregel solutions on the rheological properties of gels was investigated in detail. G', G", tan(δ) and critical strain were correlated to initiator concentration, but the crosslink density of the gel was essentially independent of initiator concentration. As expected, the effect of crosslinker concentration, hence crosslink density in the gels, on rheological properties, was significant. With increasing crosslinker concentration, the critical strain (at gel rupture) and tan(δ) decreased markedly. The surface roughness of dried gels also decreased with increasing crosslinker concentration. Effects of comonomer mixture and copolymer chain composition for copolymer and SIPN systems on the initiation temperature of pregel solutions and rheological properties of gels were compared. A feature of the data is that the copolymer gels exhibited much larger values of G' and G" than the corresponding SIPN gels, whereas the SIPN gels had larger equilibrium storage modulus (G'e), indicating that stronger covalent or physical crosslinks may exist in the SIPN gels. Copolymer and SIPN gels examined at constant frequency and shear stress exhibited a phase transition associated with the water in the gels. Both types of gels were found to have an ice-dominant structure at -6°C with G' smaller than that of ice at -5°C, and there was an ice phase to gel phase transition induced by shear strain at -6°C, which was not found in gels at -4°C. Temperature-time effects on gel formation kinetics and post-gel properties were determined and appear to be correlated to rates of gel formation as well as the final gel microstructure. As expected, the induction time for gel formation is greater at lower reaction temperature, and PEG enhances this effect and reduces the viscosity compared to the corresponding PEG-free system. The post gel microstructure has been examined in terms of G', angular frequency, reaction temperature and time. The most significant effect is that increasing reaction temperature for a fixed time builds a more complete gel network. Creep and stress relaxation of gels were investigated. Both copolymer and SIPN gels show a high degree of elasticity, and at specific frequencies the gels behave as ideal elastic solids. SIPN and copolymer gels were characterized using spectroscopic, thermal and morphological techniques (DSC, TG, FTIR, XPS, XRD and SEM). Interactions between PEG and copolymer network were found to markedly influence the properties of SIPNs. Thermal analysis revealed that the PEG component of the SIPNs showed melting behaviour that was similar to that of pure PEG, but modified by interactions between PEG and the copolymer network. Composition and temperature effects on thermal and morphological properties were investigated in detail. Protonation of a substantial proportion of the amide groups in the dried SIPN gets was detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and mainly attributed to proton transfer from the sulphonic acid groups of AMPS units to the amide groups of NIPA units. Sodium diclofenac was used as a model drug in design of a drug encapsulation/release system based on use of PEG/poly(AMPS-co-NIPA) SIPN hydrogels. The thermal stability of the drug and the SIPN gel used for its encapsulation was determined as a prerequisite to the development of a direct drug loading technique whereby the drug was encapsulated during accelerated formation of the SIPN matrix in a suspension polymerisation system at 100°C. Direct loading of the drug was found to be superior, in terms of the distribution of the drug in the gel matrix, to the conventional diffusion loading technique. Drug release in pH7.4 phosphate buffer solutions and in pHl.0 simulated gastrointestinal liquid was determined as a function of time.

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