14,555 results for Doctoral

  • Social psychology and mental retardation: towards an applied social psychology of mental retardation

    Haxell, Mark Robert (1991)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. This thesis seeks to integrate the diverse fields of the social psychology of intergroup relations and mental retardation. In order to do this a a new cross-disciplinary field described as "The Social Psychology of Mental Retardation" (abbreviated to SPMR) is defined and explored theoretically and empirically. This involved a literature review of the current status of the social psychology of intergroup relations, especially as the field of social psychology emerges from the 'crisis of confidence' period, and incorporating the insights and changes that have occurred as a result of this. The history of the development of social psychology generally and applied social psychology were both considered as part of this. A review of current literature in mental retardation was carried out along with an attempt to explore the contemporary social context or social ecology of mental retardation in New Zealand, as well as the media (and other representations) of mentally retarded people. Themes were present throughout this thesis included: an explicit value orientation; a rejection of a positivistic-empiricist approach to scientific research; considering mental retardation as a social construct, and an emphasis on the social context or social ecology of mental retardation Two main pieces of empirical research were carried out. All the results were analysed using appropriate SAS statistical procedures. Study 1 involved a coin allocation task for 33 mentally retarded subjects using the matrix procedure originally developed by Henri Tajfel of Bristol University. The results here provided information about social categorization processes based on intellectual handicap as a social identity. These mentally retarded subjects were also given a 106 item adjective checklist, also used later on, and the results from this considered as part of the second part of Study 2. The second study consisted of two parts, both using undergraduate social science students as participants. The first involved the administration of a 24 item questionnaire in two forms to investigate a series of common myths and misconceptions about mental retardation and intellectual handicap. There was approximately 300 responses to each questionnaire. The results were analyzed to give information on the knowledge of both intellectual handicap and mental retardation of these participants, as well as for differences between these two group/labels. The second part of Study 2 involved the 106 item adjective checklist to investigate social stereotypes of various disabled or handicapped groups/group labels. Participants here were firstly asked to rate the adjectives on a 5 point favourability scale, and then to indicate which adjectives they considered applied to one of nine different groups/labels. This procedure constituted a New Zealand standardization of the adjective checklist. Multiple comparisons within this sample were made to clearly establish the contents of current stereotypes of the rated group/labels by this subject population. An index of the relative favourability of mental retardation and intellectual handicap was generated from these results. An indication of the relative complexity of the same stereotypes was also generated. It was concluded that mentally retarded adults do show the same ingroup preferences shown by nonhandicapped people in Tajfellian intergroup relations experiments, and that this indicated that intellectual handicap was a meaningful social category for mentally retarded adults. It was further concluded that there was generally a low prevalence of common myths and misconceptions about mental retardation and intellectual handicap from the first part of Study 2. There were several important exceptions to this finding. For the second part of Study 2, mentally retarded people, who identified themselves as intellectually handicapped, showed a strong preference to evaluate their own group highly, and ascribed more favourable adjectives than the students did to the intellectually handicapped or towards university students as a group. Study 2 showed that there was little difference made by the students between the terms intellectual handicap and mental retardation. Of the nine groups/labels rated by the students, intellectual handicap was ranked 6th and mental retardation 7th. The complexity analysis indicated quite similar rankings of mental retardation and intellectual handicap when compared to the favourability analysis. Overall it was concluded that the Tajfellian social identity theory derived from the European influenced social psychology of intergroup relations could form a useful basis for the development of an applied SPMR. The social acceptance and social integration of the mentally retarded in the classroom and in wider society was identified as a major area of current concern, where the proposed SPMR could be of value.

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  • The Management of Senior Managers: How Firms in New Zealand Acquire, Defend and Extract Value from their Senior Managerial Resources

    Gilbert, John (2006)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The main aim of this study was to develop an understanding of current practice in New Zealand firms with regard to the management of managers, in particular the senior management team consisting of the CEO and direct reports. Although theory drawn from organizational economics, human resource development and strategic human resource management do provide useful perspectives, there is not, as yet, a well developed or coordinated theory on the management of managers. In this study a theoretical framework is developed, which identifies three broad goal domains for the management of managers and the key strategic tensions that firms may have to deal with in order to achieve their goals within these domains. The theoretical framework also proposes a taxonomy of company styles that describes different patterns of practice that might be expected in firms at various stages of development or in different contexts. The empirical research is centred on case studies of practice in four mid-sized New Zealand firms selected to represent a cross-section of established companies in different sectors and with some variation in patterns of ownership. The main findings are that current practice is largely consistent with the predictions of the theoretical framework and that the firms in the study face pronounced challenges with regard to the recruitment and retention of managers. In particular, the difficulties are compounded by the relatively shallow pool of talent available in a small economy, which makes it difficult for firms to establish robust managerial internal labour markets capable of supplying the bulk of the firms' senior managerial needs. Other findings of note are that there is little evidence of clearly perceived agency issues of the kind raised by the organizational economics literature and that processes and systems for identifying managerial talent in general, and for developing managers at the senior level, are not well developed. The broad conclusions are that firms in a small economy face particular difficulties in making the transition from an emergent stage to having fully evolved internal capabilities to bring managers with superior talent through to senior positions.

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  • Aspects of the structure of the Ùa Pou dialect of the Marquesan language

    Mutu, Margaret (1990)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Thesis now published as a book. Margaret Mutu with Ben Teʻikitutoua (2002). Ùa Pou : aspects of a Marquesan dialect. Canberra, ACT: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies. ISBN 0858835266. This thesis is made up of three parts; the first is an outline and discussion of the various approaches taken in the description of Polynesian languages in the last 30 years. It provides background discussion of the model of description used in the rest of the thesis. The second deals with the phonology of the 'Ua Pou dialect, concentrating in particular on two areas; the phonetics of the glottal stop phoneme, and penultimate vowel extension. The latter is a feature which has received no mention in any literature to date but is the most noticeable suprasegmental phonetic difference between the Marquesan dialects and the other Eastern Polynesian languages. The last four chapters describe the structure of phrases in the 'Ua Pou dialect. The first two of these deals with the centripetal particles of the noun and verb phrase respectively, that is, the particles within phrases which modify the base of that phrase. Particles which relate phrases to other phrases, that is, the prepositions and ai, are dealt with separately in the last two chapters since their description requires some comments on the syntax of the language.

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  • Modelling of a pinched sluice concentrator

    Subasinghe, G. K. N. (1983)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Although pinched sluice concentrators have been used for the concentration of heavy minerals for many centuries, their mechanisms involved have not been fully understood. Previous studies on the performance of pinched sluices have been of a purely empirical nature. In the present analysis, an attempt has been made to explain the behaviour of a pinched sluice in terms of the established theories of fluid mechanics and minerals processing. In spite of the inherently complex nature of two phase flow, a method has been developed to calculate the underflow discharge by assuming a logarithmic velocity distribution and free gravity fall through the discharge slot. The concentration profile of solids over the depth of flow has been shown to comply with Bagnold's theory of dispersive shear, rather than turbulent sediment transfer. Even although the results can be explained qualitatively by the Bagnold's theory, their complete quantitative analysis will not be possible until more work is done. Consequently, an empirical equation has been developed to predict underflow pulp densities. The segregation process of the heavier mineral beneath the lighter has been shown to obey a first order law, as was originally proposed by Mayer in relation to jigging. In the light of the results obtained, a computer model of the pinched sluice has been developed. This predicts the underflow grade, pulp density and flow rate in terms of the feed and operating conditions. The model can also be used to determine the effect of a change in operating conditions, and for the optimisation of rougher, cleaner and scavenger circuits.

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  • Studies in New Zealand Late Paleogene–Early Neogene Radiolaria

    O'Connor, Barry M. (1996)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Chapter 1 is included in 01front, along with pages 38,93, 130 for additional information. Chapter 2 + of the thesis is now published and subject to copyright restrictions. Radiolaria from Late Eocene to Early Miocene localities in New Zealand are detailed in a series of studies in an attempt to broaden our knowledge of New Zealand Late Paleogene-Early Neogene Radiolaria, and a new technique for investigating Radiolaria is described. Chapter One introduces the studies and the rationale behind each, details the history of radiolarian work in New Zealand, and provides discussion of several points that surfaced during the studies. The points discussed are: radiolarian literature; plate production; scanning electron micrographs versus transmitted light photomicrographs; skeletal terminology; systematic paleontology and the description of new species; radiolarian classification; usefulness of strewn slides. Each study constitutes a published in press, or in review paper and is presented as a chapter. As each chapter is able to stand alone, their abstracts are given below. The reference lists for each paper/chapter have been amalgamated into a master list at the end of the thesis and so do not appear at the end of each chapter: Chapter Two - Seven New Radiolarian Species from the Oligocene of New Zealand Abstract: Seven new radiolarian species from the Oligocene Mahurangi limestone of Northland, New Zealand, are formally described. They are: Dorcadospyris mahurangi (Trissocyclidae), Dictyoprora gibsoni, Siphocampe missilis, Spirocyrtis proboscis (Artostrobiidae), Anthocyrtidium odontatum, Lamprocyclas matakohe (Pterocorythidae), Phormocyrtis vasculum (Theoperidae). Chapter Three – New Radiolaria from the Oligocene and Early Miocene of Northland, New Zealand Abstract: Thirteen new radiolarian species, two new genera and one new combination from the Oligocene and early Miocene of Northland, New Zealand, are formally described - The species are – Heliodiscus tunicatus (Phacodiscidae), Rhopalastrum tritelum (spongodiscidae), Lithomelissa gelasinus, L. maureenae, Lophophaena tekopua (Plagiacanthidae), Valkyria pukapuka (Sethoconidae), Cyrtocapsa osculum, Lophocyrtis (Paralampterium)? inaequalis, Lychnocanium neptunei, Stichocorys negripontensis, Theocorys bianulus, T. perforalvus, T. puriri (Theoperidae); the genera are – Plannapus (Artostrobiidae) and Valkyria (Sethoconidae); the combination is Plannapus microcephalus (Artostrobiidae). Standardised terminology is proposed for internal skeletal elements and external appendages. Emendations are proposed for the family Artostrobiidae and the genera Heliodiscus, Lithomelissa and Cyrtocapsa. Heliodiscus, Cyrtocapsa and Lychnocanium are established as senior synonyms of Astrophacus, Cyrtocapsella and Lychnocanoma respectively. Chapter Four – Early Miocene Radiolaria from Te Kopua Point, Kaipara Harbour, New Zealand Abstract: Radiolaria from the Early Miocene Puriri Formation at Te Kopua Point in the Kaipara area, Northland, New Zealand are documented. Six new species are described - Spongotrochus antoniae (Spongodiscidae), Botryostrobus hollisi, Siphocampe grantmackiei, (Artostrobiidae), Carpocanium rubyae (Carpocaniidae), Anthocyrtidium marieae (Pterocorythidae) and Phormocyrtis alexandrae (Theoperidae). Carpocanium is established as the senior synonym of Carpocanistrum. Chapter Five – Radiolaria from the Oamaru Diatomite, South Island, New Zealand Abstract: Radiolaria from the world-famous Oamaru Diatomite are documented with 24 new species described and three new genera erected The new species are Tricorporisphaera bibula, Zealithapium oamaru (Actionommidae), Plectodiscus runanganus (Porodiscidae), Plannapus hornibrooki, P. mauricei, Spirocyrtis greeni (Artostrobiidae), Botryocella pauciperforata (Cannobotryidae), Carpocanopsis ballisticum (Carpocaniidae), Verutotholus doigi, V. edwardsi, V. mackayi (Neosciadiocapsidae), Lithomelissa lautouri, Velicucullus fragilis (Plagoniidae), Lamprocyclas particollis (Pterocorythidae), Artophormis fluminafauces, Eucyrtidium ventriosum, Eurystomoskevos cauleti, Lophocyrtis (L.) haywardi, Lychnocanium alma, L. waiareka, L. waitaki, Pterosyringium hamata, Sethochytris cavipodis and Thyrsocyrtis (T.?) pingusicoides (Theoperidae). The new genera are Tricorporisphaera, Zealithapium (Actinommidae), and Verutotholus (Neosciadiocapsidae). Emendations are proposed to the family Neosciadiocapsidae and the genus Eurystomoskevos, and Pterosyringium is raised from subgeneric to generic level. Radiolarian faunal composition confirms a Late Eocene age for the Oamaru Diatomite. Chapter Six – Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy: A New Technique for Investigating and Illustrating Fossil Radiolaria Abstract: Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), a technique newly applied to the study of fossil Radiolaria, offers the radiolarist clear views of single optical planes of specimens, unhindered by many of the optical effects of conventional light microscopy, while obviating the need to section or break specimens. Resulting images are of a clarity unsurpassed by conventional light microscopy and, as they are saved on computer, are easily viewed, manipulated, enhanced, measured and converted to hard copy. Used in conjunction with common radiolarian study methods CLSM is a powerful tool for gaining additional information with relatively little extra effort. Chapter Seven conveniently summarises taxonomic, stratigraphic and geographic data of all new taxa described, incorporating information gained from the studies and relevant literature. Appendices present the following: data pertaining to all illustrated specimens in this thesis from the University of Auckland Catalogue of Type and Figured Specimens; distribution of Radiolaria at Te Kopua Point; distribution of species and a species list for the Mahurangi Limestone.

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  • 'To map out the "venereal wilderness"' : a history of venereal diseases and public health in New Zealand, 1920-1980

    Kampf, Antje (2005)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Note: Thesis now published. (2007) Kampf, Antje. Mapping Out the Venereal Wilderness: Public Health and STD in New Zealand, 1920-1980. Berlin: Lit-Verlag. http://www.lit-verlag.de/isbn/3-8258-9765-9. Whole Document not available at the request of the author. This thesis traces the public health debate about venereal disease in New Zealand from 1920, when the first venereal disease clinics were established, to 1980 before the first AIDS/HIV cases emerged. Studies of venereal disease in New Zealand have concentrated on issues of morality and on the political and social debates; this thesis focuses on treatment procedures and Health Department campaigns. The thesis explores the role of doctors in relation to venereal disease. While advancements in drug therapy benefited patients, medical authority was undermined by demanding and defaulting patients, inadequate medical education, and a low status of the profession. The medical profession developed epidemiological studies and defined 'at risk' groups in post-war decades. Despite claims to be 'scientific', the assessments were informed by stereotypes which had changed little over time. The thesis evaluates the scope of preventative health campaigns. Defined as a public health issue by the 1920s, venereal disease was seen as an individual responsibility by the 1960s. During this time the use of legislation declined, and education and contact tracing increased. The control of infection was limited owing to financial and administrative problems, defaulters and opposition from doctors. Those deemed most at risk were not reached by government educational campaigns, leaving much to the work of welfare groups and individual doctors. The health campaigns targeted groups like Maori and servicemen. The historiography has tended to overlook Maori, and, when military campaigns are discussed, to focus on females. This thesis attempts to redress the balance. Maori had, at least until the 1950s, different treatment experiences from non-Maori patients, although this did not necessarily imply discrimination. The military did attempt to control servicemen, though each Service had different experiences. This thesis stresses the complexity of the gender issue. There was a change from blaming females for infection in the early twentieth century to increasingly pointing to male responsibility. Despite these changes, even with the concept of individual risk pattern by the 1960s, and the understanding that men could be asymptomatic carriers, women were persistently seen as the 'reservoir'. A gender bias persisted.

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  • Electron microscopy of Rous sarcoma virus

    Burgess, Susan Claire Gillies (1976)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. 1. The most appropriate methods were investigated for producing Rous sarcoma virus of suitable quantity and quality for use in the study of the viral RNA by electron microscopy. The roller bottle method of Smith and Bernstein (1973) which was adopted, produced virus yields of up to 5mg per litre of transformed cell culture supernatant after 24 hour incubations, and 0.2mg per litre of culture supernatant after 4 hour incubations. 2. The method of purifying RNA tumour viruses which resulted in the least damage to the virions was found to be isopyncic and velocity sedimentation in Ficoll density gradients containing 5mM tris-HCl and 1mM EDTA pH 8.5. The use of solutions of sucrose or >0.1M salt resulted in both osmotic changes in the virus and viral aggregation. 3. The lipoprotein coat of the Rous sarcoma virus was shown by freeze-fracturing and electron microscopy to have properties similar to those of plasma membranes, except that the number of intramembranous particles was smaller. The hydrated diameter of Rous sarcoma virus was estimated from freeze-fracture replicas of purified virions to be 140nm. 4. Vesicular contaminants, derived from serum, were present in Rous sarcoma virus preparations that had been purified from transformed cell culture supernatants. The isolated contaminants resembled virus when examined by both freeze-fracturing and negative-staining, but were readily distinguished from virus in thin sections. The virus-like serum vesicles were present in sera from several different sources. When treated with detergent and subjected to polyacylamide gel electrophoresis, the vesicles were found to contain polypeptides that possessed similar electrophoretic mobilities to those of Rous sarcoma virus polypeptides. It is probable that extraneous nucleic acid molecules, observed in preparations of Rous sarcoma virus RNA were the result of VLSV contamination of virus suspensions. 5. Contamination of purified virus suspensions by virus-like material derived from serum was reduced by centrifugation of the serum prior to its addition to cell culture medium. Virus suspensions, purified from cell supernatants from which the contaminating vesicles had been removed, were resolved in sharp bands at p = 1.07 g/ml in Ficoll density gradients; in the analytical ultracentrifuge they sedimented as homogenous populations with a sedimentation value of 740s20,w and were observed by electron microscopy to be relatively free of contaminants. 6. The maximum length of molecules from preparations of both 60-70s and 30-40s viral RNA prepared in 80% and 50% formamide respectively was 2.5μm, but both preparations were not homogeneous since they contained other, smaller molecules. 7. A model is proposed in which the difference in physical properties between the native (60-70S) form and the denatured (30-40S) form of the viral RNA is suggested to be the result of two possible conformations of a single RNA molecule. This model is an alternative to the prevailing model in which the RNA tumour virus genome is proposed to contain a number of RNA molecules of equivalent size.

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  • Sandstone architecture and development of the Tunanui slope basin-fill, Hikurangi forearc, New Zealand

    Timbrell, Grenville (2003)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. This thesis describes the facies, architecture and development of the Tunanui Formation, a deep-marine, sand-rich, slope basin-fill of Middle Miocene age (NZ stages Clifdenian to Lillburnian). The study area is located in the northern Hawke Bay region of the East Coast Basin, North Island, New Zealand, and is within the forearc domain of the Hikurangi active margin. It is part of a structurally complex and now largely emergent accretionary wedge with sediments dating from basal Miocene to present. Due to renewed plate subduction and compressive movements along the margin in the Neogene, highly restricted intra-slope basins developed between rising thrust ridges of the inner-forearc. The Tunanui deepwater-clastics were originally deposited as flat-lying sediments within one such elongate slope-basin, atop the deformed sedimentary prism. These rocks are now present within the subsurface of offshore Hawke Bay and extend N/NW to the onshore areas. Structural inversion has produced outcrops of Tunanui sediments in the core of two major anticlines, the Mangaone and the Morere Highs. In the Morere Anticline along the Paritu Coast south of Gisborne, spectacular sea-cliff exposures provide a unique opportunity to investigate the nature and development of over 1000 m thickness of sandy, deepwater, slope basin-fill representing almost the entire stratigraphic section of the Tunanui Formation. Rocks in this remote region have not been previously described in any detail. A database of thousands of digital field photographs, together with 71 stratigraphic logs and some deep borehole information has enabled the production of a series of detailed correlations for the Tunanui sections. In turn, the number of logs available has made possible the construction of a large-scale (over c.25 km in length) stratigraphic cross-section, slightly oblique to the basin axis, through the deepwater clastic succession. Interpretation has allowed a series of deductions to be made concerning the nature of the 'Tunanui Basin' fill and its development, the types of gravity flow elements present and in most field areas, the production of a detailed sandstone architecture for the Tunanui deposits. Five phases of basin fill are recognised. These range from highly restricted, over-thickened sandstone packages, deposited under conditions of high slope gradient and complex basin-floor topography, within the lower parts of the sequence, to laterally continuous 'fan-like' deposits, and thinner-bedded sandstones within the upper part of the Tunanui section. A c.250 m thick sequence that is slightly younger than the upper Tunanui Formation, containing numerous channel-forms (the Tangawa Formation), is present on the East Coast of the Mahia Peninsula c.17 km to the south of the Paritu Coast outcrops. The architecture of the Tangawa Formation, and its regional structural position, indicates that it was the 'spill' of the Tunanui basin-fill into an adjacent down-slope sediment trap within the forearc terrane. This depocentre was also controlled by deep-seated imbricate thrust faulting in common with the Tunanui Basin. Several different types of deepwater channel-forms are present within what is a limited stratigraphic range. The vertical sequence reflects an overall progression within a muddy slope from deeply incised, erosive systems, to laterally offset-stacked channels of a mixed erosional depositional type.

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  • Short-term electrical load prediction and related aspects

    Kobe, Maria Ursula (1986)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. This thesis examines a number of questions that arise in the process of forecasting and managing the load of an electrical power system, and presents some possible solutions. The study was based on the situation of one New Zealand Supply Authority, which is able to directly control the hot water heater component of its load. To the extent that the data worked with was obtained from this particular electrical system, the solutions found apply specifically to it. However the methods used to determine a model for the hot water heater load channels in response to switching, as well as the pulse filter and short-term load forecasting algorithms developed, are more generally applicable. The digital pulse filter algorithm is an improvement on the traditionally employed method of obtaining frequently updated readings of system load from kWh metering pulses. The hot water heater channel model that was found, enabled a reconstruction of uncontrolled load values from the measured controlled system load values to be undertaken. The ability of various short-term forecasting algorithms of the time series type to predict such load series was then examined. The different methods were designed to incorporate to various extents the features of the load and temperature series, and the effect of temperature on load. Comparisons of the methods' forecasting accuracies then pointed out those load features that it is most important to model in order to obtain better forecasts. (The results were of interest in that they showed that additional model sophistication did not necessarily imply more accurate forecasting algorithm performance.)

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  • Business-IT Alignment and Shared Understanding Between Business and IS Executives: A Cognitive Mapping Investigation

    Tan, Felix B. (2001)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Achieving and sustaining business-IT alignment in organisations continues to be a management challenge into the new millennium. As organisations strive toward this end, researchers are attempting to better understand the alignment phenomenon. Empirical research into business-IT alignment is dominated by studies examining the relationship between business strategy, information technology and performance. Investigations into the factors enabling or inhibiting alignment are emerging. This research has traditionally taken a behavioural perspective. There is evidence of little research that examines the issue through a cognitive lens. This thesis builds on and extends the study of business-IT alignment by investigating the cognition of the key stakeholders of the alignment process - business and IS executives. Drawing on Personal Construct Theory (Kelly, 1955), this study uses a cognitive mapping methodology known as the repertory grid technique to investigate two questions: i) is there a positive relationship between business-IT alignment and shared understanding between business and IS executives?; and ii) are there differences in the cognitive maps of business and IS executives in companies that report high business-IT alignment and those that report low business-IT alignment? Shared understanding is defined as cognition that is held in common between and that which is distributed amongst business and IS executives. It is portrayed in the form of a cognitive map for each company. The study proposes that business-IT alignment is directly related to the shared understanding between business and IS executives and that the cognitive maps of these executive groups are less diverse in companies that report a high level of alignment. Eighty business and IS executives from six companies were interviewed. Cognitive maps were elicited from the research participants from which diversity between cognitive maps of business and IS executives are measured. A collective cognitive map was produced to illustrate the quality of the shared understanding in each company. The state of business-IT alignment in each company was also measured. The results of the study suggest that there is a strong positive link between business-IT alignment and shared understanding between business and IS executives. As expected, companies with a high-level of business-IT alignment demonstrate high quality shared understanding between its business and IS executives as measured and portrayed by their collective cognitive maps. The investigation further finds significant diversity in the structure and content of the cognitive maps of these executive groups in companies reporting a low-level of alignment. This study concludes that shared understanding, between business and IS executives, is important to business-IT alignment. Reconciling the diversity in the cognitive maps of business and IS executives is a step toward achieving and sustaining alignment. Practical approaches to developing shared understanding are proposed. A methodology to aid organisations in assessing shared understanding between their business and IS executives is also outlined. Finally research on business-IT alignment continues to be a fruitful and important field of IS research. This study suggests that the most interesting issues are at the interface between cognition and behaviour. The process of business-IT alignment in organisations is characterised by the individuality and commonality in the cognition of key stakeholders, its influence on the behaviour of these members and hence the organisational action taken.

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  • "For a season quite the rage?" : ships and flourmills in the Māori economy 1840-1860s

    Petrie, Hazel, 1949- (2004)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. This thesis is a history of Maori ship and flourmill ownership set into the wider economic context of mid-nineteenth-century New Zealand. It examines why and how Māori purchased flourmills and trading ships in this period and questions the currently popular view that these were ill-advised investments driven by a desire for status symbols or mere fads resulting from a culturally characteristic neophilia. It argues that both industries were generally well-considered enterprises, appropriate to contemporary conditions, and that they made significant contributions to the New Zealand colonial economy at a particularly fragile stage. An examination of Māori trading practices from the time of European contact establishes that certain aspects of their social relationships and commercial practice were 'traditional' and therefore provide points from which to consider the process of change. It is argued that customary modes facilitated the optimisation of economic benefits presented by a hugely expanded marketplace but that contemporary Christian and western political economic ideas, which gave ideological support to flourmill and ship ownership, also contributed significantly to the involution of Māori commercial enterprise. Māori necessarily responded to these teachings, but a consideration of the rationale behind their acquisition of these assets supports the appropriateness of such investments under contemporary conditions. Evidence from a wide range of Māori and Pakeha sources forms the basis for examining the motivations and management of Māori shipping and flourmilling enterprises and for tracking changes in understandings of proprietary rights. In this context, philosophical and political intervention by missionaries and other Pakeha agents, including the valorisation of individual ownership and enterprise, can be seen to have enticed those from the lower echelons of Māori society to forsake the obligations of a communal economy. As well as undermining the communal nature of Māori society and the authority of traditional leaders, these interventions also fostered greater rigidity in Maori social, economic, and political structures so that the advantages of customary ways were lost. Combined with the loss of resources and a concomitant rise in the political power of the rapidly growing Pakeha population, these changes made it increasingly difficult for Māori to sustain their economic predominance.

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  • Spectroscopic studies of chemically synthesised polyaniline and its ability to act as radical scavenger

    Gizdavic-Nikolaidis, Marija (2005)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Note: Thesis now published in various journals, details in the Access Instructions file. During the past almost three decades, conducting polymers have been the subject of intense scientific and industrial research and development worldwide. A general background of the fundamental principles and concepts of conducting polymers and their applications is presented in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2, the characterization of chemically synthesised emeraldine base polyaniline (EB-PANI), acetone-extracted to remove impurities, is examined. Spectroscopic studies PANI at different levels of oxidation are reported, and the structural changes in as-synthesised EB-PANI upon doping with HCl and iodine vapour are investigated. A maximum in the number of unpaired electron spins was found in 1M HCl doped PANI, corresponding to emeraldine salt PANI (ES-PANI), which indicates that bipolarons form at higher doping levels. Also, a maximum conductivity of 0.478 S cm-1 was observed for 1M HCl doped PANI, and no significant change in the conductivity was observed at higher doping levels. A new mechanism of iodine doping of EB-PANI was proposed, which occurs by the oxidation of the benzenoid diamine units, instead of the quinoid diimine units as previously proposed. In Chapter 3, the incorporation of planar Cu(II) complexes as dopants into ES-PANI was investigated by means of EPR and IR spectroscopy. A decrease in the intensity of the EPR signals from polarons in Cu(II) complex-doped PANI samples was observed, while the Cu(II) anion concentration increases and favors the formation of bipolarons in Cu(II) complex-doped PANI systems. The reactions of EB-PANI following different levels of reduction or HCl doping with CuCl2 aqueous solution are also investigated and new reaction mechanisms are proposed. The conductivities of the resulting samples have also been measured and discussed. The ability of aniline and PANI samples to act as antioxidants using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical method are investigated by means of UV-VIS, FTIR and EPR spectroscopy in Chapter 4. A study of the kinetics of the reaction between DPPH and aniline showed that the reaction is first order with respect to DPPH and approximately second order with respect to aniline. A further investigation of the mechanism of the aniline/DPPH reaction and products of the reaction (aniline oligomers and DPPHH) by magnetic resonance techniques is discussed in Chapter 5. This study has resulted in the identification for the first time of uncapped dimers and trimers of aniline oligomers in solution by EPR spectroscopy. In Chapter 6, for the first time, the applicability of various 13C and 15N solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) techniques in the investigation of the changes in the structure of PANI that occur upon reaction with DPPH radicals was investigated and discussed. The results indicate partial oxidation of PANI samples upon reaction with DPPH, which is consistent with previously obtained FTIR and EPR data in Chapter 4. In Chapter 7, some further research directions and projects involving chemically synthesised PANI are briefly described.

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  • Writing home to her mother and father: Fabrizia Ramondino’s Althénopis and Clara Sereni’s Casalinghitudine

    Green, Paula, 1955- (2004)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Within a context of Italian women's literary, intellectual, and feminist thought, the dissertation employs two specific literary texts that transgress generic borders, Clara Sereni's Casalinghitudine (1987) and Fabrizia Ramindino's Althénopis (1988), to elucidate paternal and maternal negotiations as a projected model of writing home. Motivated by feminist trespasses upon and resistances to the "fathered" academic canon, the dissertation provides a third literary example through my renegotiation of the theoretical argument in poetic form. Printed on tracing paper, my poetic text overlays and haunts the dissertation with subjective intersections, poetry, and prose that emerge from my research and that constitutes a significant part of my poetry collections published to date. My academic argument draws upon an interdisciplinary heritage by enlisting the thought of French, Italian, and Anglo/American feminisms alongside Italian cultural, literary, and history studies. Part One locates the mother and the maternal in the context of Western feminist theories, Italian feminist thought, and Italian culture. With close reference to the primary texts, it analyses the implications of the missing mother, the surrogate mother, the uncanny in the mother/daughter relationship, maternal kinesis, maternal thresholds, and maternal junctures in terms of a woman writing home. Part Two considers the ramifications of the father figure in the work of six intellectuals (Simone de Beauvoir, Adrienne Rich, Nancy Chodorow, Julia Kristeva, Hélène Cixous, and Luce Irigaray), in an Italian cultural, historical, legal, political, and literary context, and in the light of Italian feminist approaches to the father. Maintaining close links with the two primary texts, I analyse the missing father, the father as authority, and the manner in which in writing home, writing the father traverses and transgresses thresholds such as the cooking pot, the body, and the written page. With a debt to Rosi Braidotti and Adriana Cavarero, I conclude that in writing home, a woman renegotiates both the maternal and paternal through what I have named the practice of equilibrium writing. For the woman writer, equilibrium writing comprises writing out of her roots, writing as both weaving and unweaving, writing out of kinetic movement in order to write a provisional and subjective centre, and writing conjunctions and coalitions. In an extension of Italian feminist approaches to "authority," I contend that such a textual negotiation of the mother and the father constructs a state of auto/authority for the woman writing.

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  • Human resource management in Chinese-western joint ventures

    Chen, Shaohui, 1966- (2004)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The international human resource management models developed in the last decade pursue a contextual analysis of the standardisation (global integration) of multinational parent companies’ human resource management policies and practices and localisation (local differentiation) of host countries' practices. However, as a popular but unique international alliance, the process by which international joint ventures determined HRM policies and practices remained unclear. This research utilizes a resource dependency perspective to explore the company-specific determinants of Chinese-western joint ventures' HRM formation, by investigating JV parent companies HRM decision drivers in terms of contractual and non-contractual resources, expertise, consistency requirements, and internationalization experience. Through five in-depth case studies, this research demonstrated that HRM standardisation or localisation is a function of the IJV parents’ HR decision drivers. Additional variables, contextual factors and future research directions are discussed. Contributions of this research include a balanced consideration of both partners in the international joint venture to counter the ethnocentric lens of MNC-subsidiary relationships. The research recasts standardisation and localisation as a continuum that should express the interests of multiple partners, rather than the interests of one in a host country context.

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  • Productivity improvement in the New Zealand heavy engineering industry

    Seidel, R. H. A. (Rainer H. A.) (1988)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. An analysis of the industrial productivity of New Zealand heavy engineering companies is presented, and methods for improving the overall productivity of the heavy engineering industry and similar industries with job-shop type production are developed. The industry's productivity problems had been obvious for years. However, due to the lack of data and inadequacy of existing productivity improvement approaches, it had never been possible to quantify the extent of these problems, to analyse their causes and to develop methodologies for long-term improvement. The present investigation consists of two major aspects. The scientific element is concerned with the development of a methodology for productivity improvement appropriate to the situation of heavy engineering in New Zealand. This is supported by practice-oriented work in the industry, consisting of data acquisition activities in general, and of pilot studies in selected companies in order to assemble, analyse and evaluate specific data on productivity problems, and to apply and test the results thereof. The development of a methodology for productivity improvement is based on an extensive survey of literature on productivity measurement and improvement methods. The results of this survey, which was performed in parallel with the collection of industrial data, indicate that existing methods are not adequate to satisfy the requirements of productivity improvement in the local heavy engineering industry. On this basis, in-depth pilot studies in ten heavy engineering companies were performed. The objectives and methodology of these pilot studies are described in detail, as their results have a sizeable impact on the overall methodology chosen for this research. One of the most important conclusions drawn from the pilot studies is that productivity problems in the New Zealand heavy engineering industry cannot be solved by concentrating solely on workshop fabrication and technological factors. Generally these problems have complex cause-and-effect structures, and a multitude of non-technological factors from outside the workshop are involved. In order to account for these interrelated factors, a systems engineering approach was used, which offers a suitable basis for a productivity improvement methodology applicable to the situation as identified in the pilot studies. A main step in the system engineering approach is the development of a systems model which is used for structuring the complex inter-relationships found in practice. On the basis of this systems model of heavy engineering productivity a Productivity Assurance Programme is developed. This programme combines elements of quality assurance methods and the 'productivity cycle' principle of continuing improvement. The main elements of the Productivity Assurance Programme are matrices developed for the evaluation of the requirements of productive heavy engineering operation, and for the analysis of the productivity levels of the company where they are applied. The combination of these aspects provides a decision base on which organisational improvements can be founded. Due to its modular structure and the flexibility in defining specific productivity requirements, the applicability of the Productivity Assurance Programme is not limited to New Zealand heavy engineering companies, but also covers other job shop type industries with similar productivity problems. I case study illustrates the application of the Productivity Assurance Programme in practice.

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  • Gendered Resistance: A Comparative Study of Four Twentieth-Century Women’s Autobiographies

    Baisnée, Valérie (1994)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. This thesis examines comparatively the first parts of four twentieth-century women's autobiographies that have never been studied together: Simone de Beauvoir's Memoires d' une jeune fille rangdee (1958), Maya Angelou's I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings (1969), Janet Frame's To the Is-Land (1982) and Marguerite Duras's L'Amant (1984). Its aim is to show how these women resisted or subverted the established order in their childhood and adolescence and how, through their autobiographical practice, they challenge some assumptions about women's creativity. For this purpose, this study involves a discussion of the reception of each autobiograph, a close analysis of their narrative techniques, and an examination of the institutions in which each protagonist grew up, mainly family, school and/or church. Among these institutions, I emphasise the role of interpersonal relationships within the family, and in particular the mother/daughter relationship. This thesis draws attention to various strategies used by these women to resist subjection: through their bodies, through language, or simply through an escape from the institution, with three of these protagonists choosing to grow up in the street rather than in the family or in the school. Similarly, the way the presence of the narrator is established in the text challenges the reader's perception of the woman writer. I conclude that for these women, the search for identity is not a search for a role or a position but for a place, though they find it in the margins of society.

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  • Diagnostic writing assessment: the development and validation of a rating scale

    Knoch, Ute (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Alderson (2005) suggests that diagnostic tests should identify strengths and weaknesses in learners' use of language, focus on specific elements rather than global abilities and provide detailed feedback to stakeholders. However, rating scales used in performance assessment have been repeatedly criticized for being imprecise, for using impressionistic terminology (Fulcher, 2003; Upshur & Turner, 1999; Mickan, 2003) and for often resulting in holistic assessments (Weigle, 2002). The aim of this study was to develop a theoretically-based and empirically-developed rating scale and to evaluate whether such a scale functions more reliably and validly in a diagnostic writing context than a pre-existing scale with less specific descriptors of the kind usually used in proficiency tests. The existing scale is used in the Diagnostic English Language Needs Assessment (DELNA) administered to first-year students at the University of Auckland. The study was undertaken in two phases. During Phase 1, 601 writing scripts were subjected to a detailed analysis using discourse analytic measures. The results of this analysis were used as the basis for the development of the new rating scale. Phase 2 involved the validation of this empirically-developed scale. For this, ten trained raters applied both sets of descriptors to the rating of 100 DELNA writing scripts. A quantitative comparison of rater behavior was undertaken using FACETS (a multi-faceted Rasch measurement program). Questionnaires and interviews were also administered to elicit the raters' perceptions of the efficacy of the two scales. The results indicate that rater reliability and candidate discrimination were generally higher and that raters were able to better distinguish between different aspects of writing ability when the more detailed, empirically-developed descriptors were used. The interviews and questionnaires showed that most raters preferred using the empirically-developed descriptors because they provided more guidance in the rating process. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for rater training and rating scale development, as well as score reporting in the context of diagnostic assessment.

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  • Queueing and Storage Control Models

    Sheu, Ru-Shuo (2002)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. This thesis is divided into two parts. The first part is about the control of a special queueing network which has two service nodes in tandem on each service channel. With capacity at each service node being finite, we compare som different control policies to find the admission and routing policies that minimise the blocking rate in the queueing system. We obtain limit theorems as the number of channels becomes large. The stochastic optimization technique we apply here is the Lagrangian method, using the Complementary Slackness Conditions to choose the optimal action. In the second part we consider two reservoir control problems. In the first, the cost function is a single simple linear function, and the second has two different cost functions and the choice of them forms a finite-state Markov chain. We find the optimal policies to determine how many units of water should be released from the reservoir under these two different models. We model the reservoir as a Markov decision process. The policy-iteration algorithm and the value-iteration algorithm are the main methods we apply in this part. In both problems we apply stochastic optimization techniques. The reservoir model uses a standard Markov decision process model, with the associated methods of policy-iteration and value-iteration to find the optimal state-dependant policy. In the routing problem we also interested in state-dependent policies, but here we wish to look at the system in the limit as the number of queues becomes large, so we can no longer us the technique of Markov decision processes. We look, instead, at the limiting deterministic problem to find the optimal policy.

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  • The Science/Fiction of Sex. A Feminist Deconstruction of the Vocabularies of Heterosex

    Potts, Annie (1999)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Note: Thesis now published. Potts, Annie (2002). The Science/Fiction of sex: feminist deconstruction and the vocabularies of heterosex. London & New York: Routledge. ISBN 04152567312. Whole document restricted, see Access Instructions file below for details of how to access the print copy. This research conducts a feminist poststructuralist examination of the vocabularies of heterosex: it investigates those terms, modes of talking, and meanings relating to sex which are associated with discourses such as scientific and popular sexology, medicine and psychiatry, public health, philosophy, and some feminist critique. The analysis of these various representations of heterosex involves the deconstruction of binaries such as presence/absence, mind/body, inside/outside and masculine/feminine, that are endemic to Western notions of sex. It is argued that such dualisms (re)produce and perpetuate differential power relations between men and women, and jeopardize the negotiation of mutually pleasurable and safer heterosex. Particular attention is paid to the ways in which sexological discourse deploys such dualisms as normal/abnormal, natural/unnatural, and healthy/unhealthy sex, and produces specifically gendered 'experiences' of sexual corporeality. The thesis examines a variety of written texts and excerpts from film and television; it also analyzes transcript material from individual and group interviews conducted by the researcher with heterosexual women and men, as well as sexual health and mental health professionals, in order to identify cultural pressures influencing participation in risky heterosexual behaviours, and also to identify alternative and safer pleasurable practices. Some of these alternative practices are suggested to rely on a radical reformulation of sexual relations which derives from the disruption of particular dualistic ways of understanding and enacting sex. The overall objective of the thesis is to deconstruct cultural imperatives of heterosex and promote the generation and acceptance of other modes of erotic pleasure. It is hoped that this research will be of use in the future planning and implementation of sex education and safer sex campaigns in Aotearoa/New Zealand which aim to be non-phallocentric and non-heterosexist, and which might recognize a feminist poststructuralist politics of sexual difference.

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  • Signalling mechanisms coordinating nutritional status and lactation

    Stewart, Kevin William (2004)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The pathways by which nutritional status is signalled to the mammary glands and the metabolic sites targeted by these pathways have not been identified. Understanding of these pathways is of particular importance in species such as rodents and ruminants in which mammary metabolism is extremely sensitive to food availability. The studies in this thesis investigated mechanisms by which nutritional state was signalled to the mammary glands using the lactating rat as an experimental model. An in vivo preparation for analysis of the effects of altered nutritional state on substrate supply to, and uptake by, the inguinal mammary glands was established, as this had not been accurately performed before in rats. This preparation was used to record a large fall in mammary glucose uptake with food deprivation and a rapid restoration of uptake after refeeding. Results demonstrated that mammary glucose uptake, and hence mammary metabolism, was not closely linked to glucose supply in lactating rats. Glucose supply is unlikely to be a key factor signalling nutritional state to the mammary glands. Experiments in which the cutaneous branch of the posterior division of the femoral nerve innervating the inguinal mammary glands was severed showed that these neural pathways did not contribute to the maintenance of mammary metabolic activity in the fed and refed states or to the suppressed activity in food deprived rats. Neural signalling is unlikely to have a direct role in controlling mammary metabolism in rats. An in vitro method for measuring the uptake of glucose by rat mammary acini was developed. Insulin administration increased glucose uptake in acini from both fed and food deprived rats. Treatment with a crude gut extract enhanced uptake of glucose in acini from food deprived, lactating rats, but not in acini from fed rats. It was concluded that insulin and/or a factor from the gut may be involved in signalling the mammary gland of the restoration of nutrient supply when food deprived rats are refed. Proteomic studies were performed to investigate the effect of food deprivation and insulin on the abundance of intracellular proteins in acini from fed and food deprived, lactating rats. Analysis of over 800 protein spots detected 7 that were regulated by food deprivation, 26 that were regulated by insulin, and 9 in which the regulation was different in acini from fed and food deprived rats. None were regulated by both food deprivation and insulin. This suggests that decreased blood insulin concentration during food deprivation is unlikely to be the only signal that results in decreased mammary metabolism. Identification of proteins affected by food deprivation and insulin has led to new insights into some of the intracellular mechanisms regulated by these factors.

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