14,555 results for Doctoral

  • Diagnostic writing assessment: the development and validation of a rating scale

    Knoch, Ute (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Alderson (2005) suggests that diagnostic tests should identify strengths and weaknesses in learners' use of language, focus on specific elements rather than global abilities and provide detailed feedback to stakeholders. However, rating scales used in performance assessment have been repeatedly criticized for being imprecise, for using impressionistic terminology (Fulcher, 2003; Upshur & Turner, 1999; Mickan, 2003) and for often resulting in holistic assessments (Weigle, 2002). The aim of this study was to develop a theoretically-based and empirically-developed rating scale and to evaluate whether such a scale functions more reliably and validly in a diagnostic writing context than a pre-existing scale with less specific descriptors of the kind usually used in proficiency tests. The existing scale is used in the Diagnostic English Language Needs Assessment (DELNA) administered to first-year students at the University of Auckland. The study was undertaken in two phases. During Phase 1, 601 writing scripts were subjected to a detailed analysis using discourse analytic measures. The results of this analysis were used as the basis for the development of the new rating scale. Phase 2 involved the validation of this empirically-developed scale. For this, ten trained raters applied both sets of descriptors to the rating of 100 DELNA writing scripts. A quantitative comparison of rater behavior was undertaken using FACETS (a multi-faceted Rasch measurement program). Questionnaires and interviews were also administered to elicit the raters' perceptions of the efficacy of the two scales. The results indicate that rater reliability and candidate discrimination were generally higher and that raters were able to better distinguish between different aspects of writing ability when the more detailed, empirically-developed descriptors were used. The interviews and questionnaires showed that most raters preferred using the empirically-developed descriptors because they provided more guidance in the rating process. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for rater training and rating scale development, as well as score reporting in the context of diagnostic assessment.

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  • Human resource management in Chinese-western joint ventures

    Chen, Shaohui, 1966- (2004)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The international human resource management models developed in the last decade pursue a contextual analysis of the standardisation (global integration) of multinational parent companies’ human resource management policies and practices and localisation (local differentiation) of host countries' practices. However, as a popular but unique international alliance, the process by which international joint ventures determined HRM policies and practices remained unclear. This research utilizes a resource dependency perspective to explore the company-specific determinants of Chinese-western joint ventures' HRM formation, by investigating JV parent companies HRM decision drivers in terms of contractual and non-contractual resources, expertise, consistency requirements, and internationalization experience. Through five in-depth case studies, this research demonstrated that HRM standardisation or localisation is a function of the IJV parents’ HR decision drivers. Additional variables, contextual factors and future research directions are discussed. Contributions of this research include a balanced consideration of both partners in the international joint venture to counter the ethnocentric lens of MNC-subsidiary relationships. The research recasts standardisation and localisation as a continuum that should express the interests of multiple partners, rather than the interests of one in a host country context.

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  • Queueing and Storage Control Models

    Sheu, Ru-Shuo (2002)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. This thesis is divided into two parts. The first part is about the control of a special queueing network which has two service nodes in tandem on each service channel. With capacity at each service node being finite, we compare som different control policies to find the admission and routing policies that minimise the blocking rate in the queueing system. We obtain limit theorems as the number of channels becomes large. The stochastic optimization technique we apply here is the Lagrangian method, using the Complementary Slackness Conditions to choose the optimal action. In the second part we consider two reservoir control problems. In the first, the cost function is a single simple linear function, and the second has two different cost functions and the choice of them forms a finite-state Markov chain. We find the optimal policies to determine how many units of water should be released from the reservoir under these two different models. We model the reservoir as a Markov decision process. The policy-iteration algorithm and the value-iteration algorithm are the main methods we apply in this part. In both problems we apply stochastic optimization techniques. The reservoir model uses a standard Markov decision process model, with the associated methods of policy-iteration and value-iteration to find the optimal state-dependant policy. In the routing problem we also interested in state-dependent policies, but here we wish to look at the system in the limit as the number of queues becomes large, so we can no longer us the technique of Markov decision processes. We look, instead, at the limiting deterministic problem to find the optimal policy.

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  • The Diaries of Geneviève Bréton 1874-1914

    Burnet, Catherine Margaret (2002)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. This thesis establishes a critical edition of the diaries of Geneviève Bréton (1849-l9l8) written between 1874 and 1914. As 'diary' and 'journal' are synonyms, the words are used interchangeably throughout the thesis. Geneviève Bréton was an educated, privileged and literary woman, the third child in a prestigious Parisian family. In this thesis, I argue that her diaries or private writing play the role of an alternative to, for a woman, socially stigmatized public writing. Although she wrote compulsively throughout her life, experimenting with the novel, she devotes most attention to the diary genre, exploring it beyond its conventional parameters as a feminine outlet. Diaries provide a compromise for Bréton as she finds a way around the limitations imposed by sexual difference and cultural mores in nineteenth-century France. As a woman, and as a wife, she accepts the social and cultural imperatives of her environment but, where possible, on her own terms. I argue that for Bréton, the daughter of publishers and friend of writers, the diary genre is a surreptitious entry into their world, her private form of literary expression and creation. I suggest that she recognises this fact at the end of her life when she herself undertakes the preparation of her 1867-1871 journals for publication. The 1874-l9l4 diaries are held in manuscript form in the archives of the Bibliothèque Nationale de France in Paris. The first five years of the diaries, based on the material prepared by Bréton, were published in 1985. The present work will facilitate further publications. The corpus of the later diaries, transcribed over a four-year period in the National Library archives in Paris, is preceded by a three-part introduction: a presentation and discussion of the methodology chosen to transcribe the diaries; an analysis of the nineteenth-century family, social, and literary contexts that influence the writing; and the development of a thesis on the rationale behind the existence of the diaries, their character, content, and volume. Bréton began the task of editing and retyping her journals. This edition of the subsequent journals carries on the undertaking of 'publishing and republishing Silenced texts' Julia Swindells, 'Liberating the Subject? Autobiography and "Women's History": A Reading of the Diaries of Hannah Cullwick' in The Personal Narratives Group eds., Interpreting Women's Lives: Feminist Theory and Personal Narratives, 1989, p.24.: that of drawing out the untold stories of creativity and rebellion against confinement which are part of history and literary history.

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  • The Science/Fiction of Sex. A Feminist Deconstruction of the Vocabularies of Heterosex

    Potts, Annie (1999)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Note: Thesis now published. Potts, Annie (2002). The Science/Fiction of sex: feminist deconstruction and the vocabularies of heterosex. London & New York: Routledge. ISBN 04152567312. Whole document restricted, see Access Instructions file below for details of how to access the print copy. This research conducts a feminist poststructuralist examination of the vocabularies of heterosex: it investigates those terms, modes of talking, and meanings relating to sex which are associated with discourses such as scientific and popular sexology, medicine and psychiatry, public health, philosophy, and some feminist critique. The analysis of these various representations of heterosex involves the deconstruction of binaries such as presence/absence, mind/body, inside/outside and masculine/feminine, that are endemic to Western notions of sex. It is argued that such dualisms (re)produce and perpetuate differential power relations between men and women, and jeopardize the negotiation of mutually pleasurable and safer heterosex. Particular attention is paid to the ways in which sexological discourse deploys such dualisms as normal/abnormal, natural/unnatural, and healthy/unhealthy sex, and produces specifically gendered 'experiences' of sexual corporeality. The thesis examines a variety of written texts and excerpts from film and television; it also analyzes transcript material from individual and group interviews conducted by the researcher with heterosexual women and men, as well as sexual health and mental health professionals, in order to identify cultural pressures influencing participation in risky heterosexual behaviours, and also to identify alternative and safer pleasurable practices. Some of these alternative practices are suggested to rely on a radical reformulation of sexual relations which derives from the disruption of particular dualistic ways of understanding and enacting sex. The overall objective of the thesis is to deconstruct cultural imperatives of heterosex and promote the generation and acceptance of other modes of erotic pleasure. It is hoped that this research will be of use in the future planning and implementation of sex education and safer sex campaigns in Aotearoa/New Zealand which aim to be non-phallocentric and non-heterosexist, and which might recognize a feminist poststructuralist politics of sexual difference.

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  • Globalisation and the Return to Empire: an Indigenous Response = Te torino whakahaere, whakamuri

    Stewart-Harawira, Makere (2002)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. This thesis may be regarded as both a history of the present and a signifier for the future. Developed during a time of dramatic global upheavals and transformations, it is concerned with the political economy of world order and the ontologies of being upon which world order is predicated. As the framework for the world order of nation states, international law was the means whereby indigenous peoples within colonised territories reconstructed from sovereign nations to dependent populations. Undperpinning this body of law and the political formations of world order were sets of social and political ontologies which continue to be contested. These ontologies are frequently at variance with those of indigenous peoples and shape the arena within which the struggle for self-determination and the validation of indigenous knowledge, values and subjectivities is played out. Contextualised within the international political and juridical framework, the thesis utilises critical theoretical traditions to examine the participation of indigenous peoples in the construction of world order and new global formations. Positioned from a Maori perspective, the thesis also tracks the historical role of education in the development of world order and considers the role and form of Maori educational resistance. In engaging with these issues across macro and micro levels, the thesis identifies the international arena, the national state and forms of regionalism as sites for the reshaping of the global politico/economic order and the emergence of Empire. Allied to this are the reconstruction of hierarchies of knowledge and subjectivities within new Manichean divides. Key questions raised in the thesis concern the positioning of indigenous ontologies and epistemologies within the emergent global order, and the nature of resistance or response. Calls for a new ontology of world order are increasingly being articulated in response to the multiple and increasing crises of globalisation. This thesis argues that, far from irrelevant, traditional indigenous social, political and cosmological ontologies are profoundly important to the development of transformative alternative frameworks for global order.

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  • Signalling mechanisms coordinating nutritional status and lactation

    Stewart, Kevin William (2004)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The pathways by which nutritional status is signalled to the mammary glands and the metabolic sites targeted by these pathways have not been identified. Understanding of these pathways is of particular importance in species such as rodents and ruminants in which mammary metabolism is extremely sensitive to food availability. The studies in this thesis investigated mechanisms by which nutritional state was signalled to the mammary glands using the lactating rat as an experimental model. An in vivo preparation for analysis of the effects of altered nutritional state on substrate supply to, and uptake by, the inguinal mammary glands was established, as this had not been accurately performed before in rats. This preparation was used to record a large fall in mammary glucose uptake with food deprivation and a rapid restoration of uptake after refeeding. Results demonstrated that mammary glucose uptake, and hence mammary metabolism, was not closely linked to glucose supply in lactating rats. Glucose supply is unlikely to be a key factor signalling nutritional state to the mammary glands. Experiments in which the cutaneous branch of the posterior division of the femoral nerve innervating the inguinal mammary glands was severed showed that these neural pathways did not contribute to the maintenance of mammary metabolic activity in the fed and refed states or to the suppressed activity in food deprived rats. Neural signalling is unlikely to have a direct role in controlling mammary metabolism in rats. An in vitro method for measuring the uptake of glucose by rat mammary acini was developed. Insulin administration increased glucose uptake in acini from both fed and food deprived rats. Treatment with a crude gut extract enhanced uptake of glucose in acini from food deprived, lactating rats, but not in acini from fed rats. It was concluded that insulin and/or a factor from the gut may be involved in signalling the mammary gland of the restoration of nutrient supply when food deprived rats are refed. Proteomic studies were performed to investigate the effect of food deprivation and insulin on the abundance of intracellular proteins in acini from fed and food deprived, lactating rats. Analysis of over 800 protein spots detected 7 that were regulated by food deprivation, 26 that were regulated by insulin, and 9 in which the regulation was different in acini from fed and food deprived rats. None were regulated by both food deprivation and insulin. This suggests that decreased blood insulin concentration during food deprivation is unlikely to be the only signal that results in decreased mammary metabolism. Identification of proteins affected by food deprivation and insulin has led to new insights into some of the intracellular mechanisms regulated by these factors.

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  • Mechanistic Studies of HF Adsorption on Alumina

    Gillespie, Alistair Ross (1997)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Aluminium smelters emit upwards of 6 kg of gaseous hydrogen fluoride per tonne of aluminium metal produced. Since the 1960's, many aluminium smelters have used the dry scrubbing process to capture the HF on the surface of smelter grade alumina. In this way, dispersion of the emitted HF is prevented and the fluoride is returned to the aluminium electrolysis cells. The surface adsorption reactions on which the dry scrubbing process relies have been studied by various researchers. It is common knowledge that there occurs a relatively strong bond between HF and alumina and that the quantity of water in the gas effects the maximum fluoride adsorption capacity of the alumina. It has also been considered that FIF adsorption is a combination of strong chemisorption and reversible physisorption at the temperatures at which the dry scrubbing process operates. Some researchers have postulated the formation of Al-F bonds at the alumina surface, while others have postulated the existence of hydrogen bonds between surface fluoride or hydroxyl ions and molecular H2O and HF. However, these models do not agree with the experimental data which was gathered during the course of researching this thesis, nor do they agree with much of the experimental data presented earlier. The major finding of this research was that hydrogen fluoride adsorption is irreversible under the temperature and gas composition conditions of the dry scrubbing process. The maximum fluoride adsorption capacity of smelter grade alumina depends on the relative humidity during adsorption, as well as the specific surface area of the alumina. Both factors indicate that HF adsorption is a surface process. The most likely product of reaction is a thin layer of crystalline aluminium hydroxyfluoride, AIFx(OH)3-x 6H2O, formed in an aqueous reaction at the alumina surface. The reaction mechanism involves the steps of: H2O adsorption to form an aqueous layer on the alumina surface; HF adsorption to acidify the surface water layer; dissolution of the alumina surface to form AlO2- and AlO2-; precipitation of AlFx(OH)3-x.nH2O. The overall adsorption rate appears to be controlled by the rate of the surface chemical reactions rather than by transport phenomena such as fluid phase mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion. At relative humidity greater than 35% the adsorption capacity of smelter grade alumina increases dramatically and small crystallites of AIFx(OH)3-x.6H2O and AIF3.3H2O are formed. Under these conditions the reaction mechanism is similar, except that water-filled pores provide an environment which is conducive to the formation of larger crystallites of product. At temperatures below 450°C the aluminium hydroxyfluoride hydrate phase dehydrates, and at temperatures above 450°C hydrolysis of aluminium hydroxyfluoride results in the release of HF. Samples which are produced under dry scrubbing conditions and aged under ambient conditions, are indefinitely stable. However, when aged at high humidity the product layer is transformed into distinct crystallites of aluminium hydroxyfluoride by a dissolution/re-precipitation mechanism involving water filled pores. Samples which are hydrofluorinated at greater than 35% humidity show continued growth of A1Fx(OH)3-x 6H2O and AlF3.3H2O under all storage conditions due to residual water condensed within the alumina pores.

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  • Changes in organisational design in New Zealand privatised organisations

    Eraković, Ljiljana (2001)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Between 1985 and 1995, the New Zealand economy went through comprehensive changes. Economic reforms were oriented towards macro-economic adjustments, economic stabilisation, and market-oriented development policies. The public sector was the main arena of the reforms with great emphasis on reducing state intervention in economic affairs. Deregulation and privatisation were recognised as the instruments of macro-economic policies, introducing a market-oriented approach into the public sector economy. By 1988, twenty-four government trading enterprises including utilities, transport, and finance were corporatised. In a seven-year period, the government sold most of its commercial assets, including seventeen government-owned organisations, accounted for a total sale of NZ$ l3 billion. The objective of this thesis is to elaborate theory about changes in organisational design as initiated by changes in ownership nature, and to reflect on the complex interaction of political, economic, management, and technological factors in influencing organisational structure. The central purpose of the research is to explore the different pathways taken by New Zealand organisations through the process of transition from government departments to state-owned enterprises, and then to privately-owned companies. The research is undertaken through multiple case studies, the cases selected from the population of New Zealand corporatised and privatised companies. The resulting representative sample consists of sixteen organisations. The analysis relates to the 1985-1995 period, with data collected retrospectively from different sources. Content analysis of organisational documents is performed using QSR NUD*IST computer software. The research suggests three pathways of restructuring: incremental, radical, and reductive. It is shown that diversity in organisational pathways through the process of transition depends on the organisations' embeddedness in their institutional and technical environments, historical conditions of their existence, the indeterminacy of government actions, and the new owners' strategic intents. The incremental pathway refers to changes that occurred in the state-owned enterprises that had historically operated in a competitive environment. For these entities the shift to private ownership meant selective organisational movements towards efficiency improvement and further market expansion. The radical pathway refers to those organisations that after the status change experienced dramatic changes in all areas of business activities. The shift in ownership status made possible significant development of the organisations, from those operating in protected domestic markets, to large, internationally recognised corporations. The reductive pathway refers to those organisations that, in the period before status changes, were totally dependent on the public sector as both customer and supplier. The strategic orientation of their new owners reduced their business activities and resulted in them losing their independent organisational identity.

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  • Romantic drama: a study of selected plays by Wordsworth, Coleridge, Shelley and Byron

    King, Dzintra Maija (1983)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. This thesis examines five plays of the Romantic poets: Wordsworth's The Borderers, Coleridge's Remorse, Shelley's The Cenci and Prometheus Unbound and Byron's Manfred. It is my contention that the Romantic poets tried to develop a dramatic form in which the emphasis was primarily imaginative and psychological. The plays focus on the development of a central character or characters, and the action of the plays consists in the gradual unfolding of the motives of the complex, often ambiguous protagonists. Because the Romantics saw action as primarily internal or psychic they concentrate on the use of symbolic language to convey character development and theme. The plays of the Romantics cannot be divorced from their historical context. Wordsworth, Coleridge, Shelley and Byron all drew upon and developed certain aspects of contemporary drama and theatre, and rejected others. In looking at the theatrical background of the period, and in particular at the influences of melodrama, and of Shakespeare, I attempt to place the works in an historical perspective in the belief that this will make possible a better understanding of the dramatists' intentions and achievements. I show that they paid particular attention to those tendencies in gothic melodrama, and in Shakespeare's characterization and poetic language, which emphasized the complex and emotional nature of personality, and that they used their characters to explore themes central to Romanticism: guilt, remorse, self-consciousness, nature, and the need to find a basis for value and action when external criteria have been found wanting.

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  • Contemporary Developments in Catholic Missiology : the Story of the Sisters of Our Lady of the Missions of the Province of Aotearoa New Zealand, 1861-2000

    Smith, Susan Elizabeth (2002)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Significant changes have occurred in the Catholic practice and theology of mission since the second Vatican Council (1962-65). To appreciate better the extent of these changes, I have charted major shifts in the story of mission of the Sisters of Our Lady of the Missions, founded in Lyon in 1861. In particular, I have examined the various theologies that informed these shifts. This micro-study of one particular Catholic group offers an entry-point into a consideration of contemporary Catholic theologies of mission and missionary practice. Since Vatican II, there has been a growing awareness of the universal and salvific presence of the Spirit in creation and history. I will seek to show how this has affected Catholic missiological reflection through an examination of the work of selected Catholic theologians. These theologians direct attention to the mission of the Spirit, and to the relation between the Spirit and the Son in the mission of the Triune God. This pneumatological emphasis often has been overlooked in theologies of mission that are more overtly ecclesiological or christological in their orientation. I then examine selected New Testament texts in order to discern the legitimacy of such pneumatological emphases in emerging trinitarian theologies of mission. While New Testament texts indicate that the mission of the Spirit is both antecedent and consequent to the mission of Jesus, the examination of scriptural texts in this research concentrates on the antecedent mission of the Holy Spirit in selected Johannine, Matthean and Lukan texts. My research suggests that an emphasis on the mission of the Spirit permits an understanding of mission that can expand the parameters associated with ecclesiocentric and christocentric models of mission.

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  • Exploring the artwork-world: perichoretic rehearsals of the divine encounter

    Jack, Matthew, 1963- (2004)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Christian religion and art enjoy a persistent relationship. Trying to account for this, I investigate the possibility that an aesthetic experience might facilitate a religious experience. I look at different kinds of experiences which typically are called "religious", and review some theories of religious experience. Even though my concern is not to use religious experience as a justification for religious belief, I settle, temporarily, for William Alston's account, which characterises religious experience as mystical perceptual experience. Alston's theory, however, underemphasises the role played in religious perceptual experiences by the experiencer's background beliefs. Arguing that background beliefs always play a part in how religious presentations are interpreted, I develop a theory called Alston-B. Within the structure of Alston-B, which identifies two highly integrated phases of perception (presentation and interpretation), I explore how artworks might play a part in these activities. The most persuasive theories, however, point away from understanding aesthetic experiences as a matter of observation. They point, rather, towards understanding them as imaginative personal encounters, or whole-person explorations of "worlds". While the force of this paradigm shift is felt, I examine three central background beliefs from the Protestant theological tradition. Alston-B, with its proper understanding of the importance of background beliefs in religious experience, requires that particular beliefs be admitted into enquiries about the nature of particular religious experiences. My examination of the background beliefs turns up material that suggests, in a way paralleled in my exploration of art theories, that the religious encounter is not so much a perceptual event as much as it is a perichoretic exchange. My investigation, then moves its focus from how a perceptual experience of art might serve a perceptual experience of God, to how a perichoretic encounter with art might serve a perichoretic experience of God. Drawing on Nicholas Wolterstorff's concepts of action, artwork-world, and projection, I argue that an encounter with an artwork can act as a rehearsal for the experience of God, since a "good" artwork provides its audience with a high degree of structural similarity (with regard to personal interaction) to the human encounter with the divine.

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  • Stress-strain and strength properties of an Auckland residual soil

    Meyer, V. (Vaughan) (1997)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The stress-strain and strength properties of a residual soil sampled from the North Shore, Auckland, were investigated through stress and strain-controlled triaxial tests. Emphasis was placed on determining the behavioural characteristics of the soil under conditions of very low effective stress. The soil sampled was a silty clay, derived from the Waitemata Series, with the following average properties: natural water content 45.5%; initial bulk density l707 kg/m3; density of soil particles 2.63 t/m3; plastic limit 32; and liquid limit 60. The peak shearing resistance of the soil was observed to be accurately defined using the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, even at very low confining pressures. In addition, the Waitemata clay exhibited a measurable tensile strength of between 7.7 and 12.0 kPa. These results lead to the conclusion that the observed cohesion intercept for the soil could be relied upon for design purposes. The natural variation in void ratio of the Waitemata clay led to the use of total volumetric strain for improved stress-strain correlations. A modified critical state relationship for the soil was subsequently presented, with a unified soil model being used to predict the behaviour of the Waitemata clay. This model demonstrated the ability to replicate the general stress-strain and peak characteristics of the soil. The Waitemata clay did not display the yielding characteristics which are common to residual soils, rather the soil demonstrated continuous yielding behaviour. Anisotropy of the Waitemata clay was also found to be negligible. The use of volumetric strain in the calculation of consolidation properties required only simple modifications to existing consolidation formulae. Bender element tests enabled the small strain shear modulus of the soil to be evaluated. Comparisons of Gmax with the undrained shear strength produced a linear correlation (Gmax =284su) which was significantly lower than expected.

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  • The structure and metabolism of mammalian glycogens

    Calder, Philip Charles (1987)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Mammalian liver and skeletal muscle glycogens were extracted using mild procedures and characterised according to their fine structure, molecular weight distribution and electron microscopic appearance. The role of protein in their structure was investigated. Rat, rabbit and mouse liver and muscle glycogens were polydisperse ranging in size up to more than one thousand million daltons. Whilst there are reports of liver glycogen covering such a size range, skeletal muscle glycogen of this size has not been previously reported. The glycogens contained a significant level of protein, some of which could be removed without altering the molecular weight distribution. The residual protein accounted for approximately 1% by weight of the purified glycogen, and it was concluded that this protein was covalently bound. Protease or concentrated alkali treatment of the glycogen digested the protein and resulted in a dramatic lowering of the molecular weight of glycogen, indicating that it was covalently bound protein which was responsible for the formation of high molecular weight material. Disulphide bond reduction also caused a lowering of molecular weight, indicating that high molecular weight glycogen arises by disulphide bridging between the protein backbones upon which the low molecular weight glycogen is synthesised. Thus liver and skeletal muscle glycogens are constructed in a similar manner. The fine structure of the glycogens was typical of that previously reported. When observed by electron microscopy the material appeared as spherical β-particles and large aggregates of these, the α-particles, thus confirming the presence of a high molecular weight component of skeletal muscle glycogen. The sizes of the products of TCA or KOH extraction of tissue glycogen were explained by the effects of these agents upon the glycogen molecule. Alkali digests the protein backbone and splits the glycogen β-particles, while TCA causes insolubility of the high protein content, high molecular weight glycogen. The protein backbone of rat liver glycogen was isolated. It had a molecular weight of 60,000 daltons and was rich in serine, glutamate, and the hydrophobic amino acids. Lysosome-enriched fractions were isolated from rat liver and skeletal muscle. Both contained glycogen; approximately 10% of tissue glycogen for the liver fraction and approximately 5% for the muscle fraction. The lysosomal glycogen of both tissues was enriched in the high molecular weight component. Thus in both tissues glycogen metabolism is compartmentalised, and degradation is via both phosphorolytic and hydrolytic pathways. The lysosomal acid α-glucosidases showed a preference for low rather than high molecular weight glycogen as substrate. A model for the regulation of lysosomal breakdown of glycogen was proposed. High and low molecular weight liver and muscle glycogens showed inhomogeneous responses upon starvation and rapid post mortem glycogenolysis. Both phosphorolysis and hydrolysis were involved. The increase in glycogen level upon refeeding following starvation was inhomogeneous with respect to glycogen size, in both tissues. The metabolic inhomogeneity of glycogen was related to its structural inhomogeneity and the association of the high molecular weight component with the lysosome.

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  • New Zealand defence acquisition decision making: politics and processes

    Greener, Peter (2005)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The spectre of block obsolescence of major weapons platforms loomed throughout the 1980s, facing successive governments with significant challenges as they worked to make sustainable decisions on replacement or upgraded equipment for the New Zealand Defence Force. This thesis identifies the critical factors that have shaped and influenced defence acquisition decision-making processes from the election of the Fourth Labour Government in 1984 and the subsequent ANZUS crisis, through to the events of 9/11 and the following 'war on terror'. The thesis explores and analyses decision-making processes in relation to six acquisition decisions which have been made over a twenty year period. These are the decisions on the ANZAC frigates; the military sealift ship HMNZS Charles Upham; the second and third decisions on the ANZACS; the lease of the F-l6 strike aircraft; the upgrading of the P-3C Orion maritime patrol aircraft; and the purchase of armoured vehicles for the Army - the LAV IIIs. A model of decision-making processes is developed and evaluated in order to undertake the analysis, with the model demonstrating its utility in analysing complex processes throughout the course of the thesis. From here the thesis concludes that whilst many factors are brought to bear, New Zealand's own view of the world, external relationships, and the timing of decisions are amongst the most significant elements impacting on the decision making process, whilst individual actors play a significant part in shaping the process. Although there has been a great deal of publicity in recent years about rivalry between the Services and the place of bureaucratic politics, it nevertheless is apparent that officials have continued to work with rigour over time to provide the best judgement and advice possible to Ministers. Three out of six of the case studies which have been analysed, the ANZAC frigates, the upgrade of the P-3 Orions and the LAV III, have been or are in the process of successful implementation. In each case officials have worked to ensure that they provided the Government of the day with the most appropriate advice upon which to base decisions, although that advice has not always been popular. The analysis of each case study demonstrates key aspects of the decision-making process providing specific insights into the way defence decisions are made.

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  • A privileged moment: 'dialogue' in the language of the Second Vatican Council 1962-65

    Nolan, Ann Michele, 1946- (2003)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The style of language at Vatican II made a break with the then-current scholastic language of Catholic theology. Less concerned to define, in scholastic mode, the language of Vatican II was more concerned to persuade, in a rhetorical mode that was identified as 'pastoral' at the time. This book takes the central word 'dialogue' as the important interface between these two modes of language, because 'dialogue' had a history in scholastic theology as the finding-the-end-result dialectic of Thomism, yet 'dialogue' in twentieth-century philosophical thought had acquired the Buberian sense of an ongoing relationship that did not lend itself to once-and-for-all definitions. Some of the difficulties that have arisen in implementing the teaching of Vatican II are shown to result from these two different understandings of dialogue, compounded for English-speaking readers by the fact that two different Latin words in the original documents were commonly translated as 'dialogue' in the five major English translations.

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  • A Study of near-surface ozone concentrations in the city of Auckland, New Zealand

    Adeeb, Farah (2006)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. This research provides insight into large-scale spatial variation of ozone (O3) distribution in the Auckland region and was designed to increase our understanding of O3 behaviour and distribution in a coastal-urban situation. The research was also carried out with a view to assisting regulatory agencies optimize future monitoring networks, and to help identify locations where human health and natural resources could be at risk in the future. Although the research was limited to one region, the results are valuable for improving the conceptual understanding of formation of high ozone concentrations in a more general sense in the New Zealand and Southern Hemisphere. The work reported in this thesis is aimed at studying O3 concentrations and the influence of the most relevant meteorological variables on an average coastal New Zealand city where precursor emissions are mainly due to traffic exhaust. It deals with the use of Principal Component Analysis method for determining O3 concentrations as a function of meteorological parameters. The study region includes the entire Auckland isthmus, and extends from Whangaparaoa in the North to Pukekohe in the South. Surface O3 data from four sites (Whangaparaoa, Musick Point, the Sky Tower and Pukekohe) for a 4-year period(October 1997 to October 2001) for the Auckland region were examined. Ambient concentration of O3 was characterized in terms of diurnal, weekday/weekend, seasonal and spatial variations in concentration using O3 measurements from the four air quality sites. The monthly average ambient background O3 concentrations at the monitoring sites during this study ranged from 16-30 ppb, much lower than those found in the Northern Hemisphere. The measured seasonal O3 record in the Auckland region, in common with many other remote sites in the Southern Hemisphere, exhibited a summer minimum and a winter maximum. Background concentrations of O3 (as seen in air of marine origin) made a significant contribution to the observed ambient concentrations. A unique feature of Auckland's air quality was the dilution of polluted city air due to the mixing of east coast air into the cleaner west coast circulation leading to overall lower average O3 concentrations in summer. The magnitude, frequency and spatial extent of maximum O3 concentrations were identified, and the observed patterns linked to the prevailing meteorological, topographic, and emission characteristics of the region. However, at no time at any site or season did the O3 concentration exceed the l-hour New Zealand Ministry for the Environment guideline of 75 ppb. O3 depletion was observed to occur at the urban sites, with O3 scavenging by nitric oxide believed to be the dominant depletion mechanism. The seasonal cycle was characterized by elevated O3 concentrations in the winter (nighttime level >24 ppb) and low mixing ratios in the summer (nighttime levels in the range 14-20 ppb). The afternoon O3 maxima found at the three low elevation sites under the impact of "Auckland city" plume were on average, 1.5 to 1.7 times higher than those associated with the "marine sector". A state of the art diagnostic meteorological model, namely CALMET, was used to generate wind fields for the Auckland region. These wind fields were then used to construct backward trajectories on days when high O3 concentrations (episodes up to 6l ppb) were observed. The un-even distribution of the meteorological monitoring sites provided justification for running the diagnostic model CALMET and exploring the utility of using such a model when topography/land use prohibits monitoring sites in certain sections of the domain. It was found that the high O3 events recorded at the monitoring sites during the study period coincided with transport episodes originating from Auckland's urban and industrial areas. For the occurrence of high O3 concentrations at downwind sites, it was found that not only wind direction from the urban areas of Auckland, but that high solar radiation was important as well. On four out of the five cases when photochemical production of O3 was found to occur, high O3 concentrations were associated with a particular type of diurnal evolution of wind direction wind fields associated with the sea breezes. In addition to the analysis of ambient o3 concentrations and O3 episodes, field measurements were carried out in an attempt to detect and subsequently understand the interaction between particulate matter and O3 in the Auckland region, a multivariate statistical analysis approach was utilized. Particulate matter in the size range 2.75-6.25 μm accounted for over 70% of the total aerosol concentration at all sampling sites. Surface area of particulate matter variable (especially in the size class 2.75-4.25 μm) was statistically significant in explaining variation in O3 concentration. However, the net change in the adjusted R2 indicated that the effect of adding particulate matter in the multiple regression model for the present dataset was relatively minor except at Musick Point.

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  • Detection and choice

    Alsop, Brent Llewellyn. (1988)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Davison and Jenkins (1985) suggested that behaviour allocation between concurrent alternatives was affected by the the degree to which animals could discriminate between the response-reinforcer contingencies associated with each of those concurrent alternatives. The present study evaluated their models for free-operant concurrent-schedules performance and discrete-trial signal-detection performance. In Experiment 1, pigeons were trained in six sets of conditions. In each set of conditions, two intensities of white light were used as the sample stimuli in a discrete-trial signaldetection procedure. The relative reinforcer frequency for correct choice responses was varied across conditions. The same two stimuli were then arranged as the discriminative stimuli in a switching-key concurrent schedule. The relative reinforcer frequency was varied across conditions. Then the intensity of one of the white lights was varied, and these procedures were repeated for the next set of conditions. Analysis of the data from the signal-detection procedures showed that the effect of varying relative reinforcer frequency decreased as discriminability between the stimuli increased. A new model of signal-detection performance, based on the Davison and Jenkins' (1985) model of concurrent-schedule performance, accounted for this interaction. There was ordinal relation between measures of stimulus discriminability obtained from the signal-detection procedure, and measures of the effect of varying relative reinforcer frequency obtained from the concurrent-schedule procedures.

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  • Internationalizing the entrepreneurial high technology, knowledge-intensive firm

    Coviello, Nicole Elizabeth (1994)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. This thesis examines the internationalization process and growth patterns of entrepreneurial high technology, knowledge-intensive firms. This is accomplished with two-stages of data collection, involving multi-site case methodology and survey research, focusing on software developers based in New Zealand. These firms are characterized as both high technology and knowledge-intensive (ie non-manufacturing), and serve international markets with leading edge technology. The purpose of this exploratory and descriptive research is to aid theory development in the area of internationalization. Empirical evidence is used, together with the extant literature base, to develop four conceptual frameworks, specific to smaller, entrepreneurial high technology knowledge-intensive firms. These frameworks pertain to the internationalization process, network evolution and linkage development as part of internationalization, and the impact of linkage relationships on marketing activities. All four frameworks provide testable bases for future research. The frameworks offer new, empirically-based insight to internationalization, and show: 1) the internationalization process of the entrepreneurial high technology, knowledge-intensive firm differs from that of larger, manufacturing firms; 2) there are clearly identifiable patterns of internationalization, with network evolution being a major part of the internationalization process; 3) linkage and network development is impacted by existing linkage relationships (both formal and informal), the firm's stage of internationalization, and other firm characteristics; 4) international market development is impacted by the use of linkages and network development; 5) the internationalization patterns of 'newer' and 'later' entrants are different in terms of the speed of internationalization, and development of network relationships with major partners; and 6) linkage partners are used to outsource most market-related marketing activities, with entrepreneurial high technology, knowledge-intensive firms, able to achieve international growth and success without a clearly defined and developed, in-house marketing function. Future research should examine the conceptual frameworks more fully: 1) within the New Zealand software industry; 2) within the international software industry; and 3) across industry sectors. Specific issues for research in the areas of network development, linkage relationships, and marketing's role in internationalization are also identified.

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  • Fictionalising the facts : an exploration of the 'place' of Aotearoa/New Zealand in the post-war autobiographical fiction of Anna Kavan

    Sturm, Jennifer (2006)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. This PhD thesis explores the Aotearoa / New Zealand influence in the post-World War II writing of English author, Anna Kavan. In response to her provocatively worded 1943 Horizon-published article on the socio-cultural features of that country, I sought evidence of the source of her apparent disdain. Imperialist in tone and disparaging of the post-colonial Other, the article contributed to the reflective dialectic of national identity of her temporary home. The discovery of unpublished and not previously discussed short stories, written during Kavan’s stay in Aotearoa / New Zealand, revealed a contrarily positive perspective, and offered an anomalous body of material that illuminate the early wartime experiences of the residents of Auckland's North Shore. Comparison between the stories in the manuscript and work published by Kavan since World War II exposed the compellingly autobiographical nature of her writing. This revelation was underscored by a second discovery, that of a previously-unseen cache of correspondence, letters sent from Kavan to her Aotearoa / New Zealand lover, the conscientious objector and author, Walter [Ian] Hamilton. The letters, unpublished short stories, and published work, collectively manifest an intertextuality which reinforces their status as autobiographical. Close analysis has determined that much of Kavan's 'fiction’ is in fact thinly disguised life-writing, a construct which would otherwise be unnoticed, in the absence of back-grounding evidence. This thesis further proves Kavan's authorial appropriation of thematic aspects of the Aotearoa / New Zealand vocabulary, geography, and historical aesthetic. The thesis also corrects extant inaccurate biographical material, particularly with respect to the years 1939 - 1943. Discovery of a small collection of photographs, featuring Kavan in a New Zealand context, has added impetus to the move to install her as a transient constituent on the continuum of New Zealand literature.

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