14,250 results for Doctoral

  • Career assistant/deputy principals : asleep at the wheel or motivated drivers in education? : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education, Institute of Education, Massey University

    Shore, Kevin (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    This study focuses on a largely unrecognised group of secondary school assistant/deputy principals who have no desire to pursue principalship. Findings from the study have shown that these assistant/deputy principals who, for the purpose of this study are called ‘career AP/DPs’, play a significant role in the leadership of New Zealand secondary schools yet there is little research focused on the assistant/deputy principalship as a vocation. Consequently, the intentions of this study are to develop a more complete understanding of this group in order to ensure that career AP/DPs are a recognised group of educational leaders with a distinct mission to support principals in leading our New Zealand secondary schools. The research design employed a mixed methods approach. It used a survey questionnaire to identify those AP/DPs who identify as career AP/DPs and then focus group interviews with selected groups of career AP/DPs to develop a more complete understanding of the group. The findings from the study highlight that career AP/DPs have followed a serendipitous career journey where key colleagues have been crucial in championing their leadership aspirations. Career AP/DPs gain satisfaction from the daily contact that they have with students, caregivers and staff and enjoy the psychological rewards that come from making a difference in their schools. However, they are clearly disappointed that they are not able to make a wider contribution to teaching and learning in their schools and advocate for a more significant role in this portfolio. Career AP/DPs are strongly attached to their leadership teams including the principal and acknowledge them as the most significant professional support they have providing the conditions for them to grow and fully enjoy the psychological rewards that come from serving in this position.

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  • Evolution of diversity : analysis of species and speciation in Hemiandrus ground wētā : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Zoology, Massey University, New Zealand. EMBARGOED until 1 November 2017

    Smith, Briar Leigh Taylor (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Patterns of biodiversity and endemism in New Zealand are explored, with a focus on the ground weta genus Hemiandrus. I first investigated factors that determined regional levels of endemism using a generalised linear model based on analysis of 2322 species of endemic New Zealand invertebrates. I found that widespread species are uncommon in New Zealand and most invertebrates occupied few regions. Number of endemic species per region was positively correlated with total number of species and size of the region 3 million years ago. Within one clade of Hemiandrus I found that North and South Islands differed in how they were occupied: South Island had many species with small non-overlapping ranges, whereas North Island was largely dominated by a single species. This is likely due to differences in age of different parts of New Zealand, yet this pattern was absent in another clade of ground weta species, showing that properties of species themselves also have a large impact on species ranges and speciation. I applied several strategies to the Hemiandrus maculifrons species complex to test putative species boundaries (chapter 3). I compared morphological methods (Gaps in Continuous Characters across Geography (GCCG)) and genetic methods (Bayesian Species Delimitation, Rosenberg's P(AB), P(Randomly Distinct), P ID(Liberal)). Some of these strategies indicated that all or nearly all mtDNA clades tested represented separate species, while others indicated that no clades were likely to be distinct species. I concluded that H. maculifrons comprises three species (plus an under-sampled microendemic species, chapter 4); a conclusion that is discordant with the results of the “species delimitation” methods but consistent with other genetic, morphological and distributional data. Since the genus Hemiandrus was thought to comprise only nine named species but dozens of alleged species, I tested whether the purported diversity accurately reflected biological diversity in the genus or whether it was exaggerated due to speculative classification (chapter 5). To do this, I applied traditional techniques to search for qualitative or quantitative differences between individuals using a model where species are separately evolving lineages that form separate genotypic clusters with no or few intermediates when in contact (Mallet 1995). Most proposed operational taxonomic units were supported, but some names appear to be synonymies while others appear to encompass more diversity than previously recognised. I concluded that Hemiandrus comprises at least 25 species, but as specimens representing all tag-names1 1 A tag-name is an informal name that indicates an entity that may be a separate species, monophyletic group or separate interbreeding population of uncertain taxonomic rank (Leschen et al. 2009). were not available, additional diversity may exist within Hemiandrus than recognised here. Phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA sequences identified two major clades within New Zealand Hemiandrus. Using nuclear markers and morphological traits I found strong support for these two clades. Derived shared traits were identified that can determine to which clade each species belongs. Concordance between genetic markers (four loci) and morphology resolved evolutionary relationships from which I propose dividing the group into two separate genera.

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  • Properties of oil-in-water emulsions and ice creams made from coconut milk : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Food Science at Massey University, New Zealand.

    Chalermnon, Naiyawit (2013)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Coconut milk (CM) containing coconut oil extracted from the endosperm (meat) of coconut fruit is not stable and undergoes a rapid separation into a creaming layer at the top and a serum phase at the bottom. In this study, coconut milk was separated into coconut cream (CC) and coconut skim milk (CSM). The ability of proteins in CM, CC and CSM to form and stabilise oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing coconut oil was investigated. The unstable nature of coconut oil droplets in CM was found to be due to types of proteins adsorbed on the surface of oil droplets, which were predominantly 11S globulins, known to be hydrophobic and salt soluble proteins. The oil droplets stabilised by 11S globulins in CM and CC were larger in size and highly flocculated, probably due to hydrophobic interaction, thus resulting in rapid creaming and phase separation, compared to those stabilised by proteins (e.g. water-soluble albumins) in CSM. Smaller droplet size with less droplet flocculation and slower phase separation was obtained when emulsions were prepared with a predominance of proteins present in CSM. The CSM-based emulsions were relatively more stable but they were only able to provide short-term stability against phase separation. The results suggest that the ability of proteins (both globulins and albumins) in CM to stabilise the emulsion oil droplets was not high because these proteins did not seem to posses the ability to provide steric and electrostatic stabilisation to the emulsion droplets stabilised by them. An addition of small molecule surfactants, particularly a water-soluble surfactant of Tween 80, induced the formation of smaller droplets in the CM- and CSM-based emulsions, thereby improving their emulsion stability to a certain extent. However, the addition of oil-soluble small molecule surfactants (e.g. mono- and diglycerides and/or partially unsaturated mono- and diglycerides) in the absence of Tween 80 caused a significant increase in droplet size of emulsions prepared from CSM. In contrast, this phenomenon was not observed in emulsions made from CM. The formation and properties of coconut milk ice creams differing in the concentration of CSM proteins, as well as ratios of solid fat-to-liquid oil (blends of coconut oil and sunflower oil) were also investigated. The differences in those variables were found to have a significant influence on the properties and stability (particle size, flow properties, droplet flocculation) of ice cream mixes as well as the characteristics of ice creams, such as overrun, melt resistance and shape retention. Several instrumental analyses, including size measurement, flow behaviour and small-deformation oscillatory tests, showed the presence of an agglomerated structural network in ice creams based on CSM containing oil blends as well as in ice creams based on dairy milk. From the findings, the agglomerated fat structural network in the CSM-based ice creams containing the suitable solid fat content at 68% could change ice creams with a slow melting rate and the more ability to retain their shape during melting compared with those of the dairy milk-based ice cream and ice creams made directly from CM. Overall the results suggest that coconut milk proteins do not possess the properties of proteins suitable for making very small droplets as well as stable emulsions against phase separation, particularly 11S globulins that are one of the major constituent proteins in coconut milk. However, albumins, which are the predominant proteins in coconut skim milk, may be suitable for use as the surface-active proteins for making smaller emulsion droplets in coconut oil-in-water emulsions, but their concentration needs to be increased for use probably by membrane filtration or freeze drying after removal of some carbohydrates from coconut skim milk.

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  • The role of the external consultant in facilitating enterprise development : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Ph. D. in Human Resource Management at Massey University

    Massey, Claire (1999)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Today's organisations are faced with increasingly difficult choices about appropriate development strategies and structures. At the same time they are supported by a growing literature on management and organisational performance. Judging by the recent average growth in the revenues of the major international consulting firms (which was 34% in the period between 1998 and 1999 according to Kennedy Information, 1999), it appears that it is increasingly likely for organisations to call in external consultants to assist the organisation's managers to select appropriate development strategies from the range of available choices. It may be argued that this situation means that consultants are caught in the grip of two opposing forces: There is the possibility of providing clients with a better outcome than ever before, based on the advances of management thinking that have occurred over the course of this century. At the same time, clients' beliefs that continual advancements in organisational success are possible are putting pressure on the consulting industry to achieve "quick fixes". Whilst striving to perform effectively, consultants are being driven towards providing formulaic responses to complex organisational problems. One of the possible consequences is that they may not be making full use of the available knowledge about organisations, management and the practice of consulting. A further difficulty is that although the literature on the practice of consulting is rich, the theoretical knowledge base for consultants is still regarded as being incomplete. This situation provided the context for the study, in which the researcher sought to describe the roles that can be taken by a consultant during an assignment, and to explore the relationship between roles and subsequent organisational outcomes. Against this background the researcher identified an initial point of interest: the organisation that is engaged upon a search for organisational improvement. The term used to describe this was enterprise development (ED), which was defined as a situation in which an organisation's managers employ a consultant to undertake a set of activities with the objective of achieving a positive organisational outcome of some kind. The implicit research question was whether external consultants have a role to play in ED, and if so, whether there are ways to maximise the positive outcomes of their involvement. The researcher selected action research as the most appropriate methodology for working on client assignments, which also provided an opportunity for those participating in the study to gain from the process. As a starting point the researcher and the consultant "research partners" developed an initial proposition; "that it is possible to identify the factors that influence consultancy outcomes by engaging in participatory research with individual consultants". This proposition was developed over the course of three research cycles, and a diagrammatic presentation of these cycles in relationship to the research question can be found in Chapter 1 (page 31). In the first research cycle, the researcher worked alongside each of the three research partners on a single client assignment. They developed the "intervention profile" (IP) as a way of assessing the assignment's potential for an effective outcome. At the end of the research cycle the researcher and the research partners concluded "that assessing a particular client assignment with the help of the IP will assist a consultant to make choices about appropriate intervention strategies". In the second research cycle the researcher and the research partners developed the IP further, formulating a list of intervention "conditions" that may exist for each of the intervention profiles, and applying this extended framework to a client assignment. They concluded that applying the framework effectively is limited by the consultant's capability. At this point they developed the second proposition; "that a tool for assessing consultants' strengths and weaknesses will assist them to plan a programme of professional development that will improve their practice of organisational consulting". In the third research cycle the researcher and the research partners focused on the consultant's capability. Working through the "consulting approaches assessment" (CAA), a tool designed specifically for this study, the research partners identified their own approach to the practice of consulting. They concluded with a final proposition: "given that the way consultants approach the consulting process is one of the critical success factors, a consulting development programme that assists consultants to develop an intervention profile, assess intervention conditions and develop intervention strategies in the context of their own consulting approach will improve their practice of organisational consulting". The evidence of the six cases undertaken in this study suggests that there is more than one role that consultants can take with a client organisation that can contribute to ED. It is also clear that there are ways of maximising the positive outcomes of consultancy interventions. Here the study makes two specific contributions to the knowledge on organisational consulting that currently exists. Firstly, the IP and the CAA are additions to the literature, which allow practising consultants to apply the extensive literature on management and organisation to client assignments. Secondly, the researcher presents a model for organisational consulting which explicitly identifies the three different levels that consultants need to consider when undertaking client interventions (conceptualisation, strategy and practice), and categorises the existing body of knowledge on consultancy in terms of these levels. These contributions have fundamental implications for the training and development of organisational consultants, and their application has the potential to improve their value to the organisations that employ them.

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  • Identification and characterization of Dothistroma septosporum effectors : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Genetics

    Guo, Yanan (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Dothistroma septosporum is the main causal agent of Dothistroma needle blight of pines. However little is known about mechanisms of pine resistance against D. septosporum, or whether there is any classical gene-for-gene resistance involved. The molecular basis of how fungal effector proteins can trigger plant host resistance in a gene-for-gene manner was determined partly by work with the model fungus Cladosporium fulvum and its tomato host. Comparative genome analysis of C. fulvum and D. septosporum genomes identified nine putative effector genes (DsAvr4, DsEcp2-1, DsEcp2-2, DsEcp2-3, DsEcp4, DsEcp5, DsEcp6, DsEcp13 and DsEcp14) in D. septosporum that are homologous to well-characterized C. fulvum effector genes. Other effector candidates were identified as small cysteine rich proteins that are highly expressed in planta, including DsHdp1 which is a hydrophobin gene and Ds69335 which belongs to the sperm-coating protein-like extracellular protein SCP/Tpx-1/Ag5/PR-1/Sc7 (SCP/TAPS) superfamily. Transcriptome analysis showed that, except for DsEcp2-1 and DsEcp6, the in planta expression of D. septosporum effectors was low. Targeted gene replacement of DsAvr4, DsEcp2-1, DsEcp6 and DsHdp1 caused no observed changes in fungal physiology in vitro compared to wild type (WT) and also showed that DsAvr4, DsEcp6 and DsHdp1 are not virulence factors when infecting Pinus radiata. However deletion of DsEcp2-1 caused larger lesions compared to WT, suggesting that DsEcp2-1 may act to suppress a host target which is involved in necrosis induction during the biotrophic infection stage. A domain swap experiment in this study showed that swapping the region between cysteine residues C6 (Cys102) to C7 (Cys114), which contains the chitin binding domain, caused loss of resistance (R) protein Cf-4 recognition of DsAvr4 (with CbAvr4) and gain of Cf-4 recognition of CbAv4 (with DsAvr4 or CfAvr4). Further experiments carried out in Wageningen University showed that a Pro residue located in the chitin binding domain in DsAvr4 is important for Cf-4 recognition, and may have a role in DsAvr4 stability. In this study, effector candidates DsEcp2-1 and DsEcp2-3 were able to trigger a non-host necrotic response in N. tabacum suggesting possible interaction with a N. tabacum protein. Polymorphism analysis showed that DsEcp4 and DsEcp5 have internal stop codons and encode pseudogenes in all the D. septosporum strains tested, except for DsEcp4 in strains from Guatemala and Columbia in which a functional gene is predicted. DsEcp4 and DsEcp5 are the only D. septosporum effectors tested that showed evidence of positive selection. Those results lead to the suggestion that R proteins that recognise DsEcp4 and DsEcp5 may be present in pine species. DsEcp13 appears to be absent from ten D. septosporum strains, suggesting that DsEcp13 is not important for virulence and can also be deleted to avoid an R protein mediated defence response such as a hypersensitive response. Infiltration of DsAvr4, DsEcp2-1 and DsEcp6 P. pastoris expression culture filtrates triggered necrosis in P. radiata needles suggesting that R proteins that directly or indirectly recognise those effectors may also be present in P. radiata. The finding that D. septosporum has homologues of C. fulvum effectors allowed the first study of molecular pathogen-host interactions in this pathosystem. Targeted gene replacement studies identified genes that may have a virulence function and resistance against these effectors may be durable in the field. The pine needle infiltration assay provides a basic screening method to identify pine genotypes that carry resistance proteins and future work in this area is expected to impact on breeding strategies in the forest industry.

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  • Nanostructure and physical properties of collagen biomaterials : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Sizeland, Katie (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Thesis contains ACS journal articles published with permission: Sizeland, K. H., Basil-Jones, M. M., Edmonds, R. L., Cooper, S. M., Kirby, N. (2013). Collagen Orientation and Leather Strength for Selected Mammals. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61, 887-892. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf3043067 Sizeland, K. H., Edmonds, R. L., Basil-Jones, M. M., Kirby, N., Hawley A., Mudie S. T., & Haverkamp R. G. (2015). Changes to Collagen Structure during Leather Processing. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 63(9), 2499-2505. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf506357j Wells, H. C., Sizeland, K. H., Edmonds, R. L., Aitkenhead, W., Kappen, P., Glover, C., Johannessen, B. & Haverkamp, R. G. (2014). Stabilizing Chromium from Leather Waste in Biochar. ACS Sustainable Chem Eng, 2(7), 1864-1870. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/sc500212r Wells, H. C., Sizeland, K. H., Kirby, N., Hawley, A., Mudie, S. T., & Haverkamp, R. G. (2015). Collagen Fibril Structure and Strength in Acellular Dermal Matrix Materials of Bovine, Porcine, and Human Origin. ACS Biomat Sci Eng, 1(10), 1026-1038. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acsbiomaterials.5b00310

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  • Factors influencing mixing and mass transfer in the small intestine : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Digestive Biomechanics (Physical Process of Digestion) at Massey University, Turitea, New Zealand

    Lim, Ian Yuen Feung (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    This work sought to determine the factors influencing mixing and mass transfer in the small intestine. Specifically, the work was focussed on the gut periphery (i.e. perivillous region) of the terminal ileum in the brushtail possum (Trichusurus vulpecula). The salient questions to answer were; 1. What are the microrheological properties and disposition of mucus in the perivillous space? 2. What are the disposition and movements of the mucosa and the associated villi during postprandial gut motility patterns of pendular contractions? 3. Are villi rigid structures during physiological levels of lumen flow? The following three main experimental works of this thesis were all conducted using live gut wall samples maintained ex vivo. In addition, computational models were developed incorporating the novel findings detailed in this thesis to assist in visualizing mixing and mass transfer in the perivillous space. 1. The properties of the perivillous fluid environment were assessed by multiple-particle-tracking of the Brownian motion of fluorescent microbeads on gut samples. 2. The movements and disposition of the mucosal surface and associated villi during pendular contractions were observed for whole lengths of everted gut samples. 3. Flow velocities in the perivillous space of gut samples were determined by microparticle-image-velocimetery of microbeads. The movement of villi in response to physiological levels of lumen flow were quantified by image analysis. The following are the main findings and implications of the work. 1. The perivillous fluid environment consisted of discrete viscoelastic bodies dispersed within a watery Newtonian phase. Such characteristics of the fluid environment were thought to be conducive for mixing and mass transfer, and likened to the processes of gel filtration. 2. Gut pendular contractions generated transient mucosal microfolds, which resulted in the formation of periodic congregation and separation of villous tips. Such a mechanism was predicted (using computational simulations) to augment mixing and mass transfer of nutrients at the gut periphery. 3. Villi were rigid structures, which were more prone to pivot than to bend, while intervillous fluid was predicted to be quasi-static during physiological levels of lumen flow. Such a feature of villi supports a perivillous mixing and mass transfer mechanism driven by mucosal microfolding In conclusion, mixing and mass transfer in the perivillous space are governed by more complex dynamics than previously assumed and by factors previously unknown.

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  • Motivation and high-stakes certification assessment : secondary school students' perceptions : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Education at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Chapman, Jan Erica (2013)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Senior secondary students’ future social and economic well-being is significantly affected by their performance in high-stakes certification assessment. Motivation plays a key role in students’ academic performance. In light of the dearth of literature examining students’ motivation in high-stakes certification assessment, in the domain of English, and from the students’ perspective, this study examined Year 12 students’ motivation to achieve the National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) level 2 English achievement standards over the period of an academic year. A contemporary person-in-context perspective was adopted in recognition that motivation is influenced by the interplay of personal, social, and contextual variables. A mixed methods research methodology was employed in this longitudinal two-phased study. In the first phase participants completed a series of questionnaires, and in the second phase a subsample of the participants was interviewed. Students’ motivation was examined primarily through the lens of self-determination theory. Self-efficacy, attribution theory, goal theories, and interest were also drawn on to explain facets of students’ motivation. Findings indicate that most students expected to pass a number of NCEA level 2 English achievement standards and they believed it was important to pass these. Most valued English for utility reasons. Students’ interest in English varied markedly across different aspects of the English programme. Gender differences in students’ motivation were not apparent in relation to students’ motivation-related attitudes. External and introjected regulation were the most prevalent types of motivation influencing students’ performance in NCEA English. However, their impact was not as detrimental as theory and research would have predicted. Teachers played a pivotal role in many students’ motivation to achieve, especially in relation to feedback, expectations, and student-teacher relationships. Past performance was also an important influence. Difficulties with or a dislike of aspects of English and academic demands from other school subjects were identified as negatively impacting on students’ motivation to achieve in English. Overall, students’ motivation was found to be complex, dynamic, multidimensional, and situation dependent. Matthew effects were particularly evident for high and low achievers, highlighting the bi-directional relationship between motivation and achievement. Implications for educators and researchers are discussed.

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  • Collaborative support for reading development : parent partnership in practice : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of Education, Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Jackson, Jayne Helen (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    There is a wealth of existing research which reports on programmes aiming to improve the reading skills of children who are struggling to learn to read. This thesis builds on one specific research area where parents are central to the process of reading remediation and are engaged to promote learning and improve reading skills. In this research the Participatory Intervention Model was used to guide the development and implementation of a collaborative intervention in support of reading development. The researcher and parents jointly developed reading support strategies which linked child assessment data, existing home literacy practices and research led literacy instruction practices. Parents then implemented these strategies during iterative cycles of support and review. The findings focus on three aspects of the process. Factors which enhanced and inhibited the effectiveness of collaboration are explored. The particulars of parental enactment of strategies to coach children’s reading are revealed. Finally, the impact of parental reading support on the children’s reading skills is highlighted. Finally, the study presents a new way of conceptualising an intervention as a collaborative endeavour. It proposes a new term; home based pedagogy to describe the actions parents and the researcher took in supporting each child.

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  • The evolution of multicellularity : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of PhD in Evolutionary Biology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Rose, Caroline (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Major evolutionary transitions in Darwinian individuality are central to the emergence of biological complexity. The key to understanding the evolutionary transition to multicellularity is to explain how a collective becomes a single entity capable of self-reproduction – a Darwinian individual. During the transition from single cells to multicellular life, populations of cells acquire the capacity for collective reproduction; however, the selective causes and underlying mechanisms are unclear. This thesis presents long-term evolution experiments using a single-celled model system to address fundamental questions arising during the evolution of multicellularity. Populations of the cooperating bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens were subjected to experimental regimes that directly selected on the capacity for collectives to differentially reproduce – an essential requirement for the evolution of collectives by natural selection. A crucial stage during an evolutionary transition to multicellularity occurs when the fitness of the multicellular collective becomes ‘decoupled’ from the fitness of its constituent cells. Before this stage, any differences in collective fitness are due to selection at the cellular level. In the present study, collectives that competed to reproduce via a cooperative propagule cell attained high levels of cooperation and also reached high levels of collective fitness. However, these improvements were shown to be a consequence of selection acting at the cell-level. In contrast, Darwinian individuality emerged in collectives that reproduced via a primitive life cycle that was fueled by conflict between cooperating cells and cheating cells that did not bear the cost of cooperation. Cheats were analogous to a germ line, acting as propagules to seed new collectives. Enhanced fitness of evolved collectives was attributable to a property selected at the collective-level, namely, the capacity to transition through phases of the life cycle, and was not explained by improvement in individual cell fitness. Indeed, the fitness of individual cells declined. In addition to providing the first experimental evidence of a major evolutionary transition in individuality, the work presented in this thesis highlights the possibility that the prevalence of complex life cycles among extant multicellular organisms reflects the fact that such cycles, on first emergence, had the greatest propensity to participate in Darwinian evolution.

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  • Measurement of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of individual and combinations of essential oil volatiles in food : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Food Technology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Abdul Rahman, Mazidah (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The use of essential oil volatiles as natural food preservatives has received significant attention in recent years. Shelf life extension can be achieved through the appropriate design of active packaging systems that release volatiles into the product headspace at controlled rates. In some applications, the volatile concentrations required to delay or prevent spoilage can cause sensory changes to the product. The use of multiple volatiles and the potential for synergistic effects offer opportunities to minimise sensory effects in the pursuit of shelf life extension. The design of these systems requires a good knowledge of the target headspace volatile concentrations required to inhibit growth. The aim of this research was to analyse the methods for measurement of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for individual and mixtures of essential oil volatiles in food systems. Carvacrol and thymol, the predominant phenolic constituents of Origanum vulgare and Thymus vulgaris were selected as example active agents. Both are known to have strong antimicrobial activity. The accuracy of the techniques normally applied to measure MICs against targeted microorganisms in the headspace is questionable. Volatile compounds released into the test headspace are absorbed by media and dish materials and lost into the environment. As such the MIC data collected are difficult to interpret and can even exceed saturated vapour pressures of the volatile compounds. To demonstrate this, the Petri dish reversed method headspace dynamics was characterised during standard MIC tests. Factors influencing the sorption of volatiles by the culture media (Potato Dextrose Agar) and other parts of the system were investigated. The concentrations of antimicrobial compounds in the headspace were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The study showed that very low concentrations were found during MIC measurement and that the concentrations changed dynamically during the incubation period. The results demonstrated that absorption of vapour by the Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) strongly influenced the headspace dynamics and was the main reason for the low volatile concentrations in the headspace. The partitioning of carvacrol and thymol (KA/W values 5.94 x 10-5 and 2.58 x 10-4 respectively) strongly favour the solid phase, providing a basis for the design of a new method to enable better MIC measurement. A new method based on pre-mixing the volatile compound into the liquid media was developed. Testing showed that headspace volatile concentrations quickly stabilised and remained constant throughout the incubation period, making MIC determination easier. The potential of each compound and their binary combinations to inhibit growth were evaluated using the new MIC measurement method. This resulted in very repeatable results with much lower headspace concentrations than measured using traditional methods. To test for synergistic effects in the multiple volatile trials, an alternative data analysis approach was adopted. The inhibition time before growth observed in each sample was linearized and regressed against the thymol and carvacrol concentrations. This resulted in a simple model with a significant thymol/carvacrol interaction term, clearly demonstrating a synergistic, although minor effect. The study showed the measurement of stable and repeatable MIC values for individual and combinations of volatiles is possible using the new method. These findings strengthen the possibility of using natural essential oils as alternatives to chemicals to preserve food products. The key disadvantage of the new method is the requirement to mix the liquid essential oils directly into the liquid media before solidification. This prevents its application to solid food systems. For solid food systems, a system capable of delivering stable flows of air with volatiles at high concentrations in the presence of high relative humidity was designed. With this system, well-controlled and stable air compositions were achieved over two days, making the system suitable for measurement of the inhibitory effects on spoilage organism growth. Although further optimisation of the design and control of this system is required, it has the potential for collection of accurate target headspace conditions for controlled volatile release active packaging design.

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  • The role of publicly funded enterprise assistance in Māori entrepreneurship in Aotearoa New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Business

    Mika, Jason Paul (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Maori entrepreneurship in relation to enterprise assistance is rarely subject to academic enquiry, inhibiting theoretical development. This thesis examines the role of publicly funded enterprise assistance in Maori entrepreneurship in Aotearoa New Zealand. Publicly funded enterprise assistance includes formalised business support—financial and nonfinancial— offered by government. Kaupapa Maori research is the overriding research epistemology, with Western pragmatism integrated within this. The thesis is critical, inductive and exploratory, using interviews for data collection. The thesis finds that Maori entrepreneurship is an expression of Maori selfdetermination, Maori potentiality, and substantive freedom. Maori entrepreneurship contributes to Maori development in terms of social, cultural, economic, environmental and spiritual outcomes. Maori entrepreneurs proudly identify with being Maori and doing business in a Maori way, predicated upon principles of duality, collectivism, permanence and intergenerationality. Maori enterprises are mainly defined by Maori ownership, values, assets and institutions, and represent the organisational context of Maori entrepreneurship. The thesis suggests that publicly funded enterprise assistance serves three roles in Maori entrepreneurship: (i) satisfying firm-level business needs; (ii) building Maori entrepreneurial capabilities; and, (iii) enabling Maori enterprises to develop. A conceptual model of Maori enterprise assistance is developed that illustrates the relationship between Maori entrepreneurship and enterprise assistance. The thesis suggests principles for enterprise assistance design based on an ideal delivery model. Strong support for the role of government in public enterprise assistance for Maori entrepreneurship is evident. Tribes also have a role in this, but are not to be viewed as a substitute for the government’s role.

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  • An assessment of inexpensive methods for recovery of microalgal biomass and oils : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Biotechnology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Chatsungnoen, Tawan (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Inexpensive processes for harvesting the microalgal biomass from the culture media and recovering oils from the harvested biomass are necessary for economically viable production of low-value products such as fuels. This study focused on harvesting of microalgae biomass from the culture broth by flocculation?sedimentation and recovery of oils from the harvested biomass using solvent-based extraction. Flocculation?sedimentation was explored for several marine and freshwater microalgae including Choricystis minor (freshwater), Neochloris sp. (freshwater), Chlorella vulgaris grown in freshwater; C. vulgaris grown in seawater; Nannochloropsis salina (seawater) and Cylindrotheca fusiformis (seawater), as a means for substantially concentrating the biomass prior to further dewatering by other methods. Aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride were investigated as cheap, highly effective, readily available in large quantities and innocuous flocculants. Flocculation?sedimentation behavior of the microalgae was evaluated with several flocculation conditions. The optimal microalgal biomass harvesting conditions identified in batch flocculation studies were applied to design and characterize a continuous flocculation?sedimentation system. The effect of the flocculant used and the water in the biomass paste on the extraction of oils were assessed in comparison with controls. The optimal solvent composition for extraction of the biomass paste was established. Using this solvent composition, the optimal extraction conditions (i.e. the volume of the solvent mixture relative to biomass, the extraction temperature and time) were identified using a 23 factorial experimental design. Removal of more than 95% of the biomass from the broth by flocculation? sedimentation was shown to be possible for all the microalgae, but the required dosage of the flocculant depended on the following factors: the microalgal species; the ionic strength of the suspending fluid; the initial concentration of the biomass in the suspension; and the nature of the flocculant. Irrespective of the algal species, the flocculant dosage was found to increase linearly with increasing concentration of the biomass in the culture broth. The flocculant dosage for a given level of biomass recovery under standardized processing conditions increased with an increase in the cell specific surface area in the range of 26–450 ?m2 cell?1. Al3+ was a better flocculant than Fe3+ for some algae, but the situation was reversed for some others. The continuous flow biomass recovery was performed with N. salina, as this alga had the highest oil productivity among the species studied. With an aluminum sulfate dosage of 229 mg L?1 and a total flow rate of 22.6 mL min?1, almost 86% of the N. salina biomass could be recovered from the broth within 148 min in the sedimentation tank. A prior flocculation–sedimentation treatment could greatly reduce the energy demand of subsequent dewatering by other methods. The flocculants adsorbed to the biomass were not removed by washing, but this did not hinder oil recovery from the biomass paste by solvent extraction. A modification of well-known Bligh and Dyer method could be used to recover more than 96% of the oils from N. salina biomass paste. The single-step modified extraction procedure was much superior to the Bligh and Dyer original. The optimal extraction conditions for N. salina biomass paste included a solvent mixture (chloroform, methanol and water in the volume ratio of 5.7:3:1) volume of 33 mL per g (dry basis) of the algae biomass; an extraction temperature of 25?C; and an extraction time of 2 h. This work represents the first detailed study of the continuous flocculation? sedimentation process for harvesting N. salina biomass from the culture broth and the specific suitable solvent combination of chloroform, methanol and water for extracting algal crude oils from the N. salina biomass paste without a prior drying step.

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  • Spatiotemporal mapping of the motility of the ex vivo rabbit caecum : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Physiology in Digestive Biomechanics (Physical Process of Digestion) at Massey University, Turitea, New Zealand

    Hulls, Corrin (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    This work sought to determine the contractile factors influencing the coordination of inflow and out flow from the caecum, and the mixing and mass transfer within. Specifically, the work was focussed on the ileocaecal junction in the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The salient questions to answer were; 1. What are the contractile movements in the body of the caecum and associated structures of the rabbit caecum? 2. How are contractile movements coordinated at the body of the rabbit caecum and how does this affect the pattern of motility? The following two main experimental works of this thesis were all conducted using live gut rabbit caecum preparations maintained ex vivo. Spatiotemporal mapping and electromyography was used to visualize and quantify contractile activity and coordination in the caecum. 1. High definition radial, strain rate and intensity spatiotemporal mapping was used to quantify contractile movements of the body and associated structures of the rabbit caecum. 2. Coordination between contractile events at different sites in the basal portion of the rabbit caecum and its associated structures were identified by electrophysiological recordings with simultaneous one dimensional, and a novel two dimensional, spatiotemporal mapping technique. The following are the main findings and implications of the work. 1. The body of the caecum exhibited two patterns of motility that appeared autonomous, i.e. occurred independently of any contractile activity at the inlet or outlet. Firstly, a pattern termed ladder activity consisted of orderly sequential contractions in the spiral turns in the corpus ceci. Secondly, less localised, rapidly propagating synchronous contractions that were termed mass peristalsis. 2. Movements of the ileum and sacculus rotundus occurred at the same frequency and were broadly coordinated. Further, the findings suggest that the action of the sacculus rotundus may result from its distension with chyme by ileal peristalsis and that the subsequent propagation of contraction along the basal wall of the caecum toward the colon may be augmented by this local distension. 3. The caecum and proximal colon/ampulla coli act reflexly to augment colonic outflow. When the caecum is distended and mass peristalsis is instituted, the action of the latter overrides the inherent rhythm and direction of haustral propagation in the adjacent portion of the proximal colon but not in the terminal ileum. In conclusion, coordination, mixing and mass transfer in the rabbit caecum is a very complex, dynamic and largely autonomous process. Further, spatiotemporal mapping techniques enabled the identification and visualization of previously unknown contractile movements within the rabbit caecum.

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  • Extracytoplasmic stress responses induced by a model secretin : a dissertation presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Biochemistry at Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

    Spagnuolo, Julian (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Pathogenic bacteria export large proteins and protein complexes, including virulence factors, using dedicated transenvelope multiprotein machinery, collectively called secretion systems. Four of these protein export machines found in Gram-negative bacteria, type 2/3 secretion systems, filamentous phage assembly-secretion system and the type 4 pilus assembly system contain large homologous gated channels, called secretins, in the outer membrane. Secretins are radially symmetrical homomultimers (luminal diameter 6-8 nm) interrupted by an internal septum or gate. Expression of these channels imposes a fitness cost to bacteria. While stress induced by model secretin pIV has been previously investigated using microarrays, this thesis is the first RNAseq characterisation of secretin stress responses. Furthermore, this is the first comparison of stress imposed by a closed-gate secretin (wildtype pIV), vs. an isogenic leaky-gate variant, the latter serving as a model of an open-gate substrate-secreting channel. The high sensitivity to changes in gene expression and low background noise of the RNA-seq approach have greatly expanded the known secretin stress responses to include the SoxS, CpxR and RcsB/RcsAB regulons, in addition to the known involvement of the Psp response. A synthetic lethality analysis of candidate genes in these pathways suggested that the leaky-gate secretins, besides rendering the Psp response essential for survival, also stimulate the SoxS and RcsB/RcsAB regulons for protection of the cells. Knowledge of the secretin stress expanded by this work helped identify potential targets for development of much-needed antibiotics against toxinsecreting Gram-negative bacteria.

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  • Effects of high pressure on DNA and its components : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of PhD in Bio Physics at Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

    Lepper, Christopher Paul (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    There have been many speculations for the environment in which life originated but it has still yet to be determined what environmental chemical and physical conditions were necessary for the evolution of self-replicating chemical systems. While it has been determined that DNA, RNA and their components are chemically unstable at high temperatures, there has currently been only a small number of studies into the role of high pressures on the chemical and physical stabilities. High-pressure NMR spectroscopy has been used here to study the effects of high temperatures/pressures on the chemical stability of DNA and its components. This has been done with the use of a specialised commercial high-pressure NMR cell capable of withstanding pressures up to 250 MPa. In addition to this, a custom safe handling apparatus and pump system was developed for the operation of this cell. Studies into the effects of high pressures on the rate of hydrolysis of cytosine and cytidine at 100 °C were performed by measuring the rates of hydrolysis with time under various pressure conditions. These results have shown that the rates of hydrolysis of cytosine and cytidine increase considerably with pressure. The effects of high pressure on the physical stability of DNA were determined by performing dissociation (melting) experiments on several different DNA sequences under multiple pressure conditions. It was found that the melting point of a small DNA hexamer decreased slightly with pressure whereas the melting points of larger dodecamers increased overall with pressure. It was also found that the melting point of an i-motif structure decreased with increasing pressure. The effects of high pressure on the chemical stability of cytosine were again studied, this time for cytosine residues within both single- and double-stranded DNA. DNA samples for bacteriophage FX174 were incubated under various temperature and pressure conditions. Results for these studies have yet to be determined as the incubated DNA is yet to be sequenced. It has been discovered that high pressures have a negative effect on the chemical stability of DNA constituents while having an overall small positive effect on the physical stability of DNA.

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  • The effects of rapid and prolonged changes in blood pressure on cerebral blood flow in healthy humans : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Perry, Blake G (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The regulation of blood flow to the brain is complex and incompletely understood. Many local and systemic factors modulate cerebral perfusion, one of which is arterial blood pressure. The brain possesses intrinsic mechanisms which act to protect against rapid and also prolonged changes in perfusion pressure. However, recent evidence indicates that this supposedly powerful regulatory mechanism/s may not be as efficient as traditionally believed and that changes in arterial blood pressure have a profound effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF). This thesis explored different non-pharmacological means of perturbing mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) both rapidly (dynamic) and for prolonged steady-state periods (~5 min; static). Dynamic changes in blood pressure were induced via upright resistance exercise (Chapter Five) and standing Valsalva manoeuvres (VM; Chapter Six), while static changes were induced via lower body positive pressure (Chapters Seven and Eight). The effects of these changes in MAP on cerebral blood flow were assessed via transcranial Doppler ultrasound of the blood velocity in middle cerebral artery (MCAv). The findings of Chapter Five illustrated that during resistance exercise the peak mean MCAv (MCAvmean) was unchanged between loads despite the increasing MAP with the increasing relative load. Following resistance exercise, however, the hypotension observed was matched by concomitant reductions in MCAvmean, the magnitude of which was load dependent. Chapter Six investigated the role of the Valsalva manoeuvre (VM) alone in the stability of the MCAv response whilst standing. Chapter Six highlights that the VM protects the cerebral vessels during acute hypertension. In addition, more intense straining during a VM produced a similar response following the release of the manoeuvre to that seen following the resistance exercise. Thus, more pronounced decreases in blood pressure, whilst upright, do result in concomitant decreases in MCAvmean. The steady-state elevations in MAP examined in Chapters Seven and Eight increased MCAvmean with and without hypercapnia. Thus, illustrating that even when the regulatory mechanisms were functionally intact (normocapnia) the brain demonstrated a pressure passive relationship during relatively small increases in MAP. Overall, both abrupt and steady-state changes in perfusion pressure were coupled with alterations in MCAvmean. This thesis contributes to the notion that the cerebral circulation is not independent of changes in MAP, and that sustained hypercapnia impairs the autoregulatory capacity of the cerebral circulation. Importantly, this thesis shows these effects without the use of pharmacological agents to confound the interpretation of the data.

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  • Effects of temperature on seasonal changes in growth and carbohydrate physiology of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctorate of Philosophy in Plant Science at Massey University

    Hughes, Avis Rosalie (1992)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    In a temperate climate, most of the visible, seasonal changes in asparagus growth are induced by or dependent on changing temperature regimes. Senescence of ferns in autumn occurred below 13C, but was prevented by 20C. Crowns required chilling at temperatures below 12.5C to release the internal dormancy which occurred during winter. Although budbreak was never completely suppressed, the minimum temperature at which budbreak could occur changed during winter dormancy. Budbreak did not occur at 12.5C in some cultivars at maximum dormancy. The optimum temperature for the growth of young plants was between 25C and 30C. A model was developed which simulated seasonal changes in carbohydrate accumulation and utilisation, and the changing source-sink relationships within male and female plants. The model used temperature, indirectly, to determine the times at which seasonal changes in plant growth occurred. The basic unit for carbohydrate production and allocation in cultivars with well defined rhizomes, e.g.'Rutger's Beacon', was a rhizome and it's attached developing axillaries. An axillary rhizome became independent very soon after it had developed fern. The basic unit may differ in cultivars such as 'UC157' which have less well defined rhizomes. The strength of correlative inhibition within a cultivar appears to affect both rhizome morphology and budbreak patterns during spear harvest. In summer, young fern had a higher mobilising ability for assimilate than older fern or roots in male plants. In late summer-early autumn, roots became a stronger sink than the fern. On female plants, reproductive sinks (i.e, berries) had the highest competitive and mobilising ability. Crown carbohydrate concentration appeared to reach a physiological maximum of 65% in late summer. Most of the carbohydrate pool was long chain fructans, i.e, with degree of polymerisation above eight. The size of the crown carbohydrate pool increased during autumn and senescence as crown dry weight increased. The concentration of disaccharide increased during senescence indicating that it may have a role in cold tolerance. There was little change in crown dry weight or carbohydrate concentration of chilled plants until after the plants had been chilled for five weeks and the minimum temperature for budbreak had decreased. Respiration then increased as internal dormancy was further released. Changes in the composition of carbohydrate reserves are associated with the chilling process, and may affect the release of internal dormancy. Dormant plants required exposure to temperatures below 12.5C to increase the monosaccharide concentration above 4.5% dry weight and to depolymerise long chain fructans. Both these factors would decrease the substrate for some energy requiring process which must occur before budbreak can occur. 'Rutger's Beacon' required approximately 500 chilling units (calculated using the Utah model) to release 50% of the basal buds from internal dormancy and permit growth at 12.5C. The chilling response curve for asparagus appears to be flatter than the Utah model. This thesis confirmed earlier work which indicated that improved agronomic performance may be related to increased partitioning into carbohydrate storage tissue i.e, the crown. Genotypic differences in depth of internal dormancy and spear growth rate will also affect yield. Differences in carbohydrate metabolism are not the reason for agronomic differences between male and female plants. The strong sink effect of berries on female plants reduces crown dry weight and thus the crown carbohydrate pool.

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  • The paradox of Maori privilege: historical constructions of Maori privilege circa 1769 to 1940 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Meihana (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Today Maori are thought, by some, to be a privileged people. Not only are they considered to have been treated better than other Native peoples, it is also argued that they receive benefits that other New Zealanders do not. This thesis explores the ‘idea’ of Maori privilege. It argues that the notion of Maori privilege is not limited to the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries; rather, it has a ‘venerable’ history the origins of which can be dated back to the eighteenth-century. The main argument of the thesis is that the notion of Maori privilege was central to colonisation in New Zealand. The thesis focuses primarily on the period between 1769 and 1940. It identifies significant points in the development of the concept of Maori privilege, beginning with the arrival of James Cook in 1769. As a result of the Cook voyages Maori were again made known to Europe through their incorporation into European systems of knowledge. Consequently, Maori were ‘intellectually’ privileged, that is, they were deemed to be a certain type of savage, one worthy of protection. The Treaty of Waitangi was also widely cited as an important example of Maori privilege. For Britain, the treaty was, first and foremost, the means by which it acquired sovereignty over New Zealand and its people. It was reasoned that with colonisation taking place Maori interests would be best protected under English law; moreover, it was only by relinquishing their sovereignty that they could enjoy such a ‘privilege’. From 1840 the Crown looked to discharge its Treaty of Waitangi obligations. This thesis is primarily concerned with the way in which the Crown implemented article three, under which Maori were afforded the rights and privileges of British subjects. While given less prominence in scholarly analyses of the treaty than articles one and two, it was article three that increasingly framed the Crown’s native policy. In the 100 years following the signing of the treaty, Government policies swung between extending ‘royal protection’ to Maori, while purportedly ensuring they received the ‘rights and privileges of British subjects’. The thesis divides Maori privilege into two interconnected categories. ‘Official’ privilege refers to Crown policy or initiatives that ostensibly protected Maori. The second category, ‘populist’ privilege, refers to the discourse which framed any protective measures as unreasonably granting Maori rights over and above those afforded to European settlers. Furthermore, ‘populist’ privilege asserted that Crown initiatives aimed at protecting Maori, were, in fact, disadvantageous to them because their interests, so it was held, were best served through their adoption of European customs, laws and beliefs. No matter the policy of the day it was framed as a ‘privilege’. As this thesis will demonstrate, however, policies that purported to protect Maori still resulted in the alienation of their lands and their political and economic marginalisation. Even the very limited gains Maori may occasionally have secured elicited claims of ‘populist’ privilege and further contributed to Maori loss. Despite this, the view that Maori were an especially privileged people was, by 1940, deeply entrenched.

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  • Subsidiary classification, and configuration with a developmental context : evidence from foreign multinational enterprises in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor Philosophy in Strategic Management at Massey University, New Zealand

    Raziq, Muhammad Mustafa (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Research has produced a range of subsidiary classifications indicating various ways in which subsidiaries can be distinguished. There are, however, still concerns that many of the critical contingencies remain unexplored. It is, for example, argued that the existing subsidiary types are either multinational enterprise (MNE) strategy-based or process-based, rather than based on the subsidiary’s own strategy. The frameworks are: two-dimensional (Enright & Subramanian, 2007; Morschett, Schramm-Klein, & Zentes, 2015); lack theoretical basis; and, their dimensions are arbitrary (Schmid, 2004; Schmid, Dzedek, & Lehrer, 2014). They are also disconnected to the previous frameworks (Hoffman, 1994). MNE management structure is one such contingency. Subsidiary studies mostly focus on the corporate headquarters (CHQ) as the subsidiary developmental driver, but ignore the varying developmental influences. Namely, the structures (i.e., lateral or formal) placed on subsidiaries. Most of the ignored contingencies are contextual (Enright & Subramanian, 2007; Meyer, Mudambi, & Narula, 2011). Little is known about how various subsidiaries configure with these contexts. Putting subsidiary development to the fore, these issues are integrated and two research objectives are set. One issue concerns developing a subsidiary classification, and the other concerns subsidiary and context configuration. This thesis’s empirical context is foreign subsidiaries in New Zealand. Data from 429 subsidiaries are obtained. Cluster analysis and variance analysis are the key techniques used. Grounded in the resource-based view, resource dependence theory, and network theory, an overarching subsidiary classification framework is produced. The framework follows a contingency approach and draws on critical dimensions from the various subsidiary literature streams. From this framework a new three-part subsidiary developmental classification (entrepreneurial, constrained autonomous, constrained) is produced. By applying a configurational approach, various linkages are explored between the three subsidiary types and their developmental contexts. A number of developmental contingencies are identified; such as MNE management structures, expatriation, internationalisation motives, and internal isolation. Key findings include the lateral structure as the one under which subsidiaries develop the most, and the CHQ, the least. Individual developmental paths for the three subsidiary types are proposed. Theoretical implications are subsequently made, mainly identifying factors through which subsidiaries can develop resources and form internal resource dependencies. The novelty of the findings is discussed and subsidiary management and public policy implications are made. Keywords: MNE Strategy, Subsidiary Strategy, Subsidiary Development, Subsidiary Classification, Developmental Context, MNE Management Structure.

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