52 results for Masters, Use commercially

  • Using BIM to calculate accurate building material quantities for early design phase Life Cycle Assessment

    Berg, Brian (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research simplifies the calculation of the Initial Embodied Energy (iEE) for commercial office buildings. The result is the improved integration of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) assessments of building materials into the early stages of the building design process (sketch design). This maximises the effectiveness of implementing design solutions to lower a building’s environmental impact. This thesis research proposes that building Information Models (BIM) will make calculating building material quantities easier, to simplify LCA calculations, all to improve their integration into existing sketch design phase practices, and building design decisions. This is achieved by developing a methodology for using BIM LCA tools to calculate highly detailed material quantities from a simple BIM model of sketch design phase building information. This is methodology is called an Initial Embodied Energy Building Information Model Life Cycle Assessment Building Performance Sketch (iEE BIM LCA BPS). Using this methodology calculates iEE results that are accurate, and represent a sufficient proportion (complete) of a building’s total iEE consumption, making them useful for iEE decision-making. iEE is one example of a LCA-based indicator that was used to test, and prove the feasibility of the iEE BIM LCA BPS methodology. Proving this, the research method tests the accuracy that a BIM model can calculate case study building’s building material quantities. This included developing; a methodology for how to use the BIM tool Revit to calculate iEE; a functional definition of an iEE BIM LCA BPS based on the environmental impact, and sketch design decisions effecting building materials, and elements; and an EE simulation calibration accuracy assessment methodology, complete with a function definition of the accuracy required of an iEE simulation to ensure it’s useful for sketch design decision-making. Two main tests were conducted as part of proving the iEE BIM LCA BPS’ feasibility. Test one assessed and proved that the iEE BIM LCA BPS model based on sketch design information does represent a sufficient proportion (complete) of a building’s total iEE consumption, so that are useful for iEE decision-making. This was tested by comparing the building material quantities from a SOQ (SOQ) produced to a sketch design level of detail (truth model 3), to an as-built level of detail, defined as current iEE best practices (truth model 1). Subsequent to proving that the iEE BIM LCA BPS is sufficiently complete, test two assessed if a BIM model and tool could calculate building material quantities accurately compared to truth model 3. The outcome was answering the research question of, how detailed does a BIM model need to be to calculate accurate building material quantities for a building material LCA (LCA) assessment? The inference of this thesis research is a methodology for using BIM models to calculate the iEE of New Zealand commercial office buildings in the early phases of the design process. The outcome was that a building design team’s current level of sketch design phase information is sufficiently detailed for sketch design phase iEE assessment. This means, that iEE and other LCA-based assessment indicators can be integrated into a design team’s existing design process, practices, and decisions, with no restructuring required.

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  • The Two Faces of Ascorbate: Prooxidant Activity and Radio-Sensitisation

    Carson, Georgia (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Although not recommended by mainstream oncologists, intravenous injections of pharmacological ascorbate are currently an alternative therapy option for cancer patients. Research has not yet determined whether high-dose ascorbate interacts favourably with radiation therapy to increase DNA damage, and therefore cell death in cancer. Some studies suggest that ascorbate can act as a prooxidant and increase the cytotoxic effect of irradiation in vitro. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a primary brain astrocytoma that is highly therapy resistant, so patients would be advantaged if ascorbate radiosensitised their cancer. In this investigation, flow cytometry and single cell gel electrophoresis (comet tail assay) were used to measure three indicators of DNA damage in GBM cells in response to ascorbate and irradiation, and were contrasted with immunofluorescence-revealed DNA damage from an intracranial mouse model of GBM. The pro-oxidant, radiosensitisation role of ascorbate was confirmed, as measured by H2AX, 8OHdG, and DSBs in vitro. With all three of these markers of DNA damage, combinations of irradiation and ascorbate had increased damage compared with individual treatments. However preliminary in vivo evidence indicates that increased DNA damage did not occur in an animal model of GBM, and in fact ascorbate may protect from DNA damage in an in vivo context. These findings complement previous results from our lab, and serve to fill in gaps in knowledge specifically around the DNA damaging effects of ascorbate. The unique nature of the brain environment, as enclosed by the blood brain barrier, prevents translation of data from other non-brain cancer studies, as such, this investigation also contributes to the exploration of a much needed avenue of research. Considering the context of ascorbate treatment as a potentially harmful currently used adjuvant, it is imperative to confirm or disprove its efficacy in a clinically relevant environment.

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  • Touchable: Adapting a Haptic Feedback Glove for Use in Rehabilitation Contexts

    Foottit, Jacques

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    With the increasing miniaturisation of computing and sensor technology, it is becoming common for electronics of all kinds to be integrated into clothing and other wearable items. Motion sensing technologies in particular have been used for a variety of consumer fitness and virtual reality applications for able-bodied people. This research explores the potential for affordable motion capture and haptic feedback technologies to be utilised in a rehabilitation context, with a specific focus on the hand. An iterative development process was used to adapt and improve an existing prototype haptic feedback glove in response to the unique challenges facing wearable device users in a rehabilitation context. Collaboration with physiotherapists provided valuable feedback throughout the design process. The result is a significantly different prototype device with major design improvements, and insights into how iterative development processes can be utilised for hardware development.

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  • Satire and Dickens

    White, Richard (1997)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    People have a fundamental need to feel good about themselves, and sometimes we can achieve this at the expense of others. If I can laugh at someone who does something stupid, or feel superior to someone who does something unjust, or rebel against an institution which violates some natural law, then so much the better for me. Essentially, this is why I read satire. Until recently this sort of approach does not seem to have appealed to literary critics - perhaps because it demeans their subject matter - but there are many essential human needs which are satisfied by a reader's imaginative response to satire, and there is nothing ignoble in that. Satire allows us to escape the constrictions that society places on us. When we read satire we can behave badly: we laugh at other people, cackle at their stupidity, and snigger at their pomposity or hypocrisy; we revenge ourselves upon people who have bored, annoyed, or cheated us. All of this misbehaviour is sanctioned by moral propriety, and by the figure who establishes what is proper and what is not, the satirist. It is the satirist who sets up little moral victories for us, made possible by satiric attack. However, when satire becomes part of a novel, it must there vie for ascendancy with other guises of the author. The satirist must compete with the moralist, the comic, or the sentimentalist, and when this happens the reader too must evaluate their satiric victories alongside the other emotions they feel when they read other parts of a novel. Charles Dickens has many such guises, and consequently he particularly challenges the reader to cope with many different responses. This is where satire becomes even more interesting, because the victories are tempered by other, perhaps more noble emotions. The novels of Dickens present the reader with a constant battle between good and bad: both the author's and the reader's.

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  • Ideological choice in the gravestones of Dunedin's Southern Cemetery

    Edgar, Philip Gerard (1995)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    xxv, 136 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Anthropology. "December 1995."

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  • How does a music therapy student work to facilitate reminiscence and memory in dementia patients

    Sun, I-Chen (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study was prompted in response to increased interest in, and demand for, music therapy provision in improving quality of care for dementia patients. It is an exploration of the strategies to facilitate memory and reminiscence in persons with dementia, and considers the need for those preparing for end of life to recall identities, connect with family and others, and express feelings. This research is a qualitative study involving secondary analysis of clinical data from my clinical practice and identifies the strategies, techniques and procedures that I applied in my clinical work to stimulate preserved memory ‘islands’. The findings show that familiarity is central in enabling a remembering process, and music can have unique ways of accessing memory in people with limited cognitive and social abilities. Eight core categories of music therapy strategies were found to be helpful in enabling memory and reminiscence. This study includes examples of both individual and group music therapy. The objective of this study was to examine my music therapy practice, and potentially provide some beneficial ideas and insights to other music therapists working on memory and reminiscence with dementia patients.

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  • Architecture as a Catalyst for Activity

    Tungatt, Rory (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Many of New Zealand’s smaller town centres struggle to remain viable. A common issue for these declining public realms is the hollowing out of their city centres. Numerous factors may contribute to this problem. Issues such as a lack of access, connectivity and identity within the urban fabric, or instances of privatisation, where forums that were once public have now shifted to a digital interface. One of the challenges facing cities is the diminishing number of “civic” buildings and activity located in the town centre. The Indoor Community Sports Centre (ICSC) offers a partial remedy for this problem. Even with the merging and downsizing of Council’s and their funding, Territorial Authorities continue to invest in ICSCs. This thesis investigates whether these buildings can make a positive contribution to the public domain of town centres. New Zealand ICSC’s, more often than not, are simple shed-like buildings on the periphery of cities or town centres, predominantly occupying or adjacent to large park areas, sports fields or schools. This thesis examines whether the building type can be adapted to become an “urban” building, where it will have the opportunity contribute to a revitalised town centre. A design case study based on Upper Hutt identifies three key design criteria established from initial research of Sports Centres and best-practice Urban Design. These three criteria – breaking up mass, active edges from the outside and creating a dynamic connection – allow the ICSC to become part of the civic realm. The research concludes that an ICSC can be successfully integrated into an “urban” context. In the Upper Hutt case study, success depends on two broader design strategies. First, the ICSC should be located in an area where walkability, functionality and visual and physical connectivity will benefit the public domain. Second, the ICSC should be part of a mixed-use development, which exploits the building type’s inherent flexibility. This is achieved through combining a transport hub, another essential civic amenity, as well as other commercial programmes that provide occupancy during periods of disuse. The thesis shows how a carefully adapted ICSC can turn a somewhat disconnected, hollowed out town into a functional, integrated and walkable one. The redesigned facility does so by linking existing amenities, feeding city-fringe activity back into the city centre and projecting a consciousness of place.

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  • Fore to Form

    Irvine, James (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Designing for sports equipment demands excellence. The sheer nature of competition drives athletes to achieve the unachievable. This obsession to improve shifts from the athlete to the designer. The continual development and availability of materials, technologies and processes makes the role of the designer more critical than ever. Though the one real opportunity for innovation lies in how the designer interprets and utilizes these technologies. The question that this research asks is: Can the integration and synchronisation of contemporary digital tools reshape the design process of golf clubs? This investigation predominantly uses an experimental ‘research through design’ approach based on the ideas and methods derived from a number of professional design projects and theoretical design approaches. It argues that the unique combination and application of emerging digital tools can expose a breadth of creative design opportunities for golf club design. Golf clubs, like any other sports equipment must be designed with the underlying, crucial theme of performance improvement. The term performance can be broken down into two aspects; mental (visual) and physical (functional). The criteria for these aspects changes with each individual and demands a new level of customisation. This thesis investigates how this could be achieved and proposes innovative pathways to integrate individual performance data as form defining inputs. It also explores the potential of new digital aesthetics to enhance functional criteria yet preserving critical features of traditional club design.

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  • Investigating the optimal integration of airborne, ship-borne, satellite and terrestrial gravity data for use in geoid determination

    Winefield, Rachelle (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Each gravity observation technique has different parameters and contributes to different pieces of the gravity spectrum. This means that no one gravity dataset is able to model the Earth’s gravity field completely and the best gravity map is one derived from many sources. Therefore, one of the challenges in gravity field modelling is combining multiple types of heterogeneous gravity datasets. The aim of this study is to determine the optimal method to produce a single gravity map of the Canterbury case study area, for the purposes of use in geoid modelling. This objective is realised through the identification and application of a four-step integration process: purpose, data, combination and assessment. This includes the evaluation of three integration methods: natural neighbour, ordinary kriging and least squares collocation. As geoid modelling requires the combination of gravity datasets collected at various altitudes, it is beneficial to be able to combine the dataset using an integration method which operates in a three-dimensional space. Of the three integration methods assessed, least squares collocation is the only integration method which is able to perform this type of reduction. The resulting product is a Bouguer anomaly map of the Canterbury case study area, which combines satellite altimetry, terrestrial, ship-borne, airborne, and satellite gravimetry using least squares collocation.

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  • The geology of Pegasus Basin based on outcrop correlatives in southern Wairarapa and northeastern Marlborough, New Zealand

    Collier, Troy (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Acquisition of high quality 2D seismic data by the New Zealand Government in 2009-10 (the PEG09 Survey) sparked new interest in Pegasus Basin, an offshore frontier basin situated east of central New Zealand. Although no wells have been drilled in Pegasus Basin, strata exposed onshore in southern Wairarapa and northeastern Marlborough provide useful analogues for the sedimentary fill of the basin. Using field observations in combination with petrographic analysis and seismic interpretation, this study provides a more complete understanding of the geology of Pegasus Basin. 13 outcrop localities are described from the surrounding southern Wairarapa and northern Marlborough regions, which are inferred to have been deposited in a range of depositional environments including fluvial, terrestrial and shallow marine deposits, through to inner – mid shelf, and deep marine channel-levee and submarine fans, with fine-grained sedimentation at bathyal depths. These outcrops provide representative and well-exposed examples of facies and lithologies typical of the depositional environments that are likely to exist in Pegasus Basin. Petrographic analysis of six Cretaceous and six Neogene sandstones from Marlborough and Wairarapa regions has revealed that they are compositionally classified as litharenites and feldspathic litharenites, derived from the Torlesse Supergroup. Primary porosity is best preserved in Neogene sandstones, whilst Cretaceous sandstones only tend to preserve secondary porosity, in the form of fractures or dissolution of framework grains. Carbonate cementation, compaction and authigenic clay formation are the biggest contributing factors that degrade reservoir quality. Seismic interpretation of the PEG09 survey has revealed that Pegasus Basin contains a sedimentary succession over 10,000 m thick, that mantles Early Cretaceous syn-tectonic strata in various states of deformation attained during mid-Cretaceous subduction at the eastern Gondwana margin. Key horizons mapped extensively over the basin highlight seismic reflection packages, which are linked to described outcrop localities onshore, based on reflection characteristics and geometries. The Miocene succession contains up to 4,000 m of sediments that are likely to include promising reservoir lithologies akin to the Great Marlborough Conglomerate of Marlborough, or the Whakataki Formation of Wairarapa.

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  • Māori Performing Arts and the Weaving Together of Local, National and International Communities

    Avery, Jonathon (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Māori performing arts provides a valuable contribution to Aotearoa New Zealand society. Māori performing arts has an intrinsic link to Māori culture and is used to connect 1) Māori who are disengaged from iwi/hapu/whanau, as well as 2) non-Māori, in New Zealand and around the world with Māori culture. Performance genres such as waiata-a-ringa, haka and mōteatea contain a body of knowledge that communicate Māori ways of being and doing and provide participants with an opportunity to become connected to a culturally literate and informed community. Using ethnographic techniques of participant observation, interviews and performance, this thesis examines the experiences of individuals who engage with Māori performing arts and the meaning they attribute to their engagement with the art form. Drawing on contemporary ideas of community and meaning, this thesis also investigates how Māori performing arts builds and strengthens relationships and whanaungatanga by connecting participants to local, national and international Aotearoa New Zealand communities. This thesis draws on two contexts in Wellington where people engage with Māori performing arts - The Ngāti Pōneke Young Māori Club at Pipitea marae and Te Kōkī New Zealand School of Music. Along with exploring two Māori performance context in detail, this these explores how Māori performing arts is used as a platform to educate participants about Māori knowledge, language and culture while also discussing how Māori performing arts is used to symbolise and represent Aotearoa New Zealand nationally and internationally.

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  • The Effect of Meditation on Visual and Auditory Sustained Attention

    Badart, Paige (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Failures of attention can be hazardous, especially within the workplace where sustaining attention has become an increasingly important skill. This has produced a necessity for the development of methods to improve attention. One such method is the practice of meditation. Previous research has shown that meditation can produce beneficial changes to attention and associated brain regions. In particular, sustained attention has shown to be significantly improved by meditation. While this effect has shown to occur in the visual modality, there is less research on the effects of meditation and auditory sustained attention. Furthermore, there is currently no research which examines meditation on crossmodal sustained attention. This is relevant not only because visual and auditory are perceived simultaneously in reality, but also as it may assist in the debate as to whether sustained attention is managed by modality-specific systems or a single overarching supramodal system. The current research was conducted to examine the effects of meditation on visual, auditory and audiovisual crossmodal sustained attention by using variants of the Sustained Attention to Response Task. In these tasks subjects were presented with either visual, auditory, or a combination of visual and auditory stimuli, and were required to respond to infrequent targets over an extended period of time. It was found that for all of the tasks, meditators significantly differed in accuracy compared to non-meditating control groups. The meditators made less errors without sacrificing response speed, with the exception of the Auditory-target crossmodal task. This demonstrates the benefit of meditation for improving sustained attention across sensory modalities and also lends support to the argument that sustained attention is governed by a supramodal system rather than modality-specific systems.

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  • The Ethics of Infectious Disease Control: Lessons from the Ebola outbreak and an ethical framework

    McIvor, Joshua (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) devastated its way into news headlines in 2014, destroying communities across three West African countries and costing the lives of over 11,000 people. The global health response was widely scrutinised and criticised, and though the outbreak is now over, there are still many lessons that can be learned from the 2014 EVD outbreak. This thesis will use the EVD outbreak in two ways. Firstly, I will use the EVD outbreak as a case study through which I will strive to address the ethical concerns for using experimental treatment during the outbreak, and I will address ethical concerns of the use of quarantine during the outbreak. Second, I will use the EVD outbreak as a launch pad to examine broader and more abstract ethical principles of the ethics of infectious disease control, such as the principles of reciprocity, transparency, proportionality, and the harm principle. This discussion will highlight how physical, biological features of a disease very much impact the application of the above principles when it comes to controlling the disease in an ethical manner. Finally, from this observation, I have created a ‘disease taxonomy’ that categorises infectious diseases based upon, what I argue, are the most ethically relevant biological features of infectious diseases. The taxonomy can aid in preparing for, understanding, and responding to the most pertinent ethical issues that surround various infectious diseases. The thesis should leave the reader with not only a greater understanding of some of the ethical issues raised by the 2014 EVD outbreak, but also a solid framework to utilise in discussing the most pertinent ethical issues of any future outbreak of any infectious disease.

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  • Parametric Kinetics

    Clayton, Allan (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis examines how parametric modelling can be used in the design process to aid in the development of a kinetic architectural skin. A parametric scripting process has been used to control morphological change in architectural models. This has enabled the description of responsive kinetic form, and has facilitated a process of iterative design development. At the conceptual stage, weather data has been used to generate responsive form, enabling exploration into a range of potential designs. At the developmental stage, static and dynamic iterative modelling has been used to inform the development of a final skin system. The process of iterative modelling has introduced a high level of feedback to the design process, allowing for a thoroughly developed architectural system that performs well against established design criteria. This thesis proposes that parametric modelling is a credible tool for the development of dynamic architectural systems.

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  • Securing Unity and Reverence: Chinese ontological security across its maritime and frontier disputes

    Curtis, Henry (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis draws on the Constructivist school of International Relations, applying the theory of ontological security to explain diverging patterns of behaviour by China across its maritime and frontier territorial disputes. Since the establishment of the People’s Republic of China, these patterns have seen China consistently interact with states adjacent to its frontiers to settle disputes peacefully, with occasional instances of conflict. Conversely, in its maritime disputes, though varying in its levels of aggression and cooperation, China has resolutely refused to settle with disputant states. In examining these varying behaviours, it is argued that differences derive from the differing ability of China to secure its national identity between the two types of dispute. Analysing the examples of the Sino-Indian dispute and border war, the Burmese border agreement, and the ongoing South China Sea disputes, periods of conflict and settlement in these disputes are compared to changing manifestations of Chinese national identity. What results is an illustration of frontier border settlement contributing to the security of China’s identity as a unified, pluralistic nation state. The absence of national minority populations in relation to maritime disputes alternatively sees continued interaction in these disputes as securing China’s identity as the superior ‘Central Kingdom’ relative to peripheral South East Asian states, while offering little incentive for settlement. Both types of dispute can be viewed as contributing to the biographical narrative of China’s ‘Century of Humiliation’. This thesis presents a significant departure from existing studies of China’s disputes, predominantly undertaken from a Realist perspective. Additionally, it expands on existing Constructivist literature by demonstrating how national identity can result in a range of behaviours across a range of differing disputes, further validating the emerging ontological security approach within International Relations scholarship.

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  • Modelling Surtseyan Ejecta

    Greenbank, Emma (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Surtseyan ejecta are formed in shallow sub-aqueous volcanic eruptions. They occur when water, containing a slurry of previously erupted material, is washed into the volcanic vent. This slurry is incorporated into the magma and ejected from the volcano inside a ball of magma. These magma bombs containing entrained material are called, Surtseyan ejecta or Surtseyan bombs. At the time of entrainment there is a large temperature difference between the magma (at approximately 1000°C) and the slurry (at approximately 20°C). As the inclusion temperature increases, the water contained in the slurry evaporates, causing an increase in the pressure at the boundary of the entrainment. This pressure increase is offset by the vapour diffusing through the pores of the magma. If the pressure exceeds the tensile strength of the surrounding magma the Surtseyan ejecta will rupture. The volcanological question of interest is whether the magma ruptures. There is evidence of intact ejecta so it can be concluded that rupture does not always occur. We have developed a set of equations that transiently model the changes in temperature and pressure in Surtseyan ejecta. Numerical solutions show that the pressure rapidly increases to a stable value. Because the pressure reaches equilibrium a steady-state solution can be used to determine the maximum pressure and a criterion for rupture.

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  • Moral Bioenhancement: Widespread Harm and Broad Cooperation

    Wisheart, Morgan (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    A controversial issue in contemporary bioethics has emerged in recent years: moral bioenhancement (MB). Human bioenhancement in general has seen its share of controversy, but it is generally agreed that there is potential to improve human physical and mental capacities through biotechnological interventions such as medicinal drugs and genetic modification. The discussion has turned to whether biotechnological interventions could similarly improve human moral capacities. Ingmar Persson and Julian Savulescu have argued that MB is imperative if humans are to survive into the future, because our current moral capacities do not equip us to address future catastrophic problems, Ultimate Harm, which will be caused by modern advanced scientific progress. I suggest related but distinct reasons why MB is appealing: scientific progress and deficient human moral capacities are jointly responsible for enormous amounts of harm all over the world, Widespread Harm, and MB has the potential to reduce that harm. Human moral capacities are deficient because of their dependence on what I call ‘moral intuitions’; evolved psychological traits that shape our many societies’ varied moral values, resulting in moral disagreement and the disruption of inter-group cooperation. Addressing modern problems requires a broader level of cooperation that is unlikely to be achieved by depending on our current moral intuitions. This is why our moral capacities should be improved. However, typical accounts of MB do not describe interventions that will improve our moral capacities in this way. They are focused on the vague objective of ‘making people morally better’, assuming that this will address human moral deficiency and that this will in turn address the resulting problems. ‘Making people morally better’ means making them more satisfactory to our current moral intuitions, which are the root of moral deficiency, so these MB strategies are unlikely to be effective. An alternative MB strategy, which I propose, instead focuses on the objective of modifying current moral intuitions so that they promote broad cooperation. This will result in improved moral capacities in the sense that our moral capacities will be more practically useful to us. However, because this strategy disregards the importance of satisfying our current moral intuitions, it will be morally unpalatable. This is its main disadvantage over the typical MB strategy, though it is better at handling many common objections. Ultimately, there are a number of practical concerns that cannot be completely satisfactorily responded to even by my new MB strategy, such as the issues of mandatory MB and of fine-tuning our moral capacities. These concerns may mean that MB is too risky, and therefore not the best course of action in response to modern problems rooted in scientific progress and moral deficiency, particularly since we have promising alternatives available such as traditional moral enhancement techniques and further scientific progress. The prospect of MB should continue to be investigated, but it should focus on improving upon our current problematic moral intuitions rather than better satisfying them.

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  • An Atmospheric Surface

    Hrstich, Danielle (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis considers how to use atmosphere as a driver when designing to strengthen the relationship between the body and architecture. Wigley, following Semper, argues that atmosphere is constructed through the outer surface. Surface is used as a key element in architectural practice to contribute to the overall atmospheric conditions within architecture, to influence the way an occupant experiences space. To strengthen the relationship between the body and the built, this thesis looks at the surface of architecture to explore ‘how atmosphere can be designed for through a kinetic surface’. This thesis begins with a theoretical review of atmosphere and surface, along with case study research that contributes to the thesis exploration through design research. This thesis consists of three design outputs that test the kinetic surface at three increasing scales to engage the body. These design outputs include an installation, a house and a public building with each design increasing in complexity. While primarily focusing on the atmosphere produced through surface, these experiments also deal with site and programmatic constraints. This thesis concludes with an architectural strategy of using a double layered kinetic surface in a public building to create atmosphere that forms a strong relationship with the body, through light, movement and materiality.

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  • Identifying the Mechanism of Action of Bioactive 1,2-Cyclopropyl Carbohydrates

    Lassueur, Loïc (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Cyclopropanes and carbohydrates have long been used in the field of drug development. Previous work has shown that 1,2-cyclopropyl carbohydrates display bioactivity in both HeLa cancer cell lines¹ and in yeast² with a tentatively proposed mechanism of inhibition occurring through an enzymatic cyclopropane ring opening reaction and subsequent formation of a covalent bond with a target enzyme.² A small library of 1,2-cyclopropyl carbohydrate derivatives were synthesised based on known pharmacophores to examine further the potential mechanism of inhibition of such compounds and confirm the occurrence of enzyme-catalysed cyclopropane ring-opening reactions. Initial synthetic efforts were focused on the synthesis of the 1,2-dichlorocyclopropyl carbohydrate 23, which, through the optimisation of an essential C-6 detritylation reaction, was achieved in moderate yields of 32% over 7 steps. Following this, the ethoxycarbonyl substituted 1,2-cyclopropyl carbohydrate 54 was synthesised over 7 steps in a 22% yield through a rhodium acetate-catalysed addition of ethyl diazoacetate (49) to the glucal substrate 40. It was envisioned that if enzymatic cyclopropane ring-opening was occurring to form a C-7 carbanion, this would in turn be stabilised through the potential enolate formation of 54. Use of N,N-ditosylhydrazine in the synthesis of propargyl diazoacetate (58) followed by a rhodium acetate-catalysed cyclopropanation of 58 with substrate 40 resulted in the successful synthesis of 61 over 7 steps in a total yield of 9%. The incorporation of the propargyl substituent in 61 was introduced as a molecular probe in an attempt to isolate the target protein through an affinity purification procedure. The bioactivity of the propargyl derivative 61 was consistent with the synthesised compounds 23 and 54. It was proposed that these compounds undergo an enzymatic cyclopropane ring opening reaction accompanied with a clear diastereoselective preference for the α-stereoisomer of the cyclopropane ring, consistent with a target-based activation of the compounds. Chemical genetic analysis of the resulting bioactive compounds was undertaken using a deletion mutant array of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to elucidate a potential mechanism of action. Analysis of the results showed that, of the 4800 homozygous deletion strains tested in the high-throughput screens, a total of 122 strains were found following validation to sensitise and 68 to give resistance against 23 and 54. These sensitive and resistant mutants were subjected to a validation assay. Following validation, genes whose deletion led to sensitivity or resistance were then subjected to gene ontology term enrichment analysis which showed enrichment in the cytosolic ribosome, SNARE complex and SNAP receptor activity for resistant strains and enrichment in endoplasmic reticulum and endomembrane systems was found for the sensitive strain. Genes whose deletion sensitised to both compounds showed strong enrichment in cellular protein localisation, intra-golgi vesicale-mediated transport and the endomembrane system. Target identification and isolation were attempted through an affinity purification procedure using compound 61 and an azide-modified agarose resin. However, this was without success, either through inaccessibility of the alkyne of the target probe or because the target resides in the membrane-associated fraction which was discarded prior to treatment with the probe. This study suggests that the 1,2-cyclopropyl carbohydrates synthesised function through a cyclopropane ring-opening reaction, assisted by an enzymatic nucleophile. Chemical genetic analysis showed that the target of these compounds is involved in protein transport and protein localisation most likely relating to the vesicle tethering. Although many aspects of this work still need further investigation, either through the synthesis of new 1,2-cyclopropyl carbohydrates to increase bioactivity and better understand the enzymatic target, or through further biological procedures to better understand the mechanism of action, the use of 1,2-cyclopropyl carbohydrates as a potential pharmaceuticals or probes of protein trafficking shows much promise.

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  • Cambridge and London in Wordsworth's 'Prelude'

    Taylor, Greg (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis examines two sections of William Wordsworth’s autobiographical poem, The Prelude: Book 3, “Residence at Cambridge,” and Book 7, “Residence in London.” Books 3 and 7 are often read as interruptions in the poem’s narrative of psychological and artistic maturation. “Cambridge” and “London” are often read as impediments to the development of Wordsworth’s imagination, a development which is traditionally associated with transcendental epiphany in nature. This thesis offers a re-reading of the Cambridge and London books, emphasizing their affirmative role in the organic structure of the poem, and suggesting that these spaces allow Wordsworth to reflect positively on his imaginative development. Chapter 1 considers the issues involved in a literature review. Chapter 2 looks at the representation of Wordsworth’s adjustment to Cambridge. Though the poet considers his imagination to have been dormant during his first year at university, Book 3 depicts a phase in which the mind is opening toward outside influences. In the sheltered groves and level fenland of Cambridge, Wordsworth finds an environment both protective and sufficiently strange to stimulate his sense of inner power. Chapter 3 is concerned with Wordsworth’s changing attitudes toward London. The poet was composing Book 7 over a period of time during which he made multiple trips to the city. While it is ostensibly the record of his very first residence in London, Book 7 has a palimpsestic quality, layering together different encounters with the city and exhibiting an increasingly affirmative vision of urban life. In particular, this chapter traces the influence of Charles Lamb on Wordsworth’s thinking about London. Chapter 4 considers the centrality of the body and the sense of touch in Wordsworth’s response to London. Touch in Book 7 is both a source of anxiety and the vehicle for Wordsworth’s understanding of the city, its influence on him and its significance for a poetics of belonging.

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