576 results for Masters, 2007

  • Accord and satisfaction by way of full settlement cheque

    Currie, Simon Colin (2007)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    vii, 225 leaves ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. "November 4, 2007". University of Otago department: Law.

    View record details
  • A brief intervention to reduce offending : the study of a faith-based programme : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology at Massey University

    Lees, Jeffrey N (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Concern about the growing level and cost of criminal behaviour in New Zealand has resulted in a high priority being given to the research and development of effective interventions. The targeting of appropriate interventions to those at greatest risk of reoffending is identified as a key to successful outcomes. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Making Right Choices (MARC) programme in reducing offending of those at moderate to high risk of persisting in criminal conduct. MARC is a brief, faith-based, biblical approach to curtailing offending, developed at Tauranga Community Probation Service between 1993 and 2003. Seven recidivist male offenders, 19 – 26 years of age, volunteered to participate in this study. Five of the participants were prison inmates serving short sentences and two were on supervision in the community. Two risk measures (RoC*RoI and YLS/CLI) were used to ensure that participants met the medium/high risk criteria. In addition to attending the 10-session MARC course, participants were asked to undertake pre- and post-treatment assessments of antisocial attitudes, criminal associations and offending. Sessions were on average 60 minutes long, delivered one-on-one in an office setting. In addition to conviction history from the Law Enforcement System (LES), measures included the Measure of Criminal Attitudes and Associates (MCAA), the Social Problem Solving Inventory for Offenders (SPSIO), the Marlowe Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS) and the MARC Self-report Measure of Offending (MSMO). Follow-up assessment was carried out 6 months and 12 months after completion of the programme and/or release from prison. Results at six and twelve months after MARC showed that of the seven MARC participants, five had markedly reduced their offending on the selfreport measure, three had significantly less conviction on the LES measure, four recorded a distinct drop in contact with criminal companions and two had noticeably ameliorated their antisocial attitudes. Five participants were able to describe ways they had been helped by the programme. While the limitations of the methods preclude certainty about this programme’s effectiveness, the positive outcomes provide tentative support to the hypothesis that facilitating spiritual change can be an effective way to bring about cognitive and behavioural change with recidivist offenders.

    View record details
  • Bringing practice into theory : social workers' experiences of bringing social work into attachment theory : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Philosophy, School of Social Work and Social Policy at Massey University

    Foley, Maree Anne (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Attachment theory and social work have sustained an ongoing relationship since the early work of John Bowlby in the 1940s through to the current day. This longstanding relationship provided a frame for this current study which: explored social workers' described experiences of using attachment theory as a social work practice theory and identified patterns of processing attachment theory for social work practice. This qualitative study was methodologically guided by a hermeneutic phenomenological paradigm based on the work of Max van Manen (1990). Data collection involved a review of relevant literature followed by semi-structured in-depth interviews. Data construction included the development and implementation of a "Letter of Understanding Process" in conjunction with the construction of transcripts. Data-analysis processes consistent with hermeneutic phenomenological methods were utilised. Review of the literature suggested that attachment theory, originally developed by Bowlby (1958) and Ainsworth (1963), emphasised a relational perspective inclusive of the attachment-caregiving-exploratory systems. However within the translation process of this theory and its developments over the decades into a social work practice theory, the focus shifted from one of relationships at times of high need to one where the client and their external world of events and happenings was emphasised. Findings from the interviews found social workers' experiences of the use of attachment theory, reflected identified shifts of focus within the literature. Also found was a theory-practice processing pattern identified as the social worker "bringing practice into theory". In light of these findings, the social worker was foregrounded as one who brings practice into the lived experience of theory. Issues of sustaining the coherence of attachment theory in practice and issues of context were explored as impacting on the lived experience of theory and practice. In response to these findings practice implications were considered resulting in the development of attachment theory informed social work practice principles. Finally based on the conclusions of this study an attachment theory informed model of reflective practice was recommended along with considerations for future research.

    View record details
  • Bovine mastitis in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Veterinary Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Petrovski, Kiro Risto (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis represents an aggregation of knowledge on bovine mastitis in the New Zealand dairy industry. Firstly, the thesis reviews the factors influencing the economic impact of bovine mastitis. Secondly, it provides information on the incidence of clinical and subclinical mastitis, as a prerequisite for estimating these costs. Thirdly, it investigates the effects of experimentally-induced Streptococcus uberis mastitis early in the dry period on milk production in the subsequent lactation. In the review of factors influencing the cost of bovine mastitis, it was clear that neither farmers nor farm advisors have a good understanding of its full economic impact. In order to better understand these costs, it is necessary to have a clear idea of the incidence and consequences of clinical and subclinical mastitis: areas of knowledge which were identified as being deficient. Hence, two studies were conducted to investigate these areas. In the first study, the incidence of clinical mastitis in Northland, New Zealand, was estimated. Furthermore, the aetiological agents causing mastitis were elicited and their chronological distributions in lactation were described. The average incidence of clinical mastitis was 0.19 cases per 305 cow-days at-risk, which is higher than previously reported in New Zealand. There were approximately equal numbers of isolations of Staphylococcus aureus (23.7%), and Strep, uberis (23.3%) from clinical cases: a pattern that is remarkably different to elsewhere in the country. Clinical mastitis due to S. aureus or Strep, uberis differed between age groups, with the highest incidence of S. aureus isolations from older cows (0.043 cases per 305 cow-days-at-risk) and lowest from 2-year old cows (0.014). The incidence of Strep. uberis was similar in first calving (0.034 cases per 305 cow-days-at-risk) and older cows (5 year-old: 0.039 cases, 6 year-old: 0.030 cases). Overall, 12% of cows were temporarily removed from supply and 1% were culled for mastitis. The differences between the study in Northland and these reported elsewhere from NZ highlight the need for a national survey on the aetiology and epidemiology of bovine mastitis. A second study evaluated the effects of Strep. uberis clinical mastitis in the early dry period on milk production in the subsequent lactation. In a previous study, Strep. uberis mastitis was experimentally induced and then promptly treated. This experiment provided a data set from which the impact of Strep. uberis clinical mastitis early in the dry period on milk production in the subsequent lactation could be estimated. Results of this study indicated that an early dry period clinical mastitis due to Strep. uberis, when promptly treated, did not affect production in the subsequent lactation. For cows that suffered mastitis episode during early dry period compared to those that did not, there was no difference in milk yield ( 5126 vs. 5010 litres), fat yield (267 vs. 264 kg), and protein yield (182 vs. 179 kg), respectively. It was considered that the short duration of intramammary infection did not cause permanent damage to the mammary secretory tissue. It was concluded that the current estimates of the economics of mastitis in New Zealand are probably under-estimating the real cost of mastitis to its dairy industry. This was based on the higher incidence of clinical mastitis in Northland than elsewhere in the country and a failure of previous studies to take into consideration the costs associated with animals that were temporarily removed from supply (i.e. rather than culled). Additionally, as the highest frequency of new intramammary infections occurs in the first week or two after drying off, it may prove beneficial for farmers to pay more attention to checking for clinical mastitis during the early dry period.

    View record details
  • Adoption of cassava technology for sustainable livelihoods : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science in Rural Development at Massey University

    Azilah, Mary Esenam (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The RTIP was part of efforts to improve the livelihood security of resource poor farmers in Ghana. The focus of the programme included the introduction of the new cassava varieties, that have the potential to improve yields and consequently to improve household income levels. However, the low level of sustained adoption of the technology has raised questions relating to the project. A single case study was used to investigate the factors that influenced farmers' reasons for adopting and continuing or discontinuing the use of the new cassava varieties. Semi-structured interviews were used in the data collection, which was conducted between May and June 2006. Farmers who had adopted or not adopted the cassava technology and key informants, including opinion leaders and agricultural extension agents, were interviewed. A qualitative data analysis procedure was used in the analysis of the information gathered. The findings of this study revealed many interrelated factors, which influenced the initial adoption of the cassava technology and the sustained use of the new cassava varieties. The factors, which were identified as influencing the initial adoption decision of farmers, were related to the cassava technology, whilst other external factors relating to the farmers and their circumstances, in addition to situational factors and extension contacts, were found to have influenced the sustained use of the new cassava varieties. The new cassava varieties have a proven potential to improve the livelihood security of the farmers, through income generation, provided they have access to credit, processing and reliable markets. Inadequate institutional support with resources, for extension agents, influenced the effectiveness of service delivery. The findings suggest that development interventions, intended to improve the living standards of farm households, need to consider the complex nature of the farmers' circumstances, in their planning and implementation of the projects, if the needs of the target group are to be met.

    View record details
  • The role of renewable energy in the achievement of sustainable livelihoods in rural South-East Asia and the South Pacific : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University

    Cole, Peter (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Access to an affordable and reliable supply of energy is an accepted part of our day to day lives. While the increasing price of oil and environmental issues are of concern, the great majority of people in developed countries are not yet faced with the prospect of energy becoming unaffordable or unavailable. The situation in developing countries is far less comfortable where the purchase of energy can account for 25% of total household income and price increases can mean that an energy source becomes no longer affordable. Given that energy supplies underpin economic and social development, such situations can not only hold up development and the consequential move out of poverty but actually move people further away from this goal. This thesis examines the role of energy in people's livelihoods in two locations, one in South East Asia and the other in the South Pacific. The first of these comprises six farming villages in the Kerinci Valley in Sumatra while the second is Niue Island. Both these communities rely heavily on energy supplies but in very different ways, this being a function of the different economic situation that applies in each location. Both communities have renewable energy resources which are yet to be used or yet to be used effectively or sustainably. The sustainable livelihoods approach is used to analyse existing livelihoods with particular reference to the role of energy. The available renewable energy resources are identified and the impact that increased use of these could have in terms of livelihood outcomes is determined. The conclusion is that renewable energy has the potential to contribute to the achievement of sustainable livelihoods. However, while the outcomes are positive, renewable energy will not by itself achieve the transformation necessary for sustainable livelihoods. There are also barriers to the implementation of renewable energy programmes, not the least being access to funding.

    View record details
  • Dietary acculturation of Chinese in the Manawatu in association with risk factors for type 2 diabetes : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Nutritional Science at Massey University

    Jin, Ying (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Acculturation is known to affect migrants' dietary habits and eating patterns. To evaluate the influence on the diets of Chinese migrants who have settled in New Zealand and its relation to risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus, a total of 46 self-selected participants took part in this 2006 dietary acculturation study in the Manawatu region. The majority was from Mainland China, and more than 40% of the entire group had a family history of diabetes, which was possibly the underlying motivation for them to take part in this study. In addition, Chinese participants were less likely to visit their preferred General Practitioners regularly, unless they felt unwell, when compared to New Zealand population. The participants' acculturation levels were evaluated by the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-identify scale, and most of the participants identified themselves as Asian. The entire group was divided into two acculturation groups (Low and High) by using a cut-off point (2.0) from the acculturation scores. Three demographic variables, arrival age, residency length, and current age, were investigated. It was significant that the residency length was negatively associated with the acculturation score (P< 0.001). Participants who had younger arrival ages gained higher acculturation scores; they had become more acculturated to Western culture. Food frequency questionnaires and 24-hour dietary recalls were used to collect the participants' dietary information. The participants with high acculturation scores were more likely to consume Western-style foods more frequently, and to have sedentary lifestyles. In contrast, participants with low acculturation scores were more likely to have traditional eating patterns. In addition, participants with high acculturation scores consumed morning or afternoon tea more frequently than those people in the low acculturation group (P < 0.05); having morning or afternoon tea is popular in New Zealand. Breakfast was the first meal to be Westernised among the study participants. One of the significant findings was that energy intakes from dietary fat were 36.4% (females) and 38.6% (males), and these were higher than the recommended less than 35% of total energy intake from fat. Also, low dietary intakes of vitamin D, calcium and folate, together with an extreme high sodium intake, were observed in the study group. To provide additional data, body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were measured in this study. The BMI values, waist circumference and W/H ratio were used as markers of risk factors for heart diseases and diabetes. Based on the Chinese Standards for BMI and waist circumference, more than 50 percent of male participants were considered as either overweight or obese. Furthermore, females with low acculturation scores had greater BMI values than those in the high acculturation group (P < 0.05). Three blood tests, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA and total cholesterol (TC) values were measured among 33 participants, and two of them were found to have abnormal FPG and HbA accordingly were referred to their preferred General Practitioners.

    View record details
  • Social capital and community participation in development : the case of the Direct Community Financing Programme in post-conflict Sierra Leone : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University

    Jusu, Swalihu Kenneth-Moi (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Community participation seemingly appeals to a number of development agencies and institutions. Participation is seen as a means through which project outcomes can be improved. Nonetheless, "participation" as a concept is perceived, understood and defined differently. Therefore, different objectives are identified for undertaking participation. Some believe that pursuit of economic objectives has come to dominate development practice, and others believe that development practice has neglected its human or social aspects. Despite the rhetoric, past community development practice has either made little improvement in people's lives, or resulted in excluding some members of target communities. With the new institutional focus, and community empowerment as the objective of participation, the problem for development intervention is how to enhance community participation. Using a case study in post-conflict Sierra Leone, this research examines the Direct Community Financing programme, an externally funded development programme in ten communities in the Pujehun Port Loko districts. The study sought to investigate the extent to which social capital, as a community asset, facilitates community participation in development given the institutional environment and the objectives of the development intervention. The study finds that community participation is directly related to community level social capital, with high social capital communities recording high participation in the programme. The study also finds that community control, ownership and decisions over project activities, as well as the extent to which the projects meet community needs, also affect participation. Similarly, the institutional rules and the (designated) roles of stakeholders are equally important for enhancing participation. In contrast, a community's historical experience, discrimination and exclusion, selective participation and communal conflicts, among other factors, can negatively affect community participation.

    View record details
  • Decolonisation of Tokelau : why was the proposal to become self-governing unsuccessful in the 2006 referendum? : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University

    Buchanan, Tessa (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Tokelau is a Pacific Island county listed by the United Nations (UN) as a non-self-governing territoiy with New Zealand as its administering power. Tokelau continued to adhere to a preference for remaining a territory until 1994, when Tokelau's leadership unexpectedly declared a desire to explore its options for future self-government. A period of intensified programmes aimed at preparing Tokelau to become a self-determined nation under UN rules was initiated following the 1994 declaration. The process included reworking Tokelau's governance structure, constitutional development, and public sector capacity building. The decolonisation process culminated in February 2006 when a referendum was held in which Tokelauans voted on whether they wished Tokelau to become self-governing in free association with New Zealand. A two-thirds majority was required for the self-government proposal to pass. Only 60 per cent of the votes cast were in favour of becoming self-governing, so the proposal did not pass and there will be no immediate change to Tokelau's status. This thesis examines the factors that led to the referendum outcome. Tokelau's decolonisation experience is explored in the context of the broader process of decolonisation in the south Pacific. Following a review of historical decolonisation processes and theories relating to these processes, Tokelauan people's explanations for the referendum outcome are outlined. The factors raised by participants in fieldwork interviews undertaken in Tokelau fall into three main themes - local divisions, lack of understanding of the concepts, and issues and doubt in Tokelau's readiness to self-govern. It is then explained how these three themes are all related to governance challenges currently being experienced in Tokelau, and how the linkages and interactions between the three themes combined led to self-government proposal being unsuccessful. A picture of the practical experience of decolonisation processes in Tokelau is thereby developed, which seeks to inform future consideration of appropriate decolonisation processes and the needs of Tokelau as it develops towards self-determination.

    View record details
  • Couple-owned business in New Zealand : how couples in business manage the complexities of their lifestyle : a 152.800 thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Management, Massey University

    Hodgson, Kim Florence Ashton (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Given the increasing phenomenon of couples in business and prevalence of SME's in New Zealand, this study contributes to the limited extant literature on couples in business by providing a New Zealand perspective. It also addresses a gap in the research by presenting a step towards building a profile of New Zealand couples in business for interested parties such as New Zealand business, the government and other research projects. The key research aim in this thesis was to examine the dynamics at play within this business lifestyle as couples simultaneously manage both their work and home relationships. Data were collected using a two-phased research methodology. The first phase of the study was exploratory and employed a qualitative methodology (Focus Groups and Case Studies). Phase One of the study established what key themes were relevant to New Zealand couples. This exploratory phase then guided the construction of a survey instrument. The second phase of the study utilised a survey and employed quantitative data analysis techniques. The survey investigated whether factors such as gender and dependents living at home defined differences in the characteristics profiles of entrepreneurial couples in New Zealand. The study also investigated satisfaction and tension levels in the sample. Using summary statistics, cluster analysis, and multivariate techniques, this research found that a couple's personal relationship impacted on all facets of their lives, including their work and life satisfaction levels. Couples who were satisfied with their relationship also experienced less business tension. In essence, the relationship was the fulcrum on which the business and the home balanced. The findings of this research were compared with the limited international data and a degree of similarity was found. The findings also have built on these similarities by offering a unique New Zealand perspective and focusing on the relationship as the keystone to the copreneurial lifestyle. The findings were also examined for relevance to the New Zealand context and it was found that predominant cultural factors affect the couples' lifestyles, home, and work decisions. Further potential for future research was highlighted, for example, investigating eastern cultures, same sex relationships, and industry or targeting specific demographics. Key words: Couples in Business, Entrepreneurial Couples, Copreneurship, Relationship Satisfaction, Business Tension, Cluster Analysis, Multivariate Analysis, New Zealand Business, Home, Work, Family, Dependents, Gender.

    View record details
  • "In her shoes" : the experience of mothers living with mental illness : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Social Work at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Watkins, Lesley Ann (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis presents a study of the views and experiences of a small group of New Zealand mothers living with mental illness. It is a qualitative study, the purpose of which is to explore the interface between parenting and mental illness through indepth interviews and to draw suggestions from these experiences for service development. Utilising a perspective which is influenced by a combination of recovery, feminist and Kaupapa Maori research philosophies, the intent of the study is to hear and reflect upon these stories through a collaborative process. The findings reveal similar themes to those from international studies. The participants emphasize the value of motherhood, seeing parenting as a tool for recovery and a way to increase self-esteem. Stigma and discrimination, especially self stigma, the internalised sets of beliefs about people experiencing mental illness, still affect women's lives, leading most of the participants to experience a pervasive fear around the loss of their children on account of their mental illness. Finally, mothers spoke of the stresses brought about by living in an environment often characterised by poverty and isolation. The main recommendations are for family-focused, community-based services which utilise early intervention approaches. The need for more extensive, flexible, practical support services and support for family/whanau are also highlighted. The role of trauma in the lives of the mothers interviewed and the need for access to appropriate treatment is emphasized. Finally, the lack of concrete data related to the numbers of parents living with mental illness is underlined and it is suggested that the latest mental health information system incorporate details about parenting arrangements. The findings of the research raise issues about the ability of present-day mental health services to fully meet the needs of families living with mental illness. Furthermore, it is argued that the compartmentalisation of mental health and child welfare services leads to a lack of a cohesive approach to the complexity of the lives of both parents and children in families with mental illness. In spite of less than optimum services, the strength and resilience of the mothers interviewed is a demonstration of the success of the recovery philosophy.

    View record details
  • Community-based urban solid waste management : a case study of Suva, Fiji : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University

    Will, Anja Sabine (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The rising solid waste generation and the change of solid waste composition to higher volumes of packaging materials have created concerning health and environmental threats in developing cities. Municipal authorities do not possess the necessary capacities to cope with current levels of solid waste generation and its increasing complexity. This often leads to inadequate solid waste services, in particular, in the poorer settlements such as low-income, peri-urban and squatter communities. With this concern in mind, this study attempted to explore effective ways for improving solid waste management in urban developing communities. Using quantitative and qualitative data from three squatter communities in Suva, Fiji, solid waste management was studied in the context of a Pacific Island country. Household interviews, observations and informal walks were carried out in the selected communities. For the purpose of contextual knowledge, semi-structured interviews were conducted with several organisations and authorities concerned with urban development and solid waste management in Suva. This study argues that the usage of unsafe solid waste practices, such as burning, burying and dumping of waste in the approached communities, are a result of an absence of sound solid waste storage and disposal facilities, lack of awareness and knowledge, and the lack of partnerships between the communities and governmental authorities and also between communities and non-governmental organisations in Suva. Furthermore, this study argues that top-down communication caused through hierarchical structures, has created passive communities, which alone cannot manage external and internal pressures, including rising solid waste accumulation. At the same time, strained social structures due to increasingly diverse communities, pressing land issues and the disintegration of traditional networks, within the communities studied, have decreased community cohesiveness and thus the participation in communal activities, such as cleaning campaigns. This study concludes that effective and trustful partnerships between communities and public and private agencies have to be established in order to successfully implement alternative solutions for the provision of solid waste services in urban communities. Considering the increasing heterogeneity and vulnerability of urban communities, affordable and holistic strategies, which address the root cause of rising solid waste problems, are necessary. Policy makers have to put more emphasis on the needs of the urban poor and marginalised communities in order to reduce inequalities and poverty.

    View record details
  • An educational journey : stories of adult learners : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Education in Adult Education at Massey University

    Madgwick, Julie Heather (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This research tells the stories of a particular student cohort, all of whom are women, studying at The Open Polytechnic of New Zealand in the Diploma of Teaching (Early Childhood Education) programme. These students are adult learners and adult learners are an increasing part of the tertiary sector. They have interesting stories to tell of their learning journeys, for example, stories of how they found their passion later in life or revisited an earlier passion they were unable to fulfil. The researcher has gathered, recorded and analysed the stories of these students, stories of their education experiences; their experiences within their family and society; the communities they lived in; their work histories and most importantly their study histories. Key themes common to the research participants emerged from their stories and these are linked to a variety of literature. The aim of this research is to add to the limited body of information about the learning journeys of an often silent group of people within the tertiary sector, and is an acknowledgment of the success of adult students in their studies later in life.

    View record details
  • The understanding and experience of anxiety in older adults caring for partners with stroke : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology, Massey University

    Cotton, Elizabeth Helen (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Anxiety has been increasingly recognized as a serious health concern in older adults and is reported by many caregivers. However, still relatively little is known about the experience or presentation of anxiety in later life or about how that anxiety relates to caregiving. Much of the research into late-life anxiety has focused on anxiety disorders and has been carried out with reference to younger age groups, using diagnostic and psychometric measures developed, in the main, for younger people. There appear to be few studies in the literature that explore late-life anxiety as an independent phenomenon or that examine the effects of contextual factors on that anxiety. No studies could be found that investigate non-clinical experiences of anxiety in later life, starting from the perspectives of older adults themselves; neither could any studies be found that specifically investigate anxiety-related experiences of elderly people caring for partners with stroke. The present study explores how older adults, caring for partners with stroke, understand and experience anxiety. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine older adults, aged from 65 to 80 years, who were living in the community and were caregivers for partners with stroke. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to identify themes within their accounts. Three master themes were identified: the phenomenon of anxiety, views that influence anxiety, and the experience of anxiety. Emergent themes describe participants' shared, main sources of anxiety, the signs and symptoms by which they recognized anxiety and the strategies that they had developed to cope with anxiety. A range of views about self, caregiving and ageing was identified that appeared to shape the anxiety that participants experienced. Findings highlight the chronic nature of the anxiety experienced by older spousal caregivers and suggest ways in which older caregivers can successfully deal with that anxiety. They provide a useful foundation for further research that seeks to determine which older adults are likely to experience anxiety problems in caregiving and also for programmes that seek to support elderly people who are caring for partners with stroke.

    View record details
  • Terrestrial spatial ecology of female New Zealand sea lions: Study at Sandy Bay, Auckland Islands, and implication for the management of the recolonisation

    Auge, Amelie A. (2007)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    The New Zealand sea lion, Phocarctos hookeri, is endemic to New Zealand and has only three breeding colonies, all situated in the sub-Antarctic islands. This reduced breeding distribution is the result of human extirpation from most of its pristine range, which included the New Zealand mainland. In 1993, a female bred for the first time on mainland New Zealand, indicating the possible start of the recolonisation. The recolonisation of an urbanised coastline will create interactions between humans, infrastructures and sea lions. No study had however looked at how the New Zealand sea lion uses its terrestrial environment. This study thus aimed to characterise, in space and time, the terrestrial spatial ecology of the female New Zealand sea lions at a breeding colony. Intensive fieldwork at the Sandy Bay breeding colony, Enderby Island, in the Auckland Islands, during two breeding seasons (between December 2001 and March 2003), produced a large dataset of daily Global Positioning System (GPS) locations of branded females onshore (4252 locations) within the study area (0.7 km²). A habitat type map and a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of the study area were produced. The analyses were conducted in ArcGIS at three scales: individual, population and habitat. A two-phase pattern, including a harem phase (aggregation of females, area used < 0.003 km²) and a dispersion phase (spread of females, area used > 0.550 km²), was revealed and characterised using Nearest Neighbour Indices. A dispersion model of an average female was produced based on cumulative Minimum Convex Polygons (MCP) and pup mortality was found to be affected by females’ movements on pupping day. The female population was found to move and shift areas used throughout the dispersion phase while the gregariousness of females was considerably modified between the harem phase and the end of the dispersion phase (80 versus 0.3 females per 100 m²). Temporal analyses of habitat use demonstrated a radical change in habitat preferences between the two phases and a gradual change during the dispersion phase. At the end of the season, females preferred sites in forest and at more than 1.1 km from shore. Male aggressiveness and disturbance, habitat properties and parasite infections are thought to be some of the main factors that drive the terrestrial ecology of the females P. hookeri. In conclusion, the presence and spatial extent of a female population at Sandy Bay, unusual for a pinniped species, was found to be predictable and thought to be species- specific rather than location-specific. The results of this study can thus be used as a basis for the management of the recolonisation. Human infrastructure and disturbance are likely to interfere with the establishment of new breeding colonies and the ecology of female New Zealand sea lions on mainland New Zealand. Some recommendations based on these results are immediate public awareness and education programs, the monitoring of the new population using a GIS database and the identification, protection against human disturbance and rehabilitation of suitable sites for the establishment of a new breeding colony on the mainland.

    View record details
  • Infra-red vision in ferrets (Mustela furo)

    Newbold, Haylie Goldene (2007)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Ferrets are labelled Unwanted Organisms under the Biosecurity Act (1993) due to their predation on New Zealand's native protected species and their status as potential vectors of Bovine Tuberculosis. There was suspicion that ferrets could detect the infrared light-emitting equipment used to monitor predator and prey behaviour. A two-alternative forced-choice operant procedure was used to test whether five pigmented male ferrets could detect infrared (870 and 920 nm) light. First, the ferrets were taught to press a lever under a lit visible (white) light emitting diode (LED) for food rewards. After up to 101 40-minute sessions, each ferret could lever press under the lit-light at or above the pass criteria of 75% responses over four consecutive (or five out of six) sessions. The same ferrets were then tested for stimulus generalisation over different stimulus properties by changing the wavelength/colour and intensity of the lit-light. The overall mean accuracy of each ferret's response to each coloured light varied between 92% and 84%. When a red light was systematically dimmed to halve the intensity nine times, all five ferrets still met the set pass criteria with overall accuracies of between 88% and 78%. This indicated that changing the properties of the light stimuli would not disrupt the ferrets' abilities to perform the learned task. This test was a necessary prerequisite before changing the light stimuli to potentially invisible wavelengths in the infrared spectrum. The light stimulus was changed to a single infrared (870) nm LED. Two of five ferrets showed strong evidence (response accuracies of 77% 4 and 72% 2) and one ferret showed weak evidence (60% 3) that they could see the light at this wavelength. Extraneous cues such as ultrasound emitted at the onset of a stimulus light or a predictable schedule of reinforcement were eliminated as potential response cues. These tests helped to prove that the ferrets were using only the light stimulus to discriminate which stimulus was lit. It may be possible that at least some feral ferrets can detect the light produced from infrared monitoring equipment that emits light wavelengths at or below 870 nm. This has significant implications for conservation because infrared equipment is used by conservation agencies in New Zealand and overseas to monitor predator and prey behaviour in the wild. If the infrared lighting is detected by the subject being observed, then it may potentially influence the behaviour of the animal, or attract a predator towards threatened native species.

    View record details
  • Paradoxical Performances of Subjectivities, Spaces and Art Gallery Postcards

    Robinson, Christine (2007)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis examines the relationship between art gallery postcards, subjectivities and domestic spaces. Feminist post-structuralist debates on memory, subjectivity and domestic spaces provide the theoretical framework for this research into taken-for-granted objects of the everyday. Empirical data came from interviewing nine women who buy, use and keep postcards and two New Zealand Art Gallery store managers. Some of the participants were interviewed more than once, while others extended their views by e-mail. Auto-ethnographic narrative is used to explore further the symbolic significance of an individual's postcard consumption. This research focuses attention on the production of gendered subjectivities and domestic spaces through an aesthetic artefact. There are three points to my analysis. Firstly, I argue paradoxically the under-noticed seemingly trivial gallery postcard becomes a memory holder and therefore a significant artefact of symbolic value. Memories are potent, elusive fragments that become attached to a sound, smell, touch or sight. Catching sight of a postcard can trigger a chain of memory associations, which in turn constructs a sense of self through the remembering. Secondly, I contend that subjectivity is understood as fluid and multiple, evolving out of experience and interpretation. Memories formed from experience and connections made with people, place and things become associated with gallery postcards and serve as a catalyst for personal narratives which in turn can operate as tools for constructing subjectivities. Finally I suggest that domestic spaces are a product of relations that can be understood as existing within and beyond the home. Stretched domestic space can be produced by the display of gallery postcards in office spaces. The exploration of the art gallery postcard adds to the knowledges of everyday objects and their role and significance in constructing gendered subjectivities and spaces.

    View record details
  • The vulnerability of Tongatapu coastal zone to local impacts of climate and sea level rise related risks

    Lao, Fine Faitehina Tutu'u (2007)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Tongatapu coastal zone vulnerability assessment study was conducted to examine the degree of current and future risks of projected climate change and sea level rise on the coastal zone of the main island of the Kingdom of Tonga-Tongatapu. Inundation, and flooding hazards generated by tropical cyclone storm surges are the common threats to Tongatapu coastal towns and villages because of their low-lying settings. Flooding problems are exacerbated by the social trends of population growth and migration from the outer islands of the Kingdom, to Tongatapu the main island where the capital town of the Kingdom, Nuku'alofa is located. Other threats include beach erosion, saltwater intrusion, and seawater spraying of coastal vegetations and properties. A survey of the local people of Tongatapu, mapping of vulnerable areas with GIS, and using my local knowledge of the island coastal zone were the three methods were used to conduct this study. The main objective of this research was to assess the vulnerability of the coastal zone of Tongatapu to local impacts of inundation and flooding hazards associated with climate and sea-level rise related risks. The results of the survey indicated that more than 95% of the respondents agreed that the coastal zone of Tongatapu is vulnerable to inundation and flooding risks generated by tropical cyclones that visit Tongatapu coastal water every year, based on their recollection, knowledge, and experienced of the past storm events that hit Tongatapu. GIS work showed that those coastal towns and villages of Tongatapu that are located in areas less than 5 meter above sea level are vulnerable to the local impacts of inundation and flooding hazards. It is concluded that the yearly visited tropical cyclones to Tonga that are actually hit Tongatapu coastal zone had increasing the vulnerability of the coastal towns and villages of Tongatapu that are located in areas below 5 meters above sea level to inundation and flooding hazards associated with climate change and sea level rise related risks. Other possible cause might be the gradual uplifted of the south coast of Tongatapu due to ongoing earthquake activities in Tonga since the last 200 years. But in facts more research it has to be done to confirm this argument. The response to the local impacts of inundation and flooding hazards in the coastal zone of Tongatapu should be focused on adaptation, risk and hazard management.

    View record details
  • Newspaper Coverage of People with Disabilities: A New Zealand Perspective

    Wall, Stacey Lee (2007)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Throughout history the science of mass communication has been a topic of public and academic interest. In the past 3 decades portrayals of various minority groups have been of concern to researchers, health professionals and member of these groups. This study examines how people with disabilities are portrayed within the New Zealand print media and whether or not a traditional (often negative) or progressive (often positive) modes of representations predominate in coverage. Progressive focus views disability and the problems surrounding it as being located in society's failure to accommodate all members of the population. In contrast, traditional focus views people with disabilities as dysfunctional because he or she is unable to function in an environment designed by or for people without disabilities. The research corpus comprises relating to intellectual and physical disabilities and people with disabilities published in three major newspapers of New Zealand; The New Zealand Herald, The Dominion Post and The Sunday Star Times between the 1st of June and the 1st of August 2006 (N=101). These articles were collected and the content of each article was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Aspects such as structure, content, terminology, sources used and attributes assigned to the people with disabilities were analysed within each article as a means of determining whether an article was positive, negative or neutral. Results show that within the New Zealand print media disability is generally portrayed in a positive or neutral manner. Moreover, it was discovered that Clogston's (1989) classifications of traditional and progressive focus were problematic because results indicated that a traditional mode of focus was dominate but this did not reflect a negative portrayal of disability. This may have been due to the disparities between the findings of this thesis and previous research conducted in other countries over a decade ago. Furthermore, it was found that the main source within each article was the government and this supported past research (Tichenor, Donohue, and Olien, 1980).

    View record details
  • Towards a Better Understanding of Coastal Cliff Erosion in Waitemata Group Rock; Auckland, New Zealand.

    Bell, Jessica Emily (2007)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The soft sedimentary deposits of the Waitemata Group which outcrop on the eastern coastline of the Auckland region are a coastal cliff erosion hazard. The determination of the rate that these cliffs erode for hazard zonation purposes still requires research. A database has been collated of a range of structural, geological, geomorphic and climate parameters from 16 representative cliff sites in order to statistically assess what parameters influence cliff erosion and why erosion rates vary within the relatively uniform geology. Four different lithological units have been defined: sandstone beds of turbidites; sandstone beds of densites (contain rip-up clasts); sand to gravel beds of debrites; and siltstone beds. Cliff rock has very weak to weak intact rock strength; apertures of 0.1 to 15 mm; infill types are soft clay and grit, and hard calcite and iron; spacing of discontinuities are smaller in siltstone beds (≥ 5 mm), and up to 5 m in sandstone and debrite beds; bedding and fault planes are continuous, joints are non-continuous; block size is dictated by bed thickness and non-continuous joints. Shore platform widths were used to determine long-term erosion rates which range from 1.2 to 53.0 mm y-1. Platform morphologies are either sloping or horizontal or are a combination of both. Higher platform benches found at some sites are considered to be the result of a higher period of sea-level or are high-tide benches. Intact and rock mass strength increases northwards. Cliff heights are 8 to 38 m; cliff angles are 51 to 79 . Conditions for sporadic planar and wedge failure were determined at some sites; frittered siltstone and low durability sandstone allow smaller-scale, continual erosion. Castor Bay, Army Bay, Waiwera Beach and Leigh Marine Reserve have the lowest rock mass quality. Musick Point, Narrowneck Beach and Waiake Bay have good rock mass quality. A conceptual model for coastal cliff erosion has been developed for Waitemata Group coastal cliffs, based on the dominant processes that act on the cliffs determined from statistical analysis (student t-test, correlation and regression) and field observations. The primary factor for cliff erosion is bed dip, whereby seaward dipping beds have higher erosion rates than landward dipping beds. The secondary factors for cliff erosion include: the intact and rock mass strength of the rock; the rock mass quality; strength of the siltstone beds; strength and structure of the sandstone beds; and orientation of the bedding planes with respect to the cliff face. Shear stresses are enhanced when beds dip seaward and thus shear failure along continuous surfaces is achievable. When beds dip landward the influence of shear stresses along bedding planes, and their contribution to the removal of individual blocks of rock, is severely inhibited resulting in reduced rates of erosion. There is no relationship between cliff height and erosion rates and cliff heights are mainly controlled by the pre-existing landscape. Cliff angle is controlled by the proportion of sandstone and siltstone (whereby lower cliff angles are more siltstone-dominated), rock mass strength and weathering. Erosion rates do vary in Waitemata Group rock of the Auckland region because of the variation in structural and geomorphic conditions of the cliff, most strongly controlled by the dip angle of bedding planes.

    View record details