805 results for Masters, 2008

  • The impact of patents on New Zealand's biotechnology and genetics services sectors

    Green, Aphra (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    x, 155 leaves ; 30 cm. Bibliography: leaves 151-155. University of Otago department: Law

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  • He ahi kā, he poka rānei : to keep the fire burning or to extinguish the flame : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters degree in Education at Te Kupenga o Te Mātauranga, Massey University College of Education, Palmerston North

    Kenrick, Pani (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    He Ahi Ka, He Pōka Rānei- examines the provision of support offered to beginning teacher graduates of a total immersion Māori pre-service programme. Based on a Qualitative Māori centred approach, the study focuses on the ways in which the induction process, self-efficacy and professional development programmes within various classrooms and educational settings contribute to supporting the beginning teachers in this study. Issues related to access and participation in such support programmes and the contributions of key personnel to the provision of beginning teacher support are also explored. Through researching beginning teacher's, information gathered and analysed could be used when preparing and planning for professional development programmes to support beginning teachers from total immersion pre-service teaching programmes.

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  • Finding a treatment that fits : a grounded theory of adolescent retention in alcohol and drug treatment : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    McKenzie, Heather Lianne (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Compliance with healthcare regimens is becoming an increasingly important area of health research. Depression is thought to be increasing in prevalence world-wide, and so too is the share of the healthcare budget dedicated to treating depression. Research has shown that people tend to discontinue treatments for depression far earlier than recommended. However, very little research has explored why this might be so. Several theories of health behaviour have tried to account for compliance in terms of influential beliefs and attitudes, but generally these theories have not been explored in a mental health context. Additionally, research is only just beginning to consider compliance from a healthcare consumer's perspective. The Compliance Study reported in this thesis adopted a grounded theory methodology to explore compliance with women's treatments for depression. A community sample of 37 depressed women, participating in a 12 week double-blind placebo controlled trial investigating the effects of fish oil as an adjunct to treatments for depression, provided both qualitative and quantitative data on their compliance experiences with treatments for depression generally, and with the supplement trial specifically. The basic social process of compliance that emerged from the data involved a complex and dynamic interaction of mutually influential illness variables, significant relationships, meanings given to depression and its treatments, and cost-benefits analyses. In Finding a Treatment that Fits, women balance competing interests and try to ensure good enough compliance to meet their own goals for wellness. The results from the Compliance Study confirmed important prior findings with respect to compliance with depression treatments, but extended these by looking at underlying reasons for decisions to continue or discontinue treatments. The thesis also considers special issues relevant to the particular circumstances of compliance in the dietary intervention trial, including the impact of placebo effects and attitudes towards non-orthodox treatments. Implications for further research and clinical practice are discussed.

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  • Reconstructing debris transport pathways on constructional ridges : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Quaternary Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Mandolla, Stephanie (2008-04-21T03:10:57Z)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    It is generally accepted that Mt Ruapehu, Tongariro National Park, New Zealand, was heavily glaciated during the Pleistocene. Eight small glaciers can still be found on the summit of this active volcano. However, the glaciers have been retreating at a fast rate during the last few centuries. The scientific community has placed its main focus on the volcanic aspects of the region. Although most authors refer to the landforms that appear to be of glacial origin as ‘moraines’, no actual glacial studies have been undertaken so far to provide the necessary evidence that is needed to support this hypothesis. The aim of this study is to use established field techniques in glacial geomorphology to (1) identify the extent of glacial deposits using diagnostic criteria and (2) to reconstruct the transport pathways of the Wahianoa Glacier. Four main diagnostic criteria have been used: clast morphology, macrofabrics, grain size distribution and the surface texture of grains. The Wahianoa valley has a very pronounced U-shape and is likely to be of glacial origin. The valley consists of two elongate debris ridges that are made out of unconsolidated, poorly sorted diamict of varying lithologies. This study has identified that the activity and the composition of the volcano has lead to complex glacial processes. Glacial ice has advanced over a deformable bed and the glacier itself was probably extensively covered by supraglacial debris. The area has been identified as a pre-historic pathway for lahars and the volcano erupts frequently to produce fresh volcanic deposits. As the active vent has changed its position during the eruptive history of the volcano, the quantity and the location of the source rock that fed the glacier has varied greatly. This study is an initial attempt at unfolding the glacial history of Mt Ruapehu. This is based on field analysis of glacigenic sediments, rather than topographic and aerial photo analysis. The results show great complexity and the potential for further studies of other moraine systems on Mt Ruapehu.

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  • Home made : picturing Chinese settlement in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters in Design at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Lee, Kerry Ann (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Since the first gold-seekers arrived in New Zealand in the 1860s, Chinese have been regarded as outsiders to discussions of national identity. Colonial representations of otherness have left Chinese longing to be recognised as established settlers. Fresh interpretations are much needed to align myth with the longstanding realities of settlement. The absence of a recognisable Chinatown in New Zealand has meant that many of the Chinese customs inherited from the first settlers are observed in private within the family home. This condition coupled with emerging research and exposure on the topic offers a chance to define Chinese spaces and author Chinese stories from within a local community. This research project interrogates the transformation of Cantonese settlers into Chinese New Zealanders through illustration design. By claiming the book as a space, unsung moments of settlement are made visible to challenge stereotypes and forge a new space for Chinese New Zealand stories. The process of collage is used to illustrate the complexities of constructing identity. Home Made is an alternative cultural history told through visual metaphor. Gold was responsible for first transforming the sojourner into the settler, the bowl is used to mediate tradition between home and enterprise in settlement, while the lantern illuminates and celebrates local Chinese spaces. Brought out from home kitchens and backrooms of family businesses, these artefacts represent a longstanding Chinese presence. Home Made activates these metaphors to structure an argument for the longevity and contemporary significance of Chinese settlement in New Zealand.

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  • Lessons learnt from United Nations Peacekeeping Operations : a peacekeeping model for creating and sustaining peace in war torn countries : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for Masters of Philosophy in Defence and Strategic Studies at Massey University

    Houghton, Vanessa R (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis studies the lessons learnt from United Nations Peacekeeping Operations focusing on four specific case studies, those being Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia-Herzegovina and East Timor. What this study attempts to do is draw together the lessons learnt that are operation or geographically specific, and those that are common across each of the four case studies. This is done with a view to developing a Peacekeeping Model that can be utilised over a wide range of United Nations operations and interventions, regardless of the geographical location of the conflict. In order to explore whether or not a peacekeeping model for creating and sustaining peace in war torn countries can be developed, this thesis draws on the lessons learnt of not only the United Nations, but also the contributing service women and men and coalition partners involved. This thesis is divided into four parts. The Introduction, Chapter 1 and Chapter 2, are written to provide the reader with an overview of the creation of the United Nations, its Charter and mandate, and to introduce some of the key terminology used throughout the thesis. Chapters 3 – 6 focus on the four individual case studies chosen for this research and provide an overview of the history, a breakdown of the United Nations operations, and then flows through the key military considerations identified under each case study. The structure of each of the case studies is focused around the United Nations operational mandate, command and control, intelligence and communications, logistics, pre-deployment training and preparations / deployment / post-deployment. Chapter 7 provides an analytical overview of the lessons learnt that are specific to each of the case studies and discusses in detail the lessons learnt that can be applied across two or more case studies. Chapter 8 discusses the recommended United Nations blueprint or peacekeeping model. It argues that a successful peacekeeping model can be developed and clearly identifies what steps need to be taken for that model to succeed. Chapter 9 provides a conclusion to the study and comments on the way ahead for United Nations peacekeeping operations based on the recommended blueprint or model. Chapter 9 also discusses the future of the United Nations and whether or not the organisation has a viable role to play in the maintenance of international peace and security.

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  • Alfred Henry O'Keeffe in retrospect: paint and personality

    Body, Ralph M (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    This dissertation offers a detailed study of the life and art of the Dunedin artist and teacher Alfred Henry O'Keeffe (1858-1941). It is concerned with establishing an art historical context for his work and exploring its relationship to that of other artists, art institutions and art criticism during his six-decade-long career. It also includes an overview of O'Keeffe's biography and considers his contribution to art education in New Zealand, through his teaching both at the Dunedin School of Art and Design and privately in his studio. Particular attention is given to four areas of subject matter: portraiture and genre subjects, especially those representing the elderly; seascapes; and still lifes, particularly flower paintings. Despite the length of O'Keeffe's career, much of the existing scholarship has tended to emphasise his Victorian paintings at the expense of his later works. Greatest attention is usually given to his association with immigrant artists during the 1890s, such as Petrus van der Velden and Girolamo Nerli, together with his period of study at the Académie Julian in Paris during that same decade. The present dissertation considers the evidence relating to this period and assesses the validity of claims previously made. In doing so, it challenges the widespread assumption that O'Keeffe's work failed to develop in any substantial way beyond the 1890s. Instead, it considers the full breadth of O'Keeffe's lengthy career and reassesses the importance of his late works. It argues that in terms of both quality and quantity O'Keeffe's paintings from the 1920s and 1930s represent his greatest achievement. His relationship to more avant-garde developments in New Zealand art during these decades are also examined, showing that while he was not hostile towards modernism there were certain stylistic features he was reluctant to adopt himself. His own style is best understood as part of a broad trend where the innovations of Impressionism were combined with qualities drawn from the European old masters. However, despite the strong parallels that exist with the works of other artists, O'Keeffe's paintings nonetheless retain distinctive qualities, both in mood and technique. They represent a largely overlooked but by no means insignificant facet of New Zealand art.

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  • Kaupapa Māori [visual communication] design Investigating ‘visual communication design by Māori, for Māori’, through practice, process and theory

    Gardner, Tracey (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    This work examines the field of Māori graphic design, and more specifically, kaupapa Māori visual communication design and process. Initially this research was conceptualised through a health communication project, and was extended to include experiences from practising Māori designers and an examination of print material in order to highlight apparent differences in process and practice when design is undertaken from a kaupapa Māori perspective. The research topic was chosen as a response to kaupapa Māori initiatives and Māori renaissance strategies of the twenty first century. The research is presented from a kaupapa Māori perspective and uses a post-structuralist method of enquiry. A ‘by Māori, for Māori’ or kaupapa Māori cultural framework is considered as differing from the current design academy in New Zealand. In order to examine and identify Māori cultural frameworks within a design process, four practicing designers were interviewed. When analysed these interviews offered valuable insight into personal experiences, values, beliefs, practices and processes, which is not necessarily identified in the current literature reviewed. Throughout the thesis, a recurring underlying theme presented itself concerned with the interaction of two world-views, that is, design and Māori epistemologies. It is the synthesis of both world-views and the space where these two intersect and meet that the thesis is specifically interested in. The investigation of kaupapa Māori design is limited to visual communication design; however, the process and specifications documented in this thesis are presented as dynamic and complimentary to other areas of Māori design and creative fields. The thesis also engages with wider discourses and practices through the analysis of practising designers’ narratives, design examples and literature reviewed. Kaupapa Māori design processes link intrinsically and directly with existing cultural protocols held within te ao Māori. These methods and procedures have been re-articulated within design discourse due to a need for cultural understanding when handling and using Māori cultural referents and knowledge. The increased demand for Māori iconography within industries both locally and globally has also initiated recognition of the need for clearer guidelines necessary to maintain the integrity and intent of the visual forms. The powerful and symbolic nature of Māori objects and artwork has instigated an articulation of tino rangatiratanga in order to construct and specify culturally appropriate methods and uses of Indigenous taonga in design industry.

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  • Listening through deaf ears : parental experiences of the wired world

    Sawicki, Nina (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Sensorineural hearing loss affects 1 to 3 of every 1000 children born. In most cases the child is non-syndromic (meaning that it is not associated with any congenital features) and the child is well. Sensorineural loss in childhood limits the development of spoken language but with amplification (hearing aids) or cochlear implantation and intensive habilitation these children may develop spoken language. This Master's thesis details a qualitative research study which aimed to examine the experiences of parents throughout New Zealand prior to, and in the years following their child's cochlear implant. The Research Question What are the experiences of parents whose child(ren) undergo cochlear implantation in New Zealand? Method The decision to use qualitative research methods was deemed to be the most appropriate given that the aims of the study were based on exploring the experiences of the parents. A constructivist methodology was used to explore the meaning of these parents' experiences. The study was carried out throughout New Zealand in 2007, and fourteen parents (seven parent pairs) participated in the study. Data for the study were sought through open-ended in-depth interviews. The analysis was iterative, therefore subsequent interviews incorporated issues raised by previous participants. The data from the interviews were analysed using a general inductive approach. Results Several prominent themes were found. Parents reported experiences of profound shock after their child's initial diagnosis, a sense of isolation, and ongoing emotional distress which they did not perceive as being appreciated by the many health and service providers involved in the ongoing management of their child(ren). Many parents found the referral process erratic and the hearing aid trial a source of stress and frustration, with little benefit. Despite the stress of the surgery and the considerable habilitation work involved in the post-implantation period, the parents were overwhelmingly positive about the benefits noted after surgery. All parents described their implanted child as a "normal" child. There was low use of sign language and there was limited contact with the Deaf community. Many parents spoke of the need for sign language but reported a range of difficulties accessing tuition. These issues were more apparent for families in remote communities. Conclusions The implications arising from this study suggest that the management of implanted children by health and education providers needs to emanate from a definitive family oriented paradigm. The needs of siblings and other extended family members also need consideration. Cochlear implantation provides a management tool, not a cure, for childhood deafness and implanted children will continue to face significant challenges in the world of hearing persons. The low use of sign language suggests that these children may not be receiving a holistic and pluralistic approach to their language development. As a consequence of limited contact with the Deaf community, minimal use of sign language, low modelling of its value by parents and increasing demands placed on implanted children to function as "hearing", these children may face additional challenges as they mature.

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  • Reading Comprehension Instruction of Effective Grades 5 and 6 Saint Lucian Teachers

    Sargusingh-Terrance, Lisa Merlene (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This study set out primarily to investigate the nature of reading comprehension instruction in Saint Lucia, and to examine the explanations of teachers with regard to the factors that they perceive contribute to Grade 6 students' failure in the main idea comprehension test in the national Common Entrance Examination in Saint Lucia. Four effective Grades 5 and 6 teachers (two per grade) from two Saint Lucian primary schools participated in a total of four individual semi-structured interviews and were observed in their regularly scheduled reading comprehension lessons. A total of 27 lessons were observed and audio tape-recorded to examine the nature of reading comprehension instruction in the classrooms. From this cohort of lessons, a sample of 16 lessons was randomly selected and transcribed to determine the presence of direct instruction in comprehension strategies, and the quality of instruction that took place. This quality was measured and described in terms of the elements of the Direct Instruction Model (Pearson Dole, 1987), the nature of questioning, and time allotted to instruction. This data was also used to make comparisons between Grades 5 and 6 classes. The results show that the four teachers perceived that there are four areas of blame for students' poor performance in reading comprehension: the teacher's inability to instruct, the students' poor decoding and comprehension abilities, the inadequacy of the main idea test, and the teaching materials available for teaching comprehension. However, the main factor perceived by teachers as contributing to the students' poor performance is teachers' inability to instruct. Nonetheless, the observation of the Grades 5 and 6 effective teachers' reading comprehension lessons showed that these teachers were indeed teaching a number of comprehension strategies. They relied predominantly on the question answering strategy in all their lessons which was mainly taught in combination with other strategies. However, it was the teaching of summarization through the main idea that was the dominant strategy more explicitly taught in 7 of the 16 lessons observed, appearing more frequently in the Grade 6 classes. An assessment of the quality of the reading comprehension instruction revealed that 11 of1 6 lessons, included all the four elements of direct instruction, and were rated as 'excellent' in quality. None of the lessons had fewer than two elements identified on the model. An assessment of the types of questions asked also showed that questioning was used both for the purpose of assessment and as an instructional strategy. The timing of the lessons support the quality of instruction, as 90% of the total time observed was allotted to instruction. The greater portion of that time went to guided practice (38%) and independent practice (33%) of reading comprehension strategies. This study shows that explicit comprehension instruction of strategies is evident in the reading comprehension classes of the 4 effective Saint Lucian Grades 5 and 6 teachers. It is therefore recommended that educational officials ensure that similar practices are maintained in other Saint Lucian classes, that the reading comprehension instruction practices of a wider cross section of Saint Lucian teachers be examined, and that future research looks into other probable causes of students' failure on the main idea comprehension test.

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  • The socio-cultural impacts of community based tabu sites on men and women: A case study of Cuvu district, Nadroga, Fiji

    Robinson, Floyd Boy (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This research analyses the impacts of community based Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) or tabu on men and women of Cuvu district in the province of Nadroga, Fiji. The practice of tabu is not an uncommon phenomenon in the South Pacific. Many evaluations have been conducted of such initiatives. However, there appears to be a lack of comparative analysis detailing how gender specific impacts are caused by these resource management regimes. Central to the methodology of this research was the interview of 17 villagers. They were three fishermen, five fisherwomen and nine traditional leaders. By fisher roles, respondents were either classified as artisanal or subsistence fishers. The reactions and responses by respondents and other villagers revealed realities and perceptions that were as diverse as the socially stratified marine resource using communities of Cuvu district. Gender specific impacts were affirmed. Women fished in inshore areas using simple methods and were disadvantaged unlike men who dived and therefore fished along the outer edges of the reef. Geo-spatial impacts were also identified. Artisinal fishers who had wider personalised fishing zones were more receptive to the existing tabu. Different ranks of leadership, furthermore, determined the support, or the lack of it, that chiefs placed on the existing tabu. On the one hand, traditional leaders upheld the high chief's decision and spoke of the benefits for them and their future generations. On the other, few of these leaders offered diplomacy when explaining the challenges faced by their people. Commonalities were not entirely absent. All respondents and villagers in general, regardless of gender and social standing, felt that the involvement of the Turaga Na Kalevu (high chief) brought sanctity and spiritual blessings upon the tabu. The findings of this research reflect the need to better understand and appreciate the heterogeneous make up of communities when introducing resource management regimes such as tabu. To be effective, they must be inclusive of villagers'diversity and their dependence on the marine environment. A TOP model tabu is proposed as it is accommodative of the diverse interests and values that men and women have on the marine environment. It will ensure conservation and simultaneously enable the coastal communities of Cuvu district to meet their daily protein needs as well as preserve their heterogeneity.

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  • Rugby, School Boys and Masculinities: In an American School in Taiwan.

    Vicars, Andrew Grant Fairbairn (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Gender research throughout the last two decades has positioned sport as one of the central sites in the social production of masculinities. In particular, body contact, confrontational sports have been identified as central to the reproduction of a dominant but problematic form of masculinity, typically known as hegemonic masculinity. Whether it is through participation, opposition, resistance, complicity or media consumption, contact sports have been identified as constructing individual understandings of masculinity as well as contributing to the continued marginalization and subordination of other types of masculinities. Researchers working within schools have also linked rugby to similarly negative understandings of masculinities. The majority of these school based studies have been conducted in countries where contact sports are traditionally respected or in schools where rugby is tied to traditional and institutionalized understandings of masculinity. As yet little attention has been paid to boys who play rugby in countries or schools where rugby is not tied to traditional and institutionalized understandings of masculinity. As a New Zealand teacher working in an American school, in Taiwan, I set out to examine the rugby experiences of high school boys and to investigate the influence that rugby has on their understanding of masculinities. My study employed in-depth interviews with seven boys. Cognizant of the fact that the majority of gender based sport research has utilised Connell's theory of hegemonic masculinity, I adopted a 'Foucauldian method' to analyse the data. In doing so it was my intention to contribute to the field of sport and gender studies by utilising an alternative perspective instead of creating repetitive and redundant research which could lead to some problems being explored exhaustively. My main findings revealed a number of dominant discourses surrounding and constituting rugby within the American School of Taiwan. These included discourses of rugby as a masculine sport, as a foreign/western sport, and as a low status sport. Drawing upon these discourses I examined how the participants' gendered subjectivities were influenced by their rugby participation. The results revealed that within the general context of the school, rugby players were generally regarded as low status male athletes. However, within the western cultural group of students, rugby players were regarded as high status male athletes. This study contributes to gender and sport studies by suggesting that contact sports such as rugby need not always contribute to structured and hierarchical understandings of masculinities.

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  • An Ethnographic Exploration of Gender Experiences of a New Zealand Surf Culture

    Corner, Sarah Britt (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis is an ethnographic exploration of gender experiences in a New Zealand surf culture. I employed the methods of participant observation, semi-structured interviews and focus groups to accumulate in-depth and descriptive qualitative data from the men and women who surf in the community of Raglan. I was especially interested in the rules surrounding the act of lining up - a systematic etiquette used to queue for waves. I inquired about surfers' struggles when lining up to deepen my understanding of the cultural behaviour of surfing and to help reveal implicit rules underpinning surf etiquette. As a female surfer, I was especially interested to understand the gender-relations between men and women in the waters in which I participated in. I discovered that subtle rules pertain to different groups of surfers and group emerged based on 'other' surfer characteristics. Although gender surfaced as a characteristic way of sorting surfers into groups, gender did not stand out more critical than others revealed throughout the research process. What was evident throughout the research was that men and women experience more commonalities in their surfing experiences than differences. Therefore, this research shows how the waves become a contested spaces for surfers and how surf culture serves as a site for resistance to gendered identities in contemporary Western society.

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  • Papua New Guinea Primary School Technology Teachers: The Impacts of Support Materials on Their Perceptions and Practices

    Hagunama, Eron (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis explores the perceptions of technology and technology education held by six primary school teachers in Papua New Guinea, and their views of the materials developed to use as a support for teaching technology and the impacts on their perceptions and their teaching practices of technology. Based on the interpretivist paradigm, a case study approach and qualitative data collection methods were used to explore the teachers' views of technology and technology education and how the support materials influenced these perceptions and practices. One to one, semistructured interviews with the teachers, and an analysis of their planning documents were used to collect data. As part of the curriculum reforms, technology education was introduced as a new subject into primary education in PNG in 1994. However, no formal professional development was provided for helping the primary teachers implement technology education. Instead, curriculum materials were developed and distributed to teachers in 2005 as a support for their technology teaching. This thesis supports the idea that teachers need support to help them learn. It is also argues that teachers' beliefs about subject areas, teaching, their students, and curriculum materials influence how they interact with these support materials. The findings show that the support materials were very useful in enhancing the teachers' knowledge of technology and effective teaching of technology. There were changes to teachers' perceptions of technology and technological practices when they began to use the support materials. Changes included the views of technology as more than modern artefacts to include traditional technology, that technology was more than just practical. It also has a knowledge base. However, not all aspects of technology as advocated in the support materials have been taken up by these teachers. Problem-solving and design aspects have received marginal attention. Other factors were at play including subject subcultures, subject backgrounds, past hands-on experiences and ownership of personal technological artefacts. To be even more effective technology teachers, it is advocated that teacher professional development is required for Papua New Guinean primary teachers to implement the technology successfully.

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  • How does Culture Impact on Educational Leadership in Samoa?

    Faaulufalega, Tailetai Pale (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The aim of this research was to explore the relationship between culture and the educational leadership of six secondary school principals in Samoa. Educational leadership is a bounded process and is subject to the cultural traditions and values of the society in which it is exercised. To date, no research has been undertaken on this topic in Samoa. This qualitative study used a semi-structured interview process to gather data from the secondary school principals who had been principals for more than three years in government schools. It also sought to explore how professional development of the principals might be undertaken. The principals in this study were interviewed both face-to-face and by telephone. The findings revealed that culture significantly impacted on their leadership. The matai culture was particularly influential. For example, respect, Christianity, role modelling and the importance of using the Samoan language to communicate within the school context were all influential. The findings also revealed the effective leadership styles applicable to Samoan school context in relation to indigenous cultural leadership. For example, inclusive/consensus/collaborative leadership style that is practiced in Samoan culture is effectively used by principals to lead schools. The organisational culture of the Ministry of Education Sports and Culture in Samoa (MESC) also considerably impacts on educational leadership. For example, the policies from the MESC sometimes contradict with the practice of the principals, such as the principal's practice of corporal punishment is a crime in the MESC and United Nation policies. This research also revealed the gap between the western models of leadership and the Samoan indigenous cultural context and leadership practice by the principals. Therefore, all the principals involved in this study positively engaged with their Samoan cultural values and beliefs to lead schools effectively. However some Samoan indigenous cultural values and beliefs impact negatively on the education system. They need to be considered so as not to inhibit the development of educational leadership of Samoan principals. Today's education has grown rapidly in terms of technology therefore educational leaders must adapt and change their leadership. Principals must be professionally trained so that they would lead effectively. According to Smith (1992, p. 9) To change education is to change society

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  • Command-line Instrument Control and Measurement Tools

    Ho, Cheng-Lin (Daniel) (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The main purpose of this thesis is to automate laboratory instruments with command lines. The created commands allow users to control instruments and record measured values into a file, by using industrial standards, these commands can communicate to the instruments through different interfaces. The users may utilize these commands to execute an experiment remotely and records values automatically. These commands made experiments flexible in location, reduce the time spent for recording experiment values, and reduce any possible human errors. The recorded values can be accepted by well-known analysis software packages such as MATLAB, for further processing as a file. These commands provide the users with convenience and personal safety, when executing laboratory experiments with modern laboratory instruments. The target of this thesis is producing a set of commands that allow users to control, read, and record, the common instruments used on an electronics workbench. These devices include power supplies, digital multimeters, function generators, and oscilloscopes. The produced commands allow users to establish two workbenches with these common laboratory instruments. The created commands were written in C language in combination with the test and measurement industrial standard to ensure the compatibility with instruments from different vendors. This thesis also provides the readers with required background knowledge that is related to the usage and development of these commands. The target readers of this thesis are the graduates of Bachelor of Electrical and Electronics Engineering or higher. With these command sets, researchers do not need to spend a long time controlling instruments and recording results from instrument manually. Apart from setting up the hardware, they can simply enter the command, to get the result they require.

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  • Development of a customised, self powered data logger for monitoring farm fence energizers

    Finn, Elliot Gabriel Jethro (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    For gathering information on the performance of energizer products in the field, Gallagher Group Limited had a well out-dated data-logger which periodically monitored the voltage of the fence and transmitted the data back to base over a GSM network. However the existing data-logger had very limited capability and a new one was needed that could monitor the environment inside and around the energizer, and hopefully provide some information on why an energiser might be failing. The ideal data-logger was self powered, could last years in the field without needing to be serviced, and could collect data on the energizer without affecting it in any way. It would also collect data on as many environmental parameters as possible, such as temperature, humidity, ambient light level, lightening strikes and pressure. Ideally it would also be able to monitor the energizer voltage using a contactless measuring system. The data-logger was designed for Gallagher Animal Management Systems, the part of Gallagher Group Limited that specialises in farming equipment. The design project arose from the need for a data-logger that could monitor both the fence voltage and the environment around the fence, so that a critical explanation of why an energizer failed in the field could be found, leading to better product design in the future. It was jointly funded by Gallagher Group Limited and the Foundation of Research Science and Technology (FoRST).

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  • Quadriceps strength prediction equations in individuals with ligamentous injuries, meniscal injuries and/or osteoarthritis of the knee joint

    Colvin, Matthew (2008-07-15T03:00:31Z)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The objective of this study was to investigate the accuracy of eleven prediction equations and one prediction table when estimating isoinertial knee extension and leg press one repetition maximum (1-RM) performance in subjects with knee injuries and knee osteoarthritis. Study Design: A descriptive quantitative research study was undertaken utilizing a cross-sectional design. Background: Traumatic injuries and osteoarthritis are common musculoskeletal pathologies that can disrupt normal function of the knee joint. A frequent sequela of these pathologies is quadriceps femoris muscle weakness. Such weakness can contribute to disability and diminished levels of functional and recreational activity. Therefore, safe and accurate methods of measuring maximal strength are required to identify and quantify quadriceps strength deficits. One option proposed in the literature is the use of 1-RM prediction equations which estimate 1-RM performance from the number of repetitions completed with sub-maximal loads. These equations have been investigated previously using healthy populations and subjects with calf muscle injuries. However, to date, no known study has investigated their accuracy in individuals with joint pathologies. Method: Machine-weight seated knee extension and seated leg press exercises were investigated in this study. Twenty subjects with knee injuries and 12 subjects with knee OA completed the testing procedures for the knee extension exercise. Nineteen subjects with knee injuries and 18 subjects with knee OA completed the testing procedures for the leg press exercise. All subjects attended the testing venue on three occasions. At the first visit a familiarization session was carried out. At the second and third visits each subject was randomly assigned to perform either actual or predicted 1-RM testing for both of the exercises. Twelve different prediction methods were used to estimate 1-RM performance from the results. The estimates of 1-RM strength were then compared to actual 1-RM performance to assess the level of conformity between these measures. Statistical procedures including Bland and Altman analyses, intraclass correlation coefficients, typical error and total error of measurement were used in the analyses of the results. In addition, paired t-tests were performed to determine whether actual 1-RM values were significantly different across the control and affected limbs and whether there were any significant differences in predictive accuracy for each equation across the control and affected limbs. Finally, the number of subjects with predicted 1-RM values within 5% or less of their actual 1-RM values was determined for each equation. Results: When the knee injury group performed the knee extension exercise, the Brown, Brzycki, Epley, Lander, Mayhew et al., Poliquin and Wathen prediction methods demonstrated the greatest levels of predictive accuracy. When two atypical subjects were identified and excluded from the analyses, the accuracy of these equations improved further. Following the removal of these two subjects, no significant differences in predictive accuracy were found for any of the equations across the affected and control limbs (p > 0.05). Typical errors and total errors were low for the more accurate prediction methods ranging from 2.4-2.8% and from 2.4-3.5%, respectively. Overall, the Poliquin table appeared to be the most accurate prediction method for this sample (affected limbs: bias 0.3 kg, 95% limits of agreement (LOA) -5.8 to 6.4 kg, typical error as a coefficient of variation (COV) 2.4%, total error of measurement (total error) 2.4%; control limbs: bias -1.3 kg, 95% LOA -9.0 to 6.3 kg, typical error as a COV 2.7%, total error 2.8%). When the knee OA group performed the knee extension exercise, the Brown, Brzycki, Epley, Lander, Mayhew et al., Poliquin and Wathen prediction methods demonstrated the greatest levels of predictive accuracy. No significant differences in predictive accuracy were found for any of the equations across the affected and control limbs (p > 0.05). When an atypical subject was identified and excluded from the analyses, the accuracy of the equations improved further. Typical errors as COVs and total errors for the more accurate prediction methods ranged from 2.5-2.7% and from 2.4-2.9%, respectively. Overall, the Poliquin table appeared to be the most accurate prediction method for this sample (affected limbs: bias 0.9 kg, 95% LOA -4.5 to 6.3 kg, typical error as a COV 2.5%, total error 2.5%; control limbs: bias -0.1 kg, 95% LOA -6.0 to 5.9 kg, typical error as a COV 2.5%, total error 2.4%). When the knee injury group performed the leg press, the Adams, Berger, Lombardi and O’Connor equations demonstrated the greatest levels of predictive accuracy. No significant differences in predictive accuracy were found for any of the equations across the affected and control limbs (p > 0.05). Typical errors as COVs and total errors for the more accurate equations ranged from 2.8-3.2% and from 2.9-3.3%, respectively. Overall, the Berger (affected limbs: bias -0.4 kg, 95% LOA -7.2 to 6.3 kg, typical error as a COV 3.2%, total error 3.2%; control limbs: bias 0.1 kg, 95% LOA -6.6 to 6.7 kg, typical error as a COV 3.1%, total error 3.0%) and O’Connor equations (affected limbs: bias -0.6 kg, 95% LOA-6.8 to 5.7 kg, typical error as a COV 2.9%, total error 3.0%; control limbs: bias -0.2 kg, 95% LOA -6.9 to 6.4 kg, typical error as a COV 2.9%, total error 2.9%) appeared to be the most accurate prediction methods for this sample. When the knee OA group performed the leg press, the Adams, Berger, KLW, Lombardi and O’Connor equations demonstrated the greatest levels of predictive accuracy. No significant differences in predictive accuracy were found for any of the equations across the affected and control limbs (p > 0.05). The typical errors as COVs and the total error values for the more accurate prediction methods were the highest observed in this study, ranging from 5.8-6.0% and from 5.7-6.2%, respectively. Overall, the Adams, Berger, KLW and O’Connor equations appeared to be the most accurate prediction methods for this sample. However, it is possible that the predicted leg press 1-RM values produced by the knee OA group might not have matched actual 1-RM values closely enough to be clinically acceptable for some purposes. Conclusion: The findings of the current study suggested that the Poliquin table produced the most accurate estimates of knee extension 1-RM performance for both the knee injury and knee OA groups. In contrast, the Berger and O’Connor equations produced the most accurate estimates of leg press 1-RM performance for the knee injury group, while the Adams, Berger, KLW and O’Connor equations produced the most accurate results for the knee OA group. However, the higher error values observed for the knee OA group suggested that predicted leg press 1-RM performance might not be accurate enough for some clinical purposes. Finally, it can be concluded that no single prediction equation was able to accurately estimate both knee extension and leg press 1-RM performance in subjects with knee injuries and knee OA.

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  • Observing mothers lifting their children in their own home to identify factors which might give rise to musculoskeletal disorders

    McKay, Renee (2008-09-14T23:14:37Z)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The lifting associated with childcare has been linked to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in mothers (Griffin & Price, 2000; Sanders & Morse, 2005). The purpose of the current study was to investigate, for the first time through observation, the lifting of young children by mothers in the home environment to identify risk factors which might give rise to MSDs. Twenty five mothers with one or two children weighing between 9 and 15kg (n = 30) completed a self-report survey modified for the New Zealand context (The Ergonomics of Caring for Children (Sanders & Morse, 2005)). They also took part in a structured observation of lifting in the home using a checklist based on the New Zealand Manual Handling Hazard Control Record NZMHHCR (OSH & ACC, 2001). Modifications were derived from careful consultation of current literature to enable contributory factors related to the load, the mother, the environment and the task to be assessed and a rating of low, medium, or high risk to be assigned to each factor. A protocol to guide risk assessment was developed to accompany the tool. The modified observational checklist was named the OMLITH (Observing Mothers Lifting In The Home). Survey data identified the mothers as aged between 28 and 40 years, predominantly NZ European, and of average height (χ = 1.69cm) and weight (Body Mass Index = 24). The children in the sample weighed between 9 and 14.5kg and had an average age of 17months. All the mothers were either married (n=20) or living with a significant other (n=5) and their partners frequently (n=13) or always (n=12) helped with childcare. The mean time mothers spent per week on the following activities were: sleep, 6.8hrs (n=25), housework, 14.9hrs (n=25), exercise, 2.9hrs (n=22), watching television or using the home computer, 4.3hrs (n=22), hobbies, 2.2hrs (n=19), gardening or home maintenance, 2.9hrs (n=18). Thirteen of the mothers worked (3 full-time, 10 part-time) and 20 mothers used childcare services. Ratings of the physical stress associated with 50 childcare tasks showed that mothers differentiated between tasks in terms of physical stress to a significant degree (p.000), typically rating ‘Bending while carrying a child’ as almost twice as stressful as the average rating. Other categories rated significantly above the average stress rating were: ‘Use of a backpack to carry infant/child’, ‘Use of baby jogger’, ‘Carrying child on your shoulders’, ‘Standing bent over to wash child in bath or sink’, ‘Lifting child into or out of cot’, ‘Prolonged squatting or stooping while playing with child’, and ‘Placing child in car seat or removing child from car seat’. Mothers reported experiencing MSDs most commonly in the low back (n=16), and the neck, shoulder and upper back (n=8 each). Data from the 87 observations using the OMLITH showed that children were a challenging load due to their moving centre of gravity, and were often unpredictable or awkward to handle. The grip required to lift a child more often than not fell outside the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommendation. In 72.9% of tasks the child’s weight created a high risk level. The lifting tasks involved horizontal and vertical lift distances that presented a moderate to high risk level in 82.8% of situations. Lifting while twisting and side-bending was assigned a moderate to high risk level in 72.4% of tasks. Risk associated with working at an externally controlled pace; and handling children while seated or kneeling/crouching was also observed. The home environment presented risk associated with obstacles, a variety of floor surfaces and stairs or slopes. Mothers were also observed lifting in confined spaces. Individual factors identified as important considerations were: a mismatch between mothers’ strength and fitness and the lifting requirements, pain or injury, pregnancy, and fatigue. The structured checklist proved to be an appropriate tool to identify the contributory risk factors present when mothers lift in the home and to make an assessment of the level of risk. Results suggest a notable number of risk factors which might give rise to MSDs are present when mothers lift their children at home. The author concludes that further research is warranted to quantify risks, to identify prevention strategies for MSDs in this population, and to guide health providers with regard to treatment and rehabilitation of mothers with MSDs.

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  • Development of a gluten-free commercial bread

    Rakkar, Pardeep Singh (2008-11-21T04:17:06Z)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Because of coeliac disease, some individuals cannot tolerate the protein gliadin present in the gluten fraction of wheat flour. From a commercial perspective, there is a need for the development of gluten-free bread with texture and flavour properties similar to the conventional wheat flour loaf. In the context of bread, the gluten component of wheat has a crucial role in stabilising the gas-cell structure and maintaining the rheological properties of the bread. The absence of gluten results in liquid batter rather than pre-baking dough, yielding baked bread with a crumbling texture, poor colour and other post-baking quality defects. The liquid batter cannot be processed on the existing production line of baking industry. The aim is to develop a gluten-free white loaf with similar quality characteristics to that of standard white bread on the existing processing lines at Quality Bakers New Zealand. Within this constraint, dough has to be produced with handling and moulding properties similar to those of conventional wheat flour loaves. This research focused on finding and implementing the gluten substitutes for the development of gluten-free high quality commercial bread. In this research, the independent variables were conventional wheat flour (the most basic control), other gluten-free flours from a variety of sources, starches, supplementary proteins, hydrocolloids such as hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), hydrophilic psyllium husk, and enzymes such as microbial transglutaminase, glucose oxidase, lipase and fungal α-amylase. These ingredients were trialled in different combination and composition to produce a dough having ability to trap the carbon dioxide gas during proofing and baking to get high specific volume bread suitable for the Quality Bakers’ product range. After an essentially ‘shotgun’ approach to formulations, the research narrowed to a systematic and progressive variation of ingredients and their composition to develop workable commercial models. Ingredients and their compositions were manipulated according to the outcomes of the trials and their contribution in the formulations. The dependent variables included standard bakery rheological properties based on dough stickiness, dough extensibility, oven spring, bread specific volume, bread slice ability, and bread staling. A gelation system of the lower-temperature-stable hydrocolloid psyllium husk, the heat-stable hydrocolloid hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, maize starch, and potato starch was created to form industrial process able dough having ability to entrap carbon dioxide gas produced during proofing and initial phase of baking. Microbial transglutaminase was used to increase the cross linking of protein present in flours and supplemented for enhancing the dough-like structure and its gas entrapping abilities. A formulation has been discovered by this research for the development of high quality gluten-free commercial bread. The formulated bread has similar quality characteristics to that of standard white bread and can be produced on existing processing lines at Quality Bakers. Industrial process able gluten-free bread with similar quality characteristics to that of standard white bread can be formulated by using a specific combination of soy flour, maize starch, potato starch, yoghurt powder, milk protein, HPMC (K4M), psyllium husk, microbial transglutaminase, lipase, and fungal α-amylase. The significance of this research is mainly commercial and the insights gained may extend to other bakery items that could be used by coeliacs.

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