1,464 results for Masters, 2013

  • Evaluation of utilisation of the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV Programme in Central province, Kenya

    Ngugi, Catherine Njeri (2013)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: The PMTCT HIV programme has been one of the most successful HIV preventive interventions towards HIV-free future generations. However, even though the programme is virtually effective in developed countries, many developing countries are reporting child HIV infections due to the MTCT. The programme has existed in Kenya for more than a decade, yet in 2011, 12,894children were HIV infected due to MTCT Objective: To evaluate the PMTCT programme, especially the HIV testing from the antenatal period to the postnatal period among expectant parents attending Nyeri Provincial General Hospital in Central Province, Kenya. Design: Retrospective analysis of the hospital registers. Methods: Three hospital registers were analysed for the period from July 2009 to September 2012. The registers were for antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal care respectively. Each register documented the utilisation of PMTCT services by the expectant parents. Descriptive and inferential statistics were produced to analyse data from the registers. Results: The PMTCT services utilisation was sub-optimal. Of the 504 expectant mothers who attended the antenatal clinic, 59.9% came once, 80.4% had their first visit in the third trimester (between weeks 28 and 40) and only 6.9% were accompanied by their partners. All the women were HIV tested in their first visit but only 12.1% were rescreened after three months, and only 3.8% had been tested prior to the current pregnancy (p=0.000). No expectant mother was tested for HIV intrapartum or postpartum. The children of the 504 mothers who were HIV tested were those whose parent/s were known to be HIV positive or who had presented to a child welfare clinic with recurring symptoms suggestive of a failing immune system. Conclusion: Public health programs need to strengthen the PMTCT and HIV prevention programmes to ensure that HIV testing preconception and in pregnancy is fully implemented and strengthened, alongside continued education of the public through community programmes and the media. To avert further horizontal and vertical transmission of HIV, there is a need to address urgently the identified missed opportunities in the PMTCT program. These programmatic challenges require health system redesign and strengthening, resource allocation, addressing research gaps and reassessing the current PMTCT policies.

    View record details
  • Ranking Sound Insulation Regulations: Giving New Zealand an International Context

    Merwood, Yasmin (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Sufficient sound insulation is required between tenancies to provide protection from noise intrusion which otherwise can be a major source of suffering for building occupants. Sound insulation of residential buildings has a key role in providing building occupant satisfaction and health. In New Zealand (NZ), sound insulation regulations dictate the minimum airborne and impact sound insulation performance between abutting tenancies. These requirements are currently specified in Clause G6 of the NZ Building Code (published in 1992, amended 1995). In 2010, it was proposed that that the performance requirements be changed. These changes included increased sound insulation, different measurement methods, different sound insulation descriptors (unit) and including a wider scope of building elements, e.g. including services, between common spaces, doorways etc. Part of the justification for these changes was that they would enable NZ to catch up with ‘international practice’ (2010). However, there is limited information regarding the performance required by sound insulation regulations internationally, other than a small number of studies-based on European regulations. This research investigates how ‘international practice’ might be established. The research develops a methodology, which enables a comparison of the performance requirements of residential airborne sound insulation regulations. As a proof of concept, this research then pilot tests the methodology, focussing on testing how regulations from around the world would compare if applied in NZ. Six regulations were selected for the pilot test; The Building Code of Australian; the National Building Code of Canada; the New York City Building Code; the Republic of Ireland Technical Document E and the two versions of the NZ Building Code (1992, amended 1995 and the 2010 proposed changes). The sampled regulations encompass four descriptors and the use of two different organisational bodies from countries across three continents. The regulations were assessed for their airborne sound insulation performance requirements between abutting tenancies. These requirements were then compared to determine which required a greater or lesser sound insulation performance. Due to the range of descriptors and performance levels of the various regulations the comparison was not a straightforward mathematical one. Instead, computer simulation was used to convert the various performance requirements into the all the descriptors used by the regulations. This was done using construction-based tests. The comparison was based on the regulations being applied in New Zealand. This was carried out using ten different NZ-based construction-types; e.g. double timber stud and concrete pre-cast panel systems. The comparative regulation performance requirements for each of these constructions were ranked from highest to lowest (with 1st Rank being the highest performance required and the ranking number increasing as the performance requirement decreases). The transmission loss result from each of tests was then used to quantify the difference between the ranks found. It was found the Australian Building Code required the highest airborne sound insulation of any of the regulations for abutting tenancies (1st rank). This was more than double Ireland’s required performance. This was followed by the proposed changes to the NZ Building Code (2nd), then the current version of the NZ Building Code (3rd); the National Canadian Building Code and the New York codes were ranked 4th equal and finally Ireland ranked last (6th). The research found NZ (Proposed) requirements were not consistently higher than that already specified in NZ (Current). In some cases e.g. double timber stud construction, NZ (Current) actually requires a higher airborne sound insulation performance. The evidence in this research suggests that the performance requirements of NZ (Proposed) would need to be increased to improve on NZ (Current) across all constructions-types. However, it was the found the findings of the pilot test may be confined only to the elements tested. A full expansion of testing into the comparisons of field units may yield further interesting results and contrast the results found through the design units (laboratory-based descriptors).

    View record details
  • Active participation of marginalized people in community development and the role of World Vision Myanmar : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in International Development at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Chit, Zeyar (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The aim of this thesis is to explore the participation of the marginalized people in community development, and specifically how World Vision Myanmar facilitates that participation. The Area Development Programme implemented by World Vision in Thabaung Township was selected as a case study. Employing theoretical continuums of participation in conjunction with qualitative research methods, the nature and level of participation of marginalized people and the factors influencing their participation, as well as the role of World Vision Myanmar in promoting their active participation, were investigated. Before the 1990s, the dominant modes of top-down and externally-induced development failed to provide the hoped-for results in reducing poverty. As a result, a more people-oriented approach to development was encouraged and the participation of the previously ignored beneficiaries of development initiatives is now seen as vital in achieving and sustaining development outcomes. However, community participation in development initiatives does not mean that all segments of a community have an equal role in development programmes and share benefits equally. This study found that nearly all community members participate in community development projects initiated by World Vision Myanmar but that the form of their participation varies. Three socioeconomic categories (the rich, the middle-class and the poor) were present in each research village, and the results showed that the poor were marginalized from active participation in important aspects of community development, especially in leadership and decision-making. The poor were characterized by a cluster of disadvantages. This study noted that the decision-making power remained mostly in the hands of the powerful people in the community. However, leadership styles differed between research villages, demonstrating that the poor can contribute to decision-making processes when the leadership style in the communities is inclusive of the marginalized. In contrast, when the leadership style is authoritative and individualized, the poor remain marginalized from development processes. World Vision Myanmar has policy documents and guidelines that encourage the participation of every segment of the community, especially the poor. However, there is still room for the organization to make these guidelines more accessible for Community Based Organizations (CBOs) so that they can apply them more effectively in their communities,

    View record details
  • The implementation of trauma informed care in acute mental health inpatient units : a comparative study : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Public Health at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Ashmore, Toni Rae (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Trauma informed care (TIC); particularly related to interpersonal violence, is a burgeoning topic for mental health services in both New Zealand and Australia. This thesis compares the implementation of trauma informed care, particularly in relation to interpersonal violence, in an acute mental health inpatient unit in New Zealand and a similar unit in New South Wales, Australia. A policy analysis was undertaken of current policy documents that guide each unit, along with semistructured interviews with ten senior staff, five from each unit to investigate implementation of key features of trauma informed care, particularly in relation to interpersonal violence. Results showed a difference in overall implementation between the two units. Single interventions rather than a whole of service change of philosophy were evident. Differences were identified in relation to policies referring to interpersonal violence, staff knowledge and understanding of trauma informed care, access to training and resources, how safety was provided for, collaborative care arrangements and workplace power dynamics for both clients and staff. Across both units were identified a lack of guidance to inform implementation of TIC, consumer involvement and practice around diversity. Contributing factors for TIC implementation include having a clear definition of TIC, commitment at all governance levels, access to TIC training for all staff, and policies underpinned by TIC. Further research investigating these results may enhance service delivery, resulting in better outcomes for the promotion of recovery and healing of those with histories of interpersonal violence.

    View record details
  • Archdeacon Anaru Takurua : ko tōna whakapapa, whakapono me tōna whakapono me tōna whakatika : "I am what I am" : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Māori Studies at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Keelan, Ngaio Petra (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Archdeacon of Waiapu Anaru Takurua from Te Whanau-a-Ruataupare in Tokomaru Bay was an accomplished kapa haka exponent in his time, with over 60 years of kapa haka experience. He was also a Mihingare priest for Te Pihopatanga o Aotearoa for over 40 years, and a tutor of Te Hokowhitu-a-Tu kapa haka. However, up till now there had been no full-length biography written about him, due to the dearth of published literature. This research explores the history and background of Anaru focussing on the themes whakapapa, whakapono and whakatika. This thesis is organised in a chronological structure centred on the thematic selection based on the rationale that they frequently feature prominently in Anaru’s life story. This study utilised a Maori-centred research approach in conjunction with a biographical narrative method in analysing the data collected. Anaru’s own personal transcripts that transpired last year from an interview conducted shortly before his passing ten years ago, also complements this research. Supplementing these transcripts are the narratives of kaumatua rangatira participants, who knew him personally, grew up with him or worked with him throughout his life. This study found that Anaru worshiped God in his own true authentic voice, and affirmed his identity as a man of God in Aotearoa –New Zealand. He implemented the guitar, haka, poi and waiata-a-ringa into his karakia services as cultural tools of worship to express the highest activity of the spirit and love of God. Anaru understood the value of whakapapa and as a result committed himself to using his innate gifts, talents and leadership qualities in the church, on marae and in the community. He remained committed to his love for God, his family, marae and church. As a result he devoted years to maintaining and retaining the knowledge endowed to him and transmitted this korero tuku iho, and taonga tuku iho onto the next generation. Even when at times it was met with resistance from both maori and non-maori, believers and non-believers.

    View record details
  • 'With the utmost precision and team play' : the 3rd New Zealand Division and Operation 'Squarepeg' : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts i(Defence & Strategic Studies)

    Mawdsley, Shaun (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis examines the influences and course of the 3rd New Zealand (NZ) Division’s preparations for Operation ‘Squarepeg’ in the Green Islands, in February 1944. It argues that as the largest New Zealand amphibious operation of the Second World War, ‘Squarepeg’ holds a key place in identifying the development of amphibious and jungle warfare doctrine within the New Zealand Army during the war. As such, it can indicate the abilities of the 3rd NZ Division to conduct combat operations in the South Pacific in 1944. The thesis shows that the New Zealand Army was unprepared for operations in the South Pacific, as it had neglected relevant inter-war developments. The hasty formation of the 3rd NZ Division in 1942, as a response to Japanese expansion in the South Pacific, served to highlight the challenges that the division and its commander, Major-General Harold Barrowclough, had to overcome. The studying of foreign doctrine to supplement the dearth of New Zealand material was vital for the 3rd NZ Division’s preparations for deployment. The thesis finds that matters were compounded by the influence of British military organisational standards despite the division operating in an American-run theatre of war. It provides details of the manner in which members of the division approached these issues while coordinating operations with the United States Navy. The importance of thorough training, a combined planning process, and stable relationships between commanders of all forces are identified as decisive factors to the outcome of operations in joint-combined theatres. The thesis concludes that the 3rd NZ Division’s preparations for Operation ‘Squarepeg’ were part of an incremental process of operational learning. This process, which was mostly successful, was unable to be properly tested on account of the division’s reliance on foreign assistance, lack of resources, and a lack of domestic support. These findings may prove an important source of information for a region which will become of increasing military importance.

    View record details
  • Skylux : using light to improve health and wellbeing : [an exegesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Design at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand]

    Gabel, Lisa (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    My project aims to explore the conflicting demands between the increasingly indoor- based urban lifestyle and our innate biological connection to nature, with a focus on using light to support physical and mental wellbeing. By intertwining the fields of industrial design, health, and science, the project aims to enhance workplace lighting beyond the scope of visual performance to support our internal biological rhythms. The project seeks to address our biological need for brighter, dynamically changing light by utilizing a variety of qualitative and quantitative research methods, including a collaborative design group and an ongoing connection with circadian scientists 1. Alongside providing light that supports our biological needs, the final design aims to reconnect indoor workers with the subtle qualities and cycles of nature, whilst raising awareness around the impact of light on our health and wellbeing through experiential discovery. By applying scientific knowledge through design, my project aims to improve public health and life quality, whilst also promoting a greater social shift towards enhancing our lifestyles with better awareness around the vital role of natural light for our health and wellbeing. The following project is a s mall step towards addressing a much larger issue that I believe is at the forefront of future lighting design. My project aims to explore the conflicting demands between the increasingly indoor- based urban lifestyle and our innate biological connection to nature, with a focus on using light to support physical and mental wellbeing. By intertwining the fields of industrial design, health, and science, the project aims to enhance workplace lighting beyond the scope of visual performance to support our internal biological rhythms. The project seeks to address our biological need for brighter, dynamically changing light by utilizing a variety of qualitative and quantitative research methods, including a collaborative design group and an ongoing connection with circadian scientists 1. Alongside providing light that supports our biological needs, the final design aims to reconnect indoor workers with the subtle qualities and cycles of nature, whilst raising awareness around the impact of light on our health and wellbeing through experiential discovery. By applying scientific knowledge through design, my project aims to improve public health and life quality, whilst also promoting a greater social shift towards enhancing our lifestyles with better awareness around the vital role of natural light for our health and wellbeing. The following project is a s mall step towards addressing a much larger issue that I believe is at the forefront of future lighting design. My project aims to explore the conflicting demands between the increasingly indoor- based urban lifestyle and our innate biological connection to nature, with a focus on using light to support physical and mental wellbeing. By intertwining the fields of industrial design, health, and science, the project aims to enhance workplace lighting beyond the scope of visual performance to support our internal biological rhythms. The project seeks to address our biological need for brighter, dynamically changing light by utilizing a variety of qualitative and quantitative research methods, including a collaborative design group and an ongoing connection with circadian scientists 1. Alongside providing light that supports our biological needs, the final design aims to reconnect indoor workers with the subtle qualities and cycles of nature, whilst raising awareness around the impact of light on our health and wellbeing through experiential discovery. By applying scientific knowledge through design, my project aims to improve public health and life quality, whilst also promoting a greater social shift towards enhancing our lifestyles with better awareness around the vital role of natural light for our health and wellbeing. The following project is a s mall step towards addressing a much larger issue that I believe is at the forefront of future lighting design.

    View record details
  • Genetic analysis of the succinate utilization genes in Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 : a thesis presented in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy (Science) in Microbiological Genetics at Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand

    Liang, Yuting (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Succinate, an intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, is one of the most preferred nutritional substrates for bacteria, particularly those capable of colonizing eukaryotic hosts such as plants, animals (including humans). The genetic mechanisms of succinate utilization have been well studied in E. coli and other model microorganisms such as rhizobia, a group of gram-negative bacteria that form nitrogen-fixing nodules on leguminous plants. Uptake of succinate is mediated by the DctA transporter, whose expression is regulated by the twocomponent signal transduction system DctB / DctD in a succinate dependent manner. In the presence of succinate, the DctB sensor kinase binds to succinate, causing phosphorylation of the response regulator DctD that in turn activate transcription of dctA with the help of the alternative sigma factor s54. Our work on the genetics of succinate utilization has focused on Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25. P. fluorescens SBW25 is a plant growth-promoting bacterium that was originally isolated from the phyllosphere of sugar beet plants. When colonizing on the surfaces of sugar beet, P. fluorescens SBW25 activates the expression of a suite of genes involved in nutrient acquisition, including pflu4717 with a predicted role in succinate uptake. The deduced amino acid sequence of pflu4717 shows 70% sequence identity with dctA from E. coli, and 63% with dctA of Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021. To confirm the predicted role of pflu4717 in succinate uptake, a pflu4717 deletion mutant was constructed and the resultant mutant strain was unable to grow on succinate as the sole source of carbon and energy (Suc-). The inability of the pflu4717 mutant to grow on succinate can be restored by the introduction of a cloned copy of pflu4717. Furthermore, expression of pflu4717 was induced by the presence of succinate as measured by using an integrated lacZ reporter gene. Together, the data consistently indicate that pflu4717 encodes DctA for succinate uptake, and it is thus named dctA. Next, we sought to identify the transcriptional regulators of dctA in P. fluorescens SBW25. In silico analysis was performed using the DctBD sequences of Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021. The analysis identified three pairs of two-component regulatory systems: Pflu0287/Pflu0286, Pflu4953/Pflu4954 and Pflu1135/Pflu1134. However, deletion analysis for each of the three response regulators (Pflu0286, Pflu4954 and Pflu1134) showed that only the deletion mutant of pflu0286 lost the ability to grow on succinate; and moreover, expression of dctA was not responsive to succinate in the growth medium. The data thus showed that pflu0287 / pflu0286 encode the DctB / DctD required for the succinate-induced expression of dctA in P. fluorescens SBW25. Whilst the dctA deletion mutant (SBW25?dctA) cannot grow on minimal medium supplemented with succinate as the sole carbon source, interestingly, a spontaneous Suc+ mutant arose at high frequency (~ 10-4). To identify the suppressor mutations, two such spontaneous Suc+ mutants were subject to genome re-sequencing, which led to the identification of two separate mutations in a putative sensor kinase Pflu4953. Pflu4953 forms a two-component regulatory system with Pflu4954, but as has been shown above is not involved in the utilization of succinate. Next, a logic series of experiments were performed using a combination of sitedirected mutagenesis analysis and ß-galactosidase assays. The results led to the conclusion that: (1) Pflu4953 and Pflu4954 (designated DctX and DctY, respectively here) regulate the expression of a putative transporter Pflu4955 (designated DctT); (2) DctT is responsible for the uptake of alpha-ketoglutarate (another intermediate of the TCA cycle), but it is also capable of transporting succinate; (3) however, the DctXY-mediated expression of dctT is induced by alphaketoglutarate, and not by succinate; (4) mutation of DctX caused constitutive expression of DctT, which enables the ?dctA mutant to grow on succinate (Suc+). Taken together, the data show that P. fluorescens SBW25 possesses two transporter systems for the uptake of succinate (i.e., DctA and DctT), which are regulated by the DctBD and DctXY two-component systems, respectively. However, the primary role of DctT is for the uptake of alpha-ketoglutarate and not succinate, as expression of DctT is only induced by alphaketoglutarate. This finding indicates that substrate specificity of an uptake system is determined by not only the transporter protein but also its regulator(s). Given that succinate is significant nutrient available on the plant surfaces, the encoded multiple systems for succinate uptake likely contribute to the success of P. fluorescens SBW25 in the plant environment.

    View record details
  • Surface modifications to increase dairy production run length : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Chemical Engineering at Massey University, [Manawatū], New Zealand.

    Runwal, Siddharth (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Fouling is the build-up of undesired deposits on surfaces. In the dairy industry, fouling is mainly seen in heat exchangers where dairy fluid is heated or concentrated. It is one of the primary reasons for restricted run length, causing financial losses from downtime, the use of cleaning chemicals and reduced product quality. Fouling is a complex process and is due to number of factors including the properties of the heat transfer surface. A silica based coating is known to alter the surface properties. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of a silica based coating on fouling by whole milk in a falling film evaporator. Seven independent trials were conducted. In each trial, a control run was carried out followed by a full cleaning of the equipment and then either another control run or a coating run with pasteurized milk from the same batch. There was a six hour interval between the start of the control run and start of the coating run. Since prolonged milk storage may have some effect on fouling rate, control-control runs were carried out to see the effect of prolonged storage. The results obtained from control-control runs were used in analysing the effect of the coating on fouling rate. All coating trials showed consistently lower fouling rate as compared with corresponding control trials. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient of 0.83 showed a strong effect of coating on the fouling rate. Further, a regression analysis gave a p-value of 0.033, indicating that, at the 96.7% level of confidence, coating reduced the fouling rate. The extent of reduction in fouling rate varied from trial to trial. It was estimated that the coating had the potential to increase the run length by a maximum of 34% under the conditions these experiments were carried out.

    View record details
  • New Zealand nurse migration to the United States : what makes them go? What will bring them back? : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts, Nursing, Massey University, Turitea campus, New Zealand

    Whittaker, Lynette (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Within the next ten years there will be a considerable global nurse shortage and as many countries consider a variety of ways to both recruit and retain their nursing workforce, nurse migration is coming under increased scrutiny as both contributing to and solving the problem. New Zealand is a significant importer of nurses yet also loses a substantial number of its nurses to overseas positions. Within nurse migration research there are few qualitative studies that look at the reasons behind the decision to migrate and the experience of nurse migrants travelling from one developed country to another. This qualitative study utilizing an interpretive descriptive research design was employed to study the reasons why nurses leave New Zealand to work abroad, specifically to California, U.S.A. and sought also to explore what kept the nurses in the United States. Six face to face interviews were conducted. From the data, thematic analysis was employed to identify a variety of themes related to the decision to migrate, the early ‘settling in’ period, and reasons that may influence the nurses decision to remain in California. Factors identified that contributed to the nurses leaving New Zealand were the opportunity to travel while working, accessible recruitment agencies and hospitals, and past travel experiences. Adjustment difficulties in the United States were mitigated by the presence of other expatriates in close proximity, financial support from hospitals, and continual travel opportunities. Firmly ensconced in California the majority of the nurses had no immediate plans to return to New Zealand citing work and educational opportunities within the US and a favourable Californian lifestyle as primary reasons for staying. In addition the ability to retain a strong connection to their families in New Zealand through technology and frequent trips home contributed to their length of stay in the United States. Supporting family left at home was considered to be a possible reason for returning to New Zealand on a more permanent basis while a type of circular migration where the ‘best of both worlds’ could be enjoyed would also be considered by the nurses. This small study highlights the need for further research on nurses leaving and returning to New Zealand. Only by gaining a better understanding of the migrating nurse’s motivation for travel and impetus for return can health policy makers develop strategies for recruiting and retaining experienced New Zealand nurses.

    View record details
  • Nutrient management plans and their influence on the farm management practices of dairy farmers : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Environmental Management, Massey University, Palmerston North

    Neal, Gavin (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Nutrient Management Plans (NMPs) are a relatively recent innovation in the New Zealand dairy industry, however due to their growing use in regional council policy, and initiatives such as the Dairying and Clean Streams Accord (2003), it is likely that NMPs will become mandatory for the diary industry in the near future. There is currently limited information on the use and benefits of NMPs in the New Zealand context, and how dairy farm management practices have been influenced by the introduction of NMPs. The main objective of this research was to investigate how the introduction of an NMP has influenced the farm management practices of dairy farmers. This was achieved through the use of two case studies within the Waikato and Otago regions. These regions have contrasting approaches to nutrient management; The Waikato Regional Council has incorporated the use of NMPs in regional policy and has supported a number of community initiatives regarding nutrient management. In comparison, at the time of the research, the Otago Regional Council, while stating that they promoted the adoption of nutrient management practices, had no current policy requiring NMPs. Results indicated that the degree of NMP uptake varied amongst farmers, depending on a variety of influences with regards to the farmer’s own unique goals, circumstances and opinions. It was also found that while the reasons for NMP introduction varied amongst the farmers interviewed, the overall influences of NMPs on farm management practices were similar across both cases. The key influences of NMPs on farm management practices were; the increased precision and efficiency of fertiliser application, an increased appreciation and use of effluent as a nutrient source, and the identification and manipulation of other factors such as the effects of bought in feed and stock movement on nutrient flows on the farm. There was a perceived lack of ongoing support and education for farmers regarding NMPs. This contributed to a general distrust amongst farmers of NMPs, in turn affecting their opinions, and uptake of NMPs. Furthermore NMPs were not being used to their full potential by the majority of farmers who participated in this research. The greater the involvement and support offered by the regional council and industry, the greater the trust and cooperation amongst the particular farmers with the relevant regional council and industry representatives. Overall, while this research has found that NMPs do provide benefits to farmer’s management practices, further support and ongoing education is required to ensure NMPs are accepted and used to their full potential by dairy farmers.

    View record details
  • The electrochemistry of alcohols in aqueous phosphate electrolytes under reducing conditions : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Chemistry, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Wise, Nessha M. (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Few methods are available for the routine reduction of alcohols in synthetic chemistry. These few are dominated by reduction with HI/I2, LiAlH4 or Li/NH3 and typically involve severe conditions for other functionalities and there is little research into less severe synthetic or electrochemical methods. There is also limited mechanistic or kinetic information available for these reduction methods. This leaves an interesting area for development within fundamental knowledge. The development of an effective process for the reduction of alcohols could have many applications in pharmaceutical and chemical industries along with many environmental and economical benefits. A preliminary study on a range of electrodes established an electrochemical reduction response observed for a number of water-soluble alcohols on rotating disc copper, tin and lead electrodes in 0.1 M phosphate buffers. A response was observed for ethanol, propanol, propan-2-ol and butanol on copper rotating disc electrodes in the 0.1 M phosphate buffer. Reduction of the alcohols at the copper disc electrodes was observed at pH 8.1 with the production of a limiting current plateau. The reduction was found to be continuous and reproducible. The observed limiting current was found to increase with both increasing concentration and increasing electrode rotation rate. A Koutecky-Levich study suggested the reduction of the alcohol occurred through both mass transport and kinetic processes. A discrete, reproducible response was observed for ethanol, propanol and propan-2-ol on tin rotating disc electrodes in the 0.1 M phosphate buffer electrolyte at pH 7.3. A reductive peak was observed at −1.1 V vs Ag/AgCl in cyclic voltammetry. This formation of a reductive peak suggests that the reduction becomes progressively hindered, proposed to be due to a passivating layer forming on the surface of the electrode. The charge associated with the peak is relatively invariant with alcohol concentration (in the range 7−20 mM) and with scan rate (over the range 10−500 mV s−1). In the case of ethanol, the peak charge is typically found to be in the range 2.9−3.6 C m−2 suggesting that a passivating layer of reaction products forms with an area of 8.8−10.8 Ǻ2 for each adsorbed molecule (assuming a 2-electron process and a surface roughness factor of one). This suggests formation of a monolayer with sparsely located binding sites. The peak charge does not change with increasing electrode rotation rate, not inconsistent with the formation of a passivating layer on the surface of the electrode inhibiting any further reduction. A discrete response was also observed for ethanol, propanol and propan-2-ol on lead rotating disc electrodes in the 0.1 M phosphate buffer electrolyte at pH 8.1. A reduction peak is observed at −0.9 V vs Ag/AgCl in cyclic voltammetry. This suggests that the reduction becomes progressively hindered due to a proposed passivating layer. The passivating layer is not permanent – employing a > 30 second open-circuit rest period or having an anodic limit more positive than −0.6 V will result in the new reduction peak for each subsequent voltammogram. Multiple-cycle voltammograms exhibit only the background response if these conditions are not met. The charge associated with the peak decreases with scan rate (over the range 10−500 mV s−1) but is relatively invariant with alcohol concentration (in the range 7−20 mM). In the case of ethanol, the peak charge is typically found to be in the range 0.5−4.0 C m−2 suggesting that a passivating layer of reaction products forms with an area of 19−58 Ǻ2 for each adsorbed molecule (assuming a 2−electron process and a surface roughness factor of one). This suggests formation of a monolayer with sparsely located binding sites. The peak charge decreases with increasing electrode rotation rate. It is proposed that this is due to a surface chemical reaction following the electrochemical process – it is the product of this chemical reaction that results in a transient passivating monolayer. FT−IR analyses of the lead disc systems suggest possible products to be propandiol and butandiol.

    View record details
  • Iron status of preterm infants after hospital discharge : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters in Science in Nutrition and Dietetics at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Moor, Charlotte Felicity (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Background: Preterm infants are at an increased risk of developing iron deficiency (defined in paeditaric populations as a ferritin value 2.4 mg/L) after discharge due to their shortened gestational length, increased requirements for rapid growth, and excessive blood losses through phlebotomy. Optimising preterm infant iron status after discharge is important as poor iron status has been associated with negative health and neurodevelopmental outcomes later in life. Only preterm infants born before 32 weeks gestation or with a birth weight less than 1800 g currently receive routine iron supplementation after discharge from Auckland City Hospital; however there is paucity of evidence to determine whether this is best practice. Objective: To investigate the iron status of preterm infants in Auckland, New Zealand at four months after discharge from hospital. Methods: Sixty one preterm infants were recruited through Auckland City Hospital. At four months after discharge infant haemoglobin, serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentrations were measured to assess iron status. Weight, length and head circumference were also measured. Information about iron supplementation and mode of feeding was collected using an online questionnaire. Statistical analysis using independent t-tests, Mann-Whitney tests and bivariate correlations were performed. Results: 16.4% of preterm infants had iron deficiency anaemia (defined in paediatric populations as a haemoglobin less than 110 g/L in conjunction with low iron stores) at four months after discharge, with an additional 6.6% of preterm infants classified as having iron deficiency. No infant had iron overload. Iron supplementation was associated with significantly higher haemoglobin (P<0.001) concentrations along with lower sTfR concentrations (P=0.005) at four months after discharge. Iron supplementation was also protective against suboptimal iron status at four months after discharge (P=0.018). Mode of feeding, introduction of solids, intrauterine growth restriction, and maternal iron status had no effect on infant iron status at four months after discharge. There was also no relationship between growth and iron supplementation or iron status at four months after discharge. Conclusion: Preterm infants who did not receive iron supplements after discharge had an increased risk of developing iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia at four months after discharge. Routine iron supplementation for all preterm infants combined with screening for iron deficiency anaemia after discharge appears to be a safe and effective way to reduce the risk of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia at four months after discharge.

    View record details
  • Comparative study on freeze-dried lactic cheese starters and ripening cultures for the production of camembert cheese : a thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Food Technology, Massy [i.e. Massey] University, Albany, New Zealand.

    Qiao, Wei (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Background and Methodology The key to success in producing cheeses is the performance of the starter cultures (Parente and Cogan, 2004). Storage of freeze-dried cheese cultures at refrigeration and ambient temperature or higher provides convenience to culture handling and transportation, as well as reduce cost. This study investigated the effects of 4 storage temperatures: -18°C, 4°C, 20°C and 37°C on the stability of mesophilic lactic cheese starters and ripening cultures intended for Camembert production. In phase one, a 22 randomized complete block design (RCBD) was used to determine the potential of 14 commercial freeze-dried direct-vat-set (DVS) mixed cultures to produce Camembert after 5 months storage at the 4 temperatures. The cultures used were: O-type: Lactococcus (L.) lactis subsp. lactis, L. lactis subsp. cremoris; LD-type: L. lactis subsp. lactis, L. lactis subsp. cremoris, L. lactis subsp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis and Leuconostoc species (Leuconostoc (Leuc.) lactis and Leuc. mesenteroides subsp. cremoris) and a mould, Penicillum (P.) camemberti. During storage, the cultures were analysed for cell viability, acid production, colour and species composition. The characterised cultures were screened to select the most stable cultures with good potential for Camembert production. In phase two, a 23 RCBD design was used to study the potential of the cultures to produce prototype Camembert cheese using I-Make® Limited domestic cheese kits. The prepared cheeses were characterised for acidity, viable cell counts content, texture, volatile aromatic compounds and proteolysis using standard procedures. Results and Discussion Viable cell counts and acidification potential of cultures decreased (P<0.05). Although there were no differences between the Camembert cheeses, 4 and 20°C cultures used in cheese-making may enhance the ripening process (Ardö, 1999) than -18°C cultures, as indicated by relatively higher proteolysis and degree of softening. Lower levels of 3-methylbutanal in samples containing 4 and 20°C cultures was probably due to the reduced aminotransferases activity of LAB (Yvon and Rijene, 2001) after prolonged storage at the two temperatures. The slightly higher levels of 2-heptanone, 2-nonanone and butyric acids in samples with 4 and 20°C cultures were probably due to increased lipolytic activity of enhanced growth of P. camemberti (Molimard and Spinnler, 1996) during cheese ripening. Conclusion LAB starter cultures and P. camemberti can be stored for 5 months at 4 and 20°C without affecting their activities and the quality of prototype Camembert produced. Camembert cheese samples produced in this study had typical characteristics of this type of cheese. Cheese fermented with LD-type starters showed extra flavour enhancement potential and the products had higher degree of softening due pronounced proteolysis. Cultures stored at 37°C for 5 months were characterised by poor viable cells and capability to the produce acid, therefore, they were not suitable for Camembert cheese production.

    View record details
  • The Relationships Between Empathy and Burnout in Nurses

    Kennedy, Barry (2013)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Empathy is essential in nursing, yet it remains difficult to define and measure and many nurses do not display empathy even if they possess it. Studies linking empathy and burnout are few, but the results generally favour the view that empathy is negatively correlated with burnout. Using a fully quantitative and anonymous self-report questionnaire, this research adds to the existing knowledge about empathy and burnout in registered nurses. The research question was: What relationships exist between empathy and burnout in nurses? Validated and reliable measures were used in a survey of nurses working in two hospitals in April and May of 2012. Analyses were conducted using bivariate correlations, group comparisons, analysis of variance and multiple regression. This research was not part of any other study. Empathy levels in the sample were significantly lower than the normative mean; depression, anxiety, and stress levels were within normal ranges; burnout factors were lower than their normative means. Nurses surveyed were still experiencing negative emotional effects and, to a lesser extent, positive emotional effects of the earthquakes and aftershocks of the preceding 18 months. Common life stresses such as financial problems, relationship difficulties and bereavement had more emotional impact than earthquake-related effects. Six per cent of the sample composed a high burnout group and 15% composed a low (or no) burnout group. Empathy was highest in the low burnout group and lowest in the high burnout group. Nurses working in acute nursing areas showed diminished empathy levels and increased burnout. Being a parent was a significant protective factor against burnout. Empathy and burnout were negatively correlated with age and experience. The optimum balance of high empathy and low burnout was apparent in nurses aged in their forties. Nurses’ experience of being a patient did not increase their mean empathy level. The notion of emotional contagion is supported, both in terms of empathy contagion and burnout contagion. Further cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of nurse empathy and burnout are recommended.

    View record details
  • Investigating Perceived Ownership in Rubber and Third Hand Illusions Using Augmented Reflection Technology

    Muller, Lavell (2013)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Neuroplasticity can be explained as a change in the brain's wiring which is due to the changes in behaviour, environment and neural processes, as well as changes following bodily injury. In the Rubber Hand Illusion a participant is shown a rubber hand being stroked while their real hand is hidden and stroked behind a screen. The participant then perceives the rubber hand to belong to their body in place of their real hand. This was an early example of Neuroplasticity demonstrated by Botvinick and Cohen (1998). The Rubber Hand Illusion was investigated in the first experiment of this research, along with a video mediated version of this experiment. The data were examined to investigate perceived ownership toward the rubber hand in both experiments. The results suggest that in both experiments, the RHI and the video mediated Rubber Hand Illusion; there was a sense of perceived ownership toward the rubber hand. The second part of this research investigated a study that suggests it is not necessary for the hand of the participant to be hidden during the Rubber Hand Illusion. The Third Hand Illusion suggest that a participant could be convinced into perceived ownership of a supernumerary limb. The Third Hand Illusion was the second experiment of this research, performed with two conditions using Augmented Reflection Technology, which is a system developed to investigate Neuroplasticity. In the first condition (aTHI) the participants were shown their hands alongside a pre-recorded rubber hand on the screen. The second condition (mTHI) showed the participant their real right hand, a mirror image of their right hand to represent their left hand and a pre-recorded rubber hand. The two conditions investigated whether there was a sense of perceived ownership during the experiment and compared to see in which condition the sensation was stronger. The results suggest perceived ownership in the mTHI condition, with no sense of perceived ownership in the aTHI condition. The study showed that there was still a sense of perceived ownership towards the rubber hand in both experiments performed through the ART system.

    View record details
  • A Matter of Waste: Making experiences and perceptions of household food waste visible

    Stoddart, Alison Margaret (2013)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis examines the topic of household food wastage in New Zealand. The possible ecological economic impacts of food wastage are now increasingly being recognised as part of a turn towards recognising the political importance of consumption practices. Whereas current research in the area attempts, often problematically, to quantify household food waste, the research presented here focuses instead on how food ‘wastage’ is understood and dealt with and, if it is, why food is ‘wasted’. Of particular interest in this research is how the biophysical nature of food and different understandings of edibility interact with how individuals think and act when it comes to food waste, and how attitudes to food waste and patterns of both production and consumption dominant in New Zealand today are interrelated. A specific focus is how the biophysical nature of food, as well as different understandings of edibility, interact with how individuals think and act when it comes to food waste. The research process within this thesis commences with a review of existing literature on historical and cultural developments relating to household waste more generally to identify how food waste fits into this picture. Contemporary socio-cultural changes to individuals’ and households’ wider relationships to both their waste and their food are also examined within this review. Analysis of qualitative data gathered in a series of interviews about attitudes to household food waste was undertaken using the dual lens of a Gramscian conception of hegemony and Actor Network Theory. The former emphasises the interaction between structural constraints and the potential for individual agency; the latter draws attention to the possibilities of nature/culture hybridity and the importance of interactions between human agents and the biophysicality of food. The key finding is that there is an incongruous absence of food waste practices amongst focus group participants in the study setting in New Zealand. Participants identified that, on reflection, they were concerned about food waste, but that there were few cultural practices that they could immediately draw on to help them reduce food waste. A distinct gap emerges between recognition of a problem and actual coherent bodies of social practice to respond to it. Three different, yet interlinked, frameworks, deriving from explanations situated in 1) cultural historical understandings, 2) Actor Network Approaches or 3) political economy of food approaches, are proposed as potentially fruitful in understanding the lack of coherent social practices responding to food waste and are useful in helping frame future research questions about household food waste practices.

    View record details
  • How Is Decision Making By Whānau Altered When The Birth Plan Is Repeat Caesarean Section?

    Boyd, Patricia Ann (2013)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    This research sought to explore whether delivery by repeat caesarean section altered decision making by whānau. Qualitative research in a Kaupapa Māori framework (Māori based framework) was used to explore whānau (family/families) decision making especially regarding delivery by repeat caesarean section or caesarean hysterectomy. This provided knowledge-rich information that was unlikely to result from other medical research methods and methodologies. Ministry of Health (MoH) statistics provided a background for this research and when compared to data for Total New Zealand Women reveal how Māori women feature in NZ maternity data, although the purpose was not comparative. These quantitative data and international research describe indications, risk factors and complications for caesarean section when indicated for Māori women, with a focus on statistics most pertinent to the women in this qualitative research. During this research process limitations in government maternity data collections were identified. This inhibited their resourcefulness when identifying data specific to Māori women, however the risks and indications for caesarean section for Māori women are closely related to findings in international literature on this subject. High risk vaginal deliveries were represented in descriptive tables to explore whether overall lower rates of caesarean section for Māori women but higher rates of emergency caesarean sections could be correlated. By taking part in this research, participating whānau provided knowledge for other whānau about the risks and implications of repeat caesarean section, and for clinicians and health professionals about how this mode of delivery alters whānau decision making. In particular, this research has identified the attributes within whānau that enable their decision making, then it has identified factors that alter decision making by whānau. Findings are also represented in the collective narratives from each whānau, which help us to explore how decision making is altered when delivery is by caesarean section within the Māori Health Framework, Te Whare Tapa Whā. The research findings fulfil Māori Treaty of Waitangi obligation to its partner (the Minister of Health and Ministry workforce) and motivates both partners to participate in improving obstetric services for Māori, reducing barriers to optimal obstetric care for Māori, and enabling obstetrics teams to engage in optimal care for Māori women and their whānau. In particular, this research increases our awareness of decision making by Māori women and their whānau regarding caesarean delivery. As research in this area is limited, this study adds to the current knowledge base.

    View record details
  • Effects of the Stargazin Mutation on the Scaffolding Proteins GRIP and PICK1 in the Stargazer Mutant Mouse

    Trotman, Melanie Rachel (2013)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    AMPARs (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionicacid receptors) are glutamatergic receptors required for the fast component of excitatory neurotransmission. There are numerous AMPAR interacting proteins involved in the regulation of AMPAR function and changes in these AMPAR interacting proteins can result in neurological dysfunction. Glutamate receptor interacting proteins (GRIP1&2) and protein interacting with C kinase 1 (PICK1) are scaffolding proteins involved in GluA2/3-AMPAR anchorage, stability and recycling at synapses. AMPAR phosphorylation leads to their internalisation as a result of decreased GRIP affinity, but not PICK1 affinity for AMPARs. Gain-of-function GRIP1 mutations have been shown to accelerate the rate of AMPAR recycling and influence social behaviour in autism. Transmembrane AMPAR regulatory proteins (TARPs) play a key role in AMPAR trafficking to the synapse. Stargazer mice have a TARP-γ2 (stargazin) mutation leading to impaired AMPAR trafficking to synapses in the cerebellum and thalamus, resulting in ataxia and absence epilepsy respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the stargazin mutation on cerebellar and thalamic GRIP and PICK1 levels in stargazers and control littermates. It was hypothesised that the deficits in AMPAR trafficking in stargazers would lead to a compensatory change in synaptic GRIP and PICK1 levels in these brain regions. This study used a combination of Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and immunogoldcytochemistry electron microscopy to investigate GRIP and PICK1 expression in the cerebellum and thalamus of stargazers and matched controls. The global levels of GRIP1&2, but not PICK1, were significantly increased in stargazer cerebella. Further analysis showed GRIP expression was significantly elevated in the soma of inhibitory Purkinje cells (PCs) and Golgi cells (GoCs). However, synaptic GRIP levels were unchanged at the excitatory synapses on to PCs namely, parallel fibres-PC and climbing fibres-PC synapses, which have impaired GluA2/3-AMPAR trafficking in stargazers. Previous research has shown that GRIP levels are also unchanged at excitatory mossy fibre-granule cell synapses, which are devoid of GluA2/3-AMPARs in stargazers. Thus, the elevated cerebellar GRIP levels in stargazers is not due to compensatory changes in synaptic GRIP at excitatory synapses with impaired AMPAR trafficking, as a result of the stargazin mutation. GRIP and PICK1 expression was also examined in the thalamus for the first time using double immunofluorescence labelling, as AMPAR expression is also altered in the thalamus of stargazers. Western blot analysis showed a trend towards an increase in reticular thalamic nucleus GRIP levels in stargazers, however this did not reach significance. PICK1 levels also showed no significant difference between stargazers and controls in thalamus. Overall, data presented indicates the stargazin mutation is associated with a selective increase in cerebellar GRIP levels. This may reflect compensatory changes in GRIP in inhibitory PC and GoC neurons or at inhibitory synapses. GRIP has been identified at inhibitory synapses and is proposed to facilitate the stabilisation and recycling of GABAA receptors similar to AMPARs. Further research is required to understand the cell-specific changes in stargazer GRIP expression, which may help identify common molecular mechanisms present in comorbid disorders such as ataxia, epilepsy and autism.

    View record details
  • Investigating reuse opportunities of consumer dairy product packaging; a design directed, user-centred investigation.

    Jeffery, Joshua Lee (2013)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    This dissertation examines forms of dairy product packaging that is to be found in most households. This packaging is intended for consumer use and is typically used once. Such packaging is implicitly designed to serve this single use and then to either be consigned to landfill, or recycled. Despite this, as studies in this dissertation note, such packaging is often diverted to a multitude of other uses in the household such as; storing frozen food, lunch boxes, raise seedlings, collect compost, craft activities, holding various things around the garage and the like. In this dissertation, a range of definitions related to sustainability are examined, as well as relevant approaches to its measurement and application. From this, a ‘Human Centred’ design stage utilises a combination of individual observation, education, comparison, and interview studies, adapted from IDEO (2003). Specifically, this includes; ‘Supermarket Pilot Study’ that assessed current packaging types, uses, form, function, aesthetics, and materials; ‘Fonterra Consumer Brands’ that assisted in refining scope and identifying associated brands and related products; ‘User Observations’ that helped understand consumption, storage, and end-life packaging behaviours; ‘User Interviews’ that identify perspectives, behaviours, needs, wants, and preferences; ‘Party Plan for Polymer Based Packaging Solutions’ to understand an existing range of popular products and the experience they provide; and a ‘Competitive Product Survey’ to identify and compare solutions currently available in the market. Following a review of the key insights identified from these studies, a ‘Systems Architecture’ was articulated that set the brief for the subsequent development of alternative packaging concepts and elements that could be incorporated into Fonterra’s Tip Top 2 litre and Fresh ‘n’ Fruity 1 litre product ranges. This product design phase focused on developing innovative lid attachments that enabled the packaging to have multiple reuses in the domestic kitchen for storing wet and dry, and fresh and frozen foods. A study of potential seals tested a range of existing storage solutions against an evaluation criteria that was based on key values important to users. Two seals from the six developed warranted further exploration with a flat inner surface found to be the preferred location for a silicon-based wiper styled seal. A subsequent design stage developed the following six concepts that utilised this seal; Band Adaptor, Flexible Pull Tab, Flex Band, Vacuum Seal, Folding Band, and Squeeze Band. Each concept was evaluated, and following this, a seventh then eighth concept – the Corner Tab and Flex Corner – was produced. The innovative undercut feature discovered during this process identified a means to secure and seal a lid attachment in a single movement. The completion of this Industrial Design stage of research led to eight other supporting features also being developed. These ‘pick ‘n’ mix’ concepts explored a suite of possibilities for the identification and removal of branding, efficient use of space and extended functionality. The ‘Human Centred’ approach adapted in this research was found to support the potential for Design to directly act as a method of research enquiry. A key conclusion was the identification of three of Rittel and Webber’s (1973) ten dimensions of Wicked Problems theory that have significant influence on Industrial Design processes.

    View record details