925 results for Masters, 2016

  • Devils & dust

    Brechin-Smith, David (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    A screenplay.

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  • Integrating the kayak ; transforming a lifestyle : a design-led exploration of transforming kayaks as lifestyle enablers : an exegesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Design at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand EMBARGOED UNTIL 01/05/2018

    Mitchell, Jason (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study uses design-led research to validate the hypothesis that the design of current transforming kayaks does not meet the needs of the modern user. Research identified lifestyle factors affecting the kayaking experience and compared them to current transforming kayak models. Opportunities were revealed for new transforming kayak designs that would help to overcome modern lifestyle barriers to kayaking. Primary lifestyle factors indicated the time available, portability, and the type of accommodation lived in were the most influential factors affecting peoples’ ability to engage in kayaking. Secondary factors highlighted specific focused elements where design could be most beneficial. The transforming kayak, better known by the generic term ‘folding kayak’, is a small watercraft capable of packing down to a portable state for transportation and storage. Used extensively during World War 2 by the military, transforming kayaks became popular in post-war Europe as leisure craft, significantly outnumbering their non-transforming counterparts. Despite the potential transformation has to overcome barriers to kayaking, the current design of transforming kayaks caters to only a fraction of the market it once did. This study adopted the University of Texas ‘M.O.R.P.H. Lab Transformation Framework’ to identify principles and facilitators inherent in product transformation. This framework was imperative in evaluating existing kayaks and successful product systems. The use of heuristics aided in the development of new transforming kayaks. Transformation as a meta-theme in the design of products is positioned within the interrelated fields of modularity, adaptable design, and fields where objects change state, or are reconfigured for a specified purpose. A heuristic, iterative prototyping process led to experimenting with M.O.R.P.H. facilitators themed around folding and sliding systems and resulted in a series of transforming kayak prototypes validated through proof of concept, with further potential for future development outside of this study. Key innovations include integrating all kayak components and developing a central point of deployment. This resulted in systems with faster deployment times and resolved issues of complexity and loss of components within transit. Research builds on the ideas of using transformation in industrial design as a means to allow flexible and adaptable solutions, specifically within the design of transforming kayaks.

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  • The impacts of technological and personal factors on the security awareness of smartphone users : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Information Science In Information Technology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand.

    Jaber, Rawan Abdulrahman (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    With the increasing popularity of mobile devices (e.g. smartphones) and the resulting security risk (e.g. cybercriminals seeking to compromise devices to target user information), enhanced user security awareness is critical in securing the devices and the data. This research investigates that what technological and personal factors affect smartphone users’ security awareness. An online (web-based) survey was conducted between September 2015 and March 2016 to explore the impacts of technological factors (e.g. platforms and applications) and personal factors (e.g. educational and technological backgrounds, gender and age, and ethnicity) on smartphone users’ security awareness. Findings from the analysis of 919 responses indicate that the factors that are statistically significant in relation to smartphone security awareness are technological backgrounds, educational levels, downloading apps, installed apps, and using cracked apps.

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  • EULOGY : A thesis presented in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Creative Writing (MCW) at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Holland, Jane (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis is concerned with writing fragmented narrative and it asks how the ‘space in between’ can connect the progression of fragments in fictional works. It explores how the assembling of fragments in fictional narrative can contribute to the whole becoming greater than simply a sum of its parts. Informing the writing process is a study of the effects of spatially driven narrative. The thesis consists of two parts: The novella, Eulogy, evokes the emotional complexities encountered by a woman delivering a eulogy for her partner. The accompanying exegesis discusses the research surrounding the writing of Eulogy and examines how novels by Patricia Grace and Lisa Moore also represent loss, showing how spatial form can work in the structure of fragmented narrative to convey such things as state of mind and the circularity of life-experience. Loss is universal, but how an individual experiences and deals with it is very much the result of circumstance and personal history, and this is what I aimed to explore in Eulogy. The novella consists of a number of non-chronological fragments which accumulate, connect and layer, building towards an understanding of all the narrator has lost, and how these losses are experienced in relation to each other. As insight into the specificity of the narrator’s response and feelings develops over the course of the novella, so too does the complexity of her relationship with Dean, the partner who has died, building towards the underlying sense that the novella is itself also a eulogy. My supporting exegesis draws on Joseph Frank’s theory of spatial form to examine how Patricia Grace’s Baby No-Eyes and Lisa Moore’s February also pivot around the theme of loss,. By mapping the fragmented structure of the novels, I set out to analyse how the spaces between fragments work in these works and to explore the cognitive and thematic links that bridge them. Examining a singular fragment in detail, I asked how space and time are used to propel each narrative. I then expanded my enquiry to the relationship of these single fragments with the fragments on either side. The exegesis concludes with a discussion of how I applied this strategy to my own creative process in Eulogy, questioning how the connections between and within fragments could contribute to the intricacy and unity of the overall novella. To a certain degree, the process of this thesis was itself an exploration of spatial form and fragmented narrative. The creative component and research were built incrementally and each was informed by the other. The pieces pushed and pulled, fed off and challenged one other as I progressed, making sense of both fragments and spaces to coalesce them into a cohesive whole.

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  • Quantifying the Benefits of Rat Eradication to Lizard Populations on Kapiti Island : A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Conservation Biology Massey University, Palmerston North New Zealand

    Gollin, Jennifer Fleur (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    In New Zealand the introduction of mammalian predators and human modification of habitat has led to the reduction and extinction of many native species. Therefore an essential part conservation management is the assessment and reduction of exotic predator effects. Many lizard species in New Zealand are threatened, and the eradications of exotic predators from islands has aided in the recovery of many species. Where comparisons can be made on islands before and after rat eradication this can provide a unique opportunity to quantify the benefit of these actions. In 1994–1996 research was carried out on Kapiti Island by Gorman (1996) prior to the eradication of kiore (Rattus exulans) and Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). This involved sampling six defined habitats using five methods in order to establish density data for lizard species present, as well as recording data on vegetation and weather. In the summer of 2014–2015 I repeated this research using pitfall traps, spotlighting and daytime searching to sample five habitats along pitfall trap lines and transects established by Gorman (1996). This provided data on density, size distribution, behaviour, habitat use and vegetation to compare to the 1994–1996 data. Five species were found; common skinks (Oligosoma polychroma), brown skinks (Oligosoma zelandicum), copper skinks (Oligosoma aeneum), ornate skinks (Oligosoma ornatum) and common geckos (Woodworthia maculatus) in four of the five habitats sampled. Common skinks, brown skinks, copper skinks and common geckos all increased in density based on encounter rates since the rat eradication, and were found in new locations. However, some changes were explained by measured changes in the vegetation. Ornate skinks still appear rare which may be due to the presence of avian predators like weka (Gallirallus australis) preventing recovery of the species. There has been little change in the size distribution of grassland skinks species, and populations still lack large (> 6 cm snout-to-vent length) individuals. This may be due to avian predators removing large individuals from the population or the change in vegetation making habitats more suitable for smaller skinks. There has also been no apparent shift toward terrestrial behaviour in common geckos. This may be caused by an arboreal food source or arboreal behaviour providing protection from nocturnal predators. My research shows that there have been clear benefits to some of the lizard species present on Kapiti, but some changes have not occurred as predicted. This provides direction for further research, including effects of avian predators, and information to improve decisions about potential translocations to Kapiti.

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  • Transgressive Gestures: Women and Violin Performance in Eighteenth-Century Europe : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Music in Musicology at Massey University and Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand School of Music

    Jordan, Hester Bell (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Studies concerning eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century women musicians abound within recent musicological scholarship, but the focus on singers and keyboard players – whose musical activities are understood to have “affirmed” their femininity – has had the effect of obscuring players of less typical instruments. Violin-playing, frequently cast as a man’s activity and imbued with indecent associations, was a case in point. Yet despite the connotations of the instrument, a small but significant group of women did play the violin: it is these violinists that this thesis takes as its central focus. Looking first at the complex reasons behind objections to women’s violin performance, a number of factors that restricted women’s access to the violin – including the influence of the male gaze and limits placed on women’s physical movement – are revealed. Particular conditions nevertheless enabled certain women to play the violin, namely the personal, educational, and economic support available from diverse sources such as family members, patrons, and institutions like convents and the Venetian ospedali. In addition to placing women violinists in their historical context, this thesis centres on an analysis of a violin concerto by one of the most well-known female violinists of the era, the Italian virtuoso Regina Strinasacchi. The analysis of Strinasacchi’s Violin Concerto in B flat major is strongly performance based and focuses on the issue of gender and physical movement (performance gesture), topics which were of much interest to eighteenth-century commentators who witnessed women violinists performing. As such the analysis engages with concepts from “embodied” musicology. In exploring Strinasacchi’s concerto we see that female violinists could experiment with a variety of gendered roles through violin performance, embodying both masculinity and femininity through their transgressive gestures. By taking a closer look at women’s violin performance and experiences, this thesis aims to show that these violinists were not as peripheral to the workings of the wider musical community as is sometimes implied. Furthermore, it aims to put women violinists more firmly at the centre of their own stories, challenging the tendency to treat female violinists as novel anomalies.

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  • Job Satisfaction and Its Relationships with Age, Gender and Educational Background in a Vietnamese Context : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Business Studies (Management) at Massey University, Manawatu New Zealand

    Pham, Minh Quang (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The present study aims at examining the reliability and validity of a Vietnamese version of the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) which was developed by Spector (1997). It also reveals the current overall job satisfaction and investigates the relationship between job satisfaction and age, gender, and educational background among a specific community, the auditors and ex-auditors in Vietnam. With these goals, a quantitative cross-sectional design has been employed for the research. A pilot study with 68 Vietnamese respondents establishes a solid foundation for the final Vietnamese-translated version of the JSS. In the main study, a sample of 202 Vietnamese auditors and ex-auditors is recruited. The JSS in Vietnamese demonstrates a high internal consistency with the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of α = .91. Moreover, an exploratory factor analysis reports an underlying construct of nine dimensions, which is similar to the original version of the JSS. The convergent and divergent validity of the scale are also analysed and return satisfactory results. The present research suggests that the auditors and ex-auditors in Vietnam are generally satisfied with their jobs and, surprisingly, the auditors are reported to be happier than their ex-colleagues in every job aspect. There is no relationship found between the overall job satisfaction and age or gender for this specific community, while a significant correlation between job satisfaction and educational background is confirmed. However, the women of this community are reported to be more likely to experience a lower level of job satisfaction when they get older or when they have a better educational background. The present study provides audit companies in Vietnam with recommendations for improving the job satisfaction of their employees. Its findings suggest that these firms should pay more attention to their older female employees as well as the ones with higher educational backgrounds due to their vulnerability to a lower level of job satisfaction than the opposite gender. Furthermore, directions and indications for future research are also offered in the present dissertation.

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  • Roman War-Making and Expansion in the Mid-Republic: A Re-evaluation : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters in History at Massey University, Manawatū New Zealand.

    Dare, Glenn John (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Rome’s seemingly unstoppable march towards empire during the mid-republican period was a world-altering event. The story of Rome rising from a small city-state to becoming the mistress of the Mediterranean has been told and interpreted countless times, but it is a story often concerned only with Rome and gives little agency to the many other peoples that shared this geographical and temporal space with Rome. The narrative of events of the mid-republican period has been interpreted as evidence for Rome’s bellicosity and also for her desperation for defending herself and her friends. Historians find in the ancient sources the evidence to support their theories regardless of whether they are advocating an aggressive or a defensive posture of Rome. Either side of this argument is monocausal and lacks a certain amount of interpretive awareness of the inherent complexities and nuances involved in such historical events. This study is an attempt to acknowledge the complex nature of any set of events that lead to war, and this is particularly so in the environment of the ancient Mediterranean. Many factors induced Rome towards war and conquest; these included concerns for defence, economy, and status. The ruling class, collectively and as individuals, also sought glory and fame by excelling at war and the Roman political system was focused on men serving the state, and the ultimate service to the state was to be successful in war. Pressures from the interstate environment of the ancient Mediterranean and the internal culture interacted synergistically to guide the decision makers in Rome to determine on war in some instances rather than any alternative. In this study the ancient sources will be revisited and analysed without any preconceived theory. The goal is to let the ancient sources tell the story with all the complexities that, by their very nature, matters of war had.

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  • Whai tikanga: In pursuit of justice. Māori interactions with the criminal justice system and experiences of institutional racism : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University, New Zealand.

    Brittain, Eleanor (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The criminal justice system in Aotearoa, New Zealand has a destructive history of interactions with Māori. Considered alongside the broader context of colonisation, this history provides a backdrop against which to understand contemporary Māori experiences of institutional racism. This research project aims to provide a robust understanding of Māori historical, contemporary and lived experiences of institutional racism within the criminal justice system. Participants were five Māori adults who have had personal encounters with the criminal justice system. They were interviewed about their experiences within the criminal justice system, with a focus on their experiences of institutional racism. As Kaupapa Māori research, within the field of discursive psychology, deficit constructions of Māori were rejected and there is an explicit inclination toward a constructive narrative of Māori culture, identity, and history. From the analysis emerged four recurring linguistic resources; blatant racism, Māori and Pākehā identities, Māori as trapped in the criminal justice system, and Māori identity and culture as strength. Participants’ perspectives of the criminal justice system reveal that prevailing power relations facilitate the belittling of Māori identity, intrude on Māori rights, and diminish cultural integrity. Institutional racism is constructed as enduring and guided by notions of Māori cultural inferiority. The criminal justice system has persistently operated to disadvantage and marginalise Māori and the discussion extends on arguments for a separate Māori criminal justice system.

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  • Development of an automatic lameness detection system for dairy cattle : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Engineering in Mechatronics at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand. EMBARGOED UNTIL 1 April 2018

    Dalbeth, Aaron (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Lameness in dairy cattle negatively effects the welfare of affected cows and is the third biggest cause of economic loss to the dairy industry in New Zealand. As the cost and frequency of lameness continues to increase, profitability will further decrease, unless a more effective and efficient method of detecting cattle lameness is found. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether differences between healthy and lame cattle could be identified by capturing ground reaction forces when the dairy cattle walked over the designed platform. [Partial abstract]

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  • Goal-oriented processes: Exploring the use of goals in music therapy to support young people with autism spectrum disorder : An exegesis submitted to Massey University and Victoria University of Wellington in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Music Therapy Te Kōkī New Zealand School of Music

    Lowery, Oliver (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This qualitative research project explored how a student music therapist utilised goal-oriented processes to support young people with autism spectrum disorder throughout their course of music therapy. Inductive thematic analysis of selected literature relating to goals in music therapy developed an initial framework of what goal-oriented processes could include. The student music therapist’s clinical data (including session notes, monitoring sheets, client reports and reflective journal entries) was then coded through deductive secondary analysis, from which five key themes were formed. The findings indicated that clients’ goals were supported by: employing a client-centred philosophical approach; nurturing therapeutic relationships; collaborating with clients and their caregivers; utilising the referral, assessment and review processes; and observing and documenting clients’ development. These goal-oriented processes helped to support goals that were meaningful for the clients and their caregivers. Themes were explored in detail using a case vignette to illustrate and provide a context for the findings. Although the context-bound qualitative nature of this research project limits its generalisability, it attempts to provide insight into what goal-oriented processes in music therapy might include, encouraging other music therapists to consider how they utilise goals in their own practice.

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  • Disturbance in the North Island of New Zealand: A case study using floodplain cores from the Coromandel to determine anthropogenic disturbance : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Geography Massey University, New Zealand

    Fox, Elizabeth Grace (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    It is well documented that following human occupation of a region, the surrounding environment may undergo drastic changes through vegetation pattern alterations, displacement of fauna, alteration of sedimentation and fluvial regimes, and changes to the composition of the underlying material. Many case studies of anthropogenic disturbance have been conducted in New Zealand. One of the main outcomes of this research is to collate, contrast and compare this wealth of case studies to look for any underlying trends in timing, distribution and magnitude of disturbance nationwide. This thesis focusses on late Holocene records from the North Island, and compared the history of disturbance with that from the South Island (as per McWethy et al. 2010). Based on the combination of palynology, sedimentology and geochemistry, this review demonstrates the pace of disturbance observed in the North Island was very rapid following occupation, a trend also established in the South Island. The other main outcome of this research is to add to the knowledge base of North Island disturbance history, through development of a landscape disturbance history in the Coromandel, using floodplain cores from the Paeroa and Kuaotunu areas. Sediment logging and subsequent XRF-geochemical analysis performed on these cores revealed a ‘mining layer’ that was used as a baseline for mining disturbance in this environment. This layer is interpreted as when European activities began disturbing the environment. Cores extracted from the Paeroa area indicated that the sedimentation rates in the floodplain had increased more than 15-fold since human occupation. Significant rises in the amount of Arsenic and Lead contained within the sediment were also detected. Cores from the Kuaotunu floodplain also showed changes in geochemistry that coincided with historic mining in the area, but reverted back to near pre-mining levels following the initial disturbance. These results suggest that factors such as catchment characteristics and degree of disturbance in an area affect the extent of impact on a site, which may have implications for future management of post mining sites. XRF analysis is a relatively underutilized proxy in New Zealand. It, in conjunction with Particle Size Analysis, has proved valuable in this study and are recommended for application in future New Zealand environmental reconstruction-focused research.

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  • Amelioration of the Impact of Physical Fatigue on Cognitive Performance by Phytochemicals: The Effect of a Blackcurrant Supplement : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Science in Psychology at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Harold, U'Nita (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Exercise-induced physical fatigue is thought to impair the cognitive functioning, and therefore mental performance, of the brain. Intervention studies have demonstrated that phytochemical supplementation can facilitate improved cognitive and physical performance. However, little is known about phytochemical supplementations’ ability to ameliorate physical fatigue effects on cognitive performance upon congestion. To investigate this hypothesis, the present study investigated the effects phytochemical compounds, from a blackcurrant supplement, had in regards to reducing physical fatigue effects on cognitive performance while under mental loads. Seventy-two healthy participants completed >10 mins of a high intensity intermittent cycling task (HIIT) (physical fatigue cohort) or >10 mins watching an emotionally neutral documentary (control cohort). Half of the participants in each condition received a blackcurrant supplement one hour before beginning the experimental session. Baseline cognitive tasks and mood questionaries were completed before ingestion of a blackcurrant extract, again before post-task measurements were completed, and also immediately following the experimental session. Analysis of the subjective selfreports revealed that HIIT was successful at inducing physical fatigue, however, had no effect on subsequent cognitive performance. Further analyses demonstrated that supplementation with a blackcurrant extract had no influence on cognitive performance. The null results for an effect of physical fatigue on cognitive performance made interpretation of this finding difficult. Overall, effect size calculations indicated that a larger sample size would not have resulted in statistically significant findings. It was concluded that the specific high intensity intermittent exercise used in the present study, did not induce a level of fatigue in participants’ that would subsequently impair cognitive performance. Blackcurrant supplement did not demonstrate an ability to enhance cognitive performance following a physically fatiguing task. Possible explanations for these findings are discussed and some potentially useful future studies outlined in the second and third chapters.

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  • The effect of dietary nitrogen on nitrogen partitioning and milk production in grazing dairy cows : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Master of Animal Science at Massey University Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Hendriks, Stacey (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Two experiments were conducted during spring (8th October to 12th November 2009) as part of a larger study, to study the effects of increasing levels of crude protein (CP) in pasture on milk production, dry matter intake (DMI) and nitrogen (N) partitioning in dairy cows. The first experiment was undertaken over 25 days (8th October to 1st November 2009), where fifteen multiparous, rumen fistulated, early lactation Holstein-Friesian cows (505 ± 10.4 kg liveweight; 4.1 body condition score ± 0.044, mean ± standard deviation) were assigned to one of three urea supplementation treatments: Control (0 g/day urea; ~20% CP), Medium (350 g/day urea; ~25% CP) and High (690 g/day urea: ~30% CP). Urea was supplemented to the pasture-based diet to increase CP content while maintaining similar concentrations of all other nutrients across treatments. All cows were offered ~20 kg dry matter (DM)/day perennial ryegrass-based pasture (CP = 20.6 ± 0.56% DM; metabolisable energy (ME) = 11.8 ± 0.06 MJ/kg DM). Cows were acclimated to their urea treatment over a 25 day experimental period. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increased dietary CP in grazing cows on DMI and milk yield. Dry matter intake was estimated using a back calculation method from the energy requirements of the cows. The results indicate a complex interaction between DMI, milk yield and urea intake. As dietary CP increased, the milk yield increased; however, as urea’s contribution to total dietary CP concentration increased, the increase in both DMI and milk yield was less. Milk yield decreased when urea supplementation increased beyond 350 g/day, and the interaction evident in milk yield was mirrored in yields of fat, CP and lactose (P <0.001, R2 = 0.47). A 16.5% increase in N intake resulted in a 42.5% increase in milk urea nitrogen (MUN) concentration; however, the relationship was restricted to low MUN concentrations. Urinary N increased linearly as a result of N intake, although the relationship was restricted due to the underestimation of urinary N and the limited range of N intake values. The 28% increase in urinary N excretion resulted from a sharp 3.6% decline in N efficiency as dietary N content increased. The main conclusions of this thesis were the ability for excessive urea intake to reduce milk yield in grazing dairy cows. Further research is needed to determine if high soluble NPN concentrations in fresh pasture would affect DMI and milk yield in the same way. Increasing N intake results in linear increases in MUN, urinary N and UUN. These relationships could provide useful tools to predict urinary N excretion due to the strong relationships between these variables. Further research is needed to develop robust prediction equations for the relationships between these variables in grazing dairy cows before they could be used as regulatory tools.

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  • Guardians of the Park: Intensifying development along the edge of urban green space within Christchurch.

    Willis, James (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    On February 22 2011 a 6.3 magnitude earthquake struck the Canterbury region causing widespread damage to both Christchurch city and surrounding areas. The quake devastated the city taking lives and causing significant damage to building and land infrastructure both in the inner city and the eastern suburbs. Whilst there has been significant investment and re-development within the central city much of the eastern areas have been neglected. Over 7000 homes have been demolished in the eastern residential red zone leaving a large swathe of land which stretches from the edge of the city centre to New Brighton. With such significant infrastructure being lost much of the city has shifted west with further developments being planned on the outskirts of the city adding to the existing problem of planned urban sprawl that had begun long before 2011. This thesis explores opinions for the eastern residential red zone, building upon existing proposals to turn the area into an urban forest – letting the area return to nature and transforming it into a place where the city celebrates the environment rather than fighting against it. What happens on the edge of this emerging green space will be key to how the eastern suburbs begin to recover post-earthquake and also how successfully this space is integrated into a city with a changing identity. At the urban scale, the proposal explores opinions for the edge of this developing green space through the development of 6 nodes or ‘Guardians of the Park’. These nodes draw from Peter Calthorpe’s theory of the pedestrian pocket, creating a series of interconnected areas of intensification that stretch from the edge of the CBD following the Avon River to New Brighton. Each node is walking distance from significant transport infrastructure and intended to reinforce the city’s connection with the green space through a form of mixed use development with housing, light retail and a number of recreational facilities. Through these nodes the design case study explores the potential for architecture on the edge of this green corridor to be increased in density and stimulate more significant redevelopment in the east though providing access to this new amenity. It explores access to and connection with both open space and recreational activity incorporating theories of increased density housing development and public transport.

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  • Third culture young women: Understanding their life experiences and leadership perspectives : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Business Studies (Management) at Massey University, New Zealand

    Chatiya Nantham, Rhema Roja (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Globalisation influences how leadership is understood and practiced and impacts on culturally diverse interactions in New Zealand communities. Examining leadership and intersecting diversity with regards to culture, gender and age could provide a richer understanding of how identity impacts on leadership. Youth are increasingly growing up in multicultural communities, giving rise to a phenomenon widely referred to as Third Culture Kids (TCKs) – adolescents who grow up in cultures outside of their home culture. To date there is no research on the leadership perspectives and development needs of TCKs, and although there are programmes and studies focusing on leadership development for young women, very few of these initiatives focus on culturally diverse young women. This research focused on examining the diverse lifeworlds of third culture young women to appreciate how their intersecting experiences and perspectives influenced their leadership understanding. Using an interpretive phenomenological approach, four third culture young women, selected from a leadership programme for Year 13 (16 year old) young women, were interviewed and asked questions that explored their experiences and perspectives regarding being third culture individuals, young women, and leaders. The responses were analysed using a modified version of Ashworth’s (2003) phenomenological framework to reveal that diverse young women have an awareness of the gendered expectations that society constructs, have an ability to navigate cultural differences, and are able to strategize how to interact with various social groups as a result of their diverse life experiences and intersecting identities. Ultimately, their core values, life experiences, and diverse perspectives as culturally distinct adolescent women shape their leadership understanding and practice. This study concludes that third culture young women are embodying values, perspectives, skills and strategies that suggest their potential as emerging leaders in their communities and future aspirations aligned with their leadership purpose of achieving personal success and helping others. In conclusion there is a need for greater application from academics and practitioners of intersectionality into leadership studies and practice. Recommendations were made with regards to leadership research and development programmes in the future and how these can explore the leadership potential of young, culturally diverse women like young TCK women.

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  • A provisional assessment of risk associated with heavy metal accumulation in New Zealand agricultural soil: Effects of landfarming and fertiliser use on the heavy metal concentrations in plants : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Environmental Management (without major) at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Okafor, Chioma MaryAnn (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study investigated heavy metal accumulation in New Zealand agricultural soil (horticultural soil and landfarm-impacted soil), factors influencing their concentration in leafy vegetables and pasture, and the potential implications to food safety, animal welfare and human welfare. The study also sought to verify the hypothesis that “landfarming poses no threat to pasture and animal welfare” with respect to heavy metal accumulation. In addition, hemp phytoremediation potential was also explored for landfarm-impacted soil. This study is a synthesis of two glasshouse trials that have, as a common denominator, heavy metal accumulation in New Zealand agricultural soil. The first project assessed cadmium accumulation in leafy vegetables (spinach, silverbeet and lettuce) grown on two New Zealand commercial horticultural soils while the second project focused on heavy metal accumulation in pasture (ryegrass) and a cash crop (hemp) grown on agricultural soil that had been amended with drilling waste. Bulk composite soil samples used for this glasshouse trial were collected from commercial horticultural farms in two locations (Pukekohe and Gisborne), while a landfarm-impacted soil and drilling waste from oil exploration and production sites was collected from the Taranaki region. Soil samples were crushed and potted into replicate pots containing (4kg). Lettuce, spinach and silverbeet were seeded in horticultural soils while ryegrass and hemp were seeded in impacted soils. All soil and plant samples were harvested and taken to the Soil and Earth Science laboratory, Massey University Palmerston North for analysis of heavy metal concentration (Cd, Zn, Cu and Ni) and dehydrogenase activity. Descriptive statistics and ANOVA of means was conducted using Minitab 17. The total Cd concentration in the Pukekohe soil was 0.26 mg Cd/kg soil and that in the Gisborne soil 0.11 mg Cd/kg. The Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn concentration in the landfarmimpacted soil was 0.1 mg Cd/kg; 12.57 mg Cu/kg; below detection limit (BDL) for Ni and 29.99 mg Zn/kg respectively. These values were not significantly different to concentrations in an adjacent control soil collected at the same time for the pot experiment (0.1 mg Cd/kg, 11.5 mg Cu/kg, 29.14 mg Zn/kg, and Ni (BDL)). The Cd concentration in all leafy vegetables grown on the horticultural soil and sampled at two time points (spinach, silverbeet and lettuce) exceeded tolerable limits for Cd in agronomic crops (0.05 - 0.5 mg Cd/kg) with the exception of lettuce (in Pukekohe and Gisborne soil at final stage) and silverbeet (in Pukekohe soil at final stage). Spinach showed elevated Cd accumulation (0.27 mg/kg FW) above CODEX (2010) and FSANZ (2011) limits for the Gisborne soil. The heavy metal concentration (Cd, Zn, Ni and Cu) in hemp and ryegrass grown on the landfarm-impacted soil and control were not significantly different but within tolerable limits in agronomic crops (Cu: 5 – 20 mg/kg; Zn: 50 – 100 mg/kg; Ni: 1- 10 mg/kg). Soil pH is the dominant factor influencing metal bioavailability while organic matter content, and oxalate extractable Al and Fe oxide content (sesquioxides) also affects cadmium bioavailability in agricultural soils. There was no evidence of a heavy metal (Zn, Ni, Cu and Cd) concentration above soil limits defined for the safe application of biosolids in horticultural and landfarmimpacted soils. This suggests that animal wellbeing (via soil ingestion) and food safety will not be affected as a result of land application of drilling waste and long history of P fertiliser use. However, cadmium and heavy metal management is necessary to prevent elevated accumulation over time. Elevated Cd concentration in spinach does not pose direct threat to human consumers but has the potential to limit the accessibility of this product in export markets. A soil heavy metal concentration below biosolids guidelines in the landfarm-impacted soil implies that remediation of this land is not necessary. This observation was supported by data on soil microbial activity in the landfarm-impacted soil which showed no difference from the control soil. The data does not support the public perception and industry concerns that heavy metal accumulation in landfarm-impacted soil poses a health risk. In case of a continued halt in milk collection from landfarmimpacted sites by the dairy industries, a cash crop (hemp) with no exposure pathway and high biomass quality (under landfarm-impacted soil) that potentially has high economic value could replace the traditionally ryegrass system, changing the agricultural land use from a food one to a non-food one.

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  • Characterisation of PP2Cβ in regulating tumour suppressor pathways in cancer cell lines : A thesis presented to Massey University in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Masters in Genetics

    Miller, Rachel Elizabeth (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Tumour suppressor p53 is a key regulator in preventing neoplastic transformation by inducing cell cycle arrest or death in response to stress-signalling pathways. Consequently, p53 is often non-functional during the early stages of cancer development through either direct mutation or aberrant expression of negative regulators. PP2Cβ is a protein phosphatase which was recently identified as a negative regulator of p53 and cellular senescence. However, the function of PP2Cβ in cancer development is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to characterise PP2Cβ and its regulation of p53 pathways in human cancer cell lines. This aim was split into two objectives. The first objective was to examine the effects of PP2Cβ on p53 pathways and cell proliferation in four cancer cell lines with various genetic backgrounds. A protein analysis using western immunoblotting procedures indicates that p53 pathways are activated in cell lines expressing wildtype p53 and Ras. Consistent with activated p53 pathways, PP2Cβ knockdown significantly reduced proliferation rates, which could be attributed to an increased expression of a p53 target gene, p21 cell cycle inhibitor. The second objective was to investigate the mechanisms regulating of PP2Cβ gene expression. Previously, p63 was identified as a potential negative regulator of PP2Cβ gene expression based on a modular relational database that integrated microarray results with a genome-wide search of p53 family member response elements. It was therefore hypothesized that p63 could negatively regulate PP2C gene expression. Mammalian expression vectors carrying either the p63 or p73 expression cassette were constructed and PP2Cβ expression was analysed upon overexpression of p53 family members (p53, p63 and p73) in two human cancer cell lines. A reverse-transcriptase coupled quantitative PCR showed that overexpression of p63 resulted in decreased PP2Cβ expression in p53 wildtype cell line. Taken together the results presented here suggest that restoration of tumour suppressors such as p53 and Rb activity by PP2C inhibition could be used as a potential therapeutic strategy in cancer treatment.

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  • Characterization of a Partially Purified Carom (Trachyspermum ammi) Extract and Its Influence on Starch Functionality and Digestibility A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Food Technology (MFoodTech) at Massey University (Manawatu Campus), New Zealand EMBARGOED UNTIL 1 March 2018

    Kumar, Ramesh (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The interactions between starches and the components in spices and herbs have been poorly studied so far. This study investigated the preliminary effects of thirty-six different spices and herbs on pasting properties of rice starch. It largely concentrated on the characterization of a partially purified carom extract (from the dried fruit of the Trachyspermum ammi plant) and its influence on the structural, thermal, pasting properties and digestibility of native rice starch. Rheology, differential scanning calorimetry, size exclusion chromatography coupled with a multi-angle laser light scattering, zeta potential, hot-stage optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and in-vitro starch digestion analysis were carried out to characterise the carom extract and starch-carom system. The results showed that carom, cumin, fennel, mulberry leaf, perilla leaf, neem and coriander seed extracts showed peak and final viscosity-suppressing effect, while mesona, rosemary, green tea, thyme, and clove extracts showed peak viscosity-enhancing effect on rice starch during starch pasting. The water-soluble fraction of carom had the highest degree of viscosity-suppressing effect as compared to other spices and herbs. With increasing concentration of carom, the peak and final viscosities of rice starch decreased; the onset, peak, and end temperatures of rice starch increased; and granular swelling of potato starch was restricted and delayed. The viscosity-suppressing effect was not caused by pH or small molecular carom compounds such as mineral salts and phytochemicals. A protein polymer in carom extract with an Mw of ~2.08 + 0.10 x 105 Da and isoelectric point of ~3.5 was found responsible for the suppression effect. The protein fraction completely denatured at ~83oC. Micrographs of SEM showed that carom protein appeared as raisin-like clusters. The ability of carom protein to suppress the peak viscosity of starch was also observed in potato, tapioca, glutinous rice, waxy maize, waxy rice, rice, sweet potato, maize, wheat, and pea starches, suggesting that the effect was independent of the source and ratio of amylose to amylopectin. It was proposed that the protein molecules could be interacting with the starch granular surface and/or starch molecules. In-vitro starch digestion study showed that dialysed carom extract with rice starch caused an unusual increment in glucose release. The lower viscosity of the starch-carom gels and/or a carom enzyme stimulatory effect were proposed to be responsible for increasing the rapid breakdown of starch.

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  • Airline Passengers’ Pre-­‐Purchase Decision-­‐Making: A Case Study of International Tertiary Students in New Zealand : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Aviation at Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

    Henderson, Jamie Thomas (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The number of students studying overseas is growing rapidly, driven largely by the desire for cultural exposure and greater access to higher quality institutes. With over 100% growth in the past 15 years, this sector also represents an increasingly valuable contributor to the global economy. However, until this point, there is yet to be any research on how this industry acts as consumers and whether they represent a distant airline customer segment in their own right. Airlines represent a significant facilitator of international study. This is particularly true in countries such as New Zealand, which receives 99% of its international visitors by air. Over 100,000 international students currently study in New Zealand, with nearly a third studying at a tertiary level, representing a significant number of generally independent and informed consumers. The aim of this study was to determine if international students represent a unique and distinct customer segment for airlines. This was assessed by how they purchase airline tickets online and whether they conform to the behaviour of more generic customer groups such as leisure or business travellers. This included an examination of how information is searched for and how various purchase criteria are evaluated to make a final decision. A dual-­‐phased, qualitative methodology was adopted with a sample of 40 international students from the Massey University Manawatū Campus. The first stage of the study involved an online observation where participants where asked to search for and purchase airline tickets as if they were doing so for their next journey to or from their home country. This was screen recorded and analysed to show the search patterns and information evaluation that lead to the final purchase decision. Stage two consisted of a semi-­‐structured interview asking participants to explain their search and evaluation process, including the factors that were most influential in their purchase process and why. The results indicate that the unique preferences of international students render them a distinct customer segment for airlines. The majority searched through online travel agents or indirect distribution channels. There were three levels of evaluation criteria were established, with price being the most influential factor in purchase decisions, followed by stopovers (number and length), schedule of international flights and baggage allowance. Definitive flight characteristics (aspects that can be completely defined prior to purchase) and brand appeared to be more influential than more intangible service attributes, which were largely expected or taken for granted and not considered by many participants. Generally, the international students in this study were found to be highly price sensitive, disloyal and not overly patient with respect to travel duration.

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