17,190 results for Masters

  • Communicating New Zealand's Organic Certification

    Barbalich, Gerard (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    As the New Zealand organics industry continues to grow, a unified message would aid consumer understanding and branding. Currently, certification is producer-focused, while consumers express confusion surrounding organic products and the associated benefits. This thesis argues that current organic certification schemes should be altered through: (i) aligning marketing strategies under the scientifically validated environmental benefits of organic products, and (ii) implementing strategies that are line with the dialogue model of science communication. While the domestic and international organic markets for organic products are growing, international studies show consumer confusion – especially relating to organic labelling (Henryks & Pearson, 2011). The communication of current certification schemes is ill suited to communicate the benefit of organic products and manage the branding of organic products. Implementing the proposed changes will aid an industry that was worth an estimated $215-$225m in exports during 2012, and $126-$133m domestically (Cooper et al., 2013). Strengthening the communication of organic certification in New Zealand will (i) improve the brand performance of organic certifiers and producers, and (ii) improve national branding (Dinnie, 2008). In addition to the academic component, an informally styled story explores the production chain of an organically produced sheep (this story comprises the creative component and draws upon poetic licence). It explores several issues and perceptions of organic products, including: sustainability, environmental protection, and human health.

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  • SMA-raloxifene for the management of castrate-resistant prostate cancer

    Pritchard, Tara Cheree (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) has a poor prognosis, and these tumours are refractory to conventional androgen deprivation therapy. In addition to androgen, oestrogen alone or combined with androgen induces abnormal growth and neoplastic transformation of the prostate, therefore, providing a secondary target. The selective oestrogen receptor modulator raloxifene elicits disease stabilisation in a small number of CRPC patients, and the encapsulation of raloxifene into a styrene copoly(maleic acid) micelle (SMA-raloxifene) shows the potential to improve its efficacy. Further investigation in the current study determined the greater in vitro cytotoxicity of SMA-raloxifene (5 μM) is a result of the higher intracellular internalisation compared to the free drug. This resulted in a 75% higher intracellular raloxifene concentration after 48 h in PC-3 cells. Additionally, raloxifene (10 μM) elicited a reduction in phosphorylation of proteins involved in cell proliferation, survival, and migration including Met, Akt, FAK, and Src to 29, 14, 17, and 45% of control expression, respectively, as evaluated by western blot. SMA-raloxifene elicited an even greater reduction in Met and Akt phosphorylation, reducing expression to 1 and 5% of control, respectively. The efficacy of SMA-raloxifene was then examined in a CRPC xenograft model with the hypothesis that the micelle would accumulate and be retained within the tumour for longer as a result of the enhanced permeability and retention effect. Male SCID mice (7-8 weeks) were subcutaneously implanted with PC-3 cells (1 x 106) bilaterally into the lower flank, and randomly allocated into treatment groups (n=8). Mice were treated weekly for 4 weeks via intravenous tail vein injection with the vehicle control, 1 or 5 mg/kg of free raloxifene, or 1 mg/kg of SMA-raloxifene. At the end of the treatment period, mice treated with 1 mg/kg of free raloxifene exhibited a reduction in tumour progression by 20%, and an equivalent dose of SMA-raloxifene reduced progression by 39%. 1 mg/kg of SMA-raloxifene reduced tumour progression equivalently to a dose of free raloxifene 5-fold higher (i.e. 5 mg/kg). Despite this reduction in tumour progression, treatment did not induce disease stabilisation. A biodistribution study was then conducted in a CRPC xenograft model as described above. It was concluded that SMA-raloxifene (5 mg/kg, i.v.) increased the retention of raloxifene within the tumour compared to the free drug, resulting in 69% higher intratumoural raloxifene concentration 24 h post-injection. This is likely to be a result of the higher internalisation of drug as demonstrated in vitro, as well as an increased stability and reduced metabolism of the drug within micelles. Overall, SMA-raloxifene significantly improved the drug’s efficacy towards CRPC cells in vitro and in vivo; however, optimisation of SMA-raloxifene is required to further potentiate treatment efficacy for the management of CRPC.

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  • Generation X’ers’ values and how they perceive the New Zealand labour market

    Lavender, Erin (2000-07)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    My research was based around skilled Generation X employees and what they value in long-term employment relationships. Initially my research was looking at employee retention in organisations, I began an initial literature review on this topic but was swamped with information and found that I would need to narrow my research. One area that was not well understood in the literature was employee retention methods for different age groups. This prompted me to look at Generation X and what they value in employment relationships, as away to understand how to better suit their needs and hopefully illustrate the ways in which they can be retained. I also believed that understanding the New Zealand labour market and illustrating how things like the brain drain, the new psychological contact, and the idea of mobile careers maybe having an affect on organisations and individuals was important and may in some way could be tied to Generation X'ers values in employment relationships. I began my research with a literature review on what Generation X employees are said to value in employment relationships, the main themes that were illustrated by the literature were such things as feedback, training and development, balanced lifestlyes, and fun. I also reviewed literature on issues I thought were relevant to the New Zealand labour Market including the brain drain, the new psychological contract and the notion of mobile careers Once my literature review was complete I established a number of questions I wished to find answers to including: 1. Do Generation X'ers and their managers perceive that the brain drain, the new psychological contract, and the idea of mobile careers are pertinent issues to managing/retaining Generation X? 2. Do Generation X'ers and their managers perceive that the brain drain, the new psychological contract, and the idea of mobile careers exists in the context of the New Zealand labour market? 3. What effect do they perceive these things have on the New Zealand labour market? 4. Do these things affect them personally? 5. What do graduate Generation X workers value in long-term employment relationships? 6. Do these Generation X employees perceive the organisation they work for as being able to understand their values?

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  • Gold Rush and Gold Mining: A Technological Analysis Of Gabriel's Gully and the Blue Spur, 1861-1891

    MacArthur, Nicol Allan (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Philip Ross May stated in 1980 that well-informed studies of the technology of gold rushes and gold mining were long overdue but very little has been added to the historiography since then. As a result, various misconceptions and misunderstandings have entered into the New Zealand and wider gold rush historiography. A conflation of gold rushing with gold mining is sometimes evident and another misconception entrenches corporate structure with the level of capitalisation and mixes the mining of alluvial and quartz reef gold. On May’s lines, this thesis argues that technology lies at the heart of all gold rushes and their gold mining, and seeks simply to demonstrate that the technology of gold rushes was different from the technology of gold mining. The thesis first completes a historical survey of gold rushes from sixteenth century Spanish America until Victoria in the 1850s. It then then closely evaluates the technology of the Gabriel's Gully gold rush and its extension to mining the Blue Spur deposit, both as local history and also to deepen the findings of the global review. All gold rushes were found to use a common suite of hand tools and simple manual methods of low productivity. This manual simplicity was diagnostic as was a slow- down in gold output and modifications in methods as the rich easy gold became exhausted. To continue required either hydraulic or mechanical methods, or large coordinated labour forces, along with capital expenditure. This signified mining, which typically comprised ground sluicing, hydraulicking, deep leading, or river mining. Unlike other rushes, the Gabriel's Gully rush used hydraulic energy in long toms and box sluices, as well as manual cradling, to wash the paydirt. Whether due to this or not, a remarkable new finding is that in its first twenty-one months, the Tuapeka district produced more gold than the first twenty-one months of the Californian rush. Regarding mining, Blue Spur proved to be an extremely large orebody, much of it heavily cemented and capable of high gold contents. Over its long fifty-year life, as different zones were reached, alluvial, quarrying, and underground mining and stamp milling technologies were applied, and culminated in hydraulicking and the innovative hydraulic elevating developed in Gabriel's Gully. However, regardless of the mining technology in use, there was no structural change in the Blue Spur mining parties for twenty years, although each new technology required higher capitalisation. This supports Hearn’s work on the Tinkers goldfield. This technological study has perhaps filled a gap in the local historiography, and historians of the Otago gold rushes and gold mining may be encouraged to pursue other lines of enquiry with the role of technology included in their perspective. This leads to a wider point that ongoing mining histories in New Zealand could look to the characteristics of local deposits and their required technology before generalising across different types of gold deposit nationally. The work shows also that Otago had a significant role in the global innovations in alluvial mining technology of the nineteenth century.

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  • Open market share repurchases in New Zealand

    Henderson, George (2000)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    When a firm repurchases its own common stock, it buys back a proportion of its own equity from existing shareholders. For open market transactions the stock is acquired at market value and in an efficient market the transfer should not change shareholders' wealth. However, empirically, such corporate activity in American markets is generally associated with stock price increases and, consequently, increases in remaining shareholder wealth. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of open market share repurchases on the share price of New Zealand firms. If any abnormal returns are identified then the hypotheses suggested by American studies will be investigated to see which, if any, hold for the New Zealand case.

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  • A comparison of IPOs from small and medium sized enterprises: China vs Australia

    Ze, Tian (2000)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    The general market behaviour of unseasoned new issues of Chinese A-shares and Australian common stock at the time of first day trading on respective stock exchanges is investigated, presenting a time-series analysis of the monthly volume and average initial returns on initial public offerings over a certain period of time. Also, the correlation of volume and underpricing among different groups of companies according to their size is studied. The underpricing of new stock issue defined as initial returns is widespread. The scale is extreme, especially on both the Shanghai Securities Exchange (SHSE) and Shenzhen Stock Exchange (SZSE) of China. The percentage of IPOs for small and medium sized enterprises is increasing in China and decreasing in Australia on average during the period presented in this paper. The results show that there is no significant difference in size between the companies listed on SHSE and SZSE in terms of total asset or revenue.

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  • A curriculum for e-Business education

    Tham, Wai Loong (2000-12)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    This is a digital copy of the thesis that is stored on an accompanying CDRom. It is not a full and exact duplicate of the print version of the thesis

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  • The history of the early gold discoveries in the Province of Otago, 1851-1863.

    Jefcoate, Harold Oliver (1922)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Bibliography missing.

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  • Cataclastic Processes within the Alpine Fault Zone

    Scott, Hannah Rosaline (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Interloan of Geology theses must first be approved by the Geology Department.

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  • Accord and satisfaction by way of full settlement cheque

    Currie, Simon Colin (2007)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    vii, 225 leaves ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. "November 4, 2007". University of Otago department: Law.

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  • The Southland province of New Zealand in the days of Dr. J.A.R. Menzies (Superintendent, 1861-1864).

    Dreaver, A. R. (1929)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    59 leaves, [25] leaves of plates :ill. (some col.), col. maps ; 25 cm.

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  • Public perceptions, gang "reality" and the influence of the media : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology

    Green, Alexandra (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This research was designed to address the hypothesis that there is a wide disparity between how the public perceive gangs and the 'reality' from the gang's perspective and; that in part, the New Zealand media are responsible for this difference, portraying a negative image of gang members. Sixty members of the Horowhenua public and seven gang respondents were interviewed. The small sample size of the gang respondents made it impossible to statistically compare the two groups. Analysis was carried out on the spoken discourse of the public and gang respondents and the printed discourse of the news media. Chi square analysis was used on the public respondent sample. Demographic characteristics of the public respondents such as gender, ethnicity and employment status resulted in observable differences in the public's perceptions of gangs. In particular, feelings of having a gang resident in their neighbourhood, estimates on the number of people involved with gangs in New Zealand and perceptions of the media accuracy in reporting about gangs. Previous contact with a member of a gang was also found to influence respondents' perceptions of media accuracy. Increasing the sample size is likely to clarify these findings. Ethical and practical implications in conducting research on gangs are discussed and suggestions for future research are identified. Some practical implications of the present findings are mentioned.

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  • Te mahi kaipaipa i waenganui i nga tamahine Maori : nga ahuatanga e pa ana ki enei tawaitanga = Young Maori women and smoking : knowledge, attitudes, initiation and maintenance : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Orbell, Claire Rachel (1995)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Cigarette smoking leads to many of the most harmful diseases of our time. The prevalence of smoking is excessively high amongst young Maori women. Most research has focused on knowledge of the health consequences associated with smoking, and attitudes toward cigarette smoking. Teaching individuals of the health consequences of smoking and attempting to change individuals' assumed positive attitudes toward smoking have been the basis for smoking prevention and cessation programmes Recent research suggests these programmes are ineffective in preventing or eliminating smoking. The process of initiation into cigarette smoking is not well understood. Also, the maintenance of cigarette smoking after initiation is not well understood. This is a mixed method study with young Maori women participants. The study includes both smokers and non-smokers. Non-smokers are almost always excluded from research into smoking but are a valuable source of information on smoking. A quantitative methodology was employed and a questionnaire developed to investigate young Maori women's knowledge and attitudes toward cigarette smoking. A qualitative methodology was used and a semi-structured interview developed to explore young Maori women's thoughts, feelings and experiences of initiation and maintenance of cigarette smoking. The aims of this study are to assess participants' knowledge of the health consequences of smoking and participants' attitudes toward smoking. The study also explores participants thoughts, feelings and experiences of smoking with an emphasis on the initiation and maintenance of smoking behaviour. Results indicate participants possess good knowledge of the health consequences of smoking. Participants were found to possess negative attitudes toward smoking. However, smokers were found to have more positive attitudes toward smoking than non-smokers. These findings are consistent with previous research. Results also indicate that social factors play the greatest role in both initiation and maintenance of smoking in young Maori women. Recommendations for future research and practical suggestions for prevention and cessation programmes are made.

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  • Infestations as a Natural Disaster: The Economic Impacts of the Fonterra Whey Protein Concentrate Contamination Incident

    Stojkov, Katarina (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper presents the results from an investigation into the economic implications for New Zealand of the 2013 Whey Protein Concentrate contamination incident (popularly known as the Fonterra Botulism scare). It assesses the impact of this incident to dairy exports using synthetic control methods. A synthetic counterfactual scenario where the incident did not occur is developed using weighted averages of the dairy exports of countries unaffected by the scare. The research finds that there was an initial negative shock to the exports of products that were thought to have been contaminated, but that there were no significant sustained impacts on other dairy products. The affected products make up only a small proportion of New Zealand dairy exports, with the vast majority of dairy exports being unaffected products. Infant formula exports appear to have recovered somewhat in the long run, however whey product exports remain lower than they otherwise would have been.

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  • Living in the city ain't so bad : cultural diversity of South Auckland rangatahi : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of a Masters of Philosophy in Psychology

    Borell, Belinda (2005)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Establishing a 'secure' Maori identity based solely on particular criteria of Maori culture (te reo Maori, tikanga, marae, etc.) continues to be problematic for some Maori. Those who are not seen as connected in this way are often defined by what they are seen as lacking, hence terms such as disconnected, distanced, detached and dissociated. Although young Maori may define themselves in terms of difference from others there is an increasing danger of some urban youth being defined as different from Maori who are 'culturally connected' and for this to be seen primarily as a negative demarcation. Although it may be the aspiration of some to have greater cultural connection, what this means for different groups and individuals may have both congruence and divergence with what are usually considered to be markers of cultural inclusion. This thesis presents the findings from a wider research project funded by the Health Research Council of New Zealand. The project objective was to gather data that can inform and contribute to existing knowledge about cultural identity of rangatahi Maori with a view to establishing a framework(s) for greater youth development and a more positive and embracing perspective of culture. Kaupapa Maori and social constructionist framings are used to centre the focused life story interviews that were conducted with young people aged between 13-21 years, who identified as Maori and lived in the South Auckland area. Findings suggest that conventional and experiential indicators of Maori identity as well as a strong localised identity are key factors in this exploration. Challenges for identity theorists, societal institutions and other Maori are discussed.

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  • Using BIM to calculate accurate building material quantities for early design phase Life Cycle Assessment

    Berg, Brian (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research simplifies the calculation of the Initial Embodied Energy (iEE) for commercial office buildings. The result is the improved integration of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) assessments of building materials into the early stages of the building design process (sketch design). This maximises the effectiveness of implementing design solutions to lower a building’s environmental impact. This thesis research proposes that building Information Models (BIM) will make calculating building material quantities easier, to simplify LCA calculations, all to improve their integration into existing sketch design phase practices, and building design decisions. This is achieved by developing a methodology for using BIM LCA tools to calculate highly detailed material quantities from a simple BIM model of sketch design phase building information. This is methodology is called an Initial Embodied Energy Building Information Model Life Cycle Assessment Building Performance Sketch (iEE BIM LCA BPS). Using this methodology calculates iEE results that are accurate, and represent a sufficient proportion (complete) of a building’s total iEE consumption, making them useful for iEE decision-making. iEE is one example of a LCA-based indicator that was used to test, and prove the feasibility of the iEE BIM LCA BPS methodology. Proving this, the research method tests the accuracy that a BIM model can calculate case study building’s building material quantities. This included developing; a methodology for how to use the BIM tool Revit to calculate iEE; a functional definition of an iEE BIM LCA BPS based on the environmental impact, and sketch design decisions effecting building materials, and elements; and an EE simulation calibration accuracy assessment methodology, complete with a function definition of the accuracy required of an iEE simulation to ensure it’s useful for sketch design decision-making. Two main tests were conducted as part of proving the iEE BIM LCA BPS’ feasibility. Test one assessed and proved that the iEE BIM LCA BPS model based on sketch design information does represent a sufficient proportion (complete) of a building’s total iEE consumption, so that are useful for iEE decision-making. This was tested by comparing the building material quantities from a SOQ (SOQ) produced to a sketch design level of detail (truth model 3), to an as-built level of detail, defined as current iEE best practices (truth model 1). Subsequent to proving that the iEE BIM LCA BPS is sufficiently complete, test two assessed if a BIM model and tool could calculate building material quantities accurately compared to truth model 3. The outcome was answering the research question of, how detailed does a BIM model need to be to calculate accurate building material quantities for a building material LCA (LCA) assessment? The inference of this thesis research is a methodology for using BIM models to calculate the iEE of New Zealand commercial office buildings in the early phases of the design process. The outcome was that a building design team’s current level of sketch design phase information is sufficiently detailed for sketch design phase iEE assessment. This means, that iEE and other LCA-based assessment indicators can be integrated into a design team’s existing design process, practices, and decisions, with no restructuring required.

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  • New Zealand television : what are the benefits of state ownership of television in a commercial world? : the public service broadcasting debate continues -- : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts (Social Sciences) in Media Studies at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Wyatt, John (1999)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Faced with the possible sale of our free-to-air state broadcaster Television New Zealand to overseas media interests, this thesis argues a firm case against sale, and sets out to create further public interest and comment. Television is valuable more for its programme content than its ability to raise revenue. Starting with the premise that television has a unique role as a mass communications medium in creating social reality, discussion centres on how ideas of cultural identity, democracy, sovereignty, and national identity are articulated and supported through locally-made, creative and diverse programming; and how this is strengthened in having the state broadcaster take a leading part in setting a high standard in the service provided. The tensions created by economic globalisation of media products are examined, especially in relation to how small nation-states such as New Zealand encounter a deterritorialisation of social identity arising through rapid technological advances and media processes which ignore national state and cultural boundaries. The origin of state television in New Zealand is documented, particular emphasis being given to legislative control, financial performance and the effect that organisational structure has on the content, diversity and standard of programmes scheduled. Maximising the financial performance of TVNZ through saturation advertising is questioned, and the recent polarising debate by politicians, commentators, and the public on the merits or otherwise of state ownership of TVNZ is covered in detail. A comprehensive study of the ABC and SBS in Australia is included, which informs an alternative proposal for TVNZ based on significant restructuring. This thesis concludes TVNZ should be retained in government ownership, but with TV1 guided by a charter which moves its prime function away from commercial imperatives. TV1 should concentrate on developing a broadcasting service dedicated to programmes which contribute a sense of national identity, and which reflect the cultural diversity and aspirations of all New Zealanders. To assist in these goals TV1 would be publicly funded to provide daily primetime ad-free 'windows' used to schedule programmes in line with its charter. TV2, and a range of industry mechanisms, would be used to ameliorate the ratio of tax-payer funding.

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  • Exploring opportunities for developing intercultural competence through intercultural communicative language teaching (ICLT): A case study in a Chinese as a foreign language classroom in a New Zealand high school

    Kennedy, Juliet Vicary (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This qualitative case study explores naturally arising opportunities for developing intercultural competence through intercultural communicative language teaching (ICLT) in a New Zealand high school Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) classroom. Although developing intercultural competence is a goal of many school curriculums, teacher awareness and implementation of effective intercultural pedagogies is not yet wellestablished. Exploring the naturally arising occurrences of intercultural teaching practices and behaviours in one classroom with no formal knowledge of ICLT provides evidence of how culture may be currently understood and approached in comparative settings. Existing views on culture provide a starting point for further developing ICLT. Data collection methods included classroom observations, stimulated recall, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, and written reflections. One teacher and three students from an intermediate level CFL class participated in the study from June to September 2015. The findings show that while some intercultural pedagogies and behaviours occurred naturally, without an explicit focus on developing intercultural competence students are unlikely to develop the skills, attitudes, and traits which make up intercultural competence in the language classroom. This study suggests that the current cultural activities in class could be transformed into opportunities for developing intercultural competence by adding a regular comparative, connective, and reflective dimension, incorporating the students’ linguistic and cultural experiences. The results of this study illustrate the necessity of expanding teacher awareness and skills in practising ICLT to promote the development of intercultural competence and to increase students’ interest in learning languages in New Zealand.

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  • Scavenging amphipods of the Tonga Trench: an analysis of community assemblage and population structure

    Wilson, James Peter Ashley (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The hadal zone is the common name for the deepest section of the ocean (6,000-11,000 m depth). It encompasses 45 % of the ocean’s depth range, and is mostly represented by oceanic trenches. Trench habitats lack sufficient sampling and the communities within are not well understood. Often, samples are derived from a single depth and thus the population dynamics of trench communities have not been analysed comprehensively. Scavenging amphipods are abundant and diverse taxa in the trench environment, and have been found in every trench sampled to date. They rapidly intercept and consume carrion falls at the deepest trench depths, and act as key prey items to predators in the shallower depths of the hadal zone. There appears to be a relationship of increasing abundance and decreasing diversity of scavenging amphipods with depth. However in the Tonga Trench, sampling of hadal amphipods has been limited, and these patterns remain unclear. The QUELLE (Quest for the Limit of Life) project in 2013 was led by The Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC). As part of this project, the YOK 13-10 voyage examined scavenging amphipods in the Tonga Trench. The voyage used baited traps to sample depths of ˜6,250 m and ˜10,800 m from October 6 – October 21 in 2013. The main objectives of the present study were to: identify scavenging amphipod assemblages within the Tonga Trench and compare them to other trenches of the South Pacific; analyse the population structure of Hirondellea dubia between depths in the Tonga Trench; and identify a suitable total length proxy for H. dubia. Six species of amphipods were identified from depths of ˜6,250 m and ˜10,800 m in the Tonga Trench. At ˜6,250 m Alicella gigantea, Eurythenes gryllus, H. dubia, Bathycallisoma schellenbergi, an alicellid species, and a gammarid species were recovered. In contrast, H. dubia was the only species recovered from ˜10,800 m. The abundance of amphipods was higher at the ˜10,800 m site while the diversity was much lower. The assemblage of scavenging amphipods in the Tonga Trench was similar to those from past sampling efforts in the same trench. There were also similarities to the assemblages in the adjacent Kermadec Trench, and together these observations support the classification of these two trenches as a single biogeographic province. The assemblages in the Peru-Chile Trench in the South East Pacific were more dissimilar sharing only a few species. The present study provides new Tonga Trench records of the vertical ranges of A. gigantea, E. gryllus, and H. dubia. It also extends the maximum known depth of H. dubia to 10,807 m. This thesis expanded our current knowledge of A. gigantea, by reporting the first instance of this large amphipod in the Tonga Trench, and the second known instance of the species at hadal depths. An analysis of Hirondellea dubia population structure revealed ontogenetic vertical structuring in the Tonga Trench. Juveniles dominated the composition in the shallow end of the H. dubia vertical range, while very few juveniles were found at the deepest site. Juveniles were substantially smaller at ˜6,250 m compared to ˜10,800 m, and this may suggest that juveniles migrate down the trench slope with increasing age. The most likely mechanism for distributing juveniles to the shallower depths is the ascending migration of brooding females. However, this is still not certain as no brooding females were captured. The shallower depth provides a higher quality of food source and the reduced hydrostatic pressure allows for a faster metabolic rate. Thus, this distribution is likely driven by the distribution of food sources throughout the trench in combination with hydrostatic pressure. The dimensions of several established proxies for total length were evaluated for H. dubia. Pereonite 2-7 had the strongest correlation to total length, however it was highly distorted by dorsal curvature. Both the pereonite 2-7 and the pleosome were considered inaccurate due to sexual dimorphism making them inappropriate as proxies. Pereonite 1 was proportionately larger in juvenile lifestages. However, overall pereonite 1 was considered the strongest candidate for a proxy, this is because it was the least influenced by dorsal curvature and was a conspicuous segment that was easy to measure.

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  • Healthful housing : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Sociology at Massey University

    Lynch, Kathleen (1999)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study researched the housing needs of incipiently homeless low-income households in Auckland. In particular it examined how the compromises and sacrifices low-income households must make to procure housing jeopardises their ability to promote and maintain health. Health within this study was defined holisticly including physical, mental, spiritual and family aspects as well as the dimension of ontological security. The participants were comprised of three groups: housing workers, community health workers, and most importantly the households in housing need. All participants were or had been connected with Monte Cecilia Emergency House. The role of the state, past and present, in assisting low-income households to obtain accommodation was examined. Particular consideration was given to changes which have occurred in the lost-cost rental sector through the move to market-level rents for state housing, and the introduction of a targeted, abatable accommodation allowance. The participants' stories demonstrated an increasing and serious level of unaffordability of rental housing. This had brought about both immediate and long-term detriments to health due to living in over-crowded accommodation and / or a residual post-rent income insufficient to maintain an adequate standard of living. Tangata Whenua and Tagata Pasifika were disproportionately affected by unaffordable housing. The need for a return to income-related state housing was high-lighted. Recommendation was also made regarding the urgent need of a comprehensive survey of housing need, both urban and rural.

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