16,595 results for Masters

  • A mathematical model of volcanic plumes : submitted to the Institute of Natural and Mathematical Sciences in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Mathematics at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Duley, Joshua Manfred (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Volcanic plumes and the resultant tephra fallout are of signi cant concern to nations the world over. Several recent large-scale eruptions have caused such disruption to air traffic that huge proportions of European commerce have been severely compromised. The plumes of such eruptions exist beyond any human recourse and must simply be left to extinguish themselves in time. Currently, separate models do exist for plume dynamics and the atmospheric transport of particles, with a mixture of qualitative and quantitative results. In this thesis we develop a mathematical model with some similarities and some differences to those already in use. The model has its core in the conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy for the plume's driving gases and suspended particles. While these equations are non-linear and diffcult (if not impossible) to solve analytically, we can solve the equations numerically using a discretisation along the central vertical axis. Initially these equations are provided with full time-dependency, with a view to pursuing such results in the future. However, the numerical results contained here are limited to a steady- flow model of an established and sustained, buoyant plume.

    View record details
  • Unbridled optimism : public choice, the public service and electoral law reform : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Social Policy

    Shaw, Richard Hugh (1996)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis addresses issues that are likely to be confronted by the public service in New Zealand as a result of the advent of electoral law reform. During the decade since 1984 the institutional arrangements that circumscribe the activities of the core public sector have undergone a process of considerable change. The proposition extended in this research is that the structural configuration that has emerged out of the process of public sector reform will face a number of significant challenges in the emerging political environment. In the context of a milieu shaped by the imperatives of proportional representation, two particular characteristics of the contemporary public service may prove problematic. Specifically, the nature of the statutory interface between responsible ministers and the chief executives of government organisations may, in conjunction with an 'atomised' core public sector, function so as to compromise both the impartiality of public servants and the ability of an administration to develop and implement policy in a strategically consistent fashion. The extent to which such difficulties are likely to occur will be the result of the convergence of a series of variables, including the calibre of political leadership provided by future Prime Ministers, and the nature of the advice and guidance provided to public servants in the new climate. Perhaps most significant of all, however, will be the precise configuration of future parliaments returned under the new electoral system. The fusion of the legislative and executive arms of government under New Zealand's constitutional arrangements means that patterns of legislative representation influence the formation of governments; in the future, those patterns may exercise a more direct influence upon the environment within which the public service operates than has historically been the case in New Zealand.

    View record details
  • Well-being and local government : a New Zealand case study : Kaipara District Council; its responsibilities and responses to the regional museums of Kaipara, 2002 - 2011 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Museum Studies, Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

    Stevens, Mary (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis examines the concept of ‘well-being’, as first introduced by the Local Government Act in 2002, with particular emphasis given to cultural well-being. With no definitions in the legislation, it does this by focusing firstly on understanding the meaning of the terms and then secondly, by a case study of one local authority and its response to cultural well-being through relationships with the three local museums. Kaipara District Council (KDC), a small, rural local authority, was chosen as the case study. Three key research questions were posed. What is the meaning of “well-being” in the context of the LGA 2002? How is well-being, and in particular cultural well-being addressed by KDC and its long term planning documents? How does KDC work with the regional museums of Kaipara to meet the legislative mandate for cultural well-being? Answers were sought by undertaking an historical study of well-being and its long development on the international scene, then concentrating on KDC’s long term planning documents. An interview with the district’s Mayor about the practical application of cultural well-being and relationships with the regional museums, was offset with interviews conducted with representatives of each heritage organization about the reality of District Council/Museum interaction from their perspective. The research demonstrates that even without a definition, there was abundance of information available to form a good understanding of the concept. On the other hand, there was so much information that finding an encompassing definition for the term would be impossible. The research also demonstrates the difficulties that small authorities, with inadequate staffing and governance representatives, face when presented with a complex piece of legislation. Both Council and Museum representatives struggled to comprehend the meaning of cultural well-being but while KDC believed its response was sufficient, the regional Museums were not satisfied. This thesis argues that KDC falls short in meeting its cultural well-being responsibilities but there is much that the region’s iii museums can do themselves to improve the situation. The solution for Kaipara’s museums is transferable to every other museum in New Zealand that finds itself facing similar circumstances.

    View record details
  • The benefits of resistance training on blood lipid profile and body composition in Māori men : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Exercise and Sport Science, Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

    Coley, Karl William (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to determine whether 12 weeks of resistance training at time periods of three, 30 minute sessions per week would provide enough stimuli to reduce the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk of blood lipid profile and body composition in sedentary Māori (Indigenous New Zealanders) men. Methods: The study cohort consisted of a convenience sample of 16 Māori males aged 28 – 60y. Participants completed a resistance training intervention consisting of three 30 minute sessions per week for 12 weeks. Measures of pre- and post-BMI, waist to hip ratio (WHR), body composition and fasting lipids were made. Pre-, mid-, and post-intervention assessments of strength, aerobic fitness, body composition and blood composition were also undertaken. Exercise was controlled five days prior to the testing; whilst diet was restricted ~12 hours prior to blood tests. Results: Percentage body fat was significantly lower after the 12 week resistance training intervention (P<0.196) were not significantly different after completion of the intervention. Conclusions: This was the first study to investigate the effect of half hour resistance training bouts, three times per week on male Māori as a modality to alter their CVD risk profile. These findings support the hypothesis that resistance training can improve CVD risk profile through a change in body composition; namely a reduction in percentage body fat, increase in LBM, and a reduction in LDL-c. Although in this cohort this intervention has proved effective, further studies of larger populations are required to get a stronger level of significance.

    View record details
  • Women's experiences of their partner's attendance at a Men for Non Violence programme : their stories and a discourse analysis : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Towsey, Frances (1996)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study aims to report and analyse the texts of interviews with eleven women participants as they talk about their experience of their relationships during and after their partners' attendance at a Men For Non Violence (MFNV) programme. The women's partners, from whom they subsequently separated, had attended a MFNV programme while they were living together. Firstly, the women's stories of their private experience are summarised to provide new knowledges of the problem and in turn to be constitutive of a developing public understanding. Secondly, the commonalities in the women's experience, particularly in relation to the MFNV programme, are presented. Finally, a discourse analysis of the transcribed interviews illuminates the socially available linguistic resources used in common by the women in constituting their experiences and selves, with the effects and implications of these being discussed. The majority of the women reported temporary reductions in physical violence with associated increased levels of psychological violence from the time their partners attended a MFNV programme, which supports existing findings. The discourses available to and drawn on by the women reproduce and perpetuate men's non responsibility for their violence and maintain responsibility for women to end the violence, thereby reinforcing an ideology of male dominance.

    View record details
  • The implementation of trauma informed care in acute mental health inpatient units : a comparative study : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Public Health at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Ashmore, Toni Rae (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Trauma informed care (TIC); particularly related to interpersonal violence, is a burgeoning topic for mental health services in both New Zealand and Australia. This thesis compares the implementation of trauma informed care, particularly in relation to interpersonal violence, in an acute mental health inpatient unit in New Zealand and a similar unit in New South Wales, Australia. A policy analysis was undertaken of current policy documents that guide each unit, along with semistructured interviews with ten senior staff, five from each unit to investigate implementation of key features of trauma informed care, particularly in relation to interpersonal violence. Results showed a difference in overall implementation between the two units. Single interventions rather than a whole of service change of philosophy were evident. Differences were identified in relation to policies referring to interpersonal violence, staff knowledge and understanding of trauma informed care, access to training and resources, how safety was provided for, collaborative care arrangements and workplace power dynamics for both clients and staff. Across both units were identified a lack of guidance to inform implementation of TIC, consumer involvement and practice around diversity. Contributing factors for TIC implementation include having a clear definition of TIC, commitment at all governance levels, access to TIC training for all staff, and policies underpinned by TIC. Further research investigating these results may enhance service delivery, resulting in better outcomes for the promotion of recovery and healing of those with histories of interpersonal violence.

    View record details
  • The possum problem in the Manawatu-Wanganui region : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Agricultural Science in Resource Economics at Massey University

    Lock, Glenda Margaret (1992)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Since their introduction to the Manawatu-Wanganui region possums have increased dramatically in number and are now causing problems in both rural and urban areas. They are responsible for the destruction of indigenous forests and the spread of bovine tuberculosis, a disease that threatens the access of dairy, meat and several other animal products into a number of key overseas markets. The study addresses this by looking at the problems associated with possums and the value that the region places on their control. This was done via two contingent valuation surveys, one in the form of a dichotomous choice question and the other in the form of an open ended question. It was found that 97.8 percent of respondents were aware that possums were causing problems in New Zealand. The region placed a value of between $1.5 million and $7.0 million per year on possum control. Farmers' valuation of possum control was approximately twice that of nonfarmers, possibly reflecting the adverse effect that possums could have on farmers' income stream.

    View record details
  • Application of flow cytometry for enumerating individual bacterial cultures from a mixed culture system : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Philosophy in Food Technology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Horváth, Kylie (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Cultured dairy products are often made with more than one microbial culture. Yoghurt requires the cultivation of several bacterial species for its production and the level of each is important for different reasons. Differential plate count methods to enumerate the separate species in yoghurt are not ideal because many of the bacteria used have similar growth profiles and plate counts take several days to produce a result. A fast specific method for enumerating each culture would be beneficial because quick results would enable tighter control of processing or experimental conditions and the ability to track individual species amongst a background of similar bacteria. Flow cytometry combined with fluorescent in-situ hybridisation (FLOW-FISH) was investigated as a potential solution and successful enumeration was achieved within 1 day for a yoghurt microorganism, Streptococcus thermophilus (ST55), grown in M17 medium. This method may be improved to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and to reduce the assay time. The chemical propidium monoazide enabled a closer match to plate counts for flow cytometry results using a total viable count assay and may be useful combined with the FLOW-FISH assay for removing non-viable or viable, but non-culturable, cells from the results. An enzyme and/or detergent pre-treatment may achieve successful FLOW-FISH enumeration of cells grown in reconstituted skim milk – a similar matrix to yoghurt.

    View record details
  • The effect of MDMA self-administration on MDMA-produced hyperactivity and c-fos expression

    Bukholt, Natasha (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Background: MDMA preferentially releases serotonin (5HT) but following repeated exposure there is a decrease in this MDMA-produced effect. At the same time, some studies suggest an increase in MDMA-produced dopamine (DA) release following repeated exposure. The sensitised DA response is often accompanied by sensitisation of MDMA-produced locomotor activity. Because DAergic mechanisms have been implicated in the positively reinforcing properties of MDMA, these neuroadaptations might be relevant to MDMA self-administration. Objectives: The main objective of this study was to determine whether MDMA self-administration and non-contingent MDMA exposure differentially affected the development of sensitisation to MDMA-produced hyperactivity. Additionally, the relationship between MDMA-produced hyperactivity and changes in c-fos expression in DA terminal regions was determined. Methods: Triads of rats were designated ‘master’, ‘yoked MDMA’, or ‘yoked saline’. Lever press responding by the master rat resulted in an intravenous infusion of MDMA for both the master rat and the yoked MDMA rat, as well as an equal infusion of vehicle for the yoked control rat. Daily tests continued until a total of 350 mg/kg MDMA had been self-administered. Three days following the last self-administration session, forward and vertical locomotion produced by MDMA (5.0 mg/kg, i.p) were measured during a 2 hr test. Rats were sacrificed immediately following the behavioural test, and c-fos immunohistochemistry was measured. Results: Repeated MDMA exposure resulted in sensitised forward and vertical locomotor activity. Sensitisation of the increase in forward locomotion was produced only in rats that self-administered MDMA; non-contingent MDMA administration failed to sensitise this behavioural response. In contrast, sensitisation to MDMA-produced vertical activity was produced following both contingent and non-contingent MDMA exposure. C-fos expression was reduced in ventrolateral, and ventromedial areas of the dorsal striatum, as well as the infralimbic cortex, after MDMA exposure, regardless of whether the exposure was via self-administration or yoked administration. A selective decrease in c-fos expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core and the cingulate cortex was produced by MDMA self-administration. There was a negative correlation between MDMA-produced forward locomotor activity and MDMA-produced c-fos expression in the NAc core, cingulate cortex and infralimbic cortex. A negative correlation between rearing activity and MDMA-produced c-fos expression in the NAc core, NAc shell, cingulate cortex, and infralimbic cortex was also found. Conclusions: These data provide evidence of behavioural sensitisation as a result of repeated MDMA exposure. Furthermore, MDMA-produced behavioural sensitisation was associated with a decrease in c-fos expression that was evident in the NAc and prefrontal cortex. Finally, region-specific changes in c-fos expression suggest an important role of neuroadaptations in the NAc core and the infralimbic cortex as a consequence of MDMA self-administration.

    View record details
  • Application of the precautionary principle during consenting processes in New Zealand: Addressing past errors, obtaining a normative fix and developing a structured and operationalised approach

    Scott, Dale (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The precautionary principle is increasingly being adopted as a legal risk management tool in international environmental law and regulation, especially in the marine context. In fact, over the last 35 years it has been included, often as a central feature, in the vast majority of international law instruments relating to protection and management of the environment. This rise to prominence is largely driven by widespread recognition that the ability of environmental law to successfully avert long term and significant harm is very much contingent on the successful implementation and application of the precautionary principle (specifically, the decision-making and planning measures it advocates). Owing to the above, it is unsurprising that like many other countries New Zealand has incorporated the precautionary principle expressly and implicitly into domestic law and policy over the last 25 years. The most recent and arguably most notable instance of the incorporation of the precautionary principle in New Zealand law is in the Exclusive Economic Zone and Continental Shelf (Environmental Effects) Act 2012 (“EEZ Act”). Indeed, for reasons explained in this paper, the success of the EEZ Act will in large part depend on the successful application of the precautionary principle contained in the Act. Unfortunately, New Zealand’s incorporation and application of the precautionary principle to date has been problematic, with confusion and a variety of approaches taken to its core concepts, and arguably outright misapplication of it. For this reason, this paper seeks to take comprehensive stock of the precautionary principle, first to identify what is the likely cause of such confusion and misapplication, and second, to provide a foundational understanding to assist policy makers and the courts with the task of operationalising and applying it during legislative consenting processes. In doing so, this paper focuses on its operation in the marine setting, with a view to assisting with its interpretation and application under the EEZ Act. It argues that in order to secure consistent and proper application of the precautionary principle, significant work needs to be done to clarify definitional ambiguities embedded within the principle. It then argues that further work needs to be done to properly operationalise the New Zealand formulations of the precautionary principle (i.e. unpack the substantive content of the principle and pin down what such content requires of decision-makers in practice) so they can be consistently and correctly applied under New Zealand’s environmental risk management regimes.

    View record details
  • The Two Faces of Ascorbate: Prooxidant Activity and Radio-Sensitisation

    Carson, Georgia (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Although not recommended by mainstream oncologists, intravenous injections of pharmacological ascorbate are currently an alternative therapy option for cancer patients. Research has not yet determined whether high-dose ascorbate interacts favourably with radiation therapy to increase DNA damage, and therefore cell death in cancer. Some studies suggest that ascorbate can act as a prooxidant and increase the cytotoxic effect of irradiation in vitro. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a primary brain astrocytoma that is highly therapy resistant, so patients would be advantaged if ascorbate radiosensitised their cancer. In this investigation, flow cytometry and single cell gel electrophoresis (comet tail assay) were used to measure three indicators of DNA damage in GBM cells in response to ascorbate and irradiation, and were contrasted with immunofluorescence-revealed DNA damage from an intracranial mouse model of GBM. The pro-oxidant, radiosensitisation role of ascorbate was confirmed, as measured by H2AX, 8OHdG, and DSBs in vitro. With all three of these markers of DNA damage, combinations of irradiation and ascorbate had increased damage compared with individual treatments. However preliminary in vivo evidence indicates that increased DNA damage did not occur in an animal model of GBM, and in fact ascorbate may protect from DNA damage in an in vivo context. These findings complement previous results from our lab, and serve to fill in gaps in knowledge specifically around the DNA damaging effects of ascorbate. The unique nature of the brain environment, as enclosed by the blood brain barrier, prevents translation of data from other non-brain cancer studies, as such, this investigation also contributes to the exploration of a much needed avenue of research. Considering the context of ascorbate treatment as a potentially harmful currently used adjuvant, it is imperative to confirm or disprove its efficacy in a clinically relevant environment.

    View record details
  • Who knows what and who has the rights to know it?: Knowledge and reality construction in interaction

    Edmonds, David (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Knowledge has been at the centre of philosophical and scientific enquiry for centuries. It remains a topic of central importance in psychology. The current thesis examined how knowledge was managed and treated as relevant by speakers in social interaction in situ. Complaint calls to a dispute resolution telephone helpline service were studied using discursive psychology and conversation analysis as theoretical and methodological frameworks. The thesis focused on how knowledge was implicated in the accomplishment of the institutional task of jointly establishing the facts of the complaint. In particular, the research examined how the issues of ‘who knows what’ and ‘who has the rights to know it’ were demonstrably relevant for speakers in these interactions. The empirical work focused on two types of question-answer sequences. In cases where some requested information was not forthcoming or not immediately provided, callers’ conduct displayed their orientations to a normative expectation that they knew what was asked for and that they had an obligation to provide it. A second set of cases was a collection of declarative requests for confirmation. The different types of responses to such questions were described. It was proposed that the responses could be placed along a continuum, by the extent to which they asserted a caller’s epistemic rights to knowledge about the relevant information. The thesis contributed to existing research by drawing together recent conversation analytic work on epistemics as a domain of organization in social interaction, and more established discursive psychological work on reality construction. The thesis highlighted the practical nature of knowledge, as it was relevant for accomplishing a key institutional task, and other actions, in telephone-mediated dispute resolution.

    View record details
  • Matroids, Cyclic Flats, and Polyhedra

    Prideaux, Kadin (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Matroids have a wide variety of distinct, cryptomorphic axiom systems that are capable of defining them. A common feature of these is that they are able to be efficiently tested, certifying whether a given input complies with such an axiom system in polynomial time. Joseph Bonin and Anna de Mier, rediscovering a theorem first proved by Julie Sims, developed an axiom system for matroids in terms of their cyclic flats and the ranks of those cyclic flats. As with other matroid axiom systems, this is able to be tested in polynomial time. Distinct, non-isomorphic matroids may each have the same lattice of cyclic flats, and so matroids cannot be defined solely in terms of their cyclic flats. We do not have a clean characterisation of families of sets that are cyclic flats of matroids. However, it may be possible to tell in polynomial time whether there is any matroid that has a given lattice of subsets as its cyclic flats. We use Bonin and de Mier’s cyclic flat axioms to reduce the problem to a linear program, and show that determining whether a given lattice is the lattice of cyclic flats of any matroid corresponds to finding integral points in the solution space of this program, these points representing the possible ranks that may be assigned to the cyclic flats. We distinguish several classes of lattice for which solutions may be efficiently found, based upon the nature of the matrix of coefficients of the linear program, and of the polyhedron it defines, and then identify families of lattice that belong to those classes. We define operations and transformations on lattices of sets by examining matroid operations, and examine how these operations affect membership in the aforementioned classes. We conjecture that it is always possible to determine, in polynomial time, whether a given collection of subsets makes up the lattice of cyclic flats of any matroid.

    View record details
  • Sustainability of agroforestry in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Regional Planning at Massey University

    Bray, Tania L (1995)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The aim of this thesis is to assess the concept of sustainability and apply it in a practical sense to New Zealand agroforestry. Sustainable management of natural resources is fast becoming recognised as necessary for the long term survival of our species. The agricultural communities prominence as the major user and steward of New Zealand's natural resources requires change in the values placed on these resources by farmers, and the incorporation of the principle of sustainable management at the farm level. The concept of sustainability is broken into three component parts; economic, environmental and social sustainability. Each of these components is broken again into specific measurable principles. Through literature research and a case study, the principles are applied to agroforestry, and a conclusion reached. It is found that given good management practices and normal business risks, agroforestry had the potential to maintain the natural capital stock and remain relatively profitable. Agroforestry is also found to have the potential to maintain the life support systems and biodiversity of the environment. Finally agroforestry is found to positively impact on rural societies, and provide the necessities of life and is relatively robust to political change. This thesis concluded that agroforestry as practiced in New Zealand is a profitable enterprise which improves the environment and increases the viability of many rural communities.

    View record details
  • The use of a geographic information system (GIS) for farm soil conservation planning : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Soil Science at Massey University

    Priyono, Cyprianus Nugroho Sulistyo (1993)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The use of a Geographic Information Systems (PC ARC/INFO) for farm soil conservation planning was demonstrated in several neighbouring properties in the Apiti district, Manawatu. The area (775 ha) was mainly steep and strongly rolling hill country where the dominant land use was pastoral grazing by sheep and cattle. The main objective of this study was to utilize the GIS at each step of the farm soil conservation planning process. The planning process began with a land resources inventory (LRI) where information on basic physical resources relevant to land management and soil conservation was collected and stored in a database before further processing. Factors collected in the LRI included primary factors (soil type, soil depth, slope, rock type and elevation) and secondary factors (existing erosion, land use, fence lines and ownership, and drainage condition). A digital elevation model (DEM) was developed to display landforms. Field observations were also used and local farmers were given the opportunity to become involved in the planning process. The next step involved delineating areas of similar land use capability and potential land use. The areas were also assessed in terms of potential erosion and conservation needs. These operations were undertaken by combining the LRI factors in various ways. Results of these assessments were matched to define land units which have similar physical characteristics. Recommendations for management practices were then made by considering combinations of the factors. The plan was displayed as maps showing the management options available for farmers. Both map overlay procedures and database analyses were carried out at each step of the planning process. As the map overlay is a unique operation in the GIS, it was used to combine necessary factors from the LRI based on a set of criteria. Database analyses were then carried out using macro commands which were developed according to the criteria. The ability of the GIS for database analyses distinguishes the GIS from other systems whose primary objective is map production. The use of database analyses in this study was a particular example for making recommendations in soil conservation planning. However, the techniques are applicable to many different conditions and different purposes. The maps presented in this study are examples of how it is possible to show the results of analyses. Advantages and constraints of such procedures at each step of the planning process were discussed.

    View record details
  • Assessment of competency status of residential mental health support workers : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Morrison, Niall (2000)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The present study explored the current competency status of residential mental health support workers (n=121). Competency was assessed through the domains of skills, attitudes and perception of the work environment. Consistent with a recovery model, the National Mental Health Workforce Development Coordinating Committee (1999) put forward 10 basic core competencies that they recommended that all mental health workers should be able to demonstrate in their work practice. Skills and attitudes self-report measures were developed to assess participant performance on these competencies. In addition, a standard measure (Ward Atmosphere Scale) was utilised to evaluate the perceived atmosphere of the participants' work environment. The aggregated results of this study appeared to show that participants were generally competent in a number of areas of work practice. However, deficiencies in critical areas of client support were identified on closer examination of the data. With regard to participants' reported skills, shortcomings were found in particular in the core competencies knowledge, assessment and intervention. Similar deficits were found regarding participant attitudes with shortcomings found in the core competencies knowledge, culturally appropriate practice, assessment and safe/ethical practice. While superior education and training did appear to influence performance on certain competencies, some deficiencies were nevertheless reported by the more highly educated and trained participants. In addition, participants generally characterised their work settings in a very negative manner such that it appears that many settings are not adhering to the philosophies of rehabilitation and recovery. Despite the identification of deficiencies, many participants did demonstrate a number of competencies combined with a commitment to professional growth. In fact, one of the most positive findings in this study was the importance practically all the participants placed on promotion of their own professional growth.

    View record details
  • Archdeacon Anaru Takurua : ko tōna whakapapa, whakapono me tōna whakapono me tōna whakatika : "I am what I am" : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Māori Studies at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Keelan, Ngaio Petra (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Archdeacon of Waiapu Anaru Takurua from Te Whanau-a-Ruataupare in Tokomaru Bay was an accomplished kapa haka exponent in his time, with over 60 years of kapa haka experience. He was also a Mihingare priest for Te Pihopatanga o Aotearoa for over 40 years, and a tutor of Te Hokowhitu-a-Tu kapa haka. However, up till now there had been no full-length biography written about him, due to the dearth of published literature. This research explores the history and background of Anaru focussing on the themes whakapapa, whakapono and whakatika. This thesis is organised in a chronological structure centred on the thematic selection based on the rationale that they frequently feature prominently in Anaru’s life story. This study utilised a Maori-centred research approach in conjunction with a biographical narrative method in analysing the data collected. Anaru’s own personal transcripts that transpired last year from an interview conducted shortly before his passing ten years ago, also complements this research. Supplementing these transcripts are the narratives of kaumatua rangatira participants, who knew him personally, grew up with him or worked with him throughout his life. This study found that Anaru worshiped God in his own true authentic voice, and affirmed his identity as a man of God in Aotearoa –New Zealand. He implemented the guitar, haka, poi and waiata-a-ringa into his karakia services as cultural tools of worship to express the highest activity of the spirit and love of God. Anaru understood the value of whakapapa and as a result committed himself to using his innate gifts, talents and leadership qualities in the church, on marae and in the community. He remained committed to his love for God, his family, marae and church. As a result he devoted years to maintaining and retaining the knowledge endowed to him and transmitted this korero tuku iho, and taonga tuku iho onto the next generation. Even when at times it was met with resistance from both maori and non-maori, believers and non-believers.

    View record details
  • An assessment of the income allocation, living standards, housing and living circumstances of low income households in the Auckland Region in 1998 : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts (Social Sciences) in Social Policy at Massey University

    Nsiah, Johnson Emmanuel (1999)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis addresses one important area of social policy; that is, housing which is broadened to include the income allocation and living standards of low income households in the Auckland region. The study used three focus group discussions with five to seven participants from specific groups of low income households in the cities of Manukau and North Shore to focus ideas and viewpoints. Twelve participants (eight from Manukau City, three from North Shore City and one from Auckland City) took part in interviews, which took between 60 and 90 minutes to complete. These participants represented five single parent and three superannuitant beneficiary households and four low income-working non-beneficiary households who supplemented their low income with supplementary payments from Work and Income New Zealand and Inland Revenue Department. Both the group fora and the interviews were recorded on audiotapes and transcribed. The study used the following measures to ascertain the living standards and quality of life of the 12 households studied: income and expenditure approach, relative deprivation approaches, disadvantage indicators and social exclusion, money problem indicators, housing needs or difficulties and qualitative research approach. It was found that most of the 12 households studied: • had experienced poverty, hardships and a reduction in their standard of living and quality of life as compared to the average New Zealand household. • were not adequately housed because of the difficulties of housing affordability and unacceptable housing maintenance by Housing New Zealand. Whilst the Accommodation Supplement was assisting most of the 12 households studied to pay housing costs, 11 of the 12 households who were State House tenants had great difficulty in paying market rents. • were unable to manage their money problems and had to rely on coping strategies such as the use of foodbanks, food vouchers and second hand goods. The findings of this thesis are a powerful indictment on the Income Support, Market Rent and Accommodation Supplement policies of New Zealand Governments from 1991 to 1998. These policies have clearly abandoned 'participation and belonging' as the underlying principle of social policy.

    View record details
  • Interaction within the therapeutic relationship : exploring the relationship between the music therapy practices of a music therapy student and the concepts used in intensive interaction : an exegesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Music Therapy, Te Kōkī New Zealand School of Music, Wellington, New Zealand

    How, Shona Louise (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This research project explores the relationship between the music therapy practices of a music therapy student and intensive interaction, a teaching model of communication used with children, young people and adults who experience challenges with learning and relating to others. Secondary analysis of clinical records (session notes and video footage) was used in this theoretical research, using both inductive and deductive methods of micro-analysis to explore the relationship between the two approaches. Themes included two relatively distinct forms of interactive communication – communication which predominantly used music and communication which used other modes. These two groups were then divided into further themes including: elements of music and improvisational musical techniques; visual cues; vocal activity; gestures and body language; movement activity and time/space. These themes were then correlated and compared with the corresponding features and descriptions of improvisational music therapy and intensive interaction. The findings suggest there is a relationship between the concepts used intensive interaction and the improvisational music therapy practices of the music therapy student; they both share features of the naturalistic processes of ‘infant-caregiver interactions’ within the elements of music, with both parties fine-tuning to one another’s rhythmic, melodic, textural and temporal nuances. However, improvisational or creative music therapy combines more complex usage of the elements of music including musical form, structure and texture to provide an interpersonal experience through a therapeutic relationship. That relationship is reliant on the music therapist’s sophisticated skills to combine emotion and music within the improvisational process. The strengths and limitations of the study are stated along with implications for training and further research in the field of music therapy and special education.

    View record details
  • Eating habits and nutrition attitudes among pregnant Chinese women in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Nutritional Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Ma, Jingjing (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Immigration to a Western country can lead to dietary changes among Chinese immigrants, which can cause poor diets and health problems. Chinese immigrants' eating habits might be influenced by both Western and traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) nutrition recommendations. These two nutrition recommendations point out eating and nutrition during pregnancy is crucial for both maternal and fetal health, and they provide suggestions on eating habits during pregnancy. The population of Chinese women of reproductive age in New Zealand has increased dramatically. Since there is a lack of evidence about the eating habits and nutrition attitudes of pregnant Chinese women in New Zealand, the current study investigates pregnant Chinese women's eating habits, attitudes towards both Western and TCM nutrition, and possible relations to acculturation. Pregnant Chinese women in New Zealand were recruited mainly via a Chinese website, communities, churches, and the “snow-ball” model. The immigrants' eating habits, attitudes towards Western and TCM nutrition recommendations, and acculturation were measured by an online questionnaire. The questionnaire was completed by 84 pregnant Chinese women, with a median age of 30.0 (95% CI 29.0 - 30.6). The participants' acculturation score was comparatively low (1.98 ± 0.592) compared with the theoretical score range (1.0 to 5.0). Regarding New Zealand nutrition recommendations, some of the findings cause concerns: (1) most of the participants did not meet the recommended intake of vegetables, cereals, and dairy food during pregnancy; (2) although a large proportion of the participants had positive attitudes towards recommended supplements and food for pregnancy, they did not follow the recommendations in practice, especially for the iodine supplements and food rich in iodine (e.g., bread and breakfast cereals). However, it is positive to find that: (1) most of the participants always consumed folic acid supplements during the first trimester of pregnancy; (2) a majority of the participants thought it was important for them to limit fat, salt, and sugar intake and most of them seldom or never eat food high in fat, sugar, and salt. A majority of the participants had positive attitudes towards TCM, including: (1) balancing cold and hot (or yin and yang) foods and adjusting their diets according to seasons or body constitutions; (2) eating less greasy food, eating more light food, and eating more spleen and stomach strengthening food. However, only a small proportion of participants had positive attitudes towards foods with specific TCM features and did not consume these foods no matter whether they are recommended by TCM nutrition for pregnancy or not. Meanwhile, a considerable proportion of the participants reported neutral attitudes towards caring and learning about nutrition and most of the TCM nutrition recommendations. Acculturation was positively associated with meeting the New Zealand recommended intake from food groups, but was not positively associated with other eating habits. Acculturation was not related to most nutrition attitudes. It was only positively associated with attitudes towards Western nutrition recommendations for pregnant women and their attitudes towards TCM nutrition recommendation for healthy eating for adults. In addition, there was a positive correlation between attitudes towards Western nutrition and TCM nutrition (p < 0.05). The above findings of the current study provide useful information for health professionals who work with Chinese immigrants in New Zealand. In particular, health professionals should help immigrants to consume sufficient servings of foods and understand the importance of consuming iodine supplements during pregnancy. Additionally, it might be helpful for health professionals to be familiar with overall TCM nutrition recommendations.

    View record details