17,190 results for Masters

  • Blueprint for defence : Labour-Alliance defence policy and the Inquiry into defence beyond 2000 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Defence and Strategic Studies at Massey University

    Krogt, Francis van der (2001)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    New Zealand's defence policies and the New Zealand Defence Force's (NZDF) military capabilities have long been the subject of vigorous public debate. At the centre of the debate have been questions over the need to retain military capabilities usually associated primarily with fighting wars, rather than performing tasks of a lower intensity. This debate reaches a crescendo whenever these capabilities require restoration or upgrading. In the late 1980s and throughout the 1990s, the plans to replace the Royal New Zealand Navy's Leander class frigates with ANZAC class frigates and the Royal New Zealand Air Force's Skyhawk fighters with F-16s occasioned some of the most sustained and bitter disagreements that New Zealand has ever seen. Underlying the debate over capabilities are deeper divisions over a range of issues, such as the appropriate role for the NZDF when the odds in the short to medium term of an attack on New Zealand are so slight. Defence policy statements under successive National-led Governments during the 1990s argued that despite the absence of a military threat, New Zealand's defence policy should be premised on the possibility that a serious military contingency affecting New Zealand's interests could occur well before New Zealand could raise forces to meet the threat - hence the need to retain the widest possible range of options even in times of relative peace.2 2 New Zealand Ministry of Defence, 1996 Defence Assessment, Wellington, 1996, pp.1, 23. It was further argued that other useful objectives would be met by this policy. Critics of this position argue that defence policy would be eminently more useful if it were to concentrate on meeting challenges and performing tasks that can be more confidently expected in the short to medium term. Peacekeeping is often said to be foremost among these tasks. [From the introduction]

    View record details
  • A case study of the implementation of learning styles in two primary school classrooms : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Educational Administration at Massey University

    McCallum, Jeannette Frances (2000)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The aim of the National Curriculum is to: Seek to raise the achievement levels of all students and to ensure that the quality of teaching and learning in New Zealand schools is of the highest international standard. (Ministry of Education, 1993) However, current assessment of children's achievement in the New Zealand education system suggests that not all children are successful learners, despite restructuring of the education system and recent curriculum reform. Educational statistics indicate the aim of the National Curriculum is not being achieved. International mathematics results from the Ministry of Education (1997) Third International Maths and Science Study, state that New Zealand has scored below the international average at Year 5 and Year 8 levels. In Ministry of Education (1996) National Education Monitoring Project, non-Maori students performed better than Maori students in all ten Reading and Speaking tasks at Year 4 and six of ten tasks at Year 8 level. Ten years after 'Tomorrow's Schools' Wylie (1999) reports that children from low-income homes and Maori children have gained least from the reforms (p. 7). It therefore seems reasonable that other options for improved student achievement need to be considered. Although there is extensive literature in the U.S.A. about the effectiveness of the Learning Styles approach, there has been little research conducted in New Zealand primary schools. This study reports on the experience of three classes of primary school children (a Year 4 and 5 class for term 4 in 1998 and two Year 3 and 4 classes in 1999) where the teachers attempted to match instruction, learning context and children's preferred learning styles. The study focuses on the following questions: 1. Does knowing one's learning style improve students' learning? 2. To what extent is learning improved when instruction and learning context matches students' learning styles? 3. What are the principal difficulties in implementing learning styles in classrooms, as perceived by teachers? The case study concludes, from the perceptions of children and teachers, that matching learning styles with instruction and learning context does improve learning, especially for those children who underachieve or who learn differently. However, the two teachers report that although they consider the learning style theory is valid and is seen to improve learning and teaching, practicalities of implementation are problematic. Implementing a new teaching methodology is not a simple process. Effective implementation of learning styles requires a paradigm shift in teachers' ideology from teacher-centred to child-centred learning. Whether this paradigm shift is possible within our current educational system, driven by 'New Right ideology' and the traditional concept of a state primary school, is discussed. The study focuses on three issues in the implementation of learning styles: the need for a paradigm shift; school culture and management structures; and, understanding how teachers develop expertise. The study suggests directions for further research, including an action research study to implement a school wide initiative to cater for students learning through their preferred learning styles. Further research could focus on the process of implementing methodological innovations through analysing the institutional setting; its structures, cultures, management styles and practices. Research that focuses on a whole school, as opposed to a single classroom, may provide insight into greater understanding of implementation of changes and achieving a paradigm shift from 'traditional' to 'modern' teaching methodologies.

    View record details
  • The autecology and conservation of the North Island Weka (Gallirallus australis greyi) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in ecology at Massey University

    Bramley, Gary Neil (1994)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    I studied a population of weka in the Waikohu Valley, Rakauroa, near Gisborne from March 1992 to January 1994 using radio telemetry to determine productivity, home range size and resource selection by weka. Fifty-six weka were banded and 28 wore radio transmitters for 1-312 days. The population was estimated to be 39 resident adult birds from call count surveys and banding. Most (68.6%) adult birds found during the study were probably males. The Rakauroa weka population may be declining at a rate of 4 birds per year and without immediate management extinction is likely. Weka productivity was very low, with 12 eggs needed to produce 1 independent chick. Twenty-five breeding attempts were discovered and breeding occurred throughout the year. The reason for this low productivity was not determined, but predation on eggs and chicks by introduced mammals is likely. The first evidence of predation on adult weka by ferrets (Mustela putorious furo) was recorded with 2 radio-carrying birds and 1 other being killed by a ferret. Weka feathers were also found in the gut of a female ferret killed in October 1993. The main cause of weka mortality was being run over by traffic. Six weka died in this way. Weka were found in damp, scrubby areas and occupied mostly ungrazed scrub and bush and woodpiles within their home ranges. Weka used an average of 10.00 hectares with males using significantly larger areas than females. Adults used larger areas than juveniles. Weka were secretive and crepuscular, generalist feeders who used food in proportion to its availability. To test the hypothesis that predation on eggs and chicks was limiting productivity of weka pairs at Rakauroa, I compared the productivity of weka in predator free areas with that of weka in areas with a normal predator density (control areas). The two weka pairs I observed breeding in predator free areas reared 5 chicks to independence. Two pairs in control areas reared no chicks to independence despite 3 breeding attempts. The release of captive-bred weka at Karangahake Gorge by the Royal Forest and Bird Protection Society in 1992 and 1993 provided an opportunity for me to compare the movement, diet and survival of weka at Karangahake with that of weka at Rakauroa. Any difference between weka in the 2 areas may indicate possible reasons for the success or failure of the release. Predation (mainly by dogs, Canis familiaris) was found to be the reason why weka carrying radios released at Karangahake failed to persist. Of 17 birds released between October 1992 and March 1993 only one was known to be alive by 24 June 1993. This has important implications for future releases of weka. The future monitoring and management of weka is discussed in light of my findings. Weka management should begin immediately on the East Coast. Management should aim to improve the production and survival of young weka by predator removal. Areas of scrub and cover should be targeted for management and publicity to lessen the destruction of this habitat and the weka road toll is necessary. The release of weka at Karangahake should not continue, these birds being made available for release at a more suitable site. The release of females (either captive-bred or from offshore islands) into areas such as Rakauroa to improve breeding success and link small remnant populations on the East Coast should be considered.

    View record details
  • EEO and the promotion of women in the secondary education sector : legislating for change : a thesis submitted in partial fulfulment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Educational Administration at Massey University

    Spence, Gail P (1995)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis explores the ways in which two co-educational secondary schools in Aotearoa-New Zealand responded to the requirement under the State Sector Amendment Act (1989) to develop and implement an equal employment opportunities (EEO) policy that would enable women to move into senior administrative positions. The period covered is the May 1989-July 1992 term of office of the new Boards of Trustees established under the Tomorrow's Schools reforms. The study presents, examines and theorises the social, political and educational contexts in which the policy evolved. In the attempt to locate significant sites of struggle in the EEO debate and assess their implications for the promotion of women teachers to senior positions in educational administration, a political model of policy is employed based on a theory of discourse inherent in feminist post-structuralist perspectives. The focus of the research study is on the EEO policy implementation process as it was occuring in two historically specific settings. That process consisted of ongoing struggles between contenders of rival and competing interests. These interests construed in and through discourses specific identities, roles and attributes which were seen to compose our subjectivities, shape decisions and affect appointment practices and outcomes. Interviews were held during 1992 with eighteen personnel in a range of teaching and administrative positions in the two schools. The transcripts were then used to produce a view of the discursive constructions within the field of EEO and place these alongside existing written reports and records, official policy documents and literature analyses. The study found evidence of an internal struggle between competing models of EEO. As well, EEO was discursively constructed as a unified concept through a discourse which competed for allegiances against other discourses within the power networks. Specifically, attention was paid to mapping the links between "teachers, gender and careers" (Acker, 1989) and to the complex positioning of multiple discourses within merit as an ideological construct. This thesis opens up to scrutiny particular discursive constructions and uses, and argues the need to recognise and assume responsibility for each of our own discursive practices and positionings. This necessitates working towards coherence between the discourses of EEO and the discourses of secondary education sector employers' personal and broader professional lives.

    View record details
  • Using parent newsletters to enhance junior primary school mathematics : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Educational Studies (Mathematics) at Massey University

    Savell, Janice Robyn (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Parent Newsletters were investigated as a means of increasing home-school contact in the Junior Primary School mathematics classroom. An action research model using three cycles, was used to develop and trial the newsletter. The first newsletter was based on BSM activities and used by five teachers at a school sited in a military housing area. The second and third formats of the newsletters were written in consultation with one teacher to integrate with her topic based mathematics programme in a Palmerston North primary school. A questionnaire was used to gather background information and invite parents to be interviewed for further comments. Teachers and responding parents were interviewed in a semi-structured format. Participants commented on a range of other home-school contact issues. A follow-up interview was conducted with the parents from the Palmerston North school three months after the newsletters had ceased. Teachers and parents were positive about the benefits of the newsletters. Newsletters did increase parental awareness of the junior school mathematics programme. For one child with special needs an obvious improvement in classroom performance was directly attributable to the effect of the newsletters. Interviews revealed a number of inconsistencies between parents and teacher views of their roles and responsibilities. Problems of parent-school communication were highlighted. Teachers supported the newsletters, but felt that heavy workloads did not allow time for teacher production. The research tentatively confirms the value of mathematics newsletters as a means of helping children and as a means of keeping parents informed. additionally, the research gives rise to questions on the duality of information flow and equality of benefits accrued.

    View record details
  • The mediating role of workplace relationship and communication satisfaction on the relationship between e-mail attitude and organisational commitment : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University (Albany)

    Marchant, Lynette K (2000)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    As an exploratory piece of research, this study investigated the use of e-mail by university staff and examined the relationship between e-mail attitude and organisational commitment. The mediating role on the attitude-commitment relationship by both satisfaction with overall communication and satisfaction with workplace relationships was also examined. A questionnaire was designed which incorporated Minsky and Marin's (1999) scale of Social and Nonsocial Uses of Electronic Messaging Systems, measures of satisfaction with the use of e-mail and with e-mail as a communication medium, Meyer and Allen's (1993) revised Organisational Commitment Scale, and subscales from Hill, Bahniuk and Dobos' (1989) Mentoring and Communication Support Scale and Furnham's (1996) Organisational Climate Questionnaire. A scale to measure e-mail attitude was developed specifically for this study using the tri-component model of attitude theory. The questionnaire was sent to all staff at Massey University's Albany and Palmerston North campuses (N = 2253). Of the number sent, 575 were returned, with a proportional representation from the two campuses and the five colleges of the university. Use of e-mail was found to be predominantly used for task related purposes, with administration being the most commonly reported function that e-mail was used for. Factor analysis demonstrated three underlying components, affective, behavioural and cognitive, of the E-mail Attitude Scale. A series of hierarchical multiple regressions as outlined by Baron and Kenny (1986) were conducted to explore the potential mediating effects of both communication satisfaction and workplace relationship satisfaction. Communication satisfaction completely mediated the relationship between affective attitudinal component and both normative and affective organisation commitment. In turn, the satisfaction with workplace relationship variables partially mediated the relationship between the affective attitude component and affective commitment, with only collegial social support partially mediating the relationship between affective e-mail attitude and normative commitment. The results are discussed in relation to relevant demographic variables. Limitations and potential directions for future research are also highlighted.

    View record details
  • The repudiation movement : a study of the Maori land protest movement in Hawkes Bay in the 1870's : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University.

    Cole, Sharron Mary (1977)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The Repudiation Movement was a Maori land protest organization that aroused suspicion and fear in the minds of Europeans in Hawkes Bay in the 1870's. It was a movement that adopted European methods and institutions as its means for solving land grievances and was led by influential Chiefs and by some Europeans. This adoption of the movement by these Europeans led to much animosity and conflict and accentuated the polarization of European political factions at provincial and national level. Despite its evident uniqueness when compared with other Maori protest movements, the Repudiation Movement has yet to become the object of an historical analysis that poses the obvious questions - how and why? M.P.K. Sorrenson, M.D.N. Campbell and Alan Ward have mentioned it briefly in their historical studies of broader issues and have made a number of fairly general observations about its causes and methods. The only detailed study that has been aimed specifically at Maori land protest in Hawkes Bay is P.J. Coleman's M.A. thesis in 1949.(1) (1) P.J. Coleman, 'The Native Lands Act and Hawkes Bay: Some Considerations on the Alienation of Maori Land in the Provincial Period of Hawkes Bay Government', Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Victoria University, 1949. Coleman's work concentrated mainly on the period of the 1860's following the Native Land Act and examined in depth the Hawkes Bay Native Lands Alienation Commission of 1873 largely ignoring the protest after 1873. Coleman's analysis was somewhat restricted by his lack of sources and his undue reliance on the Hawkes Bay Herald which research has shown must be used with great caution as it was an instrument of propaganda against the movement.

    View record details
  • Making a difference : the lived world of nursing practice in an acute care setting : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Nursing at Massey University

    Paterson, Bronwyn (1989)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study examines the practice world of twenty two registered nurses working in medical and surgical wards of an acute general hospital in New Zealand. It is argued that nursing practice is a complex, context-specific, activity and needs to be studied using methods that do not assume an objective, context-free reality. The work of Patricia Benner (1984) guided this study which utilised a qualitative research approach to enter the lived world of nursing practice. Through descriptions of work days and a sharing of clinical exemplars, an understanding of the broader context of nursing practice was gained, areas of skilled performance in nursing emerged, and the meaning of making a difference for the nurses in the study examined. The central role of mutual advice and support in facilitating significant incidents in practice was apparent. An examination of the types of experiences which challenge current practice and change it in some way provided insight into the importance of experience in developing clinical expertise and the vital role of local knowledge in facilitating practice. Nursing practice emerged as crucial to patient welfare and safety in the acute care setting.

    View record details
  • Comparative ecology of northern brown kiwi (Apteryx australis mantelli) in Tongariro National Park and Tongariro Forest Park, central North Island : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science at Massey University

    Miles, J. R. G. (Jonathon Roger Graham) (1995)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Biological aspects of calling, range size, roost choice, feeding ecology, and potential threats faced by Northern brown kiwi (Apteryx australis mantelli) are described for a 14 month study in two conservation areas in central North Island, Tongariro National Park and Tongariro Forest Park. In Tongariro Forest Park 73% of calls were made by males. The 3:1 ratio of male:female calls changed seasonally, with the proportion of female calls increasing over winter and spring. Total call rates also increased during these seasons. Between nights call rates varied irrespective of season. Temperature and rain accounted for 44% of this variation. During the night, calling behaviour was bimodal, with the majority of calls occurring in the first and last three hours of darkness. In winter and spring males called, on average, 20 minutes later than in summer and autumn. Thirty times more calls hour-1 were heard in Tongariro Forest Park than in Tongariro National Park. Density of kiwi was estimated to be 1 bird/km2 in Tongariro National Park, and 4 birds/km2 in Tongariro Forest Park. This suggests that call rates are not linearly related to the number of kiwi present in an area. Practical implications of this for the interpretation of kiwi call surveys are discussed. Home ranges of kiwi varied from 30.8 to 91.8 ha. Range size of paired females tended to be larger than those of paired males. The range of an unpaired male was significantly larger than those of the paired males and paired females. Female home ranges overlapped more than male home ranges. Kiwi varied considerably in their choice roost. Roost type was dependent on habitat type. Roosts associated with fallen trees and surface roots were the most frequently used type. Kiwi infrequently used one roost site more than once, those roosts that were reused were large burrows of unknown size. Male kiwi used surface vegetation more often than females, while the females favoured roosts associated with hollow logs, and/or roots. Territory size may be a consequence of habitat. During 14 months of sampling, higher numbers and greater taxonomic diversity of invertebrates was found in Tongariro Forest Park than in Tongariro National Park with 55% of taxa common to both areas. Seasonal changes in the taxa found in faeces reflected seasonal changes in apparent invertebrate abundance. Kiwi also appeared to focus on a particular taxon, suggesting that they are selectively opportunistic feeders. Mammalian predators pose a major threat to the long-term survival of kiwi in the central North Island. Predator surveys indicated possums, cats, dogs, and stoats were present in Tongariro Forest Park and Tongariro National Park. A ferret was caught in Tongariro National Park, and pigs were observed only in Tongariro Forest Park, but probably ferrets and pigs are present in both sites. No significant difference was found between the numbers of stoats trapped in the two study areas. Local morphometric variation appeared to occur, with adult male stoats collected in Tongariro National Park being larger, on average, than their counterparts collected in Tongariro Forest Park. There were differences between areas in the average size of prey items with the average size of prey being larger in Tongariro Forest Park than in Tongariro National Park. Future conservation and management issues for Northern brown kiwi are discussed.

    View record details
  • The effect of 40 years of effluent irrigation on soil and pasture properties of the Lactose New Zealand land treatment site : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Applied Science, Soil and Earth Sciences Group, Institute of Natural Resources, Massey University

    Robinson, Blair P (2000)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The Lactose New Zealand (LNZ) manufacturing plant, situated in South Taranaki, has an annual average daily effluent output of 1400-1600 m3, over 11 months of the year. Total effluent loading rates are approximately 5000 m3 ha-1 yr-1 . Effluent composition is extremely variable and characterised by high levels of suspended solids, BOD5, COD, K, total P and Na and low pH. Land treatment of effluent has been occurring for approximately forty years and currently effluent is irrigated onto three dairy farms in the vicinity of the manufacturing plant. LNZ has experienced some difficulties in operating and managing both the land treatment system and the dairy farms. Problems have related to the degradation of soil, pasture, surface water and groundwater quality. This study aims to describe the current status of the land treatment system through characterisation of the soil and pasture resource. Factors examined included soil physical, chemical and biological properties, the quality of pasture and the effect of a grazing event on some soil properties. This study has identified some trends that can be used to estimate the rate of change in soil properties due to the addition of effluent under the present conditions. There is the risk of a further decrease in soil bulk density, combined with increased soil moisture content, resulting in treading damage by grazing animals. The soil system still has a very large capacity to fix phosphate. However, of some concern in the likelihood of surface runoff containing high concentration of P as a result of high levels of available P in the top 0-7.5 cm. The current policy of planting riparian strips should reduce this environmental threat. The study suggests that forty years of effluent irrigation has had a considerable effect on soil, pasture and groundwater and surface water quality at the LNZ site. The system will require careful management to ensure the sustainable land treatment of LNZ effluent. Alternative management options are discussed.

    View record details
  • Assessing the portability of the standard shiftwork index : the impact of shiftwork on New Zealand : television production sample : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Goddard, Teresa Anita (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The portability of the Standard Shiftwork Index (SSI) and the impact of shiftwork was assessed on a sample of television production employees in Auckland, New Zealand. Sixty three respondents completed the SSI and reported a moderate impact of shiftwork on physical and psychological health and moderately high sleep disturbance. Social and domestic life yielded the greatest detrimental impact. Gender related coping strategies was the only significant difference within the sample. Chronic fatigue, somatic anxiety, general job satisfaction and disengagement were significantly related to intention to leave the organisation. Statistical analysis of effect size indicated equivalent levels of power in both the U.K and the present sample. Overall, the results for the present sample were comparable to the U.K sample, indicating the portability of the SSI to the present sample. Organisational restructuring was considered a potential moderator of the overall moderate impact of shiftwork on the sample.

    View record details
  • Gender, culture and business assistance in Western Samoa : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University

    Shadrake, Andrew (1996)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis examines the question: How far did the planning and implementation of the Small Business Enterprise Centre of Western Samoa take into account the gender and culture perspectives of development, and to what degree are those perspectives reflected in its outcomes? It does so by reviewing the gender and culture perspectives of development, and concluding that each can be divided into two approaches. The gender perspective comprises the market approach, which aims to use women's effort to achieve economic growth, and the empowerment approach, which aims to increase the ability of women to alter the gender balance of women and men, in favour of women. The culture perspective comprises both the utilitarian approach, which advocates adapting development projects to local culture to make them more likely to succeed, and the moral approach, the purpose of which is to reduce the harmful effects of development on indigenous culture. The thesis identifies indicators of the different approaches in a development project, and then uses a four-stage analytical model to discover whether they were present in the Small Business Enterprise Centre of Western Samoa. The thesis concludes that the planning and implementation of the Small Business Enterprise Centre showed a limited application of the market and utilitarian approaches, but did not show any application of the empowerment or moral approaches, though the outcomes of the SBEC included some empowerment of women, and few harmful effects on Samoan culture. The thesis shows the primacy of neo-liberal thinking in New Zealand's overseas small-business development practice during the period 1990-1995, despite its stated concern for women and, to a lesser extent, for culture. The thesis reached three conclusions which concern wider issues: • While the nature of Western Samoan culture, and gender relations, is changing, there is no fundamental inconsistency between them and small business development. • Neo-liberalism can adopt perspectives of development which appear to spring from a concern for social welfare, and turn them to its own ends. • The combination of indicators of different perspectives and the four-stage analytical model used in the thesis can be used, very effectively, for detailed assessment of the planning, implementation and outcomes of a development project.

    View record details
  • Te tohu-a-Tuu = The sign of Tuu : a study of the warrior arts of the Maori : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Maori Studies at Massey University

    Reedy, Hirini George (1996)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The title "Te Tohu-a-Tuu (The Sign of Tuu)" is the name of a taiaha on-guard position that invokes Tuu, the Maori god of war. It has been chosen to reflect the subject of Maori warfare in the pre-European period. Maori warfare during this period was very much influenced by the cosmological and environmental beliefs of the Maori. These beliefs were mainly articulated through the oral histories of the Maori. Accounts of pre-European Maori warfare has mainly been written by early European historians who were greatly influenced by the prevailing social customs and intellectual thinking of the time. No linkage was made between the Maori protocols and processes of warfare with the cosmological and environmental beliefs practiced by the Maori. As a result the current understanding of Maori warfare has largely stemmed from written accounts by non-Maori. This thesis explores Maori warfare through the institution of Tuumatauenga, the ugly faced Maori god of war. It will show the processes and the protocols that the Maori warrior used to prepare the mind and body for war and battle in the pre-European period. This preparation often started in the womb and progressed from early childhood through to initiation, as a youth, into the schools of war. From here the student graduated on to the battle-field as a toa taua or warrior. Through personal prowess and skill at arms, the toa taua gained Ika-a-Whiro or war leadership status. The institution of Tuumatauenga is then linked with other Maori gods to show that Maori warfare and warrior arts were greatly influenced by cosmological and environmental beliefs.

    View record details
  • Pacific women's netball participation in Aotearoa/New Zealand : factors influencing participation : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters in Business Studies in Sports Management at Massey University

    Teevale, Tasileta (2001)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The purpose of this study was to explore the netball experiences of Pacific women in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Specific objectives were to identify reasons for participation, socialisation agents and the link between ethnicity and sport. A mixed-method approach was utilised to gather data. 157 netballers (age range 17-56+) completed a modified version of the Participation Motivation Questionnaire (Gill, Gross & Huddleston, 1983). Treatment of the scores by principal components analysis yielded seven factors: Aspects of Netball/Health & Fitness, Challenge, Social Status, Affiliation, Energy Release, Skills Development, and Family Affiliation. Focus group data (3 groups) confirmed the family as the most significant socialisation agent during initial involvement, and the salience of self-motivation for current participation. In addition, netballers articulated the existence of a "Pacific" style of play, which the author hypothesised, reflects the affects of a unique cultural background and sporting environment. The key implication of this research is the need for sport managers to deliver sport opportunities that meet the diverse needs of its multi-ethnic and multi-cultural participants in order to ensure continued participation. Areas for future research are identified.

    View record details
  • Employee perceptions of support for family friendly initiatives in the workplace : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    McAulay, Fiona Elizabeth (1999)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The present research investigated the relationships between levels of work-family/family-work conflict, the use of family friendly initiatives, and levels of perceived supervisor, co-worker, and overall organisational support. It has been suggested that the use and effectiveness of family friendly initiatives may be compromised due to unsupportive supervisor attitudes, co-workers, and organisational cultures. Thus, the relative importance of family friendly initiatives and informal workplace supports for the reduction of work-family conflict, and the influence of informal workplace supports on the use of these initiatives were of particular interest. Participants were employees in four medium to large organisations that were members of the Equal Employment Opportunities Trust, Work and Family Network. A questionnaire was developed that included existing scales as well as original items. Overall, 279 male and female employees returned useable questionnaires (a response rate of 37%). No significant relationships were found between the use of family friendly initiatives and work-family or family-work conflict. However, significant relationships were found between levels of work-family conflict and supervisor, co-worker, and overall workplace support. These informal workplace supportive variables were also shown to be more important to the prediction of work-family and family-work conflict, than was the use of family friendly initiatives. Levels of work-family conflict were greater for men than for women, and men's use of family friendly initiatives was significantly related to their perceptions of informal workplace support. No such relationship was found for women. The research demonstrated that informal workplace support was more important to the reduction of work-family and family-work conflict than the number of initiatives used. The importance of work-family conflict to men was highlighted, demonstrating the relevance of family friendly initiatives for both genders. The attitudes and expectations in the workplace that limit the use of initiatives, particularly by men, need to be changed. When introducing a family friendly programme, the needs of employees, the quality of the initiatives, the attitudes of supervisors and co-workers, and the expectations and structure of work within the organisation, must all be addressed to ensure that employees feel able to make use of the family friendly initiatives available.

    View record details
  • An appraisal-coping model of occupational stress outcomes : distress and eustress : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    McGowan, Jennifer (2004)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Occupational stress is a significant problem throughout the industrialised world. The prevalence of occupational stress is increasing and the negative consequences of stress for individual health and wellbeing are also acknowledged to be increasing. This attention to the negative aspects of stress is, however, one sided. Stress, if negotiated appropriately, can produce positive responses and outcomes (Nelson & Simmons, 2003). The present research returned to the original stress conceptualisation as proposed by Selye (1976) and addressed the positive response to the stress process, termed 'eustress'. The Transactional Model of Stress (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) was adapted by including eustress as the positive response to the stress process, in contrast to the negative response of distress. The model posits stress to be a process of transaction between an individual and their environment, and proposes two appraisal processes: cognitive appraisal of event meaning and appraisal of coping options. These aspects of stressor negotiation in turn determine the degree of eustress and distress experienced. Eustress and distress are further posited to be antecedents to positive and negative changes in long-term health, morale and social functioning. One hundred and forty four employees from three New Zealand organizations completed a questionnaire that assessed cognitive appraisals and coping processes used to deal with a stressful event and state affective responses as representative of eustress and distress. Eustress was represented by the work-related affective states of high pleasure/high arousal and hope. The precursors of eustress were challenge appraisal, adaptive coping and increased motivation. A measure of distress and a model of precursors to distress were also proposed but require further research.

    View record details
  • Needs, social support and psychological well-being in the older person : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Bailey, Robyn Dulcie (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The purpose of the present study was twofold. First, to investigate the relationships between functional ability, received social support and psychological well-being. Second, to determine whether formal tangible support was more effective than informal tangible support in reducing the deleterious effects of functional ability difficulties on the psychological well-being of older adults. Subjects were 89 older adults (aged 64 to 90 years) who were recruited from the A2 Service Coordination Database of the MidCentral Health Crown Health Enterprise. They were interviewed in their homes. The questionnaire was comprised of four sets of questions containing measures of functional ability, informal and formal tangible support received to help with functional ability difficulties, received general social support with three subscales (tangible support, emotional support and informational support) and psychological well-being. The results partially upheld the prediction that difficulties with functional ability would be related to lower psychological well-being; instrumental activities of daily living were related to lower psychological well-being, although this was not the case with activities of daily living. Social support was not found to be associated with psychological well-being with one exception; in the opposite direction to the hypothesis, higher levels of informal received needs-aligned tangible support were related to better psychological well-being. The results failed to confirm that formal or informal support buffered the negative impact that functional ability difficulties have on psychological well-being. Functional ability difficulties were associated with higher levels of all the forms of received social support except for informational support. The findings indicate that the problems with functional ability caused by chronic illness could be linked to lower psychological well-being in older adults. Tangible support from informal sources may be associated with better psychological well-being. The theoretical and methodological implications of the findings are discussed. It is suggested that future research investigate older adults attitudes towards receiving support from the different sources available to them.

    View record details
  • Changing work values? : a study of New Zealand employees in Japanese-owned subsidiaries : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Studies in Management at Massey University

    Evans, Paul N (1999)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Culture influences the way in which people work, therefore one's work values are influenced by national culture. An increase in globalisation has occurred, resulting in organisations having to adapt to cultural diversity within and between organisations, countries, and cultures. Japan adopted various production systems developed in the United States to rebuild their economy after World War II. Japan has since become an economic superpower, establishing operations in other countries, and transferring the same successful systems and techniques into other cultures. This research illustrates the influence of Japanese production systems and management techniques on the work values of New Zealand employees in two Japanese-owned subsidiaries. The findings indicate that while Japanese production systems and management techniques have been implemented within two participating subsidiaries, the influence of these systems tends to reinforce traditional work values rather than change them.

    View record details
  • Anorexia nervosa - its nature and treatment : a phenomenological investigation : a dissertation presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Education at Massey University

    Webb, Susan Bridget (1982)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study examined the psychosomatic syndrome of anorexia nervosa, its characteristics, etiology and effects. In addition the treatment of the disorder was considered from the perspective of the three psychotherapeutic approaches most commonly applied to it; psychodynamic, behavioural and family therapy. The historical emergence and identification of anorexia nervosa was briefly described and the emergence and development of the three treatment approaches were outlined. The diagnosis, characteristics, incidence and factors concerning outcome in the disorder were examined. Each treatment perspective was considered in turn by outlining its understandings of human functioning and approach to abnormal functioning in general. Its theoretical stance towards anorexia nervosa was elaborated and the treatment procedures based upon this described. Finally the outcome of treatment within each approach was considered. A case study method employing a phenomenological approach was used to explore the perceptions and experiences of seven subjects who were or who had been anorexic. In addition the perspective and experience of some of those closely associated with them at the time of their anorexia was also examined. Issues concerning the research method and the selection of the subjects were discussed and the nature of the contact with them and the manner in which the data was collected described. Data collected from the subjects, their associates, documentation provided by the subjects and observations were analysed into themes which emerged during the process of the data collection. These were grouped into four theme categories comprising: The Self-Physical, the Self-Psychological, the Self and Others and Intervention. The findings in each theme category are discussed in relation to existing literature. Major findings included an emphasis on issues concerning control and self concept in the disorder, a reluctance to develop sexual relationships and a continued concern about food, exercise and interpersonal relationships. Vocational choice indicated a preference for welfare-type work. Close family relationships were evident with some confusion apparent about female roles. Treatment experiences in the main tended to be perceived negatively in that they appeared largely controlling and insensitive. No one theoretical approach to the disorder could be identified as providing a completely comprehensive perspective with each having distinct advantages and disadvantages. Control and self-concept issues were identified as needing to be central to any consideration of anorexia nervosa treatment and it was reiterated that psychotherapeutic treatment needs as much as possible to recognize the unique nature of each case and not be too constrained by prescribed theoretical frameworks.

    View record details
  • The social construction of grief associated with sudden death : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Mist, Kevin E (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This research explores how grief is socially constructed, by analysis of the everyday language people use when talking about grief associated with the sudden or unexpected death of a family member. The study deconstructs grief talk in transcripts of interviews with ten participants recently bereaved. The texts were read and discourses producing grief and subjectivity are illustrated. With grief being constituted through language, this was analysed by use of Potter and Wetherell (1992) model of discourse analysis. The study tends to support the notion that there are idiosyncratic aspects to grief which are constructed and constituted in multiple discourses. Grief, is constructed as inner complex emotions that are influenced by social and cultural factors which bring understanding and meaning to the loss. Grief is something that people 'do' rather than something that is 'done' to them, and therefore, is personal management as people deal and cope with a mixture of other emotions and thoughts which are embodied within the individual. These emotions and thoughts to some extent are able to be controlled. Grief, although an inner complex emotional response to death, is dealt with and managed in social relatedness. However, there are aspects of grief that could not be constructed linguistically, suggesting that grief is not entirely socially or culturally constituted. Thus, there may be aspects to grief which are never resolved, as there are no words to give meaning to that experience. Grief, has many determinants which affect the outcome of bereavement.

    View record details