16,601 results for Masters

  • The social construction of grief associated with sudden death : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Mist, Kevin E (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This research explores how grief is socially constructed, by analysis of the everyday language people use when talking about grief associated with the sudden or unexpected death of a family member. The study deconstructs grief talk in transcripts of interviews with ten participants recently bereaved. The texts were read and discourses producing grief and subjectivity are illustrated. With grief being constituted through language, this was analysed by use of Potter and Wetherell (1992) model of discourse analysis. The study tends to support the notion that there are idiosyncratic aspects to grief which are constructed and constituted in multiple discourses. Grief, is constructed as inner complex emotions that are influenced by social and cultural factors which bring understanding and meaning to the loss. Grief is something that people 'do' rather than something that is 'done' to them, and therefore, is personal management as people deal and cope with a mixture of other emotions and thoughts which are embodied within the individual. These emotions and thoughts to some extent are able to be controlled. Grief, although an inner complex emotional response to death, is dealt with and managed in social relatedness. However, there are aspects of grief that could not be constructed linguistically, suggesting that grief is not entirely socially or culturally constituted. Thus, there may be aspects to grief which are never resolved, as there are no words to give meaning to that experience. Grief, has many determinants which affect the outcome of bereavement.

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  • Evaluation of an inpatient programme aimed at preparing "hard-to-place" chronically mentally ill for the community : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Hall, Marie (1995)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    With the continued policy of deinstitutionalising psychiatric inpatients, Lake Alice Hospital developed the Intensive Learning Centre (ILC) in an attempt to prepare their "hard-to-place" clients for successful community placement. The present research evaluated the ILC programme's ability to meet its' stated objectives, and compared the 15 ILC clients to a group of 26 clients who had been transferred to community placements 18 months earlier. Informant driven measures of adaptive and maladaptive behaviours were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the ILC programme, and to compare both subject groups on levels of functioning. The findings indicated a short-term (5 month) improvement in the general functioning levels of the ILC clients, but this improvement was not sustained at the 10 month follow-up. The ILC and community groups displayed similar levels in areas such as independent functioning, economic and domestic activity, violence, self-injury and verbal aggression. The community group demonstrated higher levels of functioning in areas such as social activity, self-care, community skills, antisocial behaviour, withdrawal and inappropriate behaviours. The implications and recommendations of these findings for the staff, clients and treatment programme are discussed.

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  • Evaluation in tertiary education : an investigation of the effectiveness of SGID (Small Group Instructional Diagnosis) as an evaluation technique to improve the quality of educational provision : being a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Educational Administration at Massey University

    Baker, Wendy (1995)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Quality today plays an increasingly prominent role in higher education world-wide and educational institutions are keen to acquire knowledge and strategies to address quality issues. This major focus on quality raises questions about how to evaluate quality to discover what are the quality issues in higher education and how to improve them. This thesis is an evaluation of an evaluation method called, Small Group Instructional Diagnosis (SGID). The aim of this research is to investigate the effectiveness of SGID as an evaluation technique for improving the quality of educational provision. To achieve this aim SGID processes were carried out in an Institute of Technology involving eleven classes (204 students and eleven lecturers) across four faculties and covered degree, diploma and certificate courses. By evaluating the data obtained from these SGID processes this thesis attempts to evaluate the effectiveness of SGID to contribute to the improvement of educational provision by identifying the quality issues as perceived by students and by evaluating the improvement in the quality of educational provision, defined here as, an increased level of change in the student perspectives on those areas identified by students as needing improvement. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluation techniques were used in this study. Qualitative techniques were used to identify the quality issues as perceived by the students, and largely quantitative techniques were used to monitor whether change took place. Interviews were used to gather the perceptions of change by the lecturers to the issues identified by the students and to elicit comments as to how they perceived the SGID process. The results revealed that when given the opportunity, students identify quality issues pertaining not only to classroom practice but significantly to departmental and institutional practices as well. This process highlighted the wide ranging concerns of the students for their total learning milieu and revealed the restrictive nature of most traditional evaluation techniques Student feedback also indicated that students do not see themselves as principally responsible for their learning but rather see responsibility lying with lecturers and departments. Lecturer interview comments indicated that they found the SGID method to be a powerful method for identifying quality issues about the total student learning experience but caution that it not be over-used or used exclusively. It is concluded that the majority of course evaluation methods currently in use focus on instructional practice only and therefore fail to capture adequately student feedback on departmental and institutional performance. The need to develop autonomous and self-directed learners by helping students to take increased responsibility for their own learning is identified as a challenge for lecturers. The results on change indicated that greater change took place for those issues under the control of the lecturers and students, with a decreasing amount of change for department issues and little change with institutional issues. This may be because such data is not usually the subject of evaluations so no feedback communication channels have been established. There may also be an element of inadequate time encompassed by this study to allow for change to take place at departmental and institutional level. When open ended approaches like SGID are used the educational provider can understand and capture students' points of view without predetermining those views by prior selection of categories and/or questions. The results from this study are a reflection of reality as perceived by students and have the potential to assist both the spread of practices perceived as helpful to learning and improvement in those practices perceived as hindering learning.

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  • An evaluation of the production and profitability of alternative management regimes for Pinus radiata on a high fertility site : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science in Plant Science at Massey University

    Blair, Alexander Jason (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Conversion of farmland to forestry is occurring at the rate of approximately 60,000ha/annum, much of it on hill country sheep and beef properties. The potential productivity of ex farm sites is high, mainly due to improved soil fertility but may produce trees with defects such as excessive branching, large branches and stem malformations. Adapting silvicultural practices to suit plantations on high fertility sites is necessary to effectively utilise this potential. However, many of the tools available for planning and assessing alternative silvicultural options in Pinus radiata stands have limitations for farm sites. This study utilises a 12.5ha stand of Pinus radiata established in 1973 on a Manawatu hill country sheep and beef property. Currently 'Tuapaka' has 31.3ha of Pinus radiata occupying land use capability class VI and VII. Of this total, 12.5ha is nearing maturity, while remaining areas are now reaching a stage where decisions on silvicultural management are necessary. The growth modelling system, STANDPAK, was used as an aid for developing and evaluating silvicultural options on Tuapaka. Existing Pinus radiata growth models have been primarily derived from traditional forest site data. They can be utilised for simulating growth on ex farm sites but will generally provide more accurate predictions of growth and yield if they are configured with local growth data. The EARLY and NAPIRAD growth models are recommended for simulating the growth of Pinus radiata on farm sites and formed the basis for the simulation of the Tuapaka stand. Inventory data, including diameter at breast height, mean crop height, and stocking were collected from the existing 12.5ha stand and used to configure these growth models and other STANDPAK components. Site index at Tuapaka was found to be 23m, with a high basal area increment potential. The best STANDPAK configuration combined the growth models EARLY (high +20% basal area increment) and NAPIRAD (switched at mean top height 18m). The results from this configuration predicted basal area to within 6% of the field estimate. These configurations were used to simulate and evaluate the growth of a new stand (at the 1ha level) for both clearwood and framing regimes. The combined influence of low site index and high basal area increment created problems associated with maintaining a target diameter over stubs (DOS) while utilising an acceptable number of pruning lifts. The required number of pruning lifts to achieve a 6.0m pruned height was able to be manipulated by delaying thinning, reducing the green crown length (CRL) at the first and second lifts, and maintaining a high ratio of unpruned trees through to thinning. Net present value (NPV) was primarily used as the selection criteria to determine the best regimes, because it reflects the final harvest revenues and associated silvicultural costs. The most profitable regime required a 3 lift pruning schedule. This regime provided the best compromise between final harvest value and silvicultural costs and was achieved by severe early pruning (CRL of 2.0m and 2.2m), delayed thinning, and maintaining a high ratio of unpruned to pruned trees. Clearwood regimes were more profitable than the framing regimes because of a higher average timber value which more than compensated for increased silvicultural costs and reduced log volume. The clearwood regime produced a final merchantable volume of 698m3 /ha, of which 37% graded in the higher value pruned log class. This regime had a pre tax net revenue of $39,500/ha and an NPV of $2,681/ha (8% discount rate). In contrast, the best framing regime produced a merchantable volume of 787m3/ha, a net revenue of $18,800/ha, and a NPV of $1,100/ha. The best clearwood and framing regime were subjected to economic analysis at the estate level (31.3ha) to determine the best silvicultural options for existing and future stands on Tuapaka. The clearwood regime was the most profitable, having a pre tax IRR of 9.1%, compared with 7.6% for the framing regime. These returns are likely to exceed the potential returns from farming, particularly on steep hill country.

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  • Electronic mail, an exploration of the level of use and knowledge of the email facility by Business Studies academic staff at Massey University : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Studies in Human Resource Management at Massey University

    Stirton, Nicole Lynn (1995)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Despite the widespread adoption and use of electronic mail in academia we still do not have a clear understanding of how well it is used or how knowledgeable users are of the email systems they use. In the present study, academic staff members in Business Studies at Massey University completed a questionnaire detailing their use of email in terms of frequency and ability to use sophisticated functions. The effects email has on communication behaviours, including effects on communication participants, content, and process was also investigated as well as the knowledge users had of the Massey University email system in particular, and the general process of communicating electronically. The sample included 72 respondents (a 47.5% response rate); of which 60% were male, 39% female, and one respondent failed to supply demographic information. The ages of respondents varied, with 29% in the 26-35 category, 38% in the 36-45 category, 32% in the 46-55 category, and 1 respondent was under 26 years old. The findings show that while the Massey University email facility is used relatively frequently, the level of sophistication in usage was quite low. Several interesting effects on communication were discovered; typically email provided a potential to communicate with a wider pool of people, although such potential is undermined by colleagues not having the facility, not using the facility if they do have it, and the difficulty in accessing email addresses. Respondents also recognised the need to alter the process of their communication when choosing to use the electronic medium as opposed to more traditional media. Generally, respondents had a sound knowledge of the email systems and packages that they used, although they were less able to identify all the facilities they had access to. Respondents had received different forms of written information and/or training on how to use email, and the helpfulness of such support was given mixed ratings. The present study is one of the few that looks at variation in behaviours and attitudes related to email from academic respondents that range in levels of use, including non-users and those demonstrating excessive levels of use. It shows distinct differences in the efficacy of the medium in academia as opposed to the business environment, and suggests that writers need to stipulate more clearly which setting they are referring to. The findings of the present study point to a need for more effective user support systems to encourage maximum use of the resource, the introduction of an international email directory, more widespread use of the facility, and the development of standardised norms or etiquette of use. The present study provided important basic information about the use and understanding of email among academics. It also lays the foundation for a longitudinal study of influences on changes in use and understanding following the implementation of the new email system and support network at Massey University.

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  • 'Intensification vs urban sprawl' : the cultural pull towards low density suburban living : a dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Resource and Environmental Planning at Massey University

    Hitchcock, Kylie Rochelle (2001)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    With the population of the Auckland region expected to reach 2 million people within the next 50 years, the physical form of the city is topical. The Regional Growth Strategy (RGS) and various other planning documents for the region apply New Urbanist principles of urban design, including compact development, and alternative transports. The focus of the current research looks generally at peoples preferred growth patterns. From the research conducted the following major themes emerged: - Renters and/or younger respondents favoured peripheral growth over compact; - Home Owners and/or older respondents favoured compact growth over continued peripheral growth; although compact development was only slightly preferred over peripheral and both options combined; - Planners strongly preferred compact development, yet none of those questioned chose this option for themselves; and, - Space, privacy, social issues, rural and natural values and proper provision of infrastructure were strong themes of discussion from all the respondent groups. The findings also illustrated a lack of appreciation from the general public of the benefits of medium density housing. Education and experience could enhance this understanding and reduce opposition to intensive developments in existing neighbourhoods. Finding a common link between 'consolidationists' and 'expansionists' is vital to the success of the RGS. Many of the concepts raised in support of compact development, including adequate provision of infrastructure, protection of rural and natural values and improved transport are likely to be positive outcomes of successful implementation of the RGS. The physical size of the city is important with regard to these three issues, as well as socially. Social issues were used to justify continued peripheral development by the respondents choosing this option, however a compact city can equally produce positive social benefits. For example 'walkability' positively impacts on public health and good urban design can encourage social interaction. Physical size relates directly to these notions which are promoted through more intensive urban form. The interrelationship between reasons for and against compact development should be more closely examined in the public realm.

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  • Population kinetics across the Indo-Pacific region : submitted in fulfillment of a Masters in Philosophy, Massey University, New Zealand

    Aliev, Aydar (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    No abstract. The following is taken from the outline: The Pacific region provides a natural system to study complex admixture. From a broad perspective, there were two waves of settlement; the first 45,000 years ago (Melanesian), and the second, approximately 5,000 years ago (Asian) [1]. According to recent research, Asian ancestry does not decline gradually across Island Southeast Asia, but instead dramatically decreases, forming a cline [2]. There are several hypotheses explaining why there is a drastic, but not gradual, change in genetic ancestry proportions (Asian to Melanesian) across the region. One of these is a steep change in environmental conditions in Eastern Indonesia, which complicates rice cultivation [3]. Another explanation can be the switch from matri- to patriarchal social systems [4]. The main goal of this project is to explore demographic factors, such as migration and selection, to see if they can explain the genetic ancestry distribution. The main theoretical question that I will answer is: what is the reason behind the steep change in genetic ancestry proportion across eastern Indonesia? One of the reasons behind this could be cultural selection, although selection is just a hypothesis and the process might be selectively neutral. Anthropological data from the region are quite sparse, and this leads to the second goal of the project: to infer the history of modern Pacific populations using genetic data.

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  • 'With the utmost precision and team play' : the 3rd New Zealand Division and Operation 'Squarepeg' : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts i(Defence & Strategic Studies)

    Mawdsley, Shaun (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis examines the influences and course of the 3rd New Zealand (NZ) Division’s preparations for Operation ‘Squarepeg’ in the Green Islands, in February 1944. It argues that as the largest New Zealand amphibious operation of the Second World War, ‘Squarepeg’ holds a key place in identifying the development of amphibious and jungle warfare doctrine within the New Zealand Army during the war. As such, it can indicate the abilities of the 3rd NZ Division to conduct combat operations in the South Pacific in 1944. The thesis shows that the New Zealand Army was unprepared for operations in the South Pacific, as it had neglected relevant inter-war developments. The hasty formation of the 3rd NZ Division in 1942, as a response to Japanese expansion in the South Pacific, served to highlight the challenges that the division and its commander, Major-General Harold Barrowclough, had to overcome. The studying of foreign doctrine to supplement the dearth of New Zealand material was vital for the 3rd NZ Division’s preparations for deployment. The thesis finds that matters were compounded by the influence of British military organisational standards despite the division operating in an American-run theatre of war. It provides details of the manner in which members of the division approached these issues while coordinating operations with the United States Navy. The importance of thorough training, a combined planning process, and stable relationships between commanders of all forces are identified as decisive factors to the outcome of operations in joint-combined theatres. The thesis concludes that the 3rd NZ Division’s preparations for Operation ‘Squarepeg’ were part of an incremental process of operational learning. This process, which was mostly successful, was unable to be properly tested on account of the division’s reliance on foreign assistance, lack of resources, and a lack of domestic support. These findings may prove an important source of information for a region which will become of increasing military importance.

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  • The effect of applications of different nitrogen types and potassium on seed quality and AR37 endophyte presence at different spikelet and floret positions of perennial ryegrass cv. Halo

    Wang, Muyu (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Nitrogen has been considered as an important nutrient in the terrestrial system. In the seed production of ryegrasses, one of the most popular pastures used in New Zealand and other temperate-zone areas, the application of nitrogen is responsible for improving seed yield and seed quality. Novel fungal endophytes are also now commonly used in perennial ryegrass pasture systems. The effect of different forms of nitrogen on seed quality and endophyte infection frequency and alkaloid concentration including spikelet/floret positional effects is also of interest to researchers. This study was designed to determine the effects of three nitrogen forms and potassium treatments (six in total) on the seed quality (purity, thousand seed weight (TSW), and germination) and AR37 endophyte presence in the offspring seedlings of the perennial ryegrass cv. Halo at three spikelet positions (top, middle and bottom). Also the effect of two nitrogen forms (nitrate and ammonium) at different floret positions was investigated. The two nitrogen forms (urea and nitrate) with potassium had a poorer seed quality compared with the control and all nitrogen treatments applied without potassium. Nitrogen application (any form by itself) did not affect TSW of ‘Halo’, but a reduction was found under urea or nitrate with potassium. Also, seed germination percentages were not affected by nitrogen type when compared with the control, but urea with potassium gave a lower germination than the three nitrogen forms alone; and nitrate with potassium was lower than just the urea treatment. In the purity test, urea applied alone had a higher pure seed percentage than the control and the other nitrogen forms applied alone, but, again, the nitrogen with potassium application had the poorest performance in the test. On the other hand, none of these seed quality parameters differed among the three spikelet positions (top, middle and bottom). Both nitrogen and potassium application and different spikelet positions did not affect endophyte content in the offspring seedlings of ‘Halo’.In the minor experiment, where seven floret positions and only two nitrogen forms (ammonium (NH4+)and nitrate (NO3-)) were compared, the individual seed weights of Halo in florets3, 4, and 7 under nitrate application were higher than that under ammonium. The seed weight in floret 7 wasthe only position lower than floret 1 and 2 when ammonium was applied. The germination percentages were not affected by the two nitrogen forms, nor were different floret positions. Further, nitrogen application also did not alter empty seed percentages (in frequency), but the basal florets produced less empty seeds. Differences in endophyte content between ammonium and nitrate applications were found only in floret position 1 where nitrate reduced endophyte. Also amongst florets under nitrate there was higher endophyte content in floret positions 2, 4 and 7.

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  • The impact of post death communication [PDC] on bereavement : thesis completed to fulfill the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts, Massey University, May 2014

    McCormick, Brigid (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Post Death Communication (i.e. perceived communication from someone who has died), has been part of the human experience since the earliest recorded history, and it is now known to be highly beneficial to almost all bereaved individuals who experience it. Despite the fact that PDC appears to be common to all cultures and is usually very welcome and very healing, it has been judged by Western society in a negative way and as a result, fear of negative judgment has meant that experients are hesitant to discuss it. Using Thematic Analysis, this study conducted a small qualitative investigation into the experience of PDC among New Zealand and North American populations. In a semi-structured interview, conducted face to face where possible, and by Skype where necessary, 14 participants aged between 52 and 80 years were asked about the nature of their PDC experience, how they felt about it, and how it impacted their bereavement. Results showed conclusively that PDC is welcome and beneficial, and that experients are wary of discussing it for fear of being judged negatively. Thematic analysis revealed a meta-theme of Affirmation – participants were unanimous in believing PDC to be beneficial. Within this meta-theme were the three themes of Comfort - PDC brings comfort to the bereaved; Continuity – PDC brings a sense of personal and relational continuation, and Growth - PDC brings a sense of personal growth and a change in values. A fourth theme arising from the analysis was Negativity. Participants expressed fear of being judged in a pejorative way for having experienced PDC. Since 2000 it has been possible to induce PDC in a clinical setting, thereby elevating what had been a serendipitous, random occurrence into a powerful therapeutic tool. The protocol of Induced PDC is practiced on five continents, yet few people in the healing professions are aware of it. In New Zealand, Induced PDC appears to be unknown. This means that grieving Kiwis are going without the therapeutic benefits of PDC. The findings of this thesis indicate spontaneous PDC as experienced by the sample is overwhelmingly beneficial, and they support the use of Induced PDC in therapeutic settings. The findings have implications for raising awareness about and the use of Induced PDC by New Zealand clinicians.

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  • How does the interaction between the Filamin A repeat 10 domain and F-actin lead to severe OPD skeletal disorders? : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Biochemistry at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Barzak, Fareeda Maged (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The cytoskeleton network allows cells to differentiate, divide, and move in response to the external environment creating a mechanoprotection system against cell stress. The actin cytoskeleton is stabilised and tightly regulated by various actin-binding proteins, one of which are the family of Filamin (FLN) proteins that crosslink F-actin into three-dimensional networks. Filamins also link the actin cytoskeleton to the cellular membrane through interactions with transmembrane proteins and function as a molecular scaffold for signalling molecules. In addition to an actin binding domain, each monomer contains a rod region of 24 immunoglobulin-like repeat domains with dimerisation of the monomers occurring at repeat 24. The human filamin family contains three FLN isoforms; FLNA, FLNB, and FLNC which are differentially expressed where FLNA is identified as the dominant isoform located on the X-chromosome essential for mammalian development. Mutations in Filamin A (FLNA) have been identified to cause distinctly different human diseases affecting the central nervous system, vascular system, or skeletal muscles; however, the molecular mechanisms of FLNA leading to these diseases remain unclear. Mutations cluster in distinct FLNA domains, suggesting their functional importance for mediating correct functions. Mutations in the FLNA repeat 10 domain are correlated with severe forms of the skeletal disorders Otopalatodigital syndrome spectrum disorders (OPD) thought to be due to an altered or gain-of-function phenotype. The aim of this study was to provide an insight into the biochemical properties of FLNA repeat 10 domain by better understanding how mutations in this domain lead to OPD. Initially, recombinant wildtype (Wt) and mutant (V1249A and A1188T) FLNA repeat 10 domain proteins (FLNAR10) were purified then compared by in vitro biochemical studies to investigate secondary structure, stability, and affinity towards F-actin. The FLNAR10 protein was revealed to have relatively weak binding affinity towards F-actin, consistent with being an additional contributor in the filamin protein to bind F-actin. Mutations in the FLNAR10 protein exhibited a slight increase in affinity towards F-actin, accompanied by a slight reduction of thermostability in comparison to the Wt protein, but no significant changes in the secondary structure were observed. This slight increase in the affinity of the mutant FLNA repeat 10 proteins towards F-actin is consistent with a gain-of function mechanism for the disease phenotype. Overall, these results contribute towards a better understanding of the FLNA function, providing further evidence towards a gain-of function mechanism for OPD.

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  • Corticosterone responses of captive and wild northern brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Zoology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Adams, Dominic Christian (2000)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Conservation strategies should work to mmnruse the occurrence of stressful situations, which are likely to result in chronic elevations of corticosterone. Consequently, identification of such situations would yield important information for conservation management. The objective of this study was to compare the basal levels of corticosterone and the corticosterone response of kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) in different management systems. Repeated blood sampling enabled us to describe the magnitude and duration of the corticosterone response, which is a measure of the sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HP A) axis to stress. All kiwi responded to capture and handling with a rise in plasma levels of corticosterone, which peaked 30 min after capture. Corticosterone levels immediately after capture in wild kiwi were significantly higher than those of captive kiwi. This was most likely due to the method of capture, as wild kiwi took considerably longer to catch than captive kiwi. The plasma level of corticosterone 30 min after capture in nocturnal house kiwi was significantly lower than wild kiwi, but similar to those in outdoor penned kiwi. The cause of these differences is unclear. Nocturnal house kiwi may have become habituated to the presence of humans. Alternatively, it may be due to nocturnal house kiwi being held on a different light cycle to outdoor pen and wild kiwi. In addition, corticosterone levels in nocturnal house kiwi returned to basal levels 2 h after capture and handling. There was no significant difference in the binding affinity (I(I) and binding capacity (Bmax) of corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) between nocturnal house, outdoor pen and wild kiwi. Furthermore, at no stage did maximum plasma levels of corticosterone exceed Bmax· Therefore, the Bmax of kiwi CBG was not a major factor when interpreting corticosterone responses of kiwi. Regularly handled kiwi do not respond to public display and handling with an increase in plasma levels of corticosterone. Therefore, these kiwi appear to have become habituated to this procedure. Elevated corticosterone levels in wild kiwi immediately after capture indicate that determining the precise location of wild kiwi is sufficient to induce a stress response. Therefore this practice should be kept to a minimum. Low basal levels of corticosterone indicate that captive kiwi have acclimatised to captivity. Furthermore, these results indicate that captive kiwi are not exposed to chronic elevations in corticosterone.

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  • A brief intervention to reduce offending : the study of a faith-based programme : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology at Massey University

    Lees, Jeffrey N (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Concern about the growing level and cost of criminal behaviour in New Zealand has resulted in a high priority being given to the research and development of effective interventions. The targeting of appropriate interventions to those at greatest risk of reoffending is identified as a key to successful outcomes. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Making Right Choices (MARC) programme in reducing offending of those at moderate to high risk of persisting in criminal conduct. MARC is a brief, faith-based, biblical approach to curtailing offending, developed at Tauranga Community Probation Service between 1993 and 2003. Seven recidivist male offenders, 19 – 26 years of age, volunteered to participate in this study. Five of the participants were prison inmates serving short sentences and two were on supervision in the community. Two risk measures (RoC*RoI and YLS/CLI) were used to ensure that participants met the medium/high risk criteria. In addition to attending the 10-session MARC course, participants were asked to undertake pre- and post-treatment assessments of antisocial attitudes, criminal associations and offending. Sessions were on average 60 minutes long, delivered one-on-one in an office setting. In addition to conviction history from the Law Enforcement System (LES), measures included the Measure of Criminal Attitudes and Associates (MCAA), the Social Problem Solving Inventory for Offenders (SPSIO), the Marlowe Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS) and the MARC Self-report Measure of Offending (MSMO). Follow-up assessment was carried out 6 months and 12 months after completion of the programme and/or release from prison. Results at six and twelve months after MARC showed that of the seven MARC participants, five had markedly reduced their offending on the selfreport measure, three had significantly less conviction on the LES measure, four recorded a distinct drop in contact with criminal companions and two had noticeably ameliorated their antisocial attitudes. Five participants were able to describe ways they had been helped by the programme. While the limitations of the methods preclude certainty about this programme’s effectiveness, the positive outcomes provide tentative support to the hypothesis that facilitating spiritual change can be an effective way to bring about cognitive and behavioural change with recidivist offenders.

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  • Digestibility of Fiberezy® and Timothy Haylage and behavioural observations and voluntary feed intake of FiberEzy® and rye clover hay in Thoroughbred horses : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Patel, Deepa (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis describes a field study, a laboratory study and two animal studies evaluating the production of timothy grass grown under New Zealand conditions, the composition of a commercially prepared ensiled lucerne and timothy mix ( FiberEzy®: a 50:50 timothy lucerne mix) and ensiled timothy grass;, the stability of FiberEzy® during 12 months of storage; and also the digestibility and voluntary feed intake of FiberEzy®, ensiled timothy grass and Rye-clover hay when fed to Thoroughbred horses. For the field study, grass samples were collected from a representative section (6m x 16m) of a field in Reporoa, (Waikato, New Zealand) sown with timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.) on the 10th of March 2010 at Longitude 176°34’E, Latitude 38°39’S. The samples were collected at regular intervals to investigate changes in the dry matter (DM), acid detergent fibre (ADF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and lignin content of the crop over the growing season. There was an increase (17.7to 35.89%) in the dry matter content and lignin content (3.0to 6.3%) of timothy grass over time as the grass matured. Once harvested and ensiled, a sample of timothy grass and FiberEzy® were analysed for total DM, percentages of: crude protein; crude fat; crude fibre; ash; gross energy; hot water soluble carbohydrates; pectin, (NDF), (ADF), lignin, and vitamin E content. Lab analysis showed that FiberEzy® had higher levels of crude protein, pectin, lignin, ash and vitamin E (p3% of the body weight. The horses were again stalled individually in loose boxes (4 x 4 m) lined with rubber matting. Voluntary feed intake was measured over 17 days. Day 1 to 8 was the adaptation phase and from day 9-17 of the study the horses were scan sampled and videoed for two hours every morning(9:30-11:30 am) after feeding and two hours in the evening (4:30-6:30 pm) after feeding. There were significant differences in VFI between time periods (24.3±0.9 vs 17.8±0.4 kg DM /day, p<0.05) and between feeds (FiberEzy®: 24.3±0.4 vs. Rye-clover hay: 17.8±0.7 kg DM /day) but not an interaction. Behaviours were typical of loose box housed horses and differences in feeding behaviour observed correlated with the differences in VFI measured between feeds. The results of this thesis suggest that FiberEzy® is a suitable alternative to concentrate-based supplementary feed.

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  • Primary school teachers [sic] perceptions of gender-based differences : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Educational Psychology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Booth, Ingrid (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study explores primary school teachers [i.e. teachers'] perceptions of gender-based differences in primary school in New Zealand. In this mixed-method study, the research utilised an online survey to collect data in three domains: teacher as self, teacher-student dynamics, and teacher collegiality. Quantitative analysis revealed overall no differences; however, quantitative analysis showed differences in the participants' perceptions of teachers content knowledge, the ability to treat students fairly, and teachers' positive attitude toward the profession. Qualitative analysis also revealed differences in participants' perceptions of the jobs held by males and females in the primary sector with male teachers receiving more negative responses when compared to female primary teachers. Furthermore all of the participants perceived a need for more male primary teachers in the primary sector. The participants were unsure if male teachers had an adequate amount of content knowledge and whether female teachers treated their students fairly. The participants perceived that males [i.e. male] teachers' attitudes toward the profession was not as positive as female teachers' attitudes toward the profession. Male primary teachers' [i.e. teachers] are always in demand in primary schools in New Zealand; but could that be for the wrong reasons? The literature has cast doubt on the common assumptions that male teachers are needed as male role models and that their presence can improve the behaviour and academic achievement of boys. The literature suggests that men in the primary teacher workforce are often viewed in terms of their inherent male qualities rather than personal attributes; their ability to be a role model rather than their caring qualities and ability to build relationships. The research findings provide insight into primary teachers perceptions of gender-based differences and could lead to improved teacher education and professional development programs as well as the recruitment of more effective male primary teachers.

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  • Teacher appraisal : control or empowerment : responses from New Zealand secondary schools : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Educational Administration at Massey University

    Thompson, George W (1996)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    As a result of recent legislative changes, Boards of Trustees and, through them, the principal, are now responsible for the appraisal and professional development of their staff. This research aimed to contribute towards an evaluation of current teacher appraisal programmes by: 1. Providing an overview of teacher appraisal programmes which currently exist in Auckland secondary schools, in particular to find out what percentage of secondary schools in the Auckland region have current ongoing teacher appraisal programmes and, where these schools, which have a current teacher appraisal programme rank on summative - formative dimensions. The answers to these questions were obtained from a questionnaire which was sent to all Auckland Secondary Schools 2. Providing an in-depth study of six schools which have an on-going teacher appraisal programme with elements of both summative and formative appraisal. A focused interview with selected staff from each of the six schools was used to enable the writer to ascertain why and how each appraisal programme was developed. The interview was also used to identify any problems which had been encountered in developing the programme and to ascertain how the school had attempted to meet both legislative requirements and teacher development needs. 3. Providing as an action component, a description of the appraisal programme which the writer is currently trialling in his school and, which is a direct result of the research undertaken for this thesis. The major findings of this research were: Section One Seventy three percent of secondary schools in the Auckland region were trialling or using appraisal programmes and, while there was a huge diversity of appraisal systems in operation, the majority involved more formative than summative dimensions. In particular, all schools saw appraisal in terms of helping to improve teacher standards through increased professional development Section Two The common reason given by the six schools for developing a teacher appraisal programme was to give staff an opportunity for professional development. Four of the six schools which participated in the second part of the research had experienced problems in attempting to introduce teacher appraisal programmes, while other problems which the six schools experienced centred around lack of time and staff resentment about "yet another" administrative requirement. Teacher suspicion about the 'real' nature of appraisal, although mentioned, was not a major factor. Self appraisal was the dominant method of teacher assessment as it was seen to be a crucial factor in four schools and desirable in the other two. Only one school produced any evidence of staff training in appraisal techniques. All six schools had developed two appraisal systems; one in which all staff participated and which was largely formative; another which was used when necessary and which involved competency procedures. The teachers interviewed were adamant that the two systems were and had to be kept completely separate. Section Three While a teacher appraisal programme has been operating in the writer's school since 1990, the results of this research have caused the programme to be modified to include: a focus on self rather than external appraisal; the inclusion of senior management and non-teaching staff in the appraisal process and; an emphasis on training in appraisal procedures and techniques for all staff.

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  • Enabling choice, public health nurses' perceptions of their work with children and their families: a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Arts in Nursing at Massey University

    Green, Barbara Robertson (1993)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The purpose of this study was to provide understanding of the personal practice of public health nurses with their clients, in particular with children within the context of their family. A grounded theory approach was used for the analysis of the data and the generation of a theoretical description and explanation of the way public health nurses perceive their practice world. Data were gathered through in depth interviews with public health nurses and were analysed through the method of constant comparative analysis. Enabling choice as a theoretical framework was formulated to describe and assist others to understand the possibilities that public health nurses aim for in their encounters or relationships with their clients. A number of concepts were identified from the data which contribute to the way public health nurses work to enable choice for their clients. These include the way nurses become accessible to their clients through a process of becoming known and accepted. The way public health nurses frame their practice, assess their clients, and use interaction with their clients within an encounter or a relationship is also described within the framework of enabling choice for clients. Metaphors used by the nurses to describe their practice highlighted contradictions related to the influence of the social context. The consequences of the constraints implicit in the social context of community health nursing practice were discussed as they impacted on the ability of the public health nurses to enable choice for their clients. Public health nursing has not been well documented or understood. The findings of this study go some way towards creating a framework within which to understand and explain aspects of community health nursing practice.

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  • The measurement of stress and burnout among university students : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Collins, David (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study examines stress and burnout in a university student population and focuses on the relationship between interpersonal and academic demands and perceived stress and burnout. The mediating roles of social support and life events on the demand-burnout relationship is also considered. Four measures were used in this study. The Student Stress Inventory was used as a stress measure and the Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to measure student burnout. The Student Life Events Questionnaire was used for the measurement of concurrent stressors that the student had experienced and the Multi-Dimensional Support Scale was used to identify levels of social support and by what source the support was provided. The results of this study suggest that a high level of social/academic problems in combination with low levels of support and interaction from lecturers leads to lower levels of personal accomplishment and higher levels of depersonalisation and emotional exhaustion. It was also concluded that high levels of social support from family and friends, and from other students leads to an increase in personal accomplishment and a decrease in depersonalisation and emotional exhaustion. The manner in which counselling services and academic departments can use these findings identify students at risk before problems reach serious proportions is also discussed.

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  • Breeding and transgenic approaches to improving water use efficiency in white clover (Trifolium repens L.) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Plant Biology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Raynes, Julia Sarah Margaret (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis investigates the potential role of the ABA biosynthetic gene 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 1(NCED1) as a determinant of water-use-efficiency (WUE) in plants as part of a longer term aim to confer improved WUE to the forage legume white clover (Trifolium repens L.). Two experimental approaches have been used. The first looked at the expression of NCED1 in a range of Trifolium species that display anatomical and morphological traits that confer some adaptations to growth and survival in dryland habitats. The second approach involved over-expression of NCED1 in the model species tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) in proof-of-concept experiments to directly determine if any changes in plant water relations can be measured. Initially the constitutive expression of TrNCED1 was assessed, using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-RT-PCR), in two varieties of white clover. The first is an agronomically elite cultivar with a higher water requirement for optimal growth, cv. Grasslands Kopu II, and the second a dryland-adapted ecotype, Tien Shan. It was found that for both varieties, TrNCED1 expression was highest in the younger (first-fully-expanded) leaf (FFEL) tissue, followed by root tissue, then lastly apical tissue. When comparing the two varieties under well-watered conditions, the relative expression of TrNCED1 was higher in aerial parts of the cv. Kopu, but in the roots of the Tien Shan ecotype with respect to the reference genes, TrActin and TrGAPDH. Further, in the high biomass cv. Grasslands Kopu II, expression of TrNCED1 decreased in the apical and FFEL tissues of plants experiencing a water deficit, and decreased while for the dryland ecotype Tien Shan, TrNCED1 expression did not change in the apex reguardless of plant water status. Expression in the FFEL increased in tissue experiencing water deficit, and decreased in roots, suggesting different mechanisms for drought tolerance and response in the two varieties. For the range of Trifolium species assessed, constitutive expression of the TrNCED1 homologue was measured under well watered conditions in the FFEL and apical tissues. Essentially no significant difference in expression in either tissue between species was detected, with respect to the reference genes, TrActin and TrGAPDH. model species. In other studies, over-expression of NCED1 has been found to confer some characteristics associated with increased WUE, although abnormal growth associated with high levels of ABA at key developmental stages has proved problematic. For this thesis, the two senescence associated promoters, Senescence-Activated-Gene (SAG13) and Senescence-Associated-Receptor-Kinase (SARK), were selected to drive over-expression of NCED1 from Solanum lycopersicum in tobacco. Of those plants that came through tissue culture and were successfully established in soil, a single line transformed with SAG13p::SlNCED1, and three plants transformed with SARKp::SlNCED1, were shown to be positive for transgene insertion using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with genomic DNA. Of these, two plants, both transformed with SARKp::SlNCED1, were found to express SlNCED1 when tested using PCR with cDNA from isolated RNA. Water relations measurements performed on all four plants that were positive for the transgene, an empty vector control, a selection of plants that were negative for transgene insertion, and some wild-type controls, found that one of the lines confirmed as expressing the transgene, line 751-1, had a very low transpiration rate and low level of stomatal conductance. To extend these measurements to determine and increase in water-use-efficiency, a comparison must be made between growth rate and water uptake, and many more transgenic plant lines must be analysed. Finally, to determine whether the eventual transformation of white clover with SAG13p::SlNCED1 and SARKp::SlNCED1 would result in co-suppression of both types of transgene and the constitutive NCED1, expression of TrNCED1 in seven tissue types, from two varieties was measured. Highest expression was determined in the root tissue and in the younger leaf tissue, but was lower in the mature tissue examined. This suggests that transformation with SlNCED1 and expression in the mature tissues is not likely to be influenced by the constitutively expressed TrNCED1.

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  • Feminism, femininity and motherhood in post-World War II New Zealand : A thesis submitted for the degree of Master of Arts in history at Massey University

    Knox, Heather (1995)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Hanging between the turmoil of global war and the social challenges and changes of later decades, the 1950s tends to be remembered as a time of social order, consensus and security. As a result, researchers often view these years as ones of stagnation for New Zealand women; a time when the stable nuclear family ruled supreme, when men's and women's roles were clearly delineated and little action was taken towards challenging them. However recent expansions of our perceptions of political activism have suggested otherwise. Helen May, for example, has taken a wider view of women's politics that incorporates domestic-based and non-controversial and argued that the apparent tranquility of the 1950s covered elements of conflict and contradiction. She and other historians maintain that women, while conforming to dominant expectations of their role, were also actively negotiating change in their lives. This thesis aims to investigate the extent to which three New Zealand women's groups centred on mothering, Parents' Centre, Play Centre and the Plunket Society, served as vehicles of these hopes for change. To this end, the relative degrees of progressive "feminist" and traditionalist "maternalist" elements within the organistions' philosophy and process are analysed. It is argued that the nature of each organisation is distinctive, with each showing a particular balance of feminist and maternalist characteristics. Together, the three organisations represent a continuum of women's political activities and illustrate the diversity of women's politics both within a particular time and within individual groups.

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