16,595 results for Masters

  • Devolution and the decolonisation of local governance: Lessons from the Pākanae water supply

    Mistry, Diveshkumar (2012)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This thesis examines the ways that community-based service provision can contribute to the decolonisation of local governance. Community-based service provision provides for Indigenous involvement in environmental decision-making. Proponents of community-based service provision argue that it addresses the failures of top-down decision-making frameworks because the distance between decision maker and recipient is reduced. Empowering discourses associated with community-based service provision have been the subject of criticism in recent neoliberal environmental governance literature. Critics argue that pre-existing inequalities manifest within devolved governance arrangements. In response to these critiques, I draw on postcolonial theory to argue that community-based service provision yields dangers and opportunities for Indigenous communities. Postcolonial theory provides geographers with a conceptual apparatus to deconstruct the layered histories that influence contemporary governance arrangements. I will use a postcolonial critique of community-based service provision to examine the case study of the Pākanae water supply. Interview data obtained from Pākanae Water Board members and 5A Māori Land Block trustees affords insight into the ways that community-based service provision can be used as a mechanism to mediate crosscultural relations. It will be argued that the historically strong relationships between key individuals involved with the Pākanae Water Board and 5A Māori Land Block Trust have enabled the organisations to open an alternative management paradigm. This management paradigm is premised on the recognition and respect of the land block's pre-European territorial rights over the water source for the Pākanae water supply. At a local scale, individuals can form tactical relationships to circumvent inequalities inherent within broader socio-institutional structures. Thus, despite its vulnerabilities, community-based service provision retains progressive qualities. In response to the largely pessimistic orientation of recent contributions to community-based service provision literature, I will argue that if key individuals and organisations form tactical relationships, they can establish networks that can be utilised to progressively decolonise local governance.

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  • Lower Miocene teleost otoliths from Parengarenga Harbour

    Grenfell, Hugh R. (Hugh Rhys) (1982)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The study area is located at the Parengarenga Harbour, Northland where early Miocene (Otaian and Altonian) flysch-like sediments of the Parengarenga Group outcrop along the northern and, less extensively, the southern shores. A number of localities, in particular in the Waioha Shellbeds and the Waiheuheu Shell lenses, have teleost otolith (calcareous secretions of the middle ear) faunas. These otolith faunules are described and illustrated and then used for paleoenvironmental analysis. The fauna is found to be moderately diverse and this study describes 55 species from 31 familes. Dominant in terms of abundance and diversity are the families Congridae (2 taxa), sternoptychidae (2 taxa), Myctophidae (7 taxa), Moridae (4 taxa), Bregmacerotidae (1 taxon), Macrouridae (7 taxa), Hoplichthyidae (1 taxon) and Gobiidae (1 taxon). Many species are considered new to the New Zealand fossil fauna e.g. Gnathophis sp. 1, Polyipnus sp. 1 and sp. 2, Chlorophthalmus cf. corniger, Scopelarchus aff. analis, a number of myctophid species, Lophius sp. 1 etc. Some are first fossil records in New Zealand for particular families, e.g. Scopelarchus aff. analis. Others are known from other localities, such as Chlorophthalmus miocenicus from the Altonian of Otago; Hygophum circularis, Altonian, Otago; Actuariolum bicaudatum, Altonian, Otago and Clifdenian, Southland; Coelorhincus cf. toulai, Tongaporutuan, Wairarapa, Altonian Otago and Miocene of Europe. Other species indicating influences from outside the Australasian region are Oligopus aff. bassolii, Hoplostethus aff. mediterraneus and Cepola cf. rubescens. Paleoecologic analysis reveals that the fauna is of mixed origin with rare allochthonous upper shelf and shallower water species (e.g. Gobius sp. 1, Pseudolabrus sp., Apogonidarum sp. 1, Carapus spp.) and the more common autochthonous deepwater species (e.g. Polyipnus sp. 2, Didphus sp 1, Bregmaceros sp. 1. Coelorhincus cf. toulai and Hoplichthys aff. gilberti) Sedimentation occurred under marginally tropical conditions at depths of 200 to 500 metres (i.e. lower continental shelf/upper continental slope). Problems encountered and techniques adopted during the study are briefly discussed.

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  • Reconciling Book 8 Chapter 3 of the Eudemian Ethics with the Nicomachean Ethics Account of Virtue, Nobility and the Best Human Life.

    Glen, Andrew (2011)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This thesis attempts to find a harmonious interpretation of what are understood to be two major problems in the final chapter of the Eudemian Ethics regarding Aristotle's position on the best life. As in the NE, Aristotle spends a majority of the EE arguing for the life of virtue as the best human life, before going on in the final chapter to present a two step demotion of this life. He firstly promotes the life of nobility, understood as somehow distinct from full-virtue, before finally settling on the life of contemplation and service to God as our best life. Any attempt to reconcile these two divergences, as they are typically understood, presents one with the difficult and ugly task of essentially making sense of a pair of contradictions. A more elegant solution is thus to find a way of interpreting them both as presenting no divergence at all; to find a convincing way of interpreting all of Aristotle's conclusions regarding the best human life, at least in these ethical texts, as unified and coherent; and to this end this thesis is dedicated. The position I come to defend with regards to the full-virtue/nobility distinction consists in the argument that the life of nobility is in fact no different to the life of full-virtue, and that the type of virtue Aristotle distinguishes from nobility in the EE is instead just a temporary, compelled form of goodness, exemplified by his Spartan type. The position I come to defend with regards to the contemplation and service to God distinction is that the life of contemplation Aristotle reasonably distinguishes from that of character virtue in the NE is exactly the same life that we find Aristotle promoting at the very last instance in the EE. I base this position of the argument that god, as a species of agency, just as it is presented in Chapter 8, Book X of the NE, is intended by Aristotle to represent no more than an exemplar of contemplation or of human intellectual activity in general, as a kind of agency we should wish to emulate, but certainly not something we should have to serve or exclusively contemplate in order to live the best life. In the development of this final position the scope of my analysis is broadened somewhat to include Aristotle's Metaphysics and, to lesser degree, On the Soul, the Physics, and the Movement of Animals, generating the substantial effect of adding, to the initial aim of reconciling the accounts of virtue and the best life in the NE and the EE, the goal of reconciling the overlapping elements within this broader range of Aristotle's texts and, in particular, Aristotle's discussion of the prime mover god in the Metaphysics and how we can best understand this as relating to our best life.

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  • "It's a little tricky": Collaborating with families to assess the learning dispositions of infants and toddlers

    Cooper, Maria (2012)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Faculty of Education & Social Work Exemplar 120 point. Te Whāriki (Ministry of Education, 1996a), the New Zealand early childhood curriculum, promotes learning dispositions as a key learning outcome, which teachers are expected to assess. This thesis argues that Te Whāriki's principle of involving families and communities in assessment is challenging to implement, particularly in centres guided by Gerber's (1979) Resources for Infant Educarers (RIE) philosophy. This challenge emanates from competing tensions in the philosophical and theoretical underpinnings, and related views of teaching and learning, of RIE and Te Whāriki. This thesis investigates how teachers in a centre guided by RIE understand the imperative to involve families when assessing the dispositional learning of infants and toddlers. An interpretive, qualitative, case study methodology was employed to gather data from semi-structured interviews with five teachers, a range of centre documentation, and researcher field notes. Claxton and Carr's (2004) sociocultural notion of a potentiating environment informed the thematic analysis. Themes that emerged from the findings include the centre and home as disposition-enhancing environments, the role of the teacher in fostering dispositions, and the nature of teachers' collaboration with families in assessment. The findings were interpreted using Carr's (2002b) sociocultural notions for assessment: competence, continuity, and community. Findings revealed RIE as a powerful influence on teachers' views of learning dispositions, assessment, and the involvement of families, and highlighted tensions between RIE and Te Whāriki. RIE appeared to influence teachers to focus on particular learning dispositions consistent with RIE, limiting their attention to dispositions valued by Te Whāriki. RIE also influenced teachers' conception of assessment as observation and summative documentation, limiting their ability to formatively assess dispositional learning in ways consistent with Te Whāriki. Finally, adopting a primary caregiving approach, which supports the implementation of RIE, was seen to influence teachers to approach assessment as an individual responsibility, limiting their ability to promote two-way partnerships with families in assessment, as per Te Whāriki. This thesis concludes that implementation of RIE in early childhood settings governed by Te Whāriki requires teachers to be critically reflective about the potential consequences on dispositional learning, assessment, and the involvement of families. Resulting implications for teaching practice, teacher education and research are discussed.

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  • Reading achievement at Year 9: Supporting progress through community tutoring

    Fish, Lindsay (2012)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Faculty of Education & Social Work Exemplar -- 120 point. This study evaluated a community tutoring programme, which aims to raise the reading achievement outcomes of Year 9 students at moderate risk of literacy failure. The research took the core principles of the programme, evaluated these against the pertinent sociocultural and constructivist literature, and used them to create a framework through which to evaluate the programme. The study took a pragmatic stance, with methods being selected to best answer the questions arising from the research context. The research questions addressed the reading achievement and affective outcomes of students. A distinguishing feature of the Reading Enrichment Programme (REP) is the extensive and sustained involvement of community tutors. Therefore, evaluating the nature and effect of the tutoring process was also a key focus of the study. The study showed the REP programme to be based on a complex view of literacy which facilitated multidimensional intervention. To best evaluate the multifaceted approach of the REP programme, a mixed methods research design was adopted. This consisted of a document survey, asTTle reading testing, a pre- and post-intervention questionnaire, observations and focus group interviews. The qualitative and quantitative data were transformed using coding and narrative profile formation, and a mixed analysis undertaken. The findings indicated that participation in the REP programme had a positive effect on students reading achievement and affective outcomes. The evaluation of REP tutoring suggests that tutors established warm, supportive, equitable relationships with students and that these formed the foundation for the teaching and learning that occurred. Tutors focused on modelling and scaffolding the reading strategies that formed their own reading practice. These included an emphasis on word awareness, achieving increased reading mileage, summarising and selfmonitoring. The findings indicate that students acquired effective reading strategies within the context of REP tutoring and that there are further opportunities for the programme to support students in transferring their reading skills, linking out into broader contexts.

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  • Somewhere I Belong: Women’s Urban Experiences in Kirino Natsuo’s Grotesque

    Qiao, Mina (2014)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    I would like to express my gratitude to my supervisor Dr. Lawrence Marceau for continuous support on this research project. He offered me pertinent and motivating comments when I doubted myself. Dr. Marceau is an exceptional mentor and friend, and most important, the reason why I am pursuing the career of an academic. I am grateful to Dr. Rebecca Copeland, a brilliant translator and a warmly supportive academic. I consulted Dr. Copeland many times on matters regarding the translation she did for Grotesque, and she always replied with tremendous patience and enthusiasm. She is a significant contributor to this thesis. Moreover, I would like to thank sincerely Dr. Susan Ingram who introduced me to urban studies and thus made a difference in my academic life. I would also like to recognize the School of Asian Studies at the University of Auckland and my family for their support. Last but certainly not least, I want to thank my AIKOM friend Son Joonwoo (Kuma-san) for providing the photographs of Shibuya which I have inserted into this thesis.

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  • EcoStudents: A green Building for Student Living

    Zainul, Abdul (2013)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • An experimental study to characterize changes in physical properties of basalts and basanites during reaction with carbonic acid

    Kanakiya, Shreya Jagdish (2016)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    One of the leading hydrothermal alteration processes in volcanic environments is when rock-forming minerals, with high concentrations of iron, magnesium and calcium, react with CO2 and water to form carbonate minerals. This geologic concept is used to the advantage of geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2. Basalts are thought to be one of the promising rock types for mineral sequestration of CO2 by creating such hydrothermal mineral alterations. Rock-fluid interactions occurring during the mineral carbonation process alter the rock structure, resulting in changes in the rock’s storage and fluid transport properties. In order to characterize these changes, CO2-water-rock alteration in young basalts and basanites (less than 0.3 Ma) of the Auckland Volcanic Field was studied over a 140-day reaction period. This study investigates how whole core basalts and basanites with similar chemistry but different porosity, permeability, pore geometry and crystallinity alter due to CO2-water-rock reactions. Rock dissolution mechanisms are found to dominate secondary mineral precipitation, during the CO2-water-rock reactions, increasing the porosity and decreasing the rigidity of all samples. Ankerites and aluminosilicates (clay or zeolite) precipitate as secondary mineral phases. The sample with the highest initial porosity and permeability (high reactive surface area), and low crystallinity (high volcanic glass content) shows maximum secondary mineral precipitation along with an increase in porosity and permeability, and a decrease in density and rigidity, after CO2-water-rock reactions. For all samples, a general linear trend is observed between the logarithm of change in their porosity due to CO2-water-rock reactions, and their volcanic glass content. In addition to secondary mineral precipitation, crystallinity and rock dissolution are found to influence the fluid transport (porosity and permeability) and rock mechanical properties (elasticity) of basalts and basanites. This has important implications for field scale CO2 sequestration projects, with regards to the initial site characterization and safety concerns about loss in the rock’s rigidity. An implication is that changes in density and elasticity of these rocks by dissolution during CO2-water-rock reactions, need to be taken into account during time-lapse seismic monitoring of CO2 sequestration sites.

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  • Teahouse is a Little Chengdu, Chengdu is a Big Teahouse

    Cui, Peter (2012)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The quantity and importance of the historic teahouses to the development of Chengdu is exemplified in the saying "Teahouse is a little Chengdu", Chengdu is a big teahouse. They bear no resemblance to the ceremonial Japanese teahouses. Instead they have the commonness of the çayhane in turkey, busyness of the markets in Spain, and lawlessness of the taverns in Ireland. During 4000 years of isolated development, teahouses of Chengdu became the fundamental unit of life and the only social space for the public of the city. As the result, much of Chengdu's rich culture could be traced directly to its teahouses. Set in the western Chinese city of Chengdu, this thesis critiques the current construction frenzy of socially and financially unsustainable 'iconic' cultural centres and monumentalisation of historic relics as the mainstream approaches to cultural regeneration. The thesis, instead, sympathises with the bottom up movements to resuscitate the residual spaces in the city for the public. However, it takes this approach further by proposing the creation and protection of the residual spaces should be the first step of any major developments. Inspired by the traditional Chengdu Teahouse, Confucian philosophy of LiYue (which roughly translates to propriety and harmony), and validated by western discourses led by theorists such as Aldo van Ecyk, Jan Gehl, Nikos Salingaros, this project combines the generation of social identity with the financial backing of developers and businesses to create a protected and commoner driven public place that is socially and financially sustainable. Approaching from the reciprocity of the architecture and the city, the thesis starts by examining closely the workings of the traditional Chengdu Teahouse on a microscopic level through detailed research from historic texts, historian accounts by the likes of Wang Di, and first hand observations. The discussion revolves around the concept of catalyst and arena, where the tea is the attractor to allow the public to participate in the public sphere created by the teahouse. With the combination of Chinese and Western design philosophy, the thesis then discuss four gestures to create this 'arena' for the public in Chengdu, demarcation, order, fluidity and comprehension. The aim of these gestures is to create a public space that is a protected outside as well as a open inside. Lastly, the thesis looks at the influence of Chengdu Teahouse on the neighbourhood and city scale. It speculates a method of construction which will create a symbiotic business relationship between the teahouse and the surrounding neighbour, as well as generating a network of public spaces in the city that works in tantum with existing cultural centres.

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  • The Flesh Coloured Bandaid: Whiteness, dominance and Pākehā cultural normativity in television news

    King, Madeline (2012)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The aim of this project is to draw on global critical theories of Whiteness to determine the extent to which Pākehā perspectives are dominant in New Zealand’s television news. Mainstream and te reo Māori news bulletins are analysed in terms of their varying constructions of Waitangi Day 2012 and surrounding events. In Aotearoa Whiteness appears to take on the specific form of Pākehāness, which is distinct from other White cultures due to the colonial relationship between Pākehā and Māori. Discourses of Pākehāness appear to have influenced both New Zealand’s colonial history and the present moment, and were highly evident in mainstream news constructions of Waitangi Day. Pākehā culture appears to understand itself through a set of ideologies that serve to support and maintain Pākehā dominance, and disadvantage Māori. These ideologies seem to include individualism, futureorientation, meritocracy, majority-rule and privilege. Pākehā cultural ideologies evidently influence mainstream newsmaking processes to create news products on Waitangi Day that seem to inherently disfavour the campaign for Māori rights and calls to respect the contemporary relevance of te Tiriti o Waitangi. In contrast to mainstream news, te reo Māori news bulletins offer some presentations of Waitangi Day grounded in Māori worldviews, which allow a space for Māori voices to be expressed. At the same time there is some indication that Te Kāea may be moving towards the reproduction of mainstream news techniques. Overall however te reo Māori news bulletins offer a challenge to normative Pākehā dominance and privilege as expressed in mainstream television news. By silencing Māori voices, withholding the right to expression and denying a bicultural ideal for New Zealand society, mainstream news constructions of Waitangi Day appear to breach the partnership principle embedded in te Tiriti, fail to protect the taonga of Māori voice and violate Māori Human Rights, Indigenous Rights, and rights as Treaty partners. The normativity of Pākehā cultural common sense at the present moment therefore seems to justify Pākehā privilege, support Pākehā dominance and maintain Pākehā power in New Zealand society whilst disadvantaging Māori health, wellbeing and political aspirations.

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  • L'esthetique du climat chez Marguerite Duras: Une etude environnementale

    Fraser, Rowan (2012)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Le point de départ de cette étude est l’hypothèse que Marguerite Duras (n. Saigon, Viet Nam, 1914. m. Paris, France, 1996) est une « romancière climatique ». Selon l’écrivaine elle-même, son travail romanesque traite le climat, et a pour but, au moins dans l’un de ses romans (Dix heures et demie du soir en été), la production d’un « roman climatique 1». Néanmoins, les critiques littéraires se sont peu intéressés à cet aspect de l’oeuvre durassienne. Nous cherchons à remédier à cette lacune. Pour étudier la représentation du climat, et pour comprendre comment les personnages ressentent le climat et comment ils lui attribuent du sens, nous nous servons des outils méthodologiques de l’analyse phénoménologique interprétative. Cette analyse est appliquée à trois romans de Duras, Les Petits chevaux de Tarquinia (1953), Dix heures et demie du soir en été (1960), et Le Vice-consul (1965). L’analyse comporte les quartre objectifs suivants. D’abord l’identification des conditions climatiques dans les trois romans, aussi bien que de tous les éléments climatiques et associés. C’est à partir d’une analyse de la distribution typique des conditions climatiques dans les trois romans que nous pouvons définir un « climat durassien typique ». Deuxièmement, nous cherchons à identifier les thèmes relatifs à l’expérience que font les personnages du climat durassien dans les romans, aussi bien que l’organisation de ces thèmes selon l’hiérarchie thématique propre à chaque roman. Un troisième objectif est la mise en oeuvre d’un modèle dynamique du climat durassien, qui met en scène le principe de la binarité torride/anti-torride, et qui explique les perceptions et les conséquences du climat durassien. Finalement, nous voulons élaborer la thèse de l’existence de formes romanesques qui aident à investir les romans d’un climat torride, et renforcent le thème fondateur du climat durassien. La démonstration des modalités de l’imprégnation de l’oeuvre par ce qu’on peut appeler le climat durassien et l’analyse des effets de ce climat servent à approfondir la compréhension de l’oeuvre durassienne.

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  • The Nineteenth-Century Fonte: The Continuing Tradition of a Galant Musical Pattern

    Weiss, Michael (2013)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This study investigates the use of a small-scale musical pattern, known as the Fonte, in the work of early nineteenth-century composers. This pattern, or schema, comprises a two-stage descending sequence, which can frequently be found in minuets and similarly structured movements throughout the eighteenth century. My work demonstrates that this schema remained in wide circulation in the first few decades of the 1800s, suggesting that those years may have had more in common stylistically with the preceding century than traditional narratives of “Classical” and “Romantic” periods make out. Such narratives may lead to an arbitrary division more or less at the year 1800 or to the transitional view of those early years as Romanticism-to-be, dominated by Beethoven. However, in drawing on the works of around twenty composers, I have tried to convey a sense of the vibrancy of musical life in Europe at this time, and, by the common thread of the Fonte, to show a stronger connection, in terms of the elements of composition, to the preceding century. The idea that the Fonte and numerous other small-scale schemata were available to eighteenth-century composers, and employed by them in conventional configurations, is discussed in Music in the Galant Style (2007), by Robert O. Gjerdingen. My research draws heavily on his work, and although I examine only one schema, my findings nevertheless highlight the manner in which Gjerdingen’s theory of shared schemata provides an alternative to the “masterwork”-centred view of music, preoccupied with internal motivic relationships and claims of “influence” between “masterworks” rather than connection to stylistic common property. This study is divided into two parts, the first addressing some of the theoretical concerns, including a comprehensive description of the Fonte itself as well as a discussion of some of the issues surrounding the role of the listener in schema-based music. The second part presents case studies of the Fonte as used by four composers: Beethoven, Hummel, Schubert and Chopin. These chapters analyse in detail the different ways composers presented the Fonte, giving rise to questions of what effect those differences had and of how the schema itself may have come to change over time.

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  • Clinicians’ Perceptions of Telemedicine: Opportunities and Barriers for Emergency Medicine

    Lucas, Julie Anne (2013)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    With the centralisation of healthcare services internationally and in NZ it has become increasingly difficult to attract health professionals to rural and remote communities. This has meant populations in these areas face challenges accessing comprehensive healthcare. Politicians and executive management teams in health are looking for new and innovative ways to deliver sustainable, equitable healthcare to all. The World Health Organisation (WHO) and Information Technology (IT) group have been working together responding to the needs of communities with the integration of technology into healthcare facilities. Healthcare faces incredible challenges, not only in economics, but also with higher expectations of the public. Telemedicine is seen as a solution, as it can bring specialist care at a distance to rural areas through technology. However telemedicine has not integrated well into some areas of health such as emergency care and the West Coast of NZ is not exempt from this international issue. The purpose of this study is to explore clinicians’ perceptions of telemedicine and the barriers and opportunities it may provide to a rural or remote Emergency Department. This is a descriptive study involving semi structured interviews with a purposeful sample of healthcare professionals working in emergency services for the West Coast District Health Board (WCDHB). The study also sought expert opinion from four sites using telemedicine in Queensland, Australia. The results show clinicians could see potential benefits for the use of telemedicine in rural Emergency Departments, but lacked the understanding of how it could be integrated into their everyday work. Barriers identified were the reliability of Internet connections and speed; related to bandwidth; additional workload; concerns that telemedicine might be a distraction from providing care; access to the technology when it is needed; patients’ perception of telemedicine and also concerns around privacy. Preparation carried out in Queensland, Australia prior to the implementation of telemedicine and the use of coordination centres seems to have assisted the integration of telemedicine into Emergency Departments in rural areas. Thereby seeking the views and experiences of those clinicians working on the front line, along with expert opinion from Queensland, Australian counterparts, a comprehensive understanding is expected which will be used to inform telemedicine use within an Emergency Department in rural NZ. With commitment and adequate resourcing, the barriers to telemedicine can be overcome, opening up the opportunity for people in rural and remote communities to gain, and sustain, equity of access to healthcare.

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  • Understanding Intergovernmental Tensions around Urban Containment: A Case Study of Auckland through a State Rescaling Lens

    Bogle, Natalia (2013)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The research contained herein aims to explore the relationship between contemporary patterns of state scalar restructuring and current intergovernmental discursive tensions surrounding the shaping and containment of Auckland’s urban form. By exploring this relationship, the research also aims to contribute empirical insights to the nature of central-local government dynamics around urban policy in New Zealand. Informed by Brenner’s (2009a) proposed state rescaling methodology, two objects of analysis were selected for study across a 50 year temporal period: the scalar referent of spatial planning in Auckland; and the evolving scale articulation of Auckland as an institutional-territorial space. Discourse and thematic analysis were used to select and analyse primary and secondary data sources; comprised of regional planning documents, government position papers, transcripts from semi-structured interviews, and newspaper media commentary. Analysis revealed that differences in central and local government perspective on urban containment are reflective of wider intergovernmental discursive tensions around the appropriate role of local government with regards to urban planning decision-making. Additionally, the rationale for contemporary state scalar transformations appear to resonate deeply with themes in broader current central government objectives for Auckland and New Zealand; namely, global competitiveness, economic performance, and affordability. Finally, patterns in transformations to the state scalar architecture of Auckland’s spatial planning, against a backdrop of market-led discourse, indicate a creeping centralisation of Auckland’s urban governance. Based on the findings generated, state rescaling conceptual frameworks and methodology provide useful techniques for organising data, as well as insightful approaches to understanding the significance of spatial planning trajectories and state scalar transformations to a specific policy element, such as urban containment mechanisms. At the same time, it is recognised that nuances of the Auckland experience are more closely engaged with through other conceptual frameworks that focus on the internal dynamics of institutional and policy change.

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  • The use of evidence in reporting on reading: A study into how overall teacher judgements are made when assessing students’ reading in relation to the National Standards.

    Quick, Joanne (2012)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Faculty of Education & Social Work Exemplar -- 60 point. National Standards in reading require that teachers make an overall teacher judgement (OTJ) of students’ reading by considering multiple sources of assessment evidence in relation to the Standards. The lack of recent professional learning and development (PLD) in teaching and assessing reading, together with teachers’ requests to the researcher for support in this area, indicated that making reading OTJs was challenging for teachers. Early studies of teachers’ work with the Standards reported mixed experiences with PLD and in making OTJs. Consistent trends identified were that schools struggled to align existing assessment practices with the Standards, and to gain consistency of OTJs. There was little data specifically relating to reading OTJs. A small scale mixed methods study was conducted across a semi-rural cluster of primary schools to investigate the tools and processes teachers of different age groups used to make OTJs in reading, to investigate the usefulness of PLD accessed, to probe teachers’ levels of confidence in their OTJs and to inquire how schools are working towards consistency of their OTJs. The study used anonymous questionnaires and focus group interviews to gather data, which were collated and analysed by the researcher. Participants reported making OTJs using multiple sources of assessment evidence, most of which was age appropriate for students in their classes, with the exception of widespread running record use across all age groups. Challenges identified were: difficulties when making an OTJ with inconsistent evidence, working efficiently, gathering evidence of observations and conversations with students, and achieving consistent OTJs within and between classes. Participants were clear that more PLD was needed, especially to moderate and gain consistency of OTJs. These findings were consistent with recent ERO reports on National Standards implementation. The study was limited by its small sample size and geographic location. Further research is recommended across a wider sample to check the levelling of criteria in the Standards; and to explore examples of the evidence used in teachers’ reading OTJs and the process of relating that evidence to the Standards. In addition, clear guidelines and nationwide PLD are recommended to support teachers in gathering useful assessment evidence and making more reliable and consistent OTJs.

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  • Potential efficacy of changes to the Waiatarua Reserve stormwater management system with respect to faecal and nutrient loadings

    Stacey, David James (2003)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    A study was undertaken over the period 0 1/08/02 to 12/04/03 with the purpose of understanding the nutrient and faecal contamination sources and processes at the Waiatarua Reserve, by monitoring faecal contaminants, nutrient concentrations, turbidity, and water flow rates . Supporting observations on the ecological change occurring in the reserve were made and the reserve was assessed with regards to the desired outcome of more efficient stormwater treatment . Of particular interest was whether it would treat the water sufficiently to prevent adverse effects such as odorous algal blooms, due to nutrient inputs, and health risks, due to faecal contamination in the Orakei Basin . In addition, the data collected in this study will be able to be used as baseline data to determine how effective the upgrade of the reserve, occurring at present, will be once completed (with respect to a reduction in nutrient and faecal loadings). Nitrate levels throughout the reserve were low with an average of 1.0 1 mg/L at the outlet, compared to an ANZECC lowland river systems trigger value of 2. 7 mg/L Aquatic vegetation increased significantly over the course of this study, possibly due to nitrate inputs (the reserve is nitrate limited). There was an average phosphate level at the outlet of 0.20 mg/L, twice the ANZECC trigger value of 0 . 10 mg/L, providing nutrients for algal growth at the reserve and the Orakei Basin. There were faecal contamination levels at the reserve outlet with an average of 4.33 E.coli/ml and 34 .4 faecal coliforms/ml, as opposed to Ministry for the Environment recreational water quality guidelines of 4. 1 E. coli/ml and ANZECC guidelines of 15 faecal coliforms/ml . There were low dissolved oxygen levels throughout the reserve. Temperature, conductivity, pH and turbidity were all within recreational water use guideline values. The majority of bird species observed were in the central wetland area of the reserve, with more native than exotic bird species present. The majority of faecal and nutrient inputs to the reserve were internally generated (cattle grazing in the reserve and phosphate rich soils and clays) . Of the measures to be implemented in the upgrade currently underway, the removal of the cattle will provide the most significant increase in overall water quality at the reserve.

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  • A Visualiser for Embedded Systems: Development of a visualiser to support novice learners’ understandings of embedded systems

    Collis, William (2014)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Over a period spanning more than ten years I developed a programme of learning in the area of embedded systems for secondary school students at Mount Roskill Grammar School. This programme currently involves 12 classes totalling 350 students. Learning is centred on the ATMEL AVR range of microcontrollers and forms part of students’ studies in Technology Education. It is taught by four teachers some of whom do not have strengths in electronics and programming. Resources I have developed to support students and colleagues include a website, a textbook and a computer program called ‘System Designer’. For a number of years there has been a developing awareness of issues concerning my own students’ understandings of software for embedded systems which are confounded by the hidden nature of embedded systems and the disparate nature of embedded systems development. This research presents a journey towards a deeper appreciation of students learning needs and the development and testing of a novel visualisation tool for embedded systems targeted at novice embedded systems learners. Literature about the difficulties of novice programmers along with the learning needs of novices in the field of embedded systems was reviewed to inform this research. The context of this study is secondary school learning so other pertinent literature that informs learning in the classroom was also reviewed; this includes educational theory, pedagogy, model-based learning, research from engineering education, the New Zealand Curriculum and the changing metaphor for learning in New Zealand technology education from an acquisition to a participatory model. To facilitate development of the visualiser a range of program visualisers and embedded systems simulators were analysed using research into best practices for model-based learning tools. Lexers and parsers were then written to create interpreters for both C and BASIC languages and the visualiser incorporating these was integrated into the existing System Designer application. Further the visualiser was developed as a staged learning tool to negate cognitive load issues for learners. To support colleagues who will use the tool a range of tasks have been developed and options to extend some features of the visualiser have been implemented as well. The visualiser and some tasks were tested in a qualitative study with second year engineering students who were unfamiliar with embedded systems. Lecturers were also interviewed to gain their insights into the new tool. The goals of the study were to understand how novice embedded systems learner’s related to the visualiser as a model-based learning environment and secondly to identify its benefits for novice learners of embedded systems. The study was positive for the visualiser as a model-based learning tool, and valuable for revealing errors and modifications before implementation at school. A visualiser is an analogy of a real system, as such it has limitations which experts recognise but which novice learners do not. A planned result was to explore limitations of the visualiser. One key limitation is well known and relates to when learners single step through program code rather than run it at normal speed; in this case understandings of the real-time and reactive nature of embedded systems are not fully appreciated by novice learners. While modifications to the visualiser were made to counter some of this effect, teachers must work within this limitation and not expect students to comprehend it for themselves. For novice learners of embedded systems the visualiser showed significant benefits in terms of the interrelatedness of hardware and software, the concept of state and the reactive nature of embedded systems. Some of these understandings are inherent in the visualiser and some of them require careful choice of contextualised tasks for students to engage their understandings. Exploration of real-time and concurrent aspects of programming embedded systems is still required. Programming thinking was an important part of this research because for students learning about embedded systems at school this is their introduction to programming as well. Literature into programming thinking revealed a range of surface and deep understandings that novice programmers need to develop as well as the importance of engaging students in their own learning via the tasks given to them. The results of testing showed how the visualiser and the tasks used with students contribute to these understandings; specifically that deeper understandings require tasks with real-life contexts. One significant outcome of this research has been how the literature review and the opportunity to engage in depth with a few learners has informed understandings about what students experience while learning; this has deepened my pedagogical content knowledge - the blend of subject matter with educational practice. Key words: program visualisation, mental model, novice learner, embedded systems learning, learning to program

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  • Honesty in Virtue Ethics

    Stockwell, Charlotte (2014)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    I present a discussion of honesty within the framework of Aristotle’s parameter doctrine. Chapter 1 is about the parameter of the “right objects” which is primarily where intellectual honesty fits in; it aims to be a somewhat Wittgensteinian account, which argues that forming beliefs and acquiring knowledge are not only of epistemological concern, but also a matter of ethics. Chapter 2 considers communicating the relevant truth in the “right way”, which has two sides. On the one hand it involves communicating in such a manner that makes it clear whether one is sharing facts, opinions, or beliefs and on the other hand it involves the right manner of communication. The first aspect involves differentiating between the different types of propositions and acknowledging our fallibility. I also found it interesting to examine the role predictions and intentions play in the way we communicate. In Chapter 3 I examine (honestly) communicating at the “right times” which yields a discussion of why tact isn’t a virtue. I also discuss Aristotle’s doctrine of disjoint spheres and why it makes sense to regard the virtues as overlapping and intertwined. I also consider how communicating ageappropriately relates to honesty. Communicating (honestly) with the right people raises juicy issues in Chapter 4, such as honest agents telling lies, privacy (not everyone has a right to hear the whole truth) and gossip. Chapter 5 looks at the right motives for honesty which also considers the vital role that self-awareness has for an honest agent, issues of engaging with reality, virtual realities and escapism. I end in Chapter 6 with a thorough discussion of moral development and phronesis (practical wisdom), which leads on to examining why perfect virtue is (or rather should be) painted as an unattainable ideal. Throughout this last chapter I compare the accounts of Howard Curzer and Julia Annas. This final chapter also briefly addresses Aristotle’s notion of natural virtue. My discussion aims to be guided by a modification of Aristotle’s insight, namely that we should inquire both in order to know what virtue is and in order to become good.

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  • Identifying Preferred Activities to Increase Engagement in Residents with Dementia

    Scally, Regan (2014)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Elders with dementia spend the majority of their day inactive, often with little more than general music or movies playing in the background. The purpose of the current study was to increase engagement in residents within a dementia care facility. Nine residents with severe dementia and five caregivers participated. Intervention 1 required caregivers to complete activity records and receive supervisory feedback during afternoon observation sessions. No increase in appropriate engagement was observed, contrary to previous research. Single stimulus engagement preference assessments were used to identify preferred activities that residents could engage with independently. During Intervention 2, caregivers were provided with information on resident preferences, and these activities were made easily accessible to caregivers. An increase in appropriate engagement was observed for some of the residents. Intervention 2 was also implemented in the morning by a caregiver who led group activities at the same time. Findings were inconclusive from the morning sessions due to participant attrition. Improvements made during follow up and suggestions for future improvements are discussed. Intervention 2 allows any member of staff to efficiently engage residents, even during times that they are required to complete other tasks.

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  • The noun phrase of Atchin. A language of Malakula, Vanuatu

    Duhamel, Marie-France (2010)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This thesis presents a description of the Noun Phrase in the language spoken on Atchin Island in Central Vanuatu. The indigenous language of Atchin islanders belongs to the Oceanic subgroup of the Austronesian language family. Atchin is thought to be a dialect of the Northeast Malakula language which is estimated to have a population of 9,000 speakers. The study is based on narratives and elicitation notes collected in 2010 during two fieldtrips on Atchin. This corpus of data provides linguistic evidence to support the phonological, morphological and syntactic analysis throughout the thesis. Atchin has an SVO word order, distinct noun, verb and adjective classes. Nouns can inflect for possession, and verbs are preceded by a particle marking modality, person and number. Noun modifiers are postposed to the noun. Atchin presents definite and indefinite articles, demonstratives and a small class of adjectives. Adjectives, adjectival verbs and relative clauses are common noun postmodifiers. In the adjectival verb construction, the preverb agrees in person and number with the noun modified. All members of the class of adjectives can appear in an adjectival verb construction. The language shows a formal distinction between inalienable and alienable possession. Syntactically, the distinction is expressed by two types of possessive constructions: the possessive suffix (marking the person and number of the possessor) is attached to the possessum for inalienable possession or to the classifier postposed to the possessum for alienable possession. Distinct classifiers encode relations of distinct natures: a classifier establishes a relation of possession with food, another relation of possession with drink and two classifiers express a relation of general possession. One of the general purpose classifiers is restricted to non-human possessors. The phonological survey of the under-described language reveals a series of labiovelar consonants and free variation in speakers between fricatives and affricates. Tense mid-vowels become lax in an unstressed close syllable and vowel harmony is a common occurrence.

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