16,601 results for Masters

  • Guide to Great: The Role of Design Guidelines in Determining Design Quality in Architecture

    Skudder, Katarina (2015)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Design quality is an elusive counterpart in achieving successful outcomes in architecture. Design guidelines are a mechanism that are used to influence those outcomes, yet not utilised to their full capacity in contributing to design quality. This thesis is a study on finding parameters for improving design quality for new medium density residential subdivisions in New Zealand. This is achieved firstly by studying the theoretical definition of design quality, secondly by analysing a select number of existing design guidelines and their outcomes, thirdly by attempting to apply the precedent findings to a real-world development site and lastly by re-writing a set of existing design guidelines for the project site to implement the findings of the thesis. The objective is to discover a method to guide design quality. The design project is used as a methodology to arrive at the outcome of a revised and workable set of design guidelines. It is a means of testing a hypothesis, it has a functional purpose and is only developed to a necessary point of preliminary design for this reason: the design project is not the main thesis outcome, it is a means to the thesis goal of determining effective design guidelines for the project site. The main findings of the thesis have resulted in five outcomes, i) to provide a theoretical premise for understanding and determining design quality, ii) to outline an overview of the parameters that make existing design guidelines successful in creating design quality, iii) to develop a workable design proposition for an existing development site to use as an example, iv) re-writing a set of existing design guidelines for the proposed site to incorporate the findings of the precedent review and design proposition, and v) establishing that design itself is essential toward the development and assurance of design quality in design guidelines. It is hoped that this thesis will offer a contribution to knowledge in the field of architecture, and that with this research, design guidelines can more specifically enhance, protect and create an enduring future of design quality in architecture.

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  • Imaged Unaware – Sleep, Privacy and Dignity in Relation to Documentary Photographic Practices Exhibited as Contemporary Art in the Information Age

    Ruck, Jane (2015)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This thesis examines photographic images which document human adult males sleeping during the day with explicit claims to authenticity (real people framed and fixed in real life situations), and their associated social, cultural and political contexts in having been exhibited in the contemporary art world in the first decade of the twenty-first century. The areas of focus of this thesis are the expressed intentions of the photographers in their relationship to their photographed subjects and the approaches taken in capturing and sharing their photographic images of sleeping subjects. This includes the situations and methods by which the images were captured, their subsequent use in the production of photographic works to be projected within specific contemporary art world exhibition sites, and their ongoing subsequent re-exhibition and dissemination in the current global information age. Three case studies are discussed in light of power relationships involved and the ethical implications of being witnessed and recorded, particularly in terms of dignity and respect for vulnerable individuals and issues around informed consent and autonomy - or complete lack of it, the precarious possibilities for control of self-image and informational privacy in the use of documentary images of identifiable real-life human beings in the contemporary art world, and more broadly, in the current global information age.

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  • Shifting Ground: Economic Creolisation and Land Sales on the Edges of Goroka, Papua New Guinea

    Church, Willem (2015)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Urbanisation in Papua New Guinea (PNG) is increasingly characterised by the sale of customary land to migrants from other provinces. As the borders of towns transform through this process, I ask: what does selling customary land in PNG mean, and what implications do sales have for Papua New Guinean sociality? I address these questions by analysing land sales in a community in Bena, near Goroka, Eastern Highlands Province (EHP). Drawing on approximately three months of fieldwork in the area, I explore the region around Goroka as a space of intersecting logics of exchange, ownership, and personhood, I argue that land sale is an example of the creolisation of both economic forms and ideas of personhood. As buyers and sellers draw on both legalistic and customary symbols of exchange, land sale is neither a gift exchange nor an example of commodification, but rather exists in a space of economic-semantic ambiguity. Sellers and buyers draw on a creole of economic signifiers to communicate the ownership and transfer of land. Further, due to the central place of land in constructing sociality in Melanesia, this economic creolisation has important consequences for the construction of personhood in Bena. By examining the centrality of land in competing ideas of “freedom” in Bena, I place economic concerns in conversation with questions of personhood. As Papua New Guinean towns expand into the surrounding customarily-owned areas, these dynamics provide insight into the role of land in ongoing urbanisation in PNG.

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  • Working parents’ perspectives and involvement in their young child’s learning using the Initiating Parent Voice

    Whyte-Van Diessen, Marjolein (2016)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Parent involvement in a child’s early education is of crucial importance because of the prominent role parents play in their child’s life (Smith, 2013). This research has looked at how parents in full-time employment currently see their involvement in their child’s early childhood education and how their participation could be enhanced with the use of the ‘Initiating Parent Voice’ (IPV). IPV is a form, which presents a photograph of the child busy with a specific learning interest at the early childhood education and care centre, prompting dialogue between the child and the parent. This provides an opportunity for written feedback to the centre about the learning interest before a learning story may be written (Whyte, 2010) thus giving the parent and the child an extra opportunity to contribute their voice to centre planning. In this qualitative research project I have explored the use of the IPV form with fifteen parents who were in full-time employment and whose child attended one of five longday education and care centres. I drew on a multiple case study design as described by Yin (2009), using interview data, documentation of the children’s learning and the documented Initiated Parent Voice forms. For the analysis of the study, post-structural and interpretive paradigms were employed (Cannella, 1997, Foucault, 2002; 1977). Furthermore Activity Theory was employed to investigate collaborative activity, taking into consideration data obtained through additional interviews with the managers of the centres (Engeström, 1987). The collaborative activity between the parent and the child opened up possibilities for a greater understanding and appreciation of the child’s learning by the parent and increased opportunities for learning for the child. The IPV provided a specific focus, which enabled the parent to find time in their busy schedule and be engaged with the child in the ‘here-and-now’. Opportunities for the child-parent dialogue to build on the child’s learning interest at the centre were afforded by the return of the IPV to the centre manager. Possible reasons for not taking up these opportunities are included in the discussion. Research findings indicated parents themselves prefer dialogue about the learning to take place on a regular basis (Whyte, 2015a).

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  • The development of children's processing systems for reading: the influence of guided reading in the first year of school

    Aitken, Judy (2016)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    In New Zealand, teachers in the first year of school have an important role in ensuring 5-year-old children get underway in reading so that they become confident, proficient and independent readers. Guided Reading is a fundamental, early literacy instructional approach that leads to their independence and yet there is little evidence of the influence of this important practice on the development of children as early readers. This small qualitative case study, informed by Marie Clay’s complex literacy processing theory, undertook to examine Guided Reading in the first year of school. Three teachers in three schools were interviewed about their implementation of Guided Reading and each were observed teaching three lessons. Following the lessons, the oral reading of the 14 child participants was recorded by the researcher using Running Records of continuous text. Issues with the implementation of Guided Reading emerged. The teachers introduced children to Guided Reading in their first week at school. This contradicted published recommendations but reflected the teachers voiced sense of urgency in having children meet a national standard in reading after one year. This early initiation of children to the most intensive form of reading instruction led to implications for teaching that compromised children’s development of processing systems for reading. The Ministry of Education recently announced revisions to Ready to Read, the instructional series distributed to all schools. The revisions are designed to have impact on Guided Reading instruction in the first year of school. The findings suggest that in view of its potential to shape successful trajectories of progress for children there is some urgency in ensuring that schools align their implementation of Guided Reading against the revisions.

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  • Explorations into the unique issues and challenges facing older men with haemophilia

    Elliott, Sarah (2016)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    I understand that I have chosen to make my thesis available freely online. Allow commercial uses of your work: No. Allow modifications of your work: Yes, as long as others share alike. For the first time people who have haemophilia are facing the same aging issues as the general population due to longer life expectancy. This brings new and unique challenges for this group, and adds further complexity to their treatment, care, and support. The existing literature on this topic is dominated by a medical perspective that focuses on treatments and haematological management of haemophilia and common co-morbidities. Very little investigation into the wider effects of the challenges of growing older with haemophilia on an individual’s holistic wellbeing has occurred. Accordingly, this research investigates the wider psychosocial experiences of older men with haemophilia in New Zealand using an exploratory sequential design that included a literature review, focus group, and national questionnaire. This mixed-method study identifies the unique issues and challenges faced by older men with haemophilia in Aotearoa, New Zealand, and their perceptions of the support services available to them. The results indicate that there are substantial challenges for older people with haemophilia, some of which have been identified in previous research and some which are presented in this thesis for the first time. Results also show that older people with haemophilia in New Zealand have very effective supports and services available to them. This research provides a starting point for in-depth conversations about older people with haemophilia and offers recommendations that can ultimately improve and enhance the lives and wellbeing of older men with haemophilia in New Zealand.

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  • Teaching children with autism social skills using video modelling

    Wong, Joanne (2015)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Video modelling (VM) combined with video embedded instructions were used to teach social skills to four children aged between ten to fifteen who were diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. The aim of this study was to contribute towards the existing literature on the efficacy of VM. In addition to this purpose, this study focused on programming for response and stimuli generalisation through the videos created and the intervention procedures. A multiple baseline design across participants and social skills was used. Results showed the intervention was effective at teaching responding to greetings, personal space and verbal request. The intervention effects were questionable for teaching requesting a turn. All the participants generalised the social skill across different stimuli. Response generalisation was only applicable to three out of four participants, and two of the participants demonstrated successful response generalisation. Despite no response generalisation occurred for the third participant, response variation was observed. These results suggest that a simple intervention of VM paired with instructions can be highly effective at teaching social skills and promoting generalisation of the skills. The limitations and implications of this research are also discussed.

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  • Students’ Search for Identity as Credit Hunters or Science Students

    Taylor, Anita (2014)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Faculty of Education Exemplar -- 60 point. The case study research for this dissertation was informed by Bernstein’s (2000) theory about how schools reproduce social inequalities by providing different socioeconomic groups with different educational opportunities. Specifically this dissertation investigates the features of non-traditional Level 2 science subjects in alternative student pathways now available in New Zealand secondary schools. These subjects are intended to provide disengaged students with relevant curricula but I argue that they effectively reduce access to the generative principles of disciplinary knowledge. The schools’ alternative pathways have a tendency to conflate everyday knowledge with scientific knowledge rather than focus on developing suitable pedagogies that ensure access to scientific knowledge for disengaged groups of learners. Furthermore the tendency of the non-traditional science courses to incorporate knowledge across traditional subject boundaries – made possible by modularisation of assessment - encourages loyalty to an extrinsic reward system of credit collection at the expense of developing identities as science students. In this way students are trained to meet targets rather than be educated in the cognitive systems of meaning that allow participation in the broader scientific community and through the critical awareness developed in these cognitive processes to participate fully in democratic society.

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  • Te Noho Kotahitanga: Putting the ‘Critical’ Back in Biculturalism

    Panapa, Kelly-Anne (2015)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Faculty of Education & Social Work Exemplar -- 60 point. This dissertation discusses biculturalism in the public imagination and how it is represented in public policy, particularly in a tertiary educational context. Critical, decolonising, and Kaupapa Māori theories are drawn from to articulate a critical approach to biculturalism. Critical biculturalism, as it is developed in this dissertation, teases out four key strands: the indigenous-settler relationship; decolonizing practice (including conscientisation of indigenous and settler ‘minds’; Māori cultural (epistemological and ontological) legitimacy; and the interrogation and transformation of structures and power relations. These strands frame a positive critique of biculturalism as it is articulated in policy at Unitec. Unitec, an Auckland based tertiary institution, has formulated a Māori Success Strategy that articulates aspirations of becoming “[a] bicultural institution of technology operating in a multicultural environment” (Unitec Institute of Technology, 2011, p. 2). This critique aims to offer insights to further advance Unitec’s vision. Three key aspects to a Critical Biculturalism are: 1. That it must open up the space within the mainstream for Kaupapa Māori to advance Māori aspirations and other important ideas about a New Zealand nationhood. 2. That it stresses the need for partnership between Māori and Pākehā, rather than the separation of one group from the other. 3. That participatings engage with the notion of difference and are prepared to question, be questioned, and to become uncomfortable, within an environment where concepts of utu, manaaki and even aroha are practiced.

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  • The impact of curriculum change on the teaching and learning of time series

    Passmore, Rachel (2016)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The secondary school statistics curriculum in New Zealand has experienced substantial change since 2010. The catalyst for these changes was a desire to improve students’ statistical reasoning and to narrow the gap between the statistics taught in secondary school classrooms and the practices and thinking of professional statisticians. Anecdotal evidence suggested the quality of Year 13 student work in time series had improved. This research, therefore, sought to provide a robust analysis of changes in learning outcomes of Year 13 students in time series, in order to determine whether these claims could be supported. Furthermore a literature review produced no evidence of any prior research in the area of student reasoning with time series at this level. Ethical and time considerations prevented access to samples of student NCEA work on time series completed before and after the curriculum change. Instead exemplars of student work distributed by the New Zealand Qualifications Authority (NZQA), which were freely available on the internet, were utilised. In total 35 exemplars of student work were analysed. In order to obtain a more holistic perspective of the curriculum change, 18 teachers were surveyed and five were interviewed. These secondary data sources provided data about teachers’ perceptions of the curriculum change. Since a framework for assessing student learning outcomes for time series did not exist, a framework was developed based on the student data and a synthesis of established frameworks concerned with levels and development of mathematical reasoning, dimensions of statistical reasoning and interpretation of data and data displays. Analysis of student exemplars against the framework provided strong evidence that after the curriculum change higher levels of reasoning were observed. The shift towards higher levels of reasoning was observed at all levels of achievement – Achieved, Merit and Excellence. The style of student exemplars changed to include a more complete report style response, integrating other research findings that either confirmed or refuted the student’s own findings. One of the major facilitators of this change was the availability of free data visualisation software, which liberated teaching and assessment time from a focus on procedures to one of data interpretation and interrogation. The implication of these findings suggest that the framework developed for this study could be used by teachers in order to scaffold their students’ reasoning to higher levels and that other NCEA Achievement Standards could be similarly scrutinised in order to evaluate the effect of curriculum change.

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  • Community Participation and NGO Responses to the April 2014 Floods in Solomon Islands

    Adams, Carl (2016)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Floods are the most common form of natural disasters globally, disproportionately impacting lower income countries and in many cases the poorest citizens therein. The increasing frequency and intensity of floods present civil society, policymakers, and development practitioners the challenge of reducing disaster risk, and populations’ vulnerability to extreme weather events. This thesis explores the roles of affected communities in Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO) responses to disaster in Solomon Islands, based on the experience of the 2014 flash floods. It investigates the extent to which communities were consulted and participated in NGO responses, and the factors which inform community-NGO relationships. It explores ways that communities interpret and respond to disasters, identifying factors that assist and constrain stakeholders in disaster response and recovery. The research is a qualitative case study, employing interviews, focus groups and document analysis. It is guided by a reflexive discourse analysis and narrative inquiry approach, which places the focus of the study on the experiences of participants. It finds that communities played very limited roles in NGO responses, especially non-dominant or marginalised sectors of society, such as youth, women, and people with disabilities. It indicates that failure to respond appropriately to the differentiated needs of affected populations can exacerbate their risk of experiencing secondary disaster. This thesis argues that there is a need to improve the inclusiveness of responses to disaster, engaging women, youth, and people with disabilities in decision-making in order to respond more appropriately to their needs. Secondly, it identifies that the channelling of funds through Members of Parliament (MPs) in disaster response is undermining the National Disaster Management Office and contributing to increasing dependency and opportunism among affected populations. It also highlights improving policy making and planning as having the potential to improve responses to future disasters.

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  • Smoking, Not Our Tikanga: An Analysis of Māori Identity and Smoking Behaviour

    Muriwai, E (2016)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Māori, the indigenous peoples of Aotearoa (New Zealand), have the highest national smoking prevalence of any ethnic group. Decades of research has focused on understanding the underlying mechanisms of Māori smoking behaviour. Despite this research, smoking prevalence for Māori remains markedly high. This thesis explores Māori smoking behaviour through an analysis of Māori identity. Undertaking a Kaupapa Māori positioning, I present two studies with the intention of decolonising Māori smoking research and acknowledging Māori aspirations to reduce tobacco harms and become auahi kore (smoke free). In my first study I present a qualitative media analysis which investigates the representations of Māori who smoke in national media. This study highlighted four central themes; deficit-style representation, strengths-based representation, historical recognition and cultural dissociation. I found that a causal link between ‘being Māori’ and smoking is commonly implied through negative representations of Māori who smoke. However, evidence of an alternative narrative emerged which dissociated aspects of ‘being Māori’ from smoking behaviour. Building on these findings I present a second paper, which quantitatively tested speculated links between Māori identity and culture, as well as experiences with discrimination, with smoking status on a national sample of Māori (N = 557). This study used the Multi-Dimensional Model of Māori Identity and Cultural Engagement (MMM-ICE2) to test aspects of Māori identity. We found no evidence linking Māori identity and smoking with one exception through the measure of ‘Perceived Appearance’. This unexpected finding reflects on how other people’s external evaluations of Māori may influence their smoking behaviour. Together these studies show support for distinguishing Māori identity from Māori smoking behaviour. The results of these studies are perhaps best encapsulated by the novel kaupapa formed in this thesis; ‘Smoking, Not Our Tikanga’.

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  • Speak the words ki au nei: The intersection between Spoken Word Poetry and Public Health

    Worley, Rewa (2015)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Aim The principal aim of this study was to explore how youth in Tāmaki Makaurau utilized Spoken Word Poetry and its relationship to health and wellbeing. This included documenting the Spoken Word scene and history in New Zealand, specifically within Auckland city. This study also investigated how Spoken Word Poetry resonated within Māori and Pacific participants with a focus on mental health. Methods This research project utilised three qualitative data collection methods: focus-group interviews, ethnographic observations, and finally autoethnographic data collated by the researcher. Thematic analysis of these data were triangulated when investigating the overall phenomenon of Spoken Word Poetry. Data was sorted thematically and then analysed using a general inductive approach. Findings Spoken Word Poetry was found to benefit youth within their personal lives but also as a collective activity and network that was consistent with wellbeing. Youth discussed Spoken Word as a medium for self-discovery, personal development, affirmation and empowerment, and resistance. Spoken Word Poetry also provided a social network and place to address relevant social and political issues within dominant spaces. Finally, it was also found to be culturally responsive to Māori and Pasifika youth as a site for cultural regeneration and increasing indigenous identity. Conclusions The findings of this research contribute valuable knowledge that links Spoken Word Poetry in Aotearoa with the educational and mental health needs of Auckland youth within the context of Public health. Given that these associations are complex, the present findings foreground Spoken Word Poetry not only as a form of addressing negative influences such as suicide, bullying, and self-harm but as a space for positive youth development. Spoken Word Poetry should be seen as a new and innovative mental health intervention for youth in Aotearoa in addition to its benefits as a scholastic tool. Public Health strategies should move toward incorporating interventions such as this that are positively engaging for youth.

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  • To infotain or inform?: television news and the public sphere in New Zealand in the twenty-first century

    Smith, Samuel (2016)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This master’s thesis looks into whether the content of prime time television news within a commercialized broadcast market could be continuing to undermine the development of the public sphere in New Zealand. The research obtained data from 2015 to help analyse the content that makes up prime time news in terms of what news categories appear, the amount of hard and soft news, how bulletins are divided up, and how New Zealand politics is framed. The research closely studied prime time news coverage over a one-month sample period, with the data obtained in the study helping to enable further discussion to take place on the effects of news on the public sphere. The study focused on news coverage on One News and 3 News, and was carried out using a mixed methods approach in the form of a content analysis and framing analysis. It also looked at data from 2005 to allow for a brief comparison to be made between different periods of news coverage, ten years apart. The findings of the research showed that soft news content featured more than hard news, the amount of news content per-bulletin in the study averaged only 27-28 minutes, of which a majority was soft news, while news bulletins appeared to have more news content at the top of the bulletin, with an average of 45-49% of news content appearing before the first ad break. In addition to these findings, this thesis concludes that political coverage has been affected by the commercial reality of broadcasting in New Zealand, with politics being presented more in entertaining and dramatic ways at the expense of in-depth discussions on policy and political issues. With this, episodic framing was favoured ahead of thematic framing when covering political stories, while there was also a high rate of general reportage. Based on these results, this thesis argues that the content of prime time television news is continuing to undermine the development of the public sphere, but that more research is needed to fully investigate further how this could be impacting on the public sphere. It is hoped this thesis can be a starting point for this to occur and for further discussion to take place on the relationship between television news and the public sphere.

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  • Effects of turbidity on the aerobic physiology and feeding behaviour of juvenile snapper (Pagrus auratus)

    Cumming, Hana (2016)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Available to authenticated members of The University of Auckland. Turbidity as a result of increased suspended sediment in coastal waters is an environmental stress of worldwide concern. Recent research on fish suggests that detrimental changes to gill structure can occur in turbid waters, with speculation that these alterations diminish fitness variables such as growth and development by negatively impacting the O2 uptake capacity (respiration) of fish. To specifically address this unknown, the impact of turbid water on the gill structure, somatic growth rate and O2 uptake rates of a juvenile sparid species (Pagrus auratus) was addressed following exposure to 5 different turbidity treatments (< 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 NTU) for 30 days. Significant gill structural change was apparent with a progressive increase in turbidity and was quantified as a reduction in lamellae density, as well as increase in basal hyperplasia, epithelial lifting and increased oxygen diffusion distance across the lamellae. The weight of control fish did not change but all fish exposed to turbid waters lost weight, confirming that long term turbidity exposure is detrimental to growth, productivity and fitness. However, the hypothesis that structurally altered gills would impair O2 uptake was not supported due to no measurable difference in the standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR), aerobic metabolic scope (AMS) or critical oxygen saturation (Scrit) limit of fish between the 5 NTU treatments. The results therefore suggest that P. auratus may be more resilient to turbidity stress than previously assumed, possibly because they maintain excess gill structure under non-turbid conditions to safeguard O2 supply. To further investigate the reasons behind the observed growth deficit with turbidity exposure, the feeding performance of P. auratus was also examined under the same 5 turbidity treatments. Significant reductions in feeding ability were apparent with a progressive increase in turbidity, and was quantified as a reduction in attack success, foraging bites and attack distance. These results suggest that the ability of P. auratus to feed effectively and efficiently may impact on fish growth, however there is likely to be more than one mechanism at play which, as discussed, provides considerable scope for further research.

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  • Taking Control of the Writing Process: Student Self-Regulation in the Writing Classroom

    Eltringham, Kathryn (2016)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Self-regulation is considered to have a positive effect on student progress and achievement, effort, motivation and self-efficacy (2000a; 2011). However, while it' s place in successful learning is alluded to in the New Zealand Curriculum (Ministry of Education, 2007), minimal research exists in regard to New Zealand students' views about the importance of self-regulation for their learning. The aim of this study was to examine Year 6 students' understandings and experiences of self-regulation within the context of the writing classroom. An interpretive qualitative case study approach was used to examine how two teachers implemented a range of self-regulatory strategies into the writing classroom and how the students responded to these strategies. Data were generated through the use of semi-structured interviews, classroom observation and document analysis. The use of Zimmerman' s (2000a) model of self-regulation underpinned the study and informed both data collection and analyses. Findings indicated that although teachers promoted the use of a number of strategies associated with self-regulation, and also spent time building students' self-efficacy and outcome expectations in regard to writing a persuasive text, the implementation of particular strategies proved problematic. In turn, while students displayed a willingness to produce a persuasive text, the quality of their experiences compromised their ability to self-regulate in a deep manner. Specifically, a lack of comprehensive evaluative and productive knowledge and expertise hindered students' ability to revise and redraft substantive aspects of their writing in an ongoing, iterative and holistic manner.

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  • “Your Livelihood is on the Line” Freezing Workers in Aotearoa/New Zealand, 1973–1994

    Webb, Ross (2015)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Drawing on oral histories, this thesis tells the story of a group of men and women who worked in New Zealand’s freezing works between 1973 and 1994. For much of the twentieth century, freezing workers occupied an important place within the New Zealand economy and a powerful position in the country’s trade union movement. By the 1970s, their strategic location in a key export sector, a broadly supportive industrial relations regime, and a strong workplace and union culture sustained freezing worker militancy. In a ‘blood and guts’ workplace dominated by speed, regimentation, and monotony, workers sustained a strong workplace culture; a culture that emphasised values of camaraderie and whanaungatanga (family-like relationships). This workplace culture reinforced wider community connections and underpinned a strong union culture. Freezing workers frequently challenged the prerogatives of employers and asserted their own control and autonomy on the job. Like workplace culture, union culture extended beyond the workplace, into the community and family lives of workers, especially during industrial action. In exploring workplace and union culture, and in drawing on oral histories, this thesis shows what working in the industry meant to those who did the work and what the union meant to rank-and-file workers beyond its institutional role. At the same time, the meat-freezing industry underwent significant transformations in the 1970s and 1980s, driven by both international and domestic forces. Britain’s entry into the EEC, oil shocks, and a collapse in export prices placed significant pressures on the industry, while the deregulation of the industry and removal of subsidies for farmers spurred on a period of mass closures and redundancies. As the economic prosperity that defined the post-war years came to an end in the 1970s and 1980s, freezing workers sustained, attempted to defend, and then lost much of their power, a decline accelerated by structural changes in the economy in the 1980s and 1990s. Oral histories provide insights into the way workers responded to this period of ‘disempowering change’ in their fight for redundancy pay and the efforts of workers, unions and communities in setting up support networks after a closure. In their responses, freezing workers drew on a strong workplace and union culture.

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  • Geomorphic variation of Thames Coast fan-deltas, Coromandel, New Zealand: a sediment budget approach

    Longstaff, Kathryn (2014)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This thesis seeks to resolve the geomorphic variability exhibited by a series of six small fan-deltas along the Thames Coast, Coromandel, New Zealand. Although the fan-deltas occur within 30 km of each other on the same fault scarp, a variety of morphologies and sizes exist. A sediment budget approach has been employed to examine the components of the fan-delta system. By tracking the generation, transport, and deposition of sediments to the fan-deltas, the drivers of geomorphic variability can be described. The characteristics of the catchments influence the variation exhibited by the fan-deltas, but a larger catchment area does not produce a larger fan-delta. Rather, it is the catchment and localised slope, ruggedness, circularity and density that have the greatest effect on fan-delta geomorphology. The time frame of fluvial fan-delta sedimentation is 3 ka, with sediment delivery from the streams over this period calculated for the six study catchments: Waikawau 3.74 + 10⁷ m³, Te Mata 1.30 + 10⁷ m³, Tapu 6.72 + 10⁷ m³, Waiomu 6.14 + 10⁶ m³, Te Puru 2.92 + 10⁷ m³, and Tararu 6.52 + 10⁷ m³. The total sediment volumes for the fan-deltas are: Waikawau 1.36 + 10⁷ m³, Te Mata 1.38 + 10⁷ m³, Tapu 2.01 + 10⁷ m³, Waiomu 2.24+ 10⁷ m³, Te Puru 9.26 + 10⁷ m³, and Tararu 5.08 + 10⁷ m³. The assessed volumes of the fan-deltas deviate from the late-Holocene sediment delivery modelled. Te Mata has a fan-delta volume comparable to the sediment delivered over the late Holocene, potentially due to armouring of the fan-delta surface. Tararu has a fan-delta slightly smaller than modelled, although has a long history of land management. Waikawau and Tapu both have fan-delta volumes less than expected by modelling sediment transport, these sites have areas of low slope along their trunk streams allowing for within catchment sediment storage as well as finer sediment distributions permitting greater re-working of deposits. Waiomu and Te Puru both have fan-delta volumes in excess of their modelled sediment transport, indicative of debris flows delivering vast quantities of sediment in extreme events.

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  • Knowledge-Based System for Autonomous Control of Intelligent Mastication Robots

    Odisho, Ramin (2016)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The study of the mechanical and chemical properties of food is commonly known as Food Texture Analysis (FTA); it is an important area of research in fields such as the health and food sciences. The majority of FTA methods employ human sensory panels because they produce realistic results from ‘in-vivo’ experiments; however, due to the subjective nature of sensory evaluation, the results obtained from different panel members can be inconsistent. This inherent variability in experimental outcomes can lead to difficulties when interpreting and comparing results and is the focus of this research. Prior contributions to this research led to the development of a mastication robot; the motive being that robots are not inherently subject to the variability associated with human sensory perception and preference. The robot is capable of emulating human mastication by performing a family of rhythmic chewing motions that approximate the trajectories of human molar teeth. However, the robot was unable to adapt its chewing behaviour to food properties as they varied during the mastication process; this had a negative impact on results as mastication is a complex, dynamic process and cannot be accurately emulated by a static system. The aim of this project was to develop a Knowledge-Based System (KBS) that could learn how human chewing patterns change during mastication and as a result, enable the robot to adapt its actions to changes in food properties. To accomplish this, the KBS was designed to store data regarding changes in mastication parameters with respect to varying food properties; the data would then be analysed (via machine learning algorithms) to discover mathematical relationships (knowledge) within the data. The KBS uses these relationships to control the robot (supervisory) based on feedback from the robot regarding the properties of the food. Under KBS control, the robot autonomously emulated human mastication and produced results that were both, realistic and consistent; this indicates that the KBS has successfully enabled the robot to better approximate human masticatory behaviour. While this is a positive outcome, significant work is still required before such systems can be considered as viable alternatives to traditional sensory panels.

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  • Conversaciones con mi sangre – Conversations with my blood: How intergenerational knowledge shapes conceptions of art practice and teaching

    Bribiesca, Anna-Maria (2016)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Faculty of Education & Social Work Exemplar -- 120 point. This auto-ethnographical study focused on the importance of family being at the centre of my ‘conversaciones con mi sangre – conversations with my blood.’ My aim was to explore through conversations with my immediate family, in particular my father José Maria Parra y Bribiesca, how intergenerational knowledge about art and art making has been, and continues to be, transmitted by my Mexican / English / Irish ancestors. I wanted to understand more deeply, and critically reflect on how art is created, what meanings art works carry, and how those meanings are taught and learned within familial intergenerational situations. The design of this study was informed by a qualitative interpretative paradigm. It was underpinned by literature on the theoretical and methodological framework of auto-ethnography, a form of self-reflection that explores a researcher’s personal experiences and connects their autobiographical story to wider cultural, political and social meanings. Although my family and cultural heritage were the main foci, it was important to explore how others pass on knowledge. I perceived that approaches to indigenous research methodology, and the passing on of knowledge by Mexica (indigenous Mexican people) and Māori in Aotearoa-New Zealand, intersected with auto-ethnography and was a means to empower not only myself but other indigenous peoples. As a researcher, also with English / Irish ancestry, I was also interested in how non-indigenous people pass on intergenerational knowledge. The research design challenged my ability to unite and integrate the roles of artist, teacher and participant-researcher through the theoretical and methodological perspectives of a/r/tography, which focuses on the concept of ‘living enquiry’ via the ‘self’ and others to explore issues. From the perspective of being an artist, I examined what types of intergenerational knowledge have informed my conceptions and practices of art making. From the perspective of being an art teacher, I explored how intergenerational knowledge could be transmitted through my pedagogical practices in art to support students, including indigenous students, in a secondary school context. From the perspective of being a participant-researcher, I seized the opportunity to become more informed about myself as an artist, teacher, researcher, and person as opposed to someone who reports findings about others. The findings are presented through the conversaciones with my family. They are illustrated through documented sources and the lens of personal ephemera gathered – the ‘true little incidents’ between me, art, my parents and my children - that serve not as bricolage but as emblems, signs and appeals. Most importantly, they are expressed through the enactment of the collaborative art making conversaciones with my father, José Maria Parra y Bribiesca.

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