17,190 results for Masters

  • In search of the interdependent self : explorations among Baptist church members in Jamaica and the United States

    Frey, Rosemary (2004)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Rethinking the Suburban Shopping Centre

    Green, Anthony (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Auckland city is New Zealand’s fastest growing city which continues to sprawl outwards degrading the biodiversity of the natural systems. The population’s culture of the ‘quarter-acre dream’ opposes intensification in low rise suburbia. While suburban shopping centres are the product of urban sprawl they are now situated in central areas relative to the growing city. Their land is now more valuable than the surface car parking that occupies the majority of the site and has the opportunity to foster intensification. In addition, these centres no longer provide a new exciting retail experience and the retail environments lack any point of difference between suburb to suburb, city to city and country to country. The research explores three bodies of work; new urbanists Jan Gehl and Peter Calthorpe; retail theory on theatrical experience from the architect Jon Jerde, and eco-master planning of Ken Yeang. Forming the hypothesis that ecology has the ability to facilitate the hybridisation of new urbanism and retail environments creating identity and sense of place for an intensified suburban-centre. Ecology has the capacity to create a theatrical experience to re-image the retail environments towards environmental conscious consumption. The inquiry contends that urban planning and development has fragmented the regions natural systems degrading the biodiversity of species that once occupied the built area. As we continue to consume more land and more commodities, we become removed from the environment, the thing that gives us life. The outcome of this investigation is an urban masterplan and framework for Highland Park Shopping Centre, accommodating commercial, retail, recreational and residential activities in the form of a new suburban centre that reconnects and enhances the region’s natural systems. The centre becomes a catalyst for further intensification in its surrounding context. The strategies employed for the design case study can be replicated at other suburban centres allowing intensification to be enriched from the sites ecology.

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  • Reclaiming Social Space: Adapting Neighbourhoods to Support an Ageing Population

    McClintock, Lisa (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The age structure of New Zealand’s population is expected to undergo a dramatic change in the next few decades. By 2050, it is thought that approximately one quarter of the population will be aged 65+. Research indicates that the overwhelming preference of older adults is to age in their own homes and communities if possible. However, loneliness among community-dwelling older adults is widespread. Architecture as a discipline has unique potential to critique existing neighbourhood design and generate creative solutions to provide a more socially fulfilling environment for residents to age in place. Architecture for ageing must combat loneliness and enable continued contact in later life. This research explores the sensitive adaptation of inner suburban Wellington neighbourhoods with the aim of empowering inhabitants to age positively in the community.

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  • Lake Taupo: A Multi-Sector Collaborative Partnership towards Sustainable Development

    de Jong, Josef (2011)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis has created a case study that centres on stakeholder engagement within Lake Taupo, documenting the largest environmental protection project in New Zealand. The purpose of the case study is to determine how multiple stakeholder perspectives affect the business case for sustainable development. In the late 1990s regional council, along with the community, realised that intensive land use was threatening the pristine quality of water. Forestry and sheep and beef farming are the two dominant productive sectors within the area. Science indicated that due to the porous nature of soil within the catchment, farming deer, dairy and sheep and beef, resulted in an increase of nitrogen entering the lake and consequently reduced water quality. A range of stakeholders, including local, regional, central government, along with many other private businesses, cooperated and engaged in an effort to ensure sustainable development could continue within the Taupo catchment. The process spanning more than ten years from 2000-2011 resulted in legislation that initiated a behaviour change to low intensive land uses. The partnership also included the establishment of a trust to administer the use of public funds to reduce the amount of nitrogen entering the catchment by 20 per cent. The multi-sector, stakeholder partnership, produced innovative methods to secure a future for sustainable development in Taupo. Policy documents and newspaper articles were analysed while interviews were conducted with a range of crucial stakeholders, including forestry trusts, government representatives, farmers and a range of businesses operating within the catchment. The results of the research suggests the involvement of such an array of stakeholders, enabled a coherent and all-encompassing strategy, due to the input from diverse public and private stakeholders, even if some stakeholders took a self-interested approach. The findings illustrate a business case that was created for many landowner stakeholders which aided in the creation of new business models. Engagement enabled the majority of stakeholders to see the perspectives of others because policy development was brought down to a community level. However there was an apparent lack of industry involvement from the farming sector as many stakeholders felt that the farming industry needed to play a crucial role, when in fact, they avoided the issues of their farmer members within the catchment and did not engage until it was too late. A large number of stakeholders felt that an uncertain environment was created due to legislation. Nonetheless the involvement of community groups and businesses such as the Lake Taupo Protection Trust (LTPT) and Mighty River Power (MRP) in trading nitrogen and carbon has enabled the creation of a sound business model for landowners. A sustainable business model by promoting the economic benefits to landowners ensured the farming community had support to generate new revenue streams. Therefore the uncertainty, as local legislation has not come into effect and the uncertainty surrounding a national and international Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS), has been diminished as these businesses engage with farmers. The realisation for landowners to rationalise their land for sustainable uses has increased their bottom line and decreased their nitrogen leaching, thus protecting the lake. The Lake Taupo case illustrated important learning‘s that can be applied to any environmental protection project. The inclusion of private and public entities can enable a sustainable future where businesses can be the ‗engines of change.‘

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  • Indicator organism sources and recreational water quality : a study on the impact of duck droppings on the microbiological quality of water at Hataitai Beach : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Microbiology at Massey University

    Abbott, Stanley Edwin (2003)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    3 Articles at back all written by S Abbott

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  • Individualised instruction, attitude and achievement in mathematics learning : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Education at Massey University

    Naftel, Anthony Edwin (1974)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This investigation reports a quasi experimental study of an individualised approach to mathematics learning which was operated in a New Zealand Primary School at the Standard Three level. The emphasis in the study was on student attitude towards mathematics and achievement in mathematics. The research was based on the following questions:– 1. Does student involvement in an individualised programme in mathematics result in a significant change in their attitude towards mathematics? 2. Does student involvement in an individualised programme in mathematics result in a significant change in their mathematics achievement? 3. What relationship, if any, is shown between student attitudes towards mathematics and student achievement in mathematics? The research design was a 'Non-Equivalent Control Group Design' in which two experimental and two control classes were used. No significant differences were shown between the experimental and control groups on four separate factors and thus they were considered as equivalent matched groups. Teachers were matched on the basis of length of teaching service. To measure student attitude towards mathematics a Likert typescale suitable for the Standard Three level was developed, entitled 'My Feelings About Maths'. Achievement was assessed by a standardised test. Pre treatment tests of attitude and achievement were administered to all subjects. The experimental classes then undertook the individualised programme for a fourteen week period whilst the control classes followed a textbook based programme. At the end of the experimental period, post treatment tests of attitude and achievement were administered to all subjects. The experimental subjects completed a questionnaire to indicate their attitude towards the individualised programme as also did the experimental teachers. Both questionnaires were specially constructed for the study. Analysis of data showed a significant positive change in attitude in the experimental group. There was no significant change in attitude in the control group. Both groups showed a significant gain in achievement. Attitude towards mathematics and achievement in mathematics was found to be correlated positively, at a low level, for both groups at the pre treatment stage. However, at the post treatment stage the correlation was non significant for the experimental group. Some evidence was obtained of the differential effects of the individualised programme on children at different ability levels. There was also evidence of a sex difference interaction. A large majority of the students in the experimental group indicated very positive attitudes towards the individualised programme. Teacher attitude was also positive.

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  • Important biological and ecological aspects of Strepsicrates macropetana Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Plant Protection at Massey University

    Mauchline, Nicola Ann (2000)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Strepsicrates macropetana Meyrick (Tortricidae) has a significant impact on eucalypt form and growth, therefore is an important insect pest of young plantations in New Zealand. The current research was undertaken to provide essential information regarding the biology, behaviour, phenology and chemical ecology of S. macropetana. All experiments were conducted within laboratories and/or glasshouses located at Massey University, Palmerston North, during the 1998/1999 period. The use of a cage containing eucalypt foliage enabled an efficient, self-maintaining method of rearing. A full life-cycle of S. macropetana was completed within approximately 54 days Female S. macropetana had an average fecundity of 40 eggs, with an egg to adult survival rate of 62.5%. The eucalypt species on which the larva developed on had an effect on the growth of S. macropetana. However, no one host species achieved optimal growth on all parameters When given a choice between eucalypt and non-host (apple) foliage, S. macropetana females oviposited more eggs on the eucalypt foliage, depositing significantly more on the lower surface of the leaf, predominately around the central mid-vein region. Between four and five generations of S. macropetana were identified in the field during a 12-month period. The abundance of S. macropetana was shown to be related to the larval host, and temperature. A significant relationship was also identified between pupal weight and these factors. The predominant natural enemy of S. macropetana in the field was identified as Trigonospila brevifacies (Hardy) (Tachinidae), in which larval parasitism rates of up to 45% were found. Sexual activity was predominant within the first and second hours of the scotophase. reaching a maximum when adults were three to five days old. Oviposition behaviour was most frequent around the second, fifth and seventh hours of the scotophase, peaking when adults were six to eight days old. Egg viability declined as female age increased, from 55% viability on day seven down to 31% on day nine Male S. macropetana were shown to be attracted to female S. macropetana in a Y-tube assay. Biologically active compounds were isolated from female S. macropetana, and the main compound was preliminarily identified as (E)-7-Dodecenyl acetate. This, in addition to moderate amounts of other compounds are likely to constitute the sex pheromone of S. macropetana.

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  • Implementing asset-based community development : a case study from the Philippines : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University

    Anna, Bona (2005)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Within the alternative development paradigm, needs-based models have been critiqued for the part they play in accentuating local deficiency and thereby increasing dependency on externally-driven development. The asset-based approach to community development (ABCD) has been presented as a capacities-focused alternative, aimed at establishing community-driven development and promoting authentic local empowerment. This thesis presents a case study into ABCD as it has been applied in a developing country context, analysing it in relationship to some of the theoretical premises of the approach and the wider development literature. The research, undertaken on the island of Mindanao in the Philippines, describes how the ABCD model was implemented and adapted to local circumstances. The findings indicate that the ABCD intervention resulted in improvements within the case study community, particularly pertaining to the expansion of community facilities, livelihood choices, household incomes, individual and collective motivation, and community pride. Overall, this study endorses ABCD as an effective approach to development in the developing world, while at the same time highlighting issues associated with its implementation. Questions are also raised regarding three global development themes that emerged in the course of the study, namely the development of capacity, the management of social process and the meaning of empowerment.

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  • Incorporating economic, social and environmental factors into a decision model for sustainable management of natural resources : a case study of the Ningaloo coast, Western Australia : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Economics at Massey University

    Longworth, Natasha Julie (2003)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    There is growing demand for many of Australia's coastal areas to be conserved and retained in their natural state. The reconciliation of competing demands; such as residential, industrial, recreation, conservation and tourism; in a manner that ensures the sustainability of natural areas is a major issue facing coastal planners. The Ningaloo coastal strip in Western Australia is a prime example of a fragile coastal environment, subject to increasing visitation, complex economic, social, environmental and institutional forces and a wide range of stakeholders. The challenge for managers and planners of the coastal strip is to determine an appropriate level of development and a management regime that meets the needs of stakeholders while still achieving the state government's goals in relation to coastal zone management. To meet this challenge, decision need to carefully balance human needs with the environment's ability to assimilate the pressures placed upon it. This research integrates social, environmental and economic factors into a decision framework for the sustainable management of natural resources. This framework differs from existing frameworks in two ways; firstly, it specifically includes stakeholder analysis as an individual assessment technique and secondly, it focuses on rapid appraisal techniques. Three individual assessment techniques; environmental impact assessment, cost benefit analysis and stakeholder analysis; are incorporated into a multiple criteria analysis model. This model is applied to a case study of the Ningaloo coast, Western Australia. The results show that a co-management arrangement between indigenous communities and the Department of Conservation and hand Management is consistently superior to other management options identified. Another favourable management option is sole management by the Department of Conservation and Land Management. When weightings that reflect an environmental perspective are used, low visitation scenarios are preferred. The research concludes with land use and management recommendations for the Ningaloo coastal strip. This recommended management regime would involve some form of co-management between stakeholder groups and CALM, particularly the traditional Aboriginal inhabitants. The level of development would be low, with at most, a single wilderness lodge facility.

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  • Impact management and social performance in the petrochemical industry in Taranaki : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University

    Whyte, Mandy (2000)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis addresses the practices of the petrochemical industry, in particular exploration and production companies (E& P), in interacting with operations-affected community stakeholders. It does so by reviewing the range of methodologies common to the industry, and by surveying companies active in the Taranaki region of New Zealand. It seeks to answer the question: how can exploration companies minimise their social impacts and conflict with operations-affected communities, and the associated costs, in a mutually acceptable and sustainable way? The thesis challenges the practice of addressing community concerns with, what the author has identified as, a public relations approach, the primary and underlying purpose of which is, it is argued, to further the economic interests of business. It maintains that practices arising from a public relations approach are both socially inappropriate and commercially ineffective when applied to communities who are negatively affected by companies with which they are obliged to share the same social and physical environment. Instead the thesis supports a community development approach to interactions between the petrochemical industry and community stakeholders. This approach emanates from a philosophical framework that espouses human rights and the integration of social, environmental and economic development as an enduring function of commercial enterprise. It is posited that effective management of the dynamics of opposing interests will not be achieved through companies deploying 'nice people' to negotiate with disaffected, disparate and disempowered groups, but through the use of qualified social practitioners and the community development tools of social assessment, participation and empowerment to create mutuality beneficial outcomes.

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  • Injection moulded radiata pine fibre reinforced polymer composites : properties and applications : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology in Product Development at Massey University

    Sethuram, Vishwanath (2004)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    New Product Development (NPD) is important for an organization's growth, profitability and competitiveness. The product being developed depends on an organization's unique context and could either be market-driven or technology-driven. Technology-driven product development begins with a new proprietary technology, and the firm then identifies products where the technology can be applied. Models like Technology Stage-GateTM have been suggested for developing new technology-driven products. But this process has the drawback of isolating the technology development process from the product development process. The present project began with the observation that New Zealand had an enormous amount of Pine wood fibre resource at her disposal, and there was growing research and use of wood fibre reinforced polymer composites worldwide for applications like automotive interior components, decking, furniture, and so on. Development of commercial products with this material was limited to thermoforming, extrusion, and compression moulding process. Although there was limited research initiated into injection moulding of pine wood fibre reinforced polymer composites, there was no documentation of the effect of varying the melt temperature on the mechanical properties of the material. There was also no documentation, either of commercial injection moulded products that have been manufactured with this material, or of the process that could be employed to develop commercial products with the new material. This led to the broad research aim of identifying a commercial product idea that could be manufactured by injection moulding the composite material that was developed using wood fibre and medium density polyethylene powder (rotational moulding grade) and to document the process adopted to achieve this. Some of the objectives were to document the properties of the composite material that was developed without either pelletising, or modifying the properties of the wood fibre by chemical means. The effect of change in fibre content, melt temperature and fibre length were studied. The fibre content ranged from 10% to 40% (in steps of 10%), and the experiments were conducted at four melt temperatures (155° to 215°C, in steps of 20°C), and for two fibre lengths (up to 4mm, and between 4mm and 8mm). The results of the experiments were statistically analysed using the 'Analysis of Variance' method, for their significance. A new development model, "Technology Driven - Fuzzy Front End" (TD-FFE), was used to manage the "fuzzy" stage of developing the new material, identifying new product ideas, and analysing the product concepts. The model is discussed in detail. Brainstorming technique was adopted to identify new product ideas for the material. The effect of the increase in fibre content on the tensile properties of the composite material was found to be more significant, compared to the effect of melt temperature. The interaction between fibre content and melt temperature on the tensile properties of the composite material was also found to be significant. The results of testing the composite material indicated that addition of wood fibre to the polymer increased the viscosity of the polymer melt. The density of the composite was found to increase with increase in fibre content (up to 40%). The tensile properties of the material increased steadily with increase in fibre content up to 30%, after which it decreased. The maximum ultimate tensile strength was found to be about 20MPa (when moulded at 175°C). The brainstorming technique was not found to be very suitable for the current project as the number of new product ideas identified were very limited since there were constraints on the material and manufacturing method to be used. Nevertheless, the method identified a building foundation insulation and boxing product. The performance of the product was simulated using COSMOS software and from the results of the static stress analysis, it was concluded that the composite material had the required tensile strength to withstand the pressure exerted by wet concrete. A broad analysis to determine the financial viability of the product was also conducted. It was found that it was cheaper to manufacture the new product than assemble the formwork boxing in the traditional method. It offered additional benefits like improving the insulation of the house, and the feel (or appearance) of the foundation, and also could reduce the construction time of the foundation. It is hence recommended that the product concept be investigated in greater detail by conducting consumer and market research to determine its commercial feasibility, and take it through to production and into the market.

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  • Increasing seatbelt usage in logging skidders through behaviour modification and seatbelt design : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology at Massey University

    Sullman, Mark J. M. (1994)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study examined methods for increasing seatbelt usage in one type of heavy logging machine (the skidder). This machine is used extensively for extracting felled trees and transporting them from where they are cut down to a central processing area. Preliminary investigations suggested that the operators of these machines failed to wear their seatbelts because they were poorly designed and because the operators simply forgot. A survey of the literature on increasing safety behaviours found that the two most powerful techniques were behaviour modification and human factors engineering (or ergonomics). Therefore, these were the two techniques used here. The standard seatbelts were redesigned to make them easier to use and an orange flashing reminder light was installed into the machines of seven full-time skidder operators. These machines were operating in either Kaingaroa, Rotoehu, Tahorakuri or Te Whakao Forests in the central North Island of New Zealand. The experiment used a multiple baseline single subject design, with the subjects receiving each treatment twice. With the installation of the redesigned seatbelt, mean seatbelt usage for six subjects rose from 21% to 31%. One subject refused to wear a seatbelt throughout the experiment. Installing the reminder light increased seatbelt usage by a further 1%. Removing the new seatbelt design caused usage to drop 16%. A further decrease of 5% occurred with the return to baseline phase when the reminder light had also been removed. The second introduction of the new seatbelt resulted in an increase in usage from 10% to a mean level of 46%. This was increased a further 22% with the reintroduction of the reminder light. The results showed that an easier to use seatbelt in combination with a reminder light can increase the level of seatbelt usage. The results also provide further evidence of the power of both behaviour modification techniques and human factors engineering in the field of occupational safety.

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  • Pregnant Adolescents: How do Social Worker's assess their parenting capacity?

    Bruce, Gabrielle Claire (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    It is the role of Child, Youth and Family (CYF) Social Workers in Aotearoa New Zealand to decide whether pregnant adolescents have the capacity to raise and effectively parent their children when reports of concern are received. This research identified issues that Social Workers consider when assessing adolescent parental capacity and how their views and opinions influence practice and decision making. Social Workers’ assessments were considered through a qualitative research study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven CYF Social Workers across New Zealand. The research found that assessment and decision making is subjective and based upon a number of factors, including the informal and formal supports in place and the capacity of the young person. Supervision and Consults were not fully utilised to support Social Workers’ decision making. Residential parenting programmes featured as a potential intervention from the baby’s birth. There was a high frequency of pregnancy due to rape or unlawful sexual connection raising ethical questions regarding paternal family involvement in assessment and decision making. Social Workers’ beliefs about adolescents raising children varied, with themes of empathy for the young person and concerns about egocentrism emerging.

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  • Utilisation of Primary Health Care services: the perceptions and experiences of South Asian immigrants in Auckland, New Zealand

    Tamanam, Jessica (2016)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The South Asian community in New Zealand – comprising of migrants from India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan – experience high rates of avoidable morbidity and mortality. This trend raises the question about health awareness, behaviours and health care utilisation among the members of this community. Alongside, it also raises questions about the extent to which New Zealand’s health care system addresses cultural diversities in health care. Focusing on health service utilisation of primary health care (PHC), the first point of access for health care, the present research aims to outline the socio-cultural, economic, and contextual factors that influence or present a challenge for health service utilisation behaviours of South Asian migrants. The thesis draws on Berry’s acculturation and Bourdieu’s habitus theories as explanatory frameworks to understand migrant perceptions and utilisation of health care. The study, located in Auckland, employed a qualitative interpretive research methodology. Fifteen participants from India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh, were involved in in-depth interviews. A content analysis of the in-depth interviews revealed two main findings. First, South Asians are influenced by their pre-migration experiences with health care in their home countries, which shape their perceptions of services provided by New Zealand PHCs. These expectations meant that they were most satisfied with health care utilisation when they perceived control over health decisions and were dissatisfied with the PHC when it restricted this ability to freely make choices about their healthcare. Second, the promotion of healthy lifestyles messages and support provided by PHC-level services and society are perceived to be inconsistent by South Asians with their ability to live the desired healthy lifestyles. The study recommends that PHC can better support South Asian migrants in their health service utilisation experiences by taking into consideration the particular expectations formed by their pre-existing health knowledge. Further, in order to develop effective health promotion messaging, PHC will need to create partnerships with existing South Asian community groups in ways that promote cultural diversity in messaging and interactions which empower South Asians to experience better health and wellbeing.

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  • Implantable Devices for Hydrocephalus Management

    Leung, Dixon (2014)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    For the past 60 years, hydrocephalus has been managed using passive drainage cerebral shunts. However, 40% of passive shunts fail within two years after implantation due to complications such as obstruction and incorrect drainage. A smart shunt is a powered device intended to solve these problems using cellular obstruction preventive techniques and patient specific drainage algorithms. This study has focused on obstruction resistive designs and obstruction clearing means for prolonging shunt patency. The integrated fluidic topology presented is capable of providing passive, energy efficient means for intracranial pressure regulation and comprises of a built-in flushing mechanism. The concept was realized using a rotary pump-valve peristaltic system, consisting of a novel peristaltic three-way variable-resistance valve. The shunt topology is capable of continuous drainage, zero opening pressure and is able to reverse flow direction for the purpose of unclogging the shunt. Feasibility calculations suggest it is capable of 150 valve adjustments or 5 flushing cycles before requiring a recharge when using a 2 gram coin-cell battery. A 40 gram smart phone battery could provide 2 weeks of closed loop operation when regulating intracranial pressure at 10 minute intervals. The mechanical wear the device is subjected to is negligible and intended to support operation for a lifetime. The DC motor, gearhead and encoder required to drive the hypothetical peristaltic system is the size of two AA batteries and weighs 50 gram. The dimensions of the peristaltic system were obtained via MATLAB simulations and a bench-top shunt system was evaluated using pressure-flow and back-pressure test rigs with LabVIEW. The shunt demonstrated an overall conductance of 0 - 4.90 µL/min/mmH2O and a back-pressure of 3 mH2O. The peristaltic system demonstrated its efficacy as part of an obstruction-free smart shunt. Future development will include miniaturization of the shunting device. A bioreactor connected to the shunt system will start the evaluation of the effectiveness of flushing on cellular obstruction. Simulink computer simulations will allow energy efficient drainage hydraulic designs and algorithms to be tested using a hydrocephalus hydrodynamic model of the brain.

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  • Adiabatic Quantum Computing with QUBO Formulations

    Hua, R (2016)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    We study two types of problems in this thesis, graph covering problems including the Dominating Set and Edge Cover which are classic combinatorial problems and the Graph Isomorphism Problem with several of its variations. For each of the problems, we provide efficient quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) formulations suitable for adiabatic quantum computers, which are viewed as a real-world enhanced model of simulated annealing. The number of qubits (dimension of QUBO matrices) required to solve the graph covering problems are O(n + n lg n) and O(m + n lg n) respectively, where n is the number of vertices and m is the number of edges. We also extend our formulations for the Minimum Vertex- Weighted Dominating Set problem and Minimum Edge-Weighted Edge Cover problem. For the Graph Isomorphism Problem, we provide two QUBO formulation through two approaches both requiring O(n2) variables. We also provide several different formulations for two extensions of the Graph Isomorphism Problems each requiring a different number of variables ranging from O(n1n2) to O((n1 + 1)n2). We also provide some experimental results using a D-Wave 2X quantum computer with 1098 active qubit-coupled processors on the problems studied here for a selection of known common graphs.

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  • From Relative Frequencies to Bayesian Probabilities

    Wilcox, John (2016)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    It is uncontroversial that evidence regarding frequencies should constrain probabilities or degrees of belief. What is controversial is the question of how this should be done. The random-worlds method provides some insight on this question. However, the method by itself faces problems in accounting for rational inferences from samples and in accommodating the uncertainty that agents occasionally have about relevant relative frequencies. One potential response to these problems is to seek alternative probability measures to accommodate such inferences and uncertainty. After surveying two such measures and various problems for them, I find this response wanting. I then offer another response in the form of a theory about rational inferences from samples, one which places an emphasis on the role of intuition in interpreting the probabilistic implications of evidence. The theory is nevertheless consistent with formal methods of statistical analysis in many contexts (such as objective Bayesian analyses of random samples). In accordance with the theory, one may use evidence from samples to form probability distributions about the relevant relative frequencies in a population. I then sketch out how the resulting distributions can be integrated with the insights from the random-worlds method à la the theorem of total probability. This, then, provides an approach to constraining probabilities given evidence about relative frequencies.

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  • 'Integrity Matters: An Inquiry into Social Workers' Understandings': a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Social Work, School of Health and Social Services, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Appleton, Cherie (2011-04)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This small scale study recruited a sample of qualified and experienced social work practitioners to explore the research question: “How do social workers in Aotearoa New Zealand perceive, understand and interpret the concept of integrity and how do they assess it as being relevant in their work?” The aim of this research was to capture and reflect the participants’ voices in relation to their perceptions, appreciation and application of the notion of integrity to their work. The reasons for choosing to interrogate the topic of integrity were three-fold: i) I was intrigued with the word ‘integrity’ which I perceived to be much used and rarely defined or contextualised in social work conversations, Codes of Ethics and Codes of Conduct. ii) I suspected that the term ‘integrity’ could be a container or integrating concept for a range of values and virtues such as respect, dignity, spirituality, trustworthiness. iii) I wondered if in the process of discovering the practitioner voices in relation to integrity we might also reveal factors or processes that could strengthen critical reflection, enhance job satisfaction, and increase resilient practice. Beginning with an e-survey, participants identified and described some of their definitions and key concepts in relation to integrity. The e-survey provided material that was used in subsequent focus group interviews to further explore participants’ understandings and experiences of integrity. The data collected from the focus group interviews then underwent a thematic analysis and coding process. Findings from this process were distilled and collected under two main headings: Practitioners ‘constructing’ integrity and practitioners ‘maintaining’ integrity. Several themes such as practitioners ‘making meaning’ of integrity, professional and personal integrity, integrity in the workplace, practitioners ‘doing’ integrity and practitioners experiencing challenges to integrity were identified and explored. The discussions and conclusions reached as a result of this study contribute to the advancement of social work knowledge and offer social work practitioners a perceptive framework for enhanced professional reflexivity around constructing and measuring integrity with the possibility of balancing and strengthening integrity in their practice.

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  • Membrane Separation of Dilute Fermentation Products

    Nguyen, Jenny (2013)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    LanzaTech NZ Ltd is a biofuel company which produces Bioethanol through the conversion of waste carbon gases via the mechanism of fermentation. Currently, Bioethanol is recovered from fermentation broths through the process of distillation. However the energy demand for this system is large, and results in ever-increasing operating costs. Membrane technology such as pervaporation, has recently been proposed as an alternative technology to distillation which can be incorporated in-situ with LanzaTech’s fermenter to increase the ethanol production yield, or coupled with the existing distillation process to lower the energy requirement. This is achieved by concentrating ethanol solutions above its azeotropic concentration, which cannot be attained through distillation alone. This project was established to investigate the potential benefits of pervaporation in LanzaTech's process. The first objective was to study the separation mechanism by developing a lab-scale vacuum driven rig to recover low concentration ethanol from aqueous solution. The second objective was to determine the membrane requirements to achieve the optimum pervaporation performance, as well as the effect of fermentation by-products on the separation process. Three different hydrophobic polymer membranes were used in this study to identify the optimal performance in terms of flux, permeability and selectivity of ethanol using different feed solutions. It was found that ethanol can be concentrated up to 25 wt%, with a flux of 530 gm-2h-1, from a 5 wt% ethanol and water mixture. Ethanol could be concentrated up to 18wt%, with a flux of 350 gm-2h-1, directly from LanzaTech’s fermentation broth using pervaporation. It was also found that mechanism of pervaporation is not only governed by solution diffusion, but also by pore flow mechanism. To optimise the mass transfer, the membrane material must have high ethanol solubility, allow diffusion, minimal coupling effect and low concentration polarization on the surface. Fermentation by-products played an important role in pervaporation, where the effect can be negative, positive or have no influence on the separation, depending on the physiochemical properties of the feed components, their interactions and the kinetic aspects on the membrane.

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  • Myth busting and tenet building: Primary and early childhood teachers' understanding of the nature of science.

    Heap, R (2007)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    A fundamental objective of science education is to provide students with the level of scientific literacy necessary to participate in a society increasingly dependent on science and technology. Central to definitions of this scientific literacy is an appreciation of the nature of science (NOS). The purpose of the research project was to identify the understandings of NOS of a cohort of practising primary and early childhood teachers, enrolled in a semester long science course as part of a Bachelor of Education degree. The research sought to examine their initial NOS understandings and mapped these understandings over the duration of the course in order to identify shifts in understanding and aspects of NOS resistant to change. The research was embedded in critical social science methodology. An explicit reflective approach was used throughout the course instruction to teach NOS tenets. Two frameworks were developed to analyse the data gathered, a myths framework and a NOS framework. Analysis of the pre-instruction views showed that the teachers initial understandings of NOS were fragmented, lacking in depth, inconsistent, fluid and revealed many myths of NOS. Over the duration of the course the teachers journals showed shifts in understanding: NOS tenets were more frequently expressed; there was an increase in the complexity of expression; and an increase in the integration or interrelatedness of NOS tenets. Factors which contributed to these shifts in understanding included the use of an explicit approach, consistency between explicit and implicit instruction, reflection, a conceptual change approach and the use of generic science-content-free NOS activities throughout the course. These findings suggest a need for NOS to be addressed in both pre-service teacher education and in-service teacher professional development programmes. The research has indicated that an explicit, reflective teaching approach is pedagogically effective for this need.

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