17,208 results for Masters

  • The meaning and management of organizational culture : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Studies in Management at Massey University

    Ramsey, Philip Lionel (1985)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Page 236 missing from the original copy.

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  • Ludic reading in adolescence : prevalence, practices and preferences : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education at Massey University

    Bardsley, Dianne (1992)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis is a study of adolescent readers who read spontaneously and voraciously to satisfy a variety of felt needs. An initial comparative study is made of the differential reading attitudes, interests, preferences and practices of ludic, moderate and reluctant readers among more than 2,200 New Zealand fourth and sixth formers. More specifically recorded are the preferences and practices of sixteen ludic readers, examined over a twelve month period. To the adolescent ludic reader, the important element of a book is its trance potential, which accounts for the pre-ordinance of fiction over non-fiction. Vivid imagery is found to be a characteristic of ludic reading among adolescents. The genre most favoured are horror, romance, adventure and fantasy. Genre preferences were found to remain stable over a twelve-month period, particularly among male ludic readers. Factors most strongly related to ludic reading are gender, ethnicity, family occupational status and home reading background. Less strongly related are birth order and family size. A strong relationship exists between school academic success and ludic reading. Higher than average occupational aspirations are also related to ludic levels of reading. Habitual ludic reading is found to decrease only slightly with age in adolescence with increasing work and study commitments, accompanied by increasing economic and social independence. Adolescent ludic readers are found to have a variety of leisure pursuits, including television-viewing. Personality and environmental influences determine quite individual differences in motivation, satisfactions, practices and preferences of ludic readers. The case study readers perceived literary quality to be inversely related to reading pleasure. Ludic readers experience a variety of emotions while reading a book and happy endings are not found to be relevant or a necessary requisite for enjoyment. Re-reading particular books is a feature of the reading habits of this group of adolescent readers. The popular perception of the ludic reader as an introverted, passive and solitary individual is not supported in this study.

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  • The motivation to migrate, acculturation, and finding employment : the case of African migrants in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of a Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Udahemuka, Martine Marie-Gloria (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The present study tested a model whereby Psychological Acculturation mediated the relationship between the Psychological Motives to Migrate and the Employment Outcome of African migrants in New Zealand. These concepts had not been previously studied together. Job search strategies, interview behaviours, qualifications and duration of time in the host country are principally known as predictors of employment outcome; therefore, their impacts were also taken into consideration. One hundred and five African migrants completed a questionnaire, which included a number of reliable measures used to assess the concepts of: (a) Psychological Motives to Migrate (Tharmaseelan, 2005), (b) Psychological Acculturation preferences (Ward & Rana-Deuba, 1999) and (c) Employment Outcome (Mace, 2004; Tharmaseelan, 2005). Job search strategies and interview behaviours were assessed with Mace's (2004) measures. Multivariate analyses showed that over and above demographic migration categories (economic, family, humanitarian, student and visitor), psychological motives to migrate (financial betterment, family building, exploration and escaping) predicted acculturation preferences. Specifically, voluntary migrants (those motivated by 'family building' and 'exploration') preferred to adapt to New Zealand culture, while less voluntary migrants (those motivated by 'escaping') had a higher preference to maintain their culture of origin. Acculturation preferences were not found to mediate the relationship between motives to migrate and employment outcome. The predicted links to employment outcome were not supported. Duration of time in New Zealand was correlated with acculturation preferences. Implications of the findings point to the fundamentally of assessing reasons to migrate from a psychological perspective, and also provide important linkages between motivational theory and acculturation theory. The implication must however be interpreted cautiously as per the limitations of the study. It was recommended that future researchers test the same model with improved measures and with a larger sample. In addition, future researchers could assess and compare the acculturation preferences and employment experiences of the 1.5 generation and their adult parents.

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  • Medical misadventure, legislation, reporting, and injury prevention : an evaluation of the process of ACC's reporting of medical error findings with regard to injury prevention : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Social Policy at Massey University

    Ralph, Lisa Tatiana (2003)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This research investigated and evaluated the reporting process with regard to medical error as under the Accident Rehabilitation Compensation Insurance Act (1992) and the impact of that process with regard to the prevention of injury. It considers: (a) whether the legislation is consistent with regard to the aim of the prevention of injury; (b) the outcomes of the reporting process in terms of injury prevention; (c) if anything else could be done in terms of injury prevention. Under the Accident Rehabilitation and Compensation Insurance Act (1992) the Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) was specifically required to 'report the circumstances [of the injury] to the appropriate body with a view to the institution of disciplinary proceedings, and to any other body that may be appropriate' if the Corporation was satisfied that negligence or inappropriate action had caused personal injury (ARCI Act, 1992). Reporting of medical error by health professionals is one mechanism available to the ACC to prevent injury. Reporting to bodies such as the Health and Disability Commissioner's (HDC) office and organisations responsible for the registering of health professionals can result in changes which minimise the re-occurrence of the medical error. This research is based on a formative policy evaluation. It seeks to improve ACC's medical error reporting process and employs the methodological tools of document research and case studies. The study is based on a random selection of sixty claims accepted on the basis of medical error under the Accident Rehabilitation and Compensation Insurance Act (1992). The process of data analysis was informed by grounded theory in that four analytical categories established were based on similarity of content, according to their injury prevention outcome. The key findings of this evaluation resulted in recommendations which relate to improving the ACC's medical error reporting process. These may be of interest to those working in the area of policy development and/or process improvement, with regard to the reporting of medical error for the purpose of injury prevention. It is clear that there is a need for further research into the outcome of injury prevention initiatives undertaken by professional bodies and for the uptake of injury prevention initiatives by the ACC and the HDC's office.

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  • Mutational analysis of the human factor IX promoter : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Genetics at Massey University

    Manttan, Jacqueline Elizabeth (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Haemophilia B is a rare congenital bleeding disorder that affects 1 in 30,000 males. It is caused by a functional deficiency in the blood coagulation protein, factor IX, which is expressed primarily within the liver. Patients suffering from the Haemophilia B Leyden phenotype show a distinct pattern of factor IX expression that is characterised by severe to moderate haemophilia within children, which gradually ameliorates after puberty. Such deficiencies in factor IX are created by mutations that occur within the -22 to +13 region of the factor IX promoter. These mutations are responsible for down-regulating factor IX transcription leading to factor IX deficiency by disrupting the binding sites of transcription factors critical for factor IX gene expression. Three specific transcription factors. C/EBP, DBP and HNF4 are thought to be required for constitutive promoter expression. The aim of this thesis was to analyse the roles of these three transcription factors in the regulation of the factor IX promoter. The current studies were focused on two regions (-220 to -202 and +20 to +45) of the factor IX promoter which have been implicated in transcriptional activation. Reporter gene assays using the human hepatoma cell line, Alexander, were carried out on both normal and mutant promoter constructs. Recognition sites for each of the three transcription factors were disrupted by oligonucleotide-directed PCR mutagenesis. The mutated promoter inserts were subsequently inserted into the luciferase reporter gene expression vector, pGL2 Basic (Promega). These constructs were then expressed within the Alexander cell line to compare the extent of transcriptional disruption created by each mutation. EMSA studies were also used to analyse the binding ability of the HNF4 transcription factor to the -6 region of the factor IX promoter. Mutations within the -220 to +45 region of the factor IX promoter downregulated transcription from the promoter to different extents. This suggested that each transcription factor may play a different role in regulating the factor IX promoter. An increase in promoter expression observed with mutant constructs in the presence of exogenous HNF4 confirmed previous experiments which suggested that the HNF4 transcription factor could also act as an activator of promoter expression. Furthermore, the transactivation of the promoter constructs containing a mutation within the main HNF4 site at region -15 to -30 with exogenous HNF4, indicated that a second HNF4 site may be present within the factor IX promoter.

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  • An investigation into the motivating factors behind the use or non use of institutional repositories by selected university academics

    Reid, Stephanie (2008)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Design Optimisation for 3D printed SLM objects

    Hill, Stephen Tane (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    A common misconception about additive manufacturing (3D printing) is that any shape can be made in any material at the press of a button. The reality is that each process and material requires distinct Computer Aided Design (CAD) files that need to be optimised to the physical limitations of the manufacturing process. This optimisation process can have significant effects on the designer’s aesthetic intentions. elective Laser Melting (SLM) is the new benchmark for functional 3D printed titanium designs where the optimisation process plays an important role in the outcome of the end product. The limitations imposed by the manufacturing process include build support material, heat transfer and post processing and designs are required to be optimised before the manufacturing process can commence. To date, case studies written on the SLM process have focused largely on engineering and functional applications in particular within the medical industry. However; this process has not been extensively studied from a visual and aesthetic industrial design perspective. This research will gather specific knowledge about the technical limitations involved in the Selective Laser Melting process and explore through a case study approach how a designer s intentions can be maintained or even enhanced when using this technology. With greater understanding of the SLM technology, the optimisation process may further provide positive outcomes to the designer by saving time, money and waste. This case study is built on an existing product design file as a base model. Refinements to the model were made based on findings from existing design research as well as digital and physical models. The existing design research was focused on challenges designers encounter using 3D printing technologies including SLM as well as the optimisation process. Models and design iterations were developed using Nigel Cross’s four step model of exploration, generation, evaluation and communication. By iteratively redesigning aspects of the model to conform to the SLM limitations, this study reviews opportunities for areas to reduce material without compromising the design intent.

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  • Factors and consumer attitudes that affect the sustainable management of used mobile phones: A repertory grid analysis

    Coffey, Philip (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Used mobile phones with their small size but vast numbers, create a unique problem when it comes to managing the part they play in the creation of electronic waste (E-waste). Whilst previous studies have identified what consumers appear to be doing with their used mobile phones, there is also a need to better understand why they are doing it. This study investigated what factors appear to influence consumer attitudes towards adopting a more sustainable approach when dealing with their used mobile phones. A reuse, refurbish and recycle strategy was used as a lens to examine the current literature from which an initial model was developed. Using the repertory grid interview technique a group of participants was interviewed to try to determine their core beliefs when it came to managing their used mobile phones. Analysis of the interviews was completed using several analysis techniques including word clouds, percentage similarity analysis, and Honey’s content analysis. The results of the study indicate that consumers care about the effect of used mobile phones on the environment although the degree of concern appears to vary across individuals. In addition, it was identified that in general, consumers perceive reuse, refurbishing, and recycling all as positive ways to sustainably manage used mobile phones, whilst environmental awareness appears to play a significant role in engaging people with recycling and being a rational for storing used mobile phones. Finally, the study suggests that telecommunication providers when trying to improve engagement with takeback schemes should focus more on consumers’ environmental concerns and social norms, rather than financial incentives or promoting easy engagement.

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  • "A colour line affair" : race, imperialism and rugby football contacts between New Zealand and South Africa to 1950.

    Buckley, Mike (1996)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis is an attempt to construct an alternative tradition of New Zealand and South African rugby football contacts to 1950. It examines the wider social conditions of such contacts, unlike the existing plethora of rugby-centred chronicles of matches, tours, and sporting personalities. Rugby tours between New Zealand and South Africa before 1950 raised questions over the relationship between sport, race and imperialism. The manner that rugby reflected the divergent racial traditions in both societies thus challenges the cliche that sport is separate from wider social and political considerations. The thesis consists of an introduction, conclusion and four chapters. The chapters correlate with the New Zealand and South African rugby exchanges of 1921, 1928, 1937, and 1949. They are dominated by the themes of race relations and sporting imperialism, which form the context of the tours. Research is based on New Zealand newspaper sources; contextual material is derived from secondary sources.

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  • The land shaping the people: A cultural look into a new land management scheme for South Wairarapa

    Smart, Megan (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    With this thesis bringing attention to the region of Wairarapa, it will show awareness to the significant cultural and biodiversity that this district holds that makes it such a rich place within Aotearoa, New Zealand. With two natural features sitting at their doorsteps, Lake Wairarapa and the Remutaka hillside, this region holds much to preserve and want to save. Maori culture holds countless values of the landscape that can be used to heal the land surrounding the lake, which in turn will heal the people living amongst it. These values are held with great appreciation in the culture, many believe all should live with these values for the land. This thesis will help in bringing the Te Aranga Maori design principles to the surface so more can live with the land naturally and not just on it. This research will explore how these design principles can be used in bringing the landscape back to its prior state, and working with natural interventions to bring wahi tapu into the land and its people. In dealing with the current challenges and goals that present generation live with to make Wairarapa one to grow in and with. These ideas can generate discussion to how people might live more sustainably with the use of natural systems in the landscape, to the production of natural products. It will also allow for more research topics to be produced from the older ways people used to live with the land. To show the diverse cultures present today, in how others could benefit from the ways and means they used to be. With dealing with present challenges and needs from today’s generation as we cannot ‘restore’ what once was, we have to ‘regenerate’ a new way of living, that is beneficial for all.

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  • Strategic interaction: Distrust and cooperation in US-China relations

    Wilcox, Shane (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    International cooperation is generally thought to be made possible, or at least enhanced, by a relationship of trust between nations. This proposition is examined with a particular focus on US-China relations, and proceeds through a critique of various models of cooperation that works to expose the limits imposed by the assumption of a causal relationship between trust and cooperation. A concept of strategic interaction is developed on the basis of analysis of values and interests, asymmetric exchange and distrust, and is offered as an alternative to grand strategic narratives for understanding the strategic behaviour of states.

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  • Gender-based violence in Bougainville: Stories of change

    Degerman, Viktoria (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Gender-based violence throughout Papua New Guinea is a well documented concern across disciplines. Within the field of development, gender-based violence is not only seen as a human rights breach, but it is widely accepted that violence exacerbates poverty, and that poverty exacerbates violence. Women are particularly affected by this cyclic nature of violence. Despite numerous initiatives from development actors, the Papua New Guinean government and local agencies, the rate of violence has not shifted in the past two decades (Ganster-Breidler, 2010). Similarly, in Bougainville, an autonomous region of Papua New Guinea, reports state that the rate of violence against women is extremely high. A United Nations study from 2013 showed that over 60 per cent of Bougainville men surveyed had committed rape at some point in their lives, and that physical violence was equally prevalent (Fulu et al., 2013). In response to these worrisome reports, I began to wonder what can be done to address gender-based violence. What has been successful in the past and what can we learn from those who have firsthand experience of intimate partner violence? The research addressed these types of problems through the use of 18 interviews conducted with men and women; including former perpetrators of intimate partner violence and survivors. The study was further strengthened by my observations from working at Buka Family Support Centre, a service in Bougainville that cares for survivors of gender-based violence. I frame this research within feminist and poststructural ways of knowing. It is influenced by a four-tiered conceptual model that considers external and internal influences on individual actions. The analysis was inspired by Foucault’s discourse analysis (Foucault, 1979, 1984) and I pay special attention to dominant and discriminatory discourses and the resistance to these. In summary, this study offers intimate and detailed stories of change. It reveals that the participants primarily referred to positive change as an absence of physical violence and not necessarily other forms of gender-based violence. The study also shows that the survivors’ resisted violence throughout the abusive period, and those who eventually chose to divorce only did so because of concerns over safety. The stories are anchored to lived experiences, and the conclusion and recommendations that flow from this qualitative study contribute to knowledge of what works when trying to end violence within an intimate partnership in Bougainville.

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  • Exploring Year 10 Samoan Students’ Experiences of Teaching and Learning in the Mainstream English Classroom

    Lautusi, Kalia (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research examined the ways in which twelve Year 10 Samoan students experienced teaching and learning in the mainstream English classroom. The study was guided by two questions: What perceptions do a group of Samoan students have of the strengths and skills they bring to the English classroom? And: How do these students see themselves as navigating teaching and learning in the English classroom drawing on these strengths? The aim of the research was to further understand how skills Samoan students develop outside the English classroom are being used by the participants to create positive learning outcomes. As a way to prioritise Pacific student voices, the Pacific research methodology of talanoa was used to gather stories from the participants alongside observations of the English classroom. Three major themes emerged from the findings – describing the need for interdependence, self-organisation, and fa’atua (or the value or reciprocal and mutually respectful relationships). Karlo Mila-Schaaf’s (2010) concept of polycultural capital was used as a theoretical paradigm to interpret the findings. If educators can understand how a group is functioning well, and the conditions that allow this to happen, this knowledge can lead to benefits for other Pacific students. The study concludes with a consideration of what might happen if teachers consciously provide space for existing skills and strategies.

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  • Prisoners’ Rights and Media Wrongs: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Media Representation of Private Prisons in New Zealand

    Boyle, Otis (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In 2009, the Corrections (Contract Management of Prisons) Amendment Bill was passed, implementing the New Zealand (NZ) Government’s policy of prison privatisation. Subsequently, ‘Mt Eden’, a public prison previously managed by the state, was contracted to British conglomerate Serco and a second private prison, ‘Wiri’, was built under contract to the same company. However, in July 2015, a cell-phone video capturing Mt Eden prisoners engaged in fights, in full view of prison officers and CCTV, was uploaded to YouTube. It captured the attention of the media, politicians and the public. An unprecedented stream of media revelations about prisoner mistreatment, corruption and various human rights violations followed, prompting the Department of Corrections to seize control of the prison. In the wake of this ‘crisis’, this thesis explores the changing nature of legitimacy for private prisons in NZ. Where previously, legitimacy of the penal system was largely staked on security and maintaining sufficiently austere prison conditions, the revelations of serious rights violations at Mt Eden prison highlights one of the ‘moments’ in which the legitimacy of the prison system was fractured for being too severe. To examine the changing nature of legitimacy, the study investigates the treatment of private prisons by three media sources - the New Zealand Herald, Stuff and Radio New Zealand. It uses framing, critical discourse and source analysis, with the aim of exploring how dominant penological discourses operate to protect and sustain the prison system in the face of a human rights scandal. The thesis separates analysis into two critical periods: after the introduction of private prisons in 2009; and after the release of the YouTube videos. A managerial frame is consistently found across the news outlets alongside a source bias towards mainstream politics and corporate interests. Before the human rights scandals, the focus on how to deliver punishment, rather than the state’s obligations to those it incarcerates or wider social goals, established the legitimacy of private prisons under the banal everyday discourses of managerialism. While humanitarian framing increased substantially after the human rights scandals, these were subsumed under the frames of managerialism, security and less eligibility. These frames acted to depict the prison crisis as an unfortunate individual aberration of security that could be managed through a government response. In short, the legitimacy of the prison remained intact and was, ultimately, strengthened.

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  • The Collective Influence of Family Connectedness, School Connectedness and Coping during Adolescence on Psychological Adjustment in Emerging Adulthood

    Mason, Jeremy (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Research shows that adolescent connections to the family and school environments both diminish across time and are predictive of psychological adjustment. Coping strategies displayed during adolescence are also thought to play a central role in the development of psychological adjustment outcomes. The present longitudinal study investigated trajectories of family and school connectedness during adolescence, the relationship of these trajectories to adjustment outcomes in emerging adulthood, and whether and how coping strategies might explain the relationships between family and school connectedness during adolescence and psychological adjustment in emerging adulthood. A sample of 946 adolescents were surveyed four times across an eight year period; three time points were during their secondary school years (2006, 2007, and 2008) and the final survey point was five years later (2013). Growth curve models were constructed to examine changes in family and school connectedness from Time 1 to Time 3, and to determine whether these changes predicted Time 4 adjustment outcomes. Mediation path models were also employed to determine whether and how Time 3 maladaptive and adaptive coping strategies functioned as mediators between Time 1 family and school connectedness and Time 4 psychological adjustment outcomes. Results demonstrated that those individuals who were well-connected to their family and school during adolescence were psychologically better adjusted in emerging adulthood. They also showed that levels of both family and school connectedness declined across adolescence for females, but not for males, and that declines in school connectedness were predictive of better psychological adjustment outcomes. Finally, greater family and school connectedness displayed during adolescence predicted reductions in the use of maladaptive coping and increases in the use of adaptive coping, which in turn, predicted increases in psychological adjustment in emerging adulthood. The findings are discussed in terms of their contributions to the literature, their implications for the treatment of adolescent mental health difficulties, and suggestions for future research are made.

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  • Reflexivity in the negotiation of participation: Insights from a culturally-embedded community project in Vietnam

    Nguyen, Nguyen Hai Duy (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research aims to explore the possible negotiation of participation within development practice in Vietnam based on different understandings of reflexivity among different development actors. Specifically, it adopts a qualitative approach, using a sustainable community livelihoods project in Central Vietnam as a case study, to ask the following questions: (1) How do Western and local development facilitators understand reflexivity in participatory development in Vietnam?; and (2) How do Western and local development facilitators negotiate and practice reflexivity in participatory development in Vietnam? These questions are important because while participation and fieldwork partnerships in community projects promise mutually-beneficial opportunities for shared learning, they also involve negotiations of power. The reflexivity of development practitioners assumes that they can obtain thorough understanding and knowledge of the local culture and facilitate participation appropriately, which may not actually be the case. Secondly, little is known about how participants think or practice their own culturally-embedded understandings of reflexivity in their interactions with non-local practitioners. Thirdly, there is a knowledge gap about how participation intersects with reflexivity as “Western” development discourses and local understandings are negotiated. Semi-structured interviews were employed with three groups of people positioned differently within the case study project: international development practitioners, Vietnamese development practitioners and local community members. Interpretative methods of auto-ethnography and reflexive writings were used to analyse the researcher’s own understandings of reflexivity and the working of power from his prior work as a translator in this project. Building on existing critiques of reflexivity, and through careful analysis, the thesis interrogates assumed links between reflexivity and better facilitation in community projects. The negotiations explored in this research include rethinking the principle of reflexivity in the context of local cultural norms as these significantly shape values of development work and likely benefits for practitioners and participants. From extracted perspectives of research participants through semi-structured interviews and the researcher’s reflections by means of auto-ethnography, an alternative approach is suggested to aid development practitioners in reflecting upon notions of “self” and “others” in order to examine various conceptions of participation in theory and practice.

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  • Dry sedimentation processes in the high-elevation McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica: A case study in University Valley

    Trinh-Le, Cassandra Anh (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The hyper-arid, cryotic, wind-dominated conditions in the high-elevation McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica are among Earth’s most extreme environments and represent the closest terrestrial analog to the surface of Mars. These unique conditions result in complex surface processes that occur in the overall absence of liquid water. However, since water is typically believed to be required for these processes to occur, the mechanisms responsible for how these processes can persist in this environment are poorly understood. Previous studies that focused on individual processes of sedimentation in the Dry Valleys leave questions regarding the role of water in dry cryotic sedimentation as well as the rates at which these processes occur. This thesis addresses these questions by combining Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating, meteoric Beryllium-10 (10Be) measurements, soil geochemistry analysis, and petrographic microscopy analysis on ice-cemented permafrost cores taken from University Valley, one of the high-elevation Dry Valleys, where the availability and effects of liquid water are minimal. These analyses were used to explore four main sedimentation processes that occur in the Dry Valleys: chemical weathering, fine particle translocation, eolian transport, and physical weathering. Analyzed together, findings from these analyses comprehensively describe the complex processes involved in dry cryotic sedimentation and determine the roles of different phases of water in this environment. Sediments in University Valley have accumulated at a rate of approximately 2.1 mm/ka for the last 200 ka, as dated by OSL, from erosion of the valley walls and deposition of windblown dust. Sediment accumulation is influenced by topography of the valley floor, depth of the ice table, aspect of the valley walls, wind direction, and mechanical breakdown of rocks due to solar heating. While persistent winds constantly remobilize fine particles and dust in the upper few cm of the dry ground, sediment grains that are sand-sized or larger do not undergo significant remobilization, and sediments in the ice-cemented ground are unaffected by remobilization and translocation processes. Rare clay bridges seen in thin section show that small, infrequent, transient surface wetting events have occurred over the last 200 ka. High anion concentrations associated with high surface meteoric 10Be measurements and clay bridges indicate that the source of these wetting events is the melting of wind-blown snow from coastal regions. Patterns in meteoric Be measurements show that these small transient wetting events are not sufficient to translocate fine particles through the soil profile, which suggests that the role of liquid water as a transporting agent is negligible in this environment. Chemical weathering in University Valley appears to be controlled by two main components: dolerite content of the sediments, and exposure to the atmosphere at the ground surface where condensation of water vapor onto grain surfaces readily leaches ions from dolerite grains under the oxidizing conditions of the Dry Valleys. In the absence of liquid water, chemical processes that occur in this environment rely on water vapor. Together, these results indicate that surfaces in University Valley are remarkably young and sedimentologically active. Because University Valley represents one of the closest terrestrial analogs to the surface of Mars, findings from this thesis may be applicable to understanding the timescales and the processes that control anhydrous sedimentation on the surface of Mars.

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  • There and back again: Spatial and temporal variation in the recruitment dynamics of an amphidromous fish

    Neilson, Conor Stewart Bruce (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    A primary goal of ecology is to identify the factors underlying recruitment variability, and how they may shape population dynamics. Recruitment is driven by the input of new individuals into a population. However, these individuals often show high diversity in phenotypic traits and life histories, and the consequences of this variation are poorly understood. Phenotypic variation is widespread among the early life stages of fish, and this variation may be influenced by events occurring across multiple life stages. While many studies have investigated phenotypic variation and its effect on population dynamics, comparatively few studies use an integrated approach that evaluates patterns and processes across multiple life history stages. Here I focus on a native amphidromous fish, Galaxias maculatus, and I explore patterns and consequences of phenotypic variation during larval stages, migratory stages, and post-settlement stages of this fish. I explore variability in phenotypes and early life history traits of G. maculatus through both space and time. I use metrics derived from body size and otolith-based demographic reconstructions to quantify potentially important early life history traits. I found that cohorts of juvenile fish sampled later in the year were comprised of individuals that were older, smaller, and grew more slowly relative to fish sampled earlier in the year. I also found that two sampled sites (the Hutt River and the Wainuiomata River) showed different temporal trends, despite their close geographical proximity. I then investigated whether phenotype was related to mortality. I used otolith-based traits to characterise larval ‘quality’ for individual fish. I then calculated the average larval quality for discrete cohorts of fish, and used catch-curve analysis to estimate mortality rates for these cohorts. I investigated the overall relationship between quality and mortality, and compared the trend between two sites. My results indicate that phenotype and mortality were not significantly correlated. However, this inference may be limited by low statistical power; the non-significant trends suggest that the relationship might be negative (i.e., larvae of higher quality tend to have lower rates of mortality). This trend is typical of systems where population expansion is limited by food rather than predators. I then investigated whether phenotypic traits in the juvenile cohorts were correlated with traits in adult cohorts. I resampled the focal populations ~6 months after sampling the juvenile stages (i.e., targeting fish from sampled cohorts that had survived to adulthood), and I used data from otoliths to reconstruct life history traits (hatch dates and growth histories). I compared adult life history traits to the traits of discrete juvenile cohorts. My results suggest that fish that survived to adulthood had comparatively slower growth rates (reconstructed for a period of larval/juvenile growth) relative to the sampled juvenile cohorts (where growth rate was estimated for the same period in their life history). I also found that the distributions of hatch dates varied between sites. Fish that survived to adulthood at one site hatched later in the breeding season, while adult stages from the other site had hatch dates that were distributed across the entire breeding season. Both hatch date and growth rate are likely linked to fitness, and their interaction may have influenced patterns of survival to adulthood. These results provide evidence for carry-over effects of larval phenotype on juvenile success Collectively my thesis emphasises the importance of phenotype and life history variability in studies of recruitment. It also highlights the importance of spatial scale, and how biological patterns may differ between geographically close systems. Some of the general inferences from my study may extend to other migratory Galaxiid species, and perhaps more generally, to many species with extensive larval dispersal. Finally, my work highlights potentially important interactions between phenotypes, life histories, and mortality, which can ultimately shape recruitment, and the dynamics of populations.

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  • From this world to beyond: A student’s reflections on the role of her violin in music therapy

    Ang, Cheri (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This practice-based research explores a student music therapist’s experiences and self-reflections on the use of her violin in supporting the elderly at a residential hospital. The objective was to find out how the violin fits in music therapy practice, where practitioners typically use the piano and guitar. Self-reflexivity was employed to increase the student’s understanding of music therapy. The two research questions were ‘why was the violin used and why not’, as well as ‘how was the violin used’. To explore these two questions in depth, a qualitative research study was undertaken, with secondary analysis of data as its methodology. The data consisted of clinical notes and reflective journals from regular practice. Thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006) was employed to analyse the data, involving a rigorous process of coding, involving both inductive and deductive methods of analysis along with graphic representations. The student music therapist, acting as both the clinician and researcher, acknowledged the influences of her musical background and spiritual inclinations on the data collected and its interpretation. Findings consisted of clients’ responses, advantages and disadvantages of the violin and the author’s relationship with the violin. A simple ‘How’ framework involving what was played on the violin and how it was played was also included. The author’s reflexivity guided a discussion that integrated the literature review, research findings and the author’s clinical and personal experiences. Drawing upon music therapy definitions and concepts, as well as philosophical ideas and spiritual teachings, answers were found to explain the role of the violin and to provide the author with a new perspective on issues of loss and dying, an understanding of the value of aesthetics and insights into her relationship with the violin.

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  • The Risk-adjusted Performance of KiwiSaver Funds

    Xiong, Xueshan

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The New Zealand government introduced a national superannuation scheme named KiwiSaver to its citizens on 1 July 2007. However, until now, KiwiSaver funds’ performance is still an under-researched topic. This study investigates the risk-adjusted performance of KiwiSaver growth and balance funds, where 3 models (Capital Asset Pricing Model, Fama and French 3-factor model, and Carhart 4-factor model) are applied to the KiwiSaver growth funds and 1 model (Balance fund 4-factor model) is applied to the KiwiSaver balance funds. I observe significant evidence of outperformance for some KiwiSaver growth funds and balance funds. Further, most growth funds are relatively more exposed to large companies and growth stocks. However, once I control for the momentum strategy much of the outperformance disappears, suggesting a lot of fund managers are employing a momentum strategy. I also observe 2 superior KiwiSaver funds based on its outperformance with all methods, and they are Aon KiwiSaver Milford and Milford Active Growth KiwiSaver fund.

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