16,807 results for Masters

  • A Good Tree: The Articulation of Nature within a Built Environment Discourse

    Dempsey, Christopher (2013)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Planning and built environment practices deal with construction of the built environment within a natural environment context. The outcomes of such practices can be traced back to a particular discursive practices that establish and organise the ways and means such outcomes can be achieved. It could be suggested that our built environments in the wider sense are our discourses made real. However what is less well understood is the way in which nature is ‘constructed’ in the process of achieving built form outcomes. Discourse Analysis focuses on investigating the different kinds of meta- discourses that create meaning for different kinds of objects and groups of people in the world. Aspects of Discourse Analysis are used as a basis for investigation into how nature is constructed within a built environment / planning discourse. Six individuals having particular roles associated with two areas of green-field development resulted in six cases for analysis. Interviews were carried out with the individuals. Qualitative methods were employed to analyse the transcribed interviews. The results confirm that nature, like the built environment, is discursively constructed, and that there are three outcomes. The first outcome places nature within different regimes that enables the achievement of built environment / planning outcomes. The second construction sees nature having an experiential effect on individuals, who seek to recreate their experiences within such built form outcomes. The third sees nature being constructed as an independent agent. Paying attention to the way in which nature is discursively constructed by individuals, and to the way in which it influences professionals and other associates within the planning field, holds the promise of more sensitive and appropriate developments.

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  • Multiple Phase Primary Side Power Converter for Contactless Slipring Applications

    Moridnejad, Mahsa (2013)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    In many applications it is necessary to transfer power to a rotatable electrical load. This has been achieved using slipring assemblies. Sliprings have been widely used in electrical generators, packaging machinery, robotics arms, and wind turbines. For centuries mechanical sliprings have been the only viable option for these industries; however due to high friction between rotatory and stationary parts, frequent maintenance is required which increases the operating cost of these applications. Moreover, they are not a safe option to be placed in hazardous places or in the presence of explosive gases. Thus recently, the Rotating Transformer-Based Contactless System utilizing Inductive Power Transfer (IPT) technology has been considered as an alternative option for mechanical sliprings. Since in this contactless solution there is an air gap between the primary and the secondary sides, direct electrical contacts are eliminated and a more reliable and safe option as compared to mechanical sliprings is achieved. However, in some high power applications, a single phase contactless system within a constraint size may not be adequate to supply the required amount of output power. Hence, more single-phase units often need to be installed in order to transfer the required power to the load. To overcome the associated problems with the mechanical slipring and increase the power capability of the single-phase contactless slipring topology, a poly-phase contactless slipring based on axially travelling magnetic field theory has been proposed and researched. Generating such a travelling magnetic field requires a poly-phase primary power converter to provide proper phase shift between the primary side phases and synchronize the individual converters. The aim of this research is to design and practically built a poly-phase high frequency primary power supply to drive a poly-phase contactless slipring system. First, the literature and theoretical study of the available single phase and multi-phase primary power converters are conducted. It is found so far that a viable option for poly phase configuration is the three phase inverter which is a hard switched converter. However in order to increase the frequency, reduce the loss and EMI and increase the efficiency, a resonant converter is preferable. Next, using a push-pull current-fed resonant converter two individual methods to achieve soft switched three phase primary side power converter are proposed and implemented. The first method is a fixed frequency control and the second technique is quasi soft switched control; in the former case the gate signals are given to the switches from the controller, and for the latter case, one of the phases is operating with ZVS (Zero Voltage Switching) and is considered to be as the driving phase for the other two phases. In fact the other two phases follow the driving phase and their switching frequency is defined by the resonant frequency of the driving phase. The time delays between the three phases are obtained based on the period of Phase-1; initially, CompactRIO controller calculates the period of Phase-1, and then generates the delays for the other phases instantly. These methods are implemented and verified practically on a three phase slipring system. The practical and simulation results have demonstrated that the total harmonic distortions of the resonant tank current waveforms of these techniques are below 4%. Furthermore, the system achieved a maximum efficiency of 80.7%, and the optimum converter efficiency stays at 91.3%.

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  • A Computer Modelling-Based Investigation of CTEPH

    Postles, Arthur (2014)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension (CTEPH) is a deadly disease of the pulmonary vasculature that develops from episodes of unresolved pulmonary embolism (PE). CTEPH is relatively rare, estimates of cases of CTEPH developing after PE range from 0.1% - 3.8%. Further to rarity, CTEPH exhibits a `honeymoon period' which is a symptomless period that may last months or even years. These two factors contribute to a poor understanding of the condition. Simply described, two features characterise CTEPH. The rst is the unresolved occlusion or occlusions in proximal arteries, creating a `two compartment vascular bed'; one compartment being the remaining open vasculature, and the other the occluded vasculature distal to proximal occlusions. The second feature is structural remodelling of blood vessels in the open vasculature, responding to chronically altered perfusion. Untreated, CTEPH causes progressive hypertension that eventually reaches levels where heart function fails. This research describes three computer modelling-based techniques aimed to provide new insight on CTEPH. In general, the application of computer models to this problem allow non-invasive techniques of investigation and provide data that is impossible to measure in experimental studies. The methods in this research use pulmonary circulation geometries that explicitly represent the entire branching structure of the pulmonary blood vessel tree from right heart, through the pulmonary capillaries, to left heart. Perfusion is simulated in these geometries, providing pressure and ow data throughout the entire system. The first technique proposed to investigate CTEPH alters the mechanical properties of the vessel geometry to simulate progressive vessel disease over a series of discrete steps representing stages of disease progression. Perfusion simulations at each step measure the predicted pressure and ow values in response. These simulations are intended to mimic the structural remodelling aspect of CTEPH. The proximal occlusion aspect of CTEPH is investigated by expanding upon the ideas of the remodelling simulations. First, methods are described for analysis of the volumetric CT scans for four subjects with CTEPH, allowing identifi cation of proximal occlusions by way of an intensity based flow map. The identi fied occlusions are included in perfusion simulations to characterise the unique manifestation of CTEPH in each subject. Simulations to this point are in the steady-state, however the fi nal investigation implements a pulsatile model in the geometry to investigate the nature of transient pressure and ow in health and disease. Initial perfusion simulations provided physiologically realistic results. Intensity-based ow mapping methods gave results consistent with CTEPH and proved useful in simulating subject-specifi c perfusion. The pulsatile model results showed trends that suggest links to the causes of vascular remodelling. Overall, this study has made some important steps toward modelling the lung in CTEPH patients. This will provide the basis for future studies in which models will be further refi ned and tested against clinical data. Ultimately, it is anticipated that model based analyses of function could be used to plan treatment and/or surgical strategies in CTEPH, reducing the cost of treatment and improving health.

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  • New Zealand's national standards policy: the gap between rhetoric and reality

    Smyth, Dirk (2012)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Faculty of Education & Social Work Exemplar -- 60 point. In New Zealand, as in other OECD countries, there are on-going concerns about the inequity of outcomes of state education. The New Zealand National Standards system is portrayed as an attempt to address the problem of the ‘one-in-five’ students, predominantly Māori and Pasifika, who leave school without levels of literacy and numeracy seen as necessary in order to be successful. National Standards is presented as an assessment-driven, policy response to this ‘long tail of underachievement’, which aims to raise teacher’ reporting, assessment and evaluative capabilities. It is argued that these improvements will provide the catalyst for improving student achievement. The purpose of this study is to investigate the extent to which this publicised rationale for the National Standards policy is supported by the evidence. Critical Discourse Analysis is used to consider education policy texts and media texts, which can be considered public representations of discourse. This dissertation challenges the claims made about National Standards, and evaluates the extent to which the National Standards policy is likely to raise student achievement. It also challenges the claim that this policy will ensure that the negative consequences of national testing, seen in other countries, can be avoided in New Zealand. The findings indicate that National Standards is better described as an ‘assessment for accountability’ policy rather than an ‘assessment for learning’ policy and that accountability, not building capacity, is the main motivation behind this policy initiative.

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  • A market for civil society. How can the architecture of the urban market place influence civil society?

    Bailey, Jeremy (2014)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The architectural design of the urban market place is adapted to create a new form of social infrastructure which stimulates civil society through public deliberation. The dominance of economic values in western societies such as New Zealand exerts considerable pressure on social infrastructure to continually reduce costs and become less financially dependent. Informal urban markets found within streets and open spaces of the city create an opportunity for economic transactions with greater personal and social interaction. The urban market place is an architectural archetype which has evolved and developed a variety of typologies, the architecture of these typologies can design not only the social activity of economic transactions but also how this activity can be articulated to influence civil society. The relevance of this thesis to contemporary social and urban issues is reflected in the connection of the design concept to the demand for a new form of social infrastructure in the rapidly developing urban metropolitan centre of the Whau, New Lynn. A case study of the local market at the Avondale Race Course on Ash St reveals an accessible environment of social interaction and public congregation with people from a broad range of ethnicities and economic backgrounds. Focusing on the social relationships of public congregation within the market place the process and organization of the markets is used to inform an architectural approach to adapt and enhance this interaction to stimulate civil society. The architecture of the market for civil society connects both informal and formal assets of existing local social infrastructure while also introducing new assets to strengthen and develop social capital in the Whau. The development of social capital at the micro, meso and macro scales is achieved through the design of a central hub increasing the connectivity between networks of different scales in order to stimulate social development and representation.

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  • Voice Science and Vocal Pedagogy - Joining the Dots

    Woodley, Kathleen (2014)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Vocal Research/Vocal Pedagogy Research has, until recently, been largely based on qualitative research methods relating to the aural training and perception of the vocal researchers. Voice Science Laboratories (VSL) are now developing computing programmes which can link many vocal parameters to a visual and data presentation to be interpreted by the vocal researcher. Analysis of this information can then inform both the singing teacher and the singer. This research examined the presentation of scientific ideas to singing teachers/students. Exploring vocal literature emphasizes how the concepts have not only changed over time, with new scientific discoveries being incorporated into the pedagogy, but the misunderstanding and resistance to these ideas in the vocal community. Research was undertaken to explore singing teachers/students’ perceptions and understandings of current voice science knowledge and find a research tool to help close the gaps. This research used inductive qualitative methods to trial a questionnaire research tool that may allow vocal teachers and voice scientists to communicate more clearly. Findings from the trial have provided recommendations that will assist voice scientists and vocal teachers in communicating these ideas and finding ways to use them in the vocal studio. This ’joining the dots’ is essential to the progress of vocal pedagogy.

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  • Increasing social connections for young migrant women in the New Zealand community using video self modeling

    Moughal, Sehar (2015)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Social Isolation is a cause for concern in migrant women who are survivors of domestic violence. One way to increase social connections for these women is to improve their conversational skills. The current study identified four basic conversational skills for training – asking conversational questions, positive self-disclosure statements, negative self-disclosure statements and praise. In addition, silences, latencies, and speech rate were included as corollary measures of conversational skills. Three young migrant women aged 17 – 24 years with a history of recent domestic abuse participated in the study. Video self modeling was identified as an appropriate method to improve conversational skills of these young women. The effectiveness of video self modeling was assessed by employing a concurrent multiple baseline across behaviours incorporating a withdrawal phase. Conversational partners and an independent rater gave molar (overall performance) and molecular (specific conversational skill) ratings to each participant for randomly selected conversations. At various points in the study, all three participants filled a questionnaire about their social connections outside the study. Results show that video self modeling was moderately to highly effective in improving target behaviours for all three participants. Latency and rate of silence decreased for two out of three participants. Mixed results were observed for speech rate in all three participants. Conversational partners’ and independent judge’s ratings validated the improvement in skills due to training most of the time. The participants indicated speaking to more people as the study progressed. Therefore, the results of this study show that video self modeling may be an effective method at improving conversational skills for young migrant women.

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  • Regime effectiveness: an evaluation of the climate change regime’s effectiveness in New Zealand and the United States between 1988 and 2015

    Rattansen, Sebastian (2015)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The possibility of dangerous climate change in the future is one of the most worrying and challenging problems facing the international community today. The international climate change regime – embodied in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol – is the international community’s principal response. But is it effective? In this thesis, I used regime theory to evaluate the climate change regime’s effectiveness in New Zealand and the United States between 1988 and 2015. I found that the climate change regime was ineffective in New Zealand, because its influence was not sufficient to induce New Zealand to reduce total emissions. Similarly, I found that the climate change regime was ineffective in the United States, because although total emissions began reducing in 2008 that was principally because of the global financial crisis and the shale gas boom, not the climate change regime’s influence on US actions. My findings have two theoretical implications, and also some policy implications for negotiating governments at the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP21) in Paris. First, the climate change regime’s ability to impose reputational costs on both states is its primary mechanism of influence. Second, this influence is not sufficient to overcome domestic actors opposed to action. Third, the climate change agreement anticipated in Paris in December 2015 is unlikely to enable the climate change regime to overcome these domestic actors. I conclude by proposing realist regime theory as a way forward, not only for academic analysis, but also for more effective climate change action by governments.

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  • Bit-stream Based Predictive Controllers for Linear and Nonlinear systems

    Yu, Bo (2015)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Controller design based on model predictive controller (MPC) is being widely applied in industry and studied by academia during past few decades. In recent years, with the wide application of networked control systems, bit-stream based control design method is getting increasing attention from researchers . The present study essentially focus on designing continuous time MPC and implement them in bit-stream environment. This is called as bit-stream MPC. The performance of bit-stream based MPC is investigated both via simulations and experiments. The study begins with a review of model predictive control in discrete time domain and the bit-stream technique. To successfully implement bit-stream controllers, several functions are initially implemented in MATLAB which can convert the analog or multi-bit digital signals into single bit. Then the discrete time MPC is adopted with bit-stream technique. Although the discrete time MPC has been very popular amongst practitioners during the past few decades, the controller still has some disadvantages such as choice of sampling time and numerical sensitivities. To overcome the limitations and difficulties associated with discrete time controllers, continuous time approach to controller design was preferred. Therefore, the next part of the research begins with designing controllers in continuous time domain. Initially continuous time model predictive controller (CMPC) was designed for linear systems based on the state space model of the system and then it is combined with bit-stream technique. In practice most of the systems are nonlinear to some extent. Therefore the next part of the study focuses on the design of CMPC for nonlinear systems (NLCMPC) based on state space models of the system. And also bit-stream technique is used on the NLCMPC. The last phase of the research deals with hardware implementation of bit-stream based CMPC using HILINK. An experimental prototype of DC servo motor has been considered for such implementation. The performance of bit-stream based linear CMPC has been implemented using HILINK and the tracking performance of such controllers is investigated by considering different types of references.

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  • Double difference earthquake relocation after full waveform discrimination

    Shrestha, Prabhat (2015)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The estimation of the hypocentres of seismic events is crucial in the interpretation of subsurface structure and tectonics. The principle objective was to refine estimates of these hypocentres by analysing the full seismic wave field – rather than the P or P and S waves alone – of a cluster of events. The events we examine were originally located using their P and S wave arrivals on borehole seismometers, as part of a CO2 sequestration project from the Aneth Oil field in Utah, USA. These events were then clustered based on their P wave similarity alone. We further sub-clustered these events based on their full waveform. Similar results were obtained from the full-waveform analysis in both time and frequency domains. We then compared earthquake relocation based on double-difference tomography of the original cluster, and relocation of the events, per sub-cluster. The double difference algorithm was applied in software package HypoDD. Six sub-clusters arose from the full waveform analysis on a possible “en echelon” structure with a north-west south-east alignment. Total-cluster relocations converged to the centroid of this cluster; these hypocentre locations were deemed less likely than the original locations, given prior knowledge of the geology. However, relocations were more refined when HypoDD was run for individual clusters. Individual cluster relocations appeared to condense within their sub-cluster centroid, the pre-processing step of sub-clustering retained en echelon structure and the north-west southeast alignment, preserving spatial information. This supports our assumption that the initial locations identified using correlated P arrivals were accurate at the outset. HypoDD’s inability to accept negative station elevations in conjunction with a layered velocity model prompted us to shift the station and event locations above the surface. The presence of a low velocity zone also prompted the adjustment of the velocity model such that this zone was eradicated. This was achieved by adjusting the velocity model such that the velocity increased in conjunction with the depth throughout. Shifting the location of the earthquakes above the surface may have affected our hypocentre relocations but our epicentre relocation accuracy was kept intact. Our alteration of the geological structure through the adjustment of the low velocity zone may have also affected our hypocentre locations. However, our aims of witnessing the sub-clusters converge while keeping their en echelon structure and north-west south-east alignment was fulfilled. This suggests that the errors which originate from these approximations were minimal. The application of the double difference algorithm on a known sub-cluster at a CO2 sequestration project at Aneth field refines the location of epicentre estimations, but maintains the structure of fault systems hidden in the full seismic waveforms. In the future, further knowledge of the subsurface will allow us to better reconstruct the low velocity zone. This may result in more refined epicentre and hypocentre relocations. These newly found locations could be mapped with known fault structures, in order to find new fault regimes within these structures.

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  • Ambient Seismic Noise Tomography in the Auckland Volcanic Field

    Ensing, Josiah (2015)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Auckland, New Zealand's most populous region (1.4 million), is situated over a monogenetic volcanic field of at least 53 volcanoes. The most recent eruption in the Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF) was 600 years ago, therefore the AVF is considered active. The risk and hazard of a volcanic eruption in Auckland are difficult to assess. It has been difficult to produce a high resolution model of the subsurface structure of Auckland due to its low seismicity. However, because of New Zealand's long coastlines, Auckland experiences high energy ocean wave generated seismic noise. This study is the rst to use ocean noise to infer the structure of the Auckland subsurface. We successfully incorporated a University of Auckland borehole seismometer from Rangitoto Island (RBAZ) into an existing network of GeoNet seismometers in Auckland. We were able to correct for the different instrument responses of the 12 seismometers. The vertical components of 200 days of noisy wavefields from 66 possible station pairs were cross-correlated to estimate the impulse response; this way, the resulting time series is as if one of the stations is a seismic source, and the other a receiver. Using these 66 impulse responses, we estimated Rayleigh wave group and phase velocity dispersion relations by multiple filter analysis. Frequency-dependent surface wave speeds with periods between 3 and 10 seconds provided robust information about the subsurface. We inverted group and phase velocity dispersion curves for shear velocities near the surface to approximately 25 km depth. We found that shear velocity variations correlate well with the crust type and surface geology. The distribution of low-velocity zones shows good spatial correlation with the Murihiku and Waipapa Terranes (semi-continental crust). Models with monotonically increasing shear wave velocity mainly associated with the Dun Mountain Ophiolite Belt, of the Maitai Terrane (oceanic crust). Near the surface (0-1.5 km), basement rock exposures correlated well with higher shear wave velocities, while soft cover rock and poorly consolidated sediments correlated with lower velocities. The average of our 16 models also largely agrees with a shear velocity model obtained by joint teleseismic receiver functions and seismic surface wave inversion techniques by Horspool et al. (2006).

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  • Clinical leadership of Registered Nurses working in an Emergency Department

    Connolly, Megan (2015)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Aim To examine clinical leadership of registered nurses (RN) in an Adult Emergency Department (AED), based on the evidence that it is important for nurses to feel psychologically and structurally empowered in order to be able to act as clinical leaders (Laschinger, Gilbert, Smith & Leslie, 2010). Background Every registered nurse is a clinical leader (Patrick, Laschinger, Wong & Finegan, 2011). Clinical leadership is defined as staff nurse behaviours that provide direction and support to patients and the healthcare team in the delivery of patient care (Patrick et al., 2011). Clinical leadership is important for patient safety and improves patient outcomes (DeVivo, Quinn Griffin, Donahue & Fitzpatrick, 2013). The Emergency Department (ED) is an ever-changing criticalcare environment that requires every nurse directly caring for patients to be empowered to act as a leader (Raup, 2008). However, research on leadership in nursing mostly focuses on delegated leader roles, with some focus on all nurses as leaders, but little on clinical leadership by nurses in ED. Methods A non-experimental survey design was used to examine the psychological empowerment, structural empowerment and clinical leadership of RN’s working in an AED in a large tertiary hospital in Auckland City. Qualitative questions relating to factors that support and inhibit their clinical leadership abilities were also included. Results The response rate was low at 33%. However the ED nurses that responded felt as though they showed clinical leadership behaviours most of the time, even though their sense of being psychologically empowered was only moderate, with improvements possible in structural empowerment. Conclusion This research portfolio highlights the need for further research on the phenomenon of clinical leadership at the point of care (Patrick, 2010). The overall results, albeit not statistically significant, showed that staff nurses feel they perform clinical leadership behaviours, but that structural and psychological empowerment have an impact on their ability to act as clinical leaders. Implications for Nursing Management Ways in which management within the hospital can support clinical leadership behaviours by nurses in ED have been identified in this research. The results support the literature that states management must create empowering environments for nurses to be able to provide clinical leadership to their patients and colleagues. Other research identifies that providing an empowering environment will improve patient outcomes and quality of care (Patrick, 2010). Keywords: clinical leadership, psychological empowerment, structural empowerment.

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  • Transitory Māori Identities: shape-shifting like Māui : pūrākau of Māori secondary school students experiencing ‘complex needs’

    Cliffe, Tania (2013)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The Māori education strategy Ka Hikitia: Accelerating Success (2013-2017) and the government action plan Success for All: Every School, Every Child, stipulate that schools must provide inclusive environments for all learners, including Māori students experiencing complex social, behaviour, and education needs. Inclusive education for Māori learners acknowledges Māori culture, te reo Māori, and identity as fundamental to Māori student success ‘as Māori’. This thesis addresses a research gap by investigating the perceptions and the importance of ‘being Māori’ to Māori students who are involved with government agencies due to ‘complex needs’ in their lives. Following pūrākau, a Māori narrative qualitative research methodology, this study used semi structured in-depth interviews to investigate the educational experiences of five Year 10 Māori students enrolled in mainstream secondary schools in Rotorua, New Zealand. The main research question: ‘how do Māori students experiencing complex needs perceive the role being Māori plays in their lives?’ guided this study. This thesis presents the pūrākau (stories) of the participants and a thematic analysis of the recurring themes. Findings from this study suggest that Māori adolescents experiencing complex needs want teachers and professionals to get to know them for who they are, and not just for their behaviours. Secondly, Māori identity is important, but there is a diversity of experiences and understandings of what ‘being Māori’ means. Finally, despite challenges in their lives, the participants had career and life aspirations and wanted to succeed in education. The implications of this research suggest that developing and maintaining a positive sense of Māori identity promotes the engagement and inclusion of Māori students experiencing complex needs in mainstream education. A culturally adept educational service is necessary, and the deficit discourses framing these students according to negative behaviours should also be addressed. This thesis argues that Māori cultural constructs, such as pūrākau and whakataukii (proverbs) are rich cultural resources that can provide insight into understanding the behaviours of Māori adolescents.

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  • Educating with Love: Pedagogy, Non-Government Organisations, Philosophy, Vision and Critical Educational Leadership

    Rishworth, Cameron (2016)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This research explores the leadership practices in non-government organisations focused on the transformation of communities through implementation of programmes that seek to contribute to the development of education. Using a qualitative case study approach, a nongovernment organisation with an educational focus operating in a rural community in Mexico is investigated. The inquiry aims to reveal characteristics of the philosophy and vision that underpins and drives the non-government organisation. These include ways in which critical leadership practices translate this philosophy into practical actions to positively impact a rural community with regard to educational and social change. This research is significant because of the absence of current qualitative case studies on educationally based non-government organisations engaged at grassroots levels. In addition, there is a substantial lack of research regarding critical leadership within non-government organisations involved in education, as the majority of similar research focuses on critical leadership in the context of conventional schooling institutions (e.g. Johnson, 2006; Khalifa, 2010; Khalifa, 2012; Santamaría, Santamaría, Webber, & Pearson, 2014). Furthermore, there is little if any research on applied critical leadership (ACL) practices conducted within in the context of rural communities in ‘developing’ nations (Santamaría & Santamaría, 2012). This study approaches the research question through the lens of a theoretical framework, integrating the pedagogical philosophy of Brazilian educator and philosopher Paulo Freire (1968/2012) in his Pedagogy of the Oppressed and the theory of applied critical leadership (ACL) developed by Lorri J. Santamaría and Andres P. Santamaría (2012). Through these critically conscious lenses, this study reaches the conclusion that love is a vital and inseparable part of educational practices that genuinely value the gifts and experiences possessed by all people. Those educating with love seek to develop the capacity of constituents through pedagogical actions that increase learners’ academic and professional opportunities in ways that benefit both individuals and communities. This is particularly significant with respect to historically marginalised communities, referred to by Freire (1968/2012) as the ‘oppressed’. For these communities, the author asserts, education has the potential to provide tools that can be used to positively challenge environments of oppression and enact transformation to one’s material reality, and also in terms of the social and human reality of those involved. These dynamics and complexities are demonstrated and illustrated in the counter-story of the non-government organisation that serves as the case for this research. The philosophy and vision of the organisation was at the forefront of leaders’ minds. This was coupled with awareness of an unselfish and unconditional love for those who work with the leaders and the people of the community. Those who were a part of the efforts (e.g., leaders, students, community members, families) exercised continual willingness to learn from one another, which characterised all actions taken by the organisation. In this way, the philosophy and vision of the non-government organisation was shown to be significant. This was manifested as data that recorded the ways leaders, and those with whom they shared the philosophy and vision, directly contributed to and impacted the community in real and tangible ways. This study is also significant in that it demonstrated applied critical leadership as a viable, flexible and dynamic model, theory and approach. This study revealed its value as a tool for the analysis of evidence of critical educational leadership practices extending beyond that of conventional educational institutions in urban areas in the United States and New Zealand that have previously been the focus of ACL research (Santamaría & Santamaría, 2012; Santamaría et al., 2014).

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  • Explorations into the unique issues and challenges facing older men with haemophilia

    Elliott, Sarah (2016)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    I understand that I have chosen to make my thesis available freely online. Allow commercial uses of your work: No. Allow modifications of your work: Yes, as long as others share alike. For the first time people who have haemophilia are facing the same aging issues as the general population due to longer life expectancy. This brings new and unique challenges for this group, and adds further complexity to their treatment, care, and support. The existing literature on this topic is dominated by a medical perspective that focuses on treatments and haematological management of haemophilia and common co-morbidities. Very little investigation into the wider effects of the challenges of growing older with haemophilia on an individual’s holistic wellbeing has occurred. Accordingly, this research investigates the wider psychosocial experiences of older men with haemophilia in New Zealand using an exploratory sequential design that included a literature review, focus group, and national questionnaire. This mixed-method study identifies the unique issues and challenges faced by older men with haemophilia in Aotearoa, New Zealand, and their perceptions of the support services available to them. The results indicate that there are substantial challenges for older people with haemophilia, some of which have been identified in previous research and some which are presented in this thesis for the first time. Results also show that older people with haemophilia in New Zealand have very effective supports and services available to them. This research provides a starting point for in-depth conversations about older people with haemophilia and offers recommendations that can ultimately improve and enhance the lives and wellbeing of older men with haemophilia in New Zealand.

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  • He Waka Hourua, He Waka Eke Noa: Evolving Management and Governance for Kaipara Moana

    Taylor, Lara (2015)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This thesis investigates the evolving natural resource management and governance (NRMG) for the Kaipara Moana, in northern Aotearoa. I employ postcolonial theory (PCT) to consider Indigenous peoples’ acts of colonial resistance and tribal resurgence within this specific place and time. I utilise a postcolonial framework comprised of Bhabha’s concepts of ambivalence, mimicry, hybridity and third space as well as Spivak’s concept of strategic essentialism to explore the agency of two Ngāti whātua hapū – Te Uri o Hau and Ngāti Whātua o Kaipara – in initiating and participating in NRMG. These concepts enable the research to explore beyond the binary Indigenous versus non-Indigenous thinking to consider the nuances that occur within hybrid realities. I deconstruct colonial discourse, examining the relations between power, knowledge and agency, to resist and challenge imperialism. By utilising PCT and taking a ‘catchment’ scale approach this research characterises the various discourses at play as a legacy of colonialism and the postcolonial complexities associated with NRMG within, and associated with, this locale. My key research question asks: To what extent does Integrated Catchment Management address mana whenua rights to assert rangatiratanga over their environmental resources and taonga? The research finds that integrated catchment management (ICM) offers potential opportunities for Māori to re-negotiate their role in NRMG, and that iwi-led ICM offers potential for cultural revitalisation and empowerment. However in the case of Kaipara Moana this potential is undermined by a lack of appropriate overarching bicultural governance. The research reveals the ambivalence of the colonial state in the Kaipara and the fragility of its assumed positional superiority within NRM. It is suggested that non-statutory arrangements fail to ensure the commitment necessary for successful outcomes, instead providing a façade for colonial governments to merely appear responsive. New Zealand’s Resource Management Act (1991) is shown to be ineffective in supporting ICM, because cultural imperatives are given less weight than economic imperatives. Small triumphs in Indigenous attempts to reconcile themselves with other local actors in multicultural realities, against a backdrop of ongoing Treaty settlements, and to provide for their own social wellbeing and empowerment, are proven to be real and significant. However, ICM, in and of itself, is unlikely to provide for self-determination to the fullest extent. This research is timely, as current policy reforms such as the National Policy Statement for Freshwater Management (NPSFM) (2014) and Treaty of Waitangi settlements are placing greater emphasis on Māori rights and interests in NRMG. The NPSFM also recommends collaborative ICM-based implementation of fresh water management to meet the national level requirements. It is concerning though, that the NPSFM lacks any explicit implementation mechanism to ensure Māori rights and interests are met, meaning there is a similar risk that the NPSFM could also be ineffective. In this context it is highly relevant to be gauging a reallife ICM case and even more so, one that is iwi-led and to which the Treaty partnership is a fundamental principle. Key words: Indigenous rights and interests; Rangatiratanga; Natural resource management; Governance; Integrated catchment management; Ngāti Whātua, Treaty of Waitangi/te Tiriti; Treaty partnership; Multiple stakeholder platforms; bicultural kaupapa; mātauranga Māori Title: For the purposes of this research the Māori title “He waka hourua, he waka eke noa” is interpreted as ‘a waka with two hulls bound by a common kaupapa’. The notion being that while Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples may be willing to get into the same waka and integrate where necessary, for example sharing a vision, objectives and desired outcomes, they also maintain separate hulls to preserve and advance the knowledges, institutions and practices of each culture.

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  • Teaching children with autism social skills using video modelling

    Wong, Joanne (2015)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Video modelling (VM) combined with video embedded instructions were used to teach social skills to four children aged between ten to fifteen who were diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. The aim of this study was to contribute towards the existing literature on the efficacy of VM. In addition to this purpose, this study focused on programming for response and stimuli generalisation through the videos created and the intervention procedures. A multiple baseline design across participants and social skills was used. Results showed the intervention was effective at teaching responding to greetings, personal space and verbal request. The intervention effects were questionable for teaching requesting a turn. All the participants generalised the social skill across different stimuli. Response generalisation was only applicable to three out of four participants, and two of the participants demonstrated successful response generalisation. Despite no response generalisation occurred for the third participant, response variation was observed. These results suggest that a simple intervention of VM paired with instructions can be highly effective at teaching social skills and promoting generalisation of the skills. The limitations and implications of this research are also discussed.

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  • Students’ Search for Identity as Credit Hunters or Science Students

    Taylor, Anita (2014)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Faculty of Education Exemplar -- 60 point. The case study research for this dissertation was informed by Bernstein’s (2000) theory about how schools reproduce social inequalities by providing different socioeconomic groups with different educational opportunities. Specifically this dissertation investigates the features of non-traditional Level 2 science subjects in alternative student pathways now available in New Zealand secondary schools. These subjects are intended to provide disengaged students with relevant curricula but I argue that they effectively reduce access to the generative principles of disciplinary knowledge. The schools’ alternative pathways have a tendency to conflate everyday knowledge with scientific knowledge rather than focus on developing suitable pedagogies that ensure access to scientific knowledge for disengaged groups of learners. Furthermore the tendency of the non-traditional science courses to incorporate knowledge across traditional subject boundaries – made possible by modularisation of assessment - encourages loyalty to an extrinsic reward system of credit collection at the expense of developing identities as science students. In this way students are trained to meet targets rather than be educated in the cognitive systems of meaning that allow participation in the broader scientific community and through the critical awareness developed in these cognitive processes to participate fully in democratic society.

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  • Geomorphic variation of Thames Coast fan-deltas, Coromandel, New Zealand: a sediment budget approach

    Longstaff, Kathryn (2014)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This thesis seeks to resolve the geomorphic variability exhibited by a series of six small fan-deltas along the Thames Coast, Coromandel, New Zealand. Although the fan-deltas occur within 30 km of each other on the same fault scarp, a variety of morphologies and sizes exist. A sediment budget approach has been employed to examine the components of the fan-delta system. By tracking the generation, transport, and deposition of sediments to the fan-deltas, the drivers of geomorphic variability can be described. The characteristics of the catchments influence the variation exhibited by the fan-deltas, but a larger catchment area does not produce a larger fan-delta. Rather, it is the catchment and localised slope, ruggedness, circularity and density that have the greatest effect on fan-delta geomorphology. The time frame of fluvial fan-delta sedimentation is 3 ka, with sediment delivery from the streams over this period calculated for the six study catchments: Waikawau 3.74 + 10⁷ m³, Te Mata 1.30 + 10⁷ m³, Tapu 6.72 + 10⁷ m³, Waiomu 6.14 + 10⁶ m³, Te Puru 2.92 + 10⁷ m³, and Tararu 6.52 + 10⁷ m³. The total sediment volumes for the fan-deltas are: Waikawau 1.36 + 10⁷ m³, Te Mata 1.38 + 10⁷ m³, Tapu 2.01 + 10⁷ m³, Waiomu 2.24+ 10⁷ m³, Te Puru 9.26 + 10⁷ m³, and Tararu 5.08 + 10⁷ m³. The assessed volumes of the fan-deltas deviate from the late-Holocene sediment delivery modelled. Te Mata has a fan-delta volume comparable to the sediment delivered over the late Holocene, potentially due to armouring of the fan-delta surface. Tararu has a fan-delta slightly smaller than modelled, although has a long history of land management. Waikawau and Tapu both have fan-delta volumes less than expected by modelling sediment transport, these sites have areas of low slope along their trunk streams allowing for within catchment sediment storage as well as finer sediment distributions permitting greater re-working of deposits. Waiomu and Te Puru both have fan-delta volumes in excess of their modelled sediment transport, indicative of debris flows delivering vast quantities of sediment in extreme events.

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  • Knowledge-Based System for Autonomous Control of Intelligent Mastication Robots

    Odisho, Ramin (2016)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The study of the mechanical and chemical properties of food is commonly known as Food Texture Analysis (FTA); it is an important area of research in fields such as the health and food sciences. The majority of FTA methods employ human sensory panels because they produce realistic results from ‘in-vivo’ experiments; however, due to the subjective nature of sensory evaluation, the results obtained from different panel members can be inconsistent. This inherent variability in experimental outcomes can lead to difficulties when interpreting and comparing results and is the focus of this research. Prior contributions to this research led to the development of a mastication robot; the motive being that robots are not inherently subject to the variability associated with human sensory perception and preference. The robot is capable of emulating human mastication by performing a family of rhythmic chewing motions that approximate the trajectories of human molar teeth. However, the robot was unable to adapt its chewing behaviour to food properties as they varied during the mastication process; this had a negative impact on results as mastication is a complex, dynamic process and cannot be accurately emulated by a static system. The aim of this project was to develop a Knowledge-Based System (KBS) that could learn how human chewing patterns change during mastication and as a result, enable the robot to adapt its actions to changes in food properties. To accomplish this, the KBS was designed to store data regarding changes in mastication parameters with respect to varying food properties; the data would then be analysed (via machine learning algorithms) to discover mathematical relationships (knowledge) within the data. The KBS uses these relationships to control the robot (supervisory) based on feedback from the robot regarding the properties of the food. Under KBS control, the robot autonomously emulated human mastication and produced results that were both, realistic and consistent; this indicates that the KBS has successfully enabled the robot to better approximate human masticatory behaviour. While this is a positive outcome, significant work is still required before such systems can be considered as viable alternatives to traditional sensory panels.

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