402 results for Undergraduate

  • Comparing performance of seedlot types in the Kaingaroa Forest using ground pilots and aerial LIDAR : Comparing the performance of open-pollinated, control pollinated and clonal seedlots in a plantation trial in the Kaingaroa forest utilising airborne LIDAR.

    Henderson, Theo J. A. (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Problem: As more improved planting stock such as clones and genetically improved seedlings are introduced to the market it is important to properly understand the benefits of each production type. Various breeding programmes make claims around performance of their seedlots but there is a shortage of literature around the performance of these production types in a plantation setting for most production species. Approach: One seedling, two cuttings, and 7 clonal varieties were compared in a plantation setting on a single site. The stand was measured via five permanent sample plots (PSPs) per seedlot. The seedlots were categorised by material production type and compared using pair-wise analysis to find statistically significant differences. The seedlots were then compared individually to find any intramaterial differences. Available aerial LIDAR was then used to estimate tree height for the total seedlot area and establish whether this was an accurate estimate. Average LIDAR height was then used to estimate tree height for each of the five PSPs to establish whether this would improve the prediction of heights and permit its use for large-scale evaluation of genetic material. Results: Categorising seedlots by material type there was no statistical difference for height performance but there was for DBH and basal area. Clones and open-pollinated seedlots showed superior performance over controlled-pollinated material, but not different from each other. Clones showed reduced height variability over non-clones. DBH and basal area variability was also reduced but the difference was only statistically significant versus open-pollinated seedlots. Comparing seedlots individually there was large variation in performance and variability within material types, with clones showing some superiority and non-clones inconsistent improvements. The LIDAR tree height model for whole seedlot area showed to be a significant predictor average PSP height but poorly predicted CV. Predicting PSP area provided with LIDAR improved correlations over whole stand predictions for both values. Implications: The performance superiority for clones over other production types in this trial is not as pronounced as previously suspected. Clones do, however, provide a more uniform crop. The LIDAR tree height model could be used for further analysis but not for height variability without further improvement. Result validity was, however, reduced by the lack of trial replication and randomisation. This is the key limitation and makes guaranteeing improvements are due to improved genetics (not environment) problematic.

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  • The performance of blocks of clones in a radiata pine production forest.

    Farmery, Acacia (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Problem: Genetically identical clones of Pinus radiata are being planted in New Zealand plantation forests. There have been many clonal trials carried out; however there is a weakness in published literature surrounding the performance of clones in production blocks. Method: Five comparisons in four of Pan Pac Forests Products production forests were measured. Three comparisons were measured at age 4.5 years old and two were measured at 7.5 years old. There were six Forest Genetics clones and three different control-pollinated seedlots measured in these comparisons. Each comparison had a different number and selection of seedlots. There were six different traits measured for the trees; diameter at breast height over bark, height, acoustic velocity, straightness, branching habit, and malformation. The different traits were compared between the seedlots within each comparison. The differences in variation for diameter at breast height and modulus of elasticity were compared between clones and control-pollinated seedlots. Finally, the results by clone for the traits, excluding height, were compared to the expected performance supplied by Forest Genetics. Results: There were differences in performance between seedlots. Four clones performed well across a range of traits. One clone performed well in the 7.5 year old blocks but not in the 4.5 year old blocks. One clone did not perform well in size and stiffness. Clones were significantly less variable than control-pollinated seedlots for diameter at breast height but not for modulus of elasticity. The performance of each clone in Pan Pac Forest Products forests was very similar to the expected performance provided by Forest Genetics. Implications: There are clones that can produce desired yield, stiffness and form. Clones will provide a more uniform crop in diameter than control-pollinated seedlots. Pan Pac Forest Products can rely on Forest Genetics prediction of clonal performance as a guide to performance in their forests.

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  • An analysis of vessel loading of export logs at four New Zealand ports.

    Duval, Alfred W. (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Over half of New Zealand’s annual harvest was exported as logs in 2015 (MPI, 2016). The large scale and economic importance of log exports highlights the importance of efficient port operations. Productive cycle elements for the log loading operation were defined. The vessel loading cycle was split into six elements: three ‘action elements’ (loading, tallying, and slinging), and three ‘carting elements’ between the ‘action elements’. Time study measurements were carried out at four New Zealand ports (Tauranga, Marsden Point, Gisborne, and Port Chalmers) to identify differences in productive time to load log export vessels. Port Chalmers wasn’t compared to the other ports as it was too different operationally. Loading had the longest productive element time, followed by slinging and tallying, and lastly the ‘carting elements’. Loading was uninfluenced by port but affected by log grade, length, operator skill, and the time of day. Tallying was significantly different between the three ports with Marsden Point fastest and Tauranga slowest. Slinging was quickest in Gisborne and faster whilst loading below-deck and during the daytime. Carting elements were heavily influenced by distance to or from log stack for all four ports. Tauranga displayed the fastest historic gross load rate (JASm³/hour) yet the slowest productive cycle time. Gross load rate is influenced by delays, volume per cycle, and productive cycle time. The difference in productive time and gross load rate could therefore be assumed to be from increased volume per cycle and/or reduced delays in Tauranga. Exporters are fined for loading slower than scheduled. This cost is greater when shipping rates are high as fines are based on shipping rates. A 5% increase in loading efficiency can save the exporter US$11,000 per vessel at historic maximum shipping rates.

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  • A comparative study of the influence that motor-manual felling and mechanised felling has on stem breakage.

    Andrews, S. D. (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Motor-manual felling has been the predominate method of severing trees in the felling process of a forest harvesting operation. Yet this method has been coupled with numerous injuries and deaths, as trees can strike fallers during this task. An alternative felling method was developed in the form of mechanised tree felling, in an attempt to reduce the frequency of injuries. Subsequently, mechanised felling is poorly understood when compared to motor-manual felling upon the impact it has on stem breakage. 183 trees were assessed by measuring the frequency of breakage, height of the first break and the volume retention abilities of three felling treatments; motor-manual, mechanised felling out of the stand and mechanised felling into the stand. The effect that directional felling had upon the length to the first break was also investigated for motor-manual and mechanised felling out of the stand. The percentage of stems that broke once felled was 73%, 76% and 94% for motor-manual, mechanised out of the stand and mechanised into the stand felling respectively. The height at which the first break occurred for the aforementioned felling treatments was 71%, 71% and 69% of the total tree height. Mechanised felling out of the stand had the greatest volume retention ability with 94.5% of the trees total volume being below the first break. Followed by 93.7% for motor-manual and 91.9% for mechanised felling into the stand, however these differences were statistically insignificant (p=0.14). Lastly the length to the first break for motor-manual and mechanised felling out of the stand failed to statistically change when a tree was felled through a range of directions from downhill to uphill. The influence that motor-manual felling and mechanised felling out of the stand had on stem breakage is similar, yet mechanised felling into the stand had a much greater impact on the percentage of stems that broke. With further improvements in technology, it could be seen that the number of mechanised tree-felling operations over take motor-manual felling, as their impact on stem breakage is comparable.

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  • He aha te kai o te rangatira i te ao hurihuri? : what is the food of chiefs in a changing world?: leadership in Te Tau Ihu in the late twentieth century.

    Williams, Madi (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This research examines the nature of Māori leadership in Te Tau Ihu during the late twentieth century. A Te Tau Ihu focus has been chosen as I whakapapa to Ngāti Kuia, Ngāti Kōata, and Ngāti Apa ki te Rā Tō. The existing historiography on Māori leadership is focused on national scale leaders and fails to adequately take into account local factors. This dissertation analyses how leadership manifested in late twentieth-century Te Tau Ihu. The research was conducted using a combination of oral history and kaupapa Māori methodologies and thematic interviews were undertaken with three current Te Tau Ihu leaders. These interviews directed the research and highlighted the leadership roles and attributes that were necessary during this period. The key conclusion to emerge was that there are crucial differences within Māori leadership, depending on the iwi, region, and context. Within Te Tau Ihu leadership roles were primarily centred around a fight for cultural recognition and the initial steps of the Treaty Settlement process. They were filled by volunteers who had a range of attributes such as charisma, communication skills, bravery, manaakitanga, and humility. It was the combination of these roles and attributes that enabled Te Tau Ihu iwi to move forward so successfully into the twenty first century.

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  • ‘A clubbed skull or a good shipwreck, there is the death for a missionary… but to die a leper should be more precious still…’ : heroic missionary deaths of the 20th century at the Pacific Leprosy Asylum, Makogai Island, Fiji.

    Hawarden, Rosanne (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Through Bishop Julien Vidal of Suva, Fiji, the Missionary Sisters of the Society of Mary (SMSM) provided nursing services to leprosy sufferers in the Makogai Island leprosarium, Fiji from its inception in 1911. In a period when the cause of leprosy was known but an effective remedy was not available, Pacific leprosy patients who suffered stigmatisation and rejection by their communities, were forcibly segregated through formal legislation to remote island leprosaria. Religious and humanitarian organisations aligned leprosy control measures with their goals to evangelise and fundraise amongst the faithful. The Catholic Church became known for the care of leprosy patients with staff recognised for devoting their lives to a self-sacrificing religious martyrdom. Early histories presented a sanitised view of the arduous work involved in running a ‘total’ institution. Mythologised tales of lived events on Makogai Island were couched in religious terminology. The process of mythmaking by missionary organisations has received some attention, notably by Young and Luder, but has not focussed on missions to leprosy sufferers. Young considered the necessary conditions for missionary legends to develop while Luder analysed the mythmaking of Polynesian peoples and use of sacred imagery to cloak deeper knowledge reserved for elites. Examination of the records of Bishop Vidal exposes the layer of insider knowledge that was kept within official circles, including information on the high rates of illness amongst the nuns, whose hygiene regimes required the use of toxic chemicals. Very few missionaries died from leprosy, whereas drowning was a common fate. Two specific deaths on Makogai Island, the death of a priest in a shipwreck and a nursing sister from leprosy, were progressively mythologised. The violent death of a European priest was more likely to be mythologised than that of a ‘native’ nun who contracted leprosy. The rousing phrases of Bishop Vidal are more aspirational than actuality.

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  • 'The imperial character' : Alexius I Comnenus and the Byzantine ideal of emperorship.

    Rolston, Elisabeth Michelle (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The twelfth century saw what has been acknowledged by historians as a change in the nature of Byzantine emperorship with the reign of Alexius I Comnenus (1081-1118) and his succeeding dynasty. The rule of the Comneni has been associated with an emphasis on military achievement and a greater dynastic focus. While the practical changes to imperial rule under the Comneni have been well documented by historians, a focus on the character of the emperor and his depiction in historical writing has not yet received scholarly attention. The reign of Alexius was documented by two twelfth-century historians, Anna Comnena and John Zonaras. Their works offer two markedly different interpretations of Alexius's character and his suitability to occupy the imperial office. Anna Comnena's Alexiad draws on Biblical and Classical traditions to establish Alexius as the model of an ideal emperor. John Zonaras's Epitome Historiarum sets different standards for private men and for emperors. While Alexius's character is sufficiently virtuous for a private man, he falls short of the standard imposed for an emperor. This research shows that both writers create an ideal of emperorship in which the character of the emperor plays a vital role. The nature of this ideal, and the influences that inform it, are unique to each writer. Anna and John identify similar character traits in Alexius. Their point of difference, however, is whether they believe Alexius's character is suitable for the imperial office, and the extent to which he fulfils their ideal standard of emperorship.

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  • Locked out of the changing room? : a gendered history of surf lifesaving in Canterbury 1917-1990.

    Simatos, Elena Marie (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Since its beginning in the early twentieth century, surf lifesaving in New Zealand has been a predominantly male sport. This research essay examines the position of women in the Canterbury Surf Life Saving Association (CSLSA). It studies the Minutes and Annual Reports of the CSLSA in order to shed light on male attitudes toward female participation in the sport. The male attitude towards female surf lifesavers has generally been negative, although the degree of this negativity has varied across different surf clubs in New Zealand and Australia. The CSLSA was heavily focused on its public image, and this image was predominantly masculine. Women were often seen by men as lacking the physical capabilities required to participate in surf lifesaving. This research essay also addresses domestic roles within the surf clubs that allowed women to have some involvement in the clubs. It also discusses how factors such as the outbreak of World War Two allowed for women to become active surf lifesavers and begin to have a voice. There were some successful women within the CSLSA, yet only two women achieved significant recognition within the Association’s Minutes and Annual Reports. The main focus of this research essay is to determine male attitudes towards women within surf lifesaving in Canterbury.

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  • Women, migration, and madness : a case study of Seaview Lunatic Asylum, 1872-1915.

    Julian, Renée (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This dissertation examines the interconnections between migration, madness, and femininity through a case study of the women committed to Seaview Lunatic Asylum on New Zealand’s West Coast from 1872 to 1916. Psychiatric histories that include discussions of the effects that migrating to the goldfields can have on migrant’s mental health have been a recent development, although a number of these studies tend to focus on men. Moreover, while there have been studies of the connections between migration and insanity on nineteenth-century goldfields in Otago and Victoria, this has never been attempted for the West Coast. In order to bridge this gap, I examine women’s migration and mobility patterns during the West Coast rushes in addition to demographics within the asylum and the West Coast population to locate the Seaview women with the framework of broader cultural and societal trends. I then consider the ways which ‘social stressors’ and dominant attitudes towards femininity and ethnicity on the goldfields are reflected in women’s experiences of madness. The Seaview women were highly mobile, both nationally and internationally, and were part of strong Trans-Tasman migration patterns. Like many other nineteenth-century asylums, diagnoses of insanity became highly gendered because of the influence of colonial views of femininity, making perceptions and experiences of women’s madness different from men’s. Asylum records also mirror the blurred ethnic boundaries that characterised the West Coast in this period, and ‘social stressors’ such as the harsh environmental conditions on the goldfields, domestic concerns and working conditions greatly influenced the deterioration of women’s mental health and committal to Seaview.

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  • Reformation and romance : Scottish national. identity in a nineteenth century British age of reform, through the Edinburgh political press.

    Anderson, Jonathan (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In the nineteenth century, Scottish national identity among the political elite of Scotland was a contested field. Rather than there being a single conception of ‘Scottishness’ among this elite, the Whigs contributors of the Edinburgh Review and the Tory contributors of Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine each embodied a distinctive Whig and Tory Scottish identity: a Whig identity based on Scotland’s future progress within the United Kingdom and dismissive of Scotland’s ‘backward’ pre-Union heritage; and a Tory identity that romanticised and celebrated Scottish history, while casting itself as the ‘defender’ of Scottish nationhood within the United Kingdom. This study explores these different Scottish identities. It considers both how they responded to, and how they were changed by the British age of reform. Three reforms in particular – the Test and Corporation Acts repeal of 1828, Catholic Emancipation in 1829, and the Great Reform Act of 1832 – form the focus. Using magazine articles authored by prominent Scottish Whigs and Tories of the day, the research shows how these identities shifted. Scottish Whigs ardently supported all three reforms, seeing it as representing Scotland’s ‘British progress’ and ‘enlightenment’. But their arguments also employed language of Scottish exceptionalism and patriotism that they claimed to oppose. Scottish Tories, zealously opposed to reform, expressed opposition using Scottish patriotic language, particularly by portraying reforms as representing a threat to Scotland’s ancient nationhood. This dissertation argues that by the end of this reforming era, the victorious Scottish Whig identity had adopted the patriotic arguments of the Scottish Tories, who ultimately faded. It provides valuable insight into how Scotland’s governing elite viewed Scottish identity and nationhood, particularly within a wider British context, and how these identities shifted as part of the transformative effects of reform on Scotland and Britain.

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  • Gendered nationalism, egalitarian revolution : women in the political discourses of Gandhi and Ambedkar.

    Wills, Frank Kerry (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This dissertation examines how women were positioned in the political discourses of B. R. Ambedkar and M. K. Gandhi through an analysis of their speeches, articles, and correspondence. Comparisons between these two men have focused on their conflicting views of the Indian caste system. However, both Gandhi and Ambedkar commented extensively on the place of women in Indian society. A comparison of their respective views reveals a shared goal of realising social, political, and legal equality for women. However, they articulated different means of achieving that goal. This dissertation argues that differences between Gandhi’s and Ambedkar’s respective discourses on women emerged from their divergent political ideologies. Chapter one shows that Gandhi’s discourse on women was a complex and fluctuating product of competing influences, including his role as leader of the Indian nationalist movement, the impact of contemporary events, and his tendency toward conservatism. This suggests that his discourse on women was subject to many of the same concerns as his general politics. Chapter two shows that Ambedkar’s discourse on women was heavily influenced by his emancipatory, modernising, egalitarian, and social interventionist political ideology. The interface between caste and gender in Ambedkar’s writing is also examined. It is argued that he identified correlations between caste and gender-based discriminations. Overall, despite the appearance of similarities between Gandhi’s and Ambedkar’s respective discourses on women, their respective discourses on women evinced separate influences and ideologies.

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  • Propaganda in prose : a comparative analysis of language in British Blue Book reports on atrocities and genocide in early twentieth-century Britain.

    Gilmour, Thomas (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper examines three British Blue Book reports published in early twentieth-century Britain during the war period. The first report examines the invasion of Belgium by the German army and their maltreatment of Belgian people. The second report discusses the Committee of Union and Progress’ acts of cruelty against Armenian Christians. Both of these reports were authored, compiled and then distributed by the British Government in Britain and other Western countries. The third report discusses German colonial rule in South-West Africa and their abuse of ‘native’ Herero. This report was compiled and authored in South- West Africa, but published for a British audience. This dissertation engages in a comparative analysis of these three Blue Book reports. It examines how they are structurally different, but thematically and qualitatively similar. Investigation begins with discussion of the reports’ authors and how they validate claims made in the respective prefaces. Subsequently, there is examination of thematic similarities between each report’s historical narratives. Historiography is employed extensively to contextualise these reports and engage in wider debates on their objectives. This dissertation engages with three major strands of historiography: The British Government’s employment of propaganda during the First World War British Blue Books reports; and wartime propaganda. The South-West African report has a lack historiography. This paper seeks to fill a gap, while also adding to modern scholarship on British Blue Books. This dissertation demonstrates that wartime British Blue Books were not unique, as they deliberately illustrate similar thematic tropes and rhetorical devices throughout both their prefaces and historical narratives.

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  • Soviets on ice : the reception of Soviet ice hockey propaganda in Canada, 1954-1981.

    Pickworth, Katherine Alice (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This research paper examines how Soviet ice hockey was received by the Canadian media from 1954 to 1981. Canadian newspapers and game commentary have been utilised in this research paper to gage reaction to the Soviet success in ice hockey, and how the media viewed the Soviet National team. Soviet ice hockey challenged the Canadian public’s core belief that they were the best at their national game. In the Cold War climate this feud between the two sporting rivals would enable the Soviets to capture the attention of the Canadian public on a level which was not emulated through another form of propaganda. As de-Stalinisation was occurring in the Soviet Union, ice hockey would emulate Nikita Khrushchev’s policy of aggressive ‘peaceful coexistence’ by beating a Western nation at its own game. This paper is the first to extensively analyse the Canadian newspapers The Globe and Mail and The Toronto Star. Unlike most historiography in this field, this dissertation combines the amateur years of the Soviet-Canadian rivalry (1954-1969), with the games against professional NHL players in the Summit Series (1972-1981). From 1954 until 1970 ice hockey was seen as a clash of capitalist and socialist systems, however, the 1972 series personalised Soviet players to the Canadian media and public. Soviet ice hockey was a successful propaganda tool into Canada through applying a personal face to the Cold War foreign power.

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  • Roll call : the motivations behind the inclusion of women on the Canterbury roll

    Parker, Thandiwe Rose (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Gender has been largely overlooked in the study of political ideas and their representation on genealogical chronicle rolls. One such roll, the Canterbury Roll, is housed at the University of Canterbury. Dating from the fifteenth-century, the five-metre long parchment features a genealogy of the kings of England, and was constructed to support the claims to the throne made by contemporary kings. It traces the lineage of the contemporary ruler Edward IV, through mythical kings such as Arthur, to the biblical figure of Noah. Over the approximately fifty years during which it was written, the Roll was subject to editing, as various political events influenced its content. This dissertation examines the women who feature on the Canterbury Roll, in both its original and edited form, in order to understand the place of women in the contemporary political context. It compares the written text of the roll with the chronicle histories on which its compilers drew, in order to determine the motivations behind the women’s inclusion. Four scribal hands are identified in this dissertation, and three of those hands are used as historical tools to uncover the motivations behind the inclusion of women. Each scribal hand reveals a different political motivation, and women were included on the Roll to shape the contemporary audience’s political perceptions. This dissertation reveals that women who conformed to a contemporary feminine ideal were celebrated while those who did not conform were portrayed negatively.

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  • Genocide on Fleet Street : the Armenian genocide in the British press, 1915-1918.

    Steel, Daniel (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper examines British attitudes towards the Armenian genocide through the three most prominent contemporary newspapers: the Times, the Manchester Guardian and the Daily Mail. In particular, it considers the nature and extent of these papers’ interest in the events and, as far as can be discerned, that of their readers. Despite substantial scholarly interest in atrocity narratives in First World War Britain, British reception of the Armenian genocide, by far the war’s worst atrocity, has attracted little attention. Historians in this area, who concern themselves overwhelmingly with atrocities committed by the German military, have given the subject only passing mention. Conversely, recent inquiries by scholars of humanitarianism have focused almost exclusively on reception amongst Britain’s pro-Armenian humanitarian advocates, giving only supplementary consideration to the press. This paper adopts a comparative approach, contrasting the presentation of the genocide in the ‘elite press’ (the Times and the Guardian) with that of the most prominent and widely-circulated ‘popular’ newspaper, the Mail, in order to consider differing attitudes amongst upper- and middle-class observers respectively. While the elite press provided significant coverage of the events, demonstrating a humanitarian concern for the Armenian victims, the Mail gave the genocide only passing attention, despite its potential propaganda value and having access to a substantial volume of graphic eye-witness accounts. Two conclusions are drawn from this disparity. First, it is suggested that the Mail’s inattention resulted from a lack of interest by their readers, indicating that the Armenian cause was a predominantly elite phenomenon. Second, it is argued that the Mail exercised a deliberate editorial decision not to reproduce much of the details published by the elite press, demonstrating that the Mail’s long-standing scholarly reputation as a government propaganda outlet ‘duping’ the public into the war through graphic atrocity stories is unfounded.

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  • Friends to China : the role and impact of the Friends’ Ambulance Unit during the Chinese ‘War of Resistance’ (1937-1945).

    Williams, Eve (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Friends’ Ambulance Unit, associated with the Society of Friends, was a group that provided an alternative option to military service for conscientious objectors during both World War I and II.1 They provided transportation and medical aid to those affected by the war, concentrating mainly on the European mainland. In 1941 however, they sent a section to China to help aid and relieve the suffering caused by the ‘War of Resistance’. China had been engaged in a bitter conflict with Japan since 1937 causing great suffering for the peoples of China. The China section of the FAU drew people from all over the world, including New Zealand. Members of the Society of Friends, Christchurch brothers Neil and John Johnson responded to a call for assistance and in 1945 they arrived in China. Their letters and other written material found in the Johnson archive located in the Macmillan Brown Library, University of Canterbury, provide an invaluable source to illustrate the important role the FAU played in China during this time. It also demonstrated that because of the scale of the war, however, the FAU’s impact was more localized than general. Very little scholarly work has been done on the contribution made by New Zealand to the China section of the Friends’ Ambulance Unit during WWII. Only one book relates to this area; Caitriona Cameron’s Go Anywhere do Anything: New Zealanders and the Friends Ambulance Unit 1945-51.2 This essay aims to highlight this relatively unknown story. It also adds to the fields of a social history of China, scholarship that examines aid and relief work and New Zealand conscientious objector literature.

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  • An exercise in perception

    Clairmont, Philip A (1970)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Subject chosen for this thesis is the interior of a room and its myriad aspects. When experienced subjectively it can appear as an outer protection or barrier for inner turmoil, providing security, shelter and privacy, or the direct opposite, four walls unnaturally imprisoning that which should be free. Objectively it provides a startling array of forms shapes and textures, both functional and nonfunctional, rigid and organic. The visual tensions influence and condition the actions and thoughts of the human figure within this environment. A room contains within its four walls residue of human thoughts, actions and emotions, a visual catalyst of memories and associations ; past and present. A room is in a constant state of evolution expressing itself in movements from light and dark - a place where time and space can be measurable. I have tried using a variety of means: signs and symbols, dots, dashes, line and tone to capture at once the stationary together with the transitory nature of observed appearances. I have dwelt on and emphasised those ambiguities which have arisen out of the process of creating an image and may reveal something of another reality.... of those submerged realities behind appearances and beyond normal consciousness. The language of an artist is able to cast a glimmer of light on those essential truths.....truths which normally elude civilised man. This thesis provides for sensory and visual appreciation rather than intellectual gratification (thus the emphasis on visual rather than written work). It comprises of a series of drawings, covering some aspects of one particular interior .... in this instance, my livingroom - an immediate environment. The drawings are essentially a visual record of sensory thinking, emotional and free-form imaginative interpretation of commonplace objects. The drawings follow a sequence, both chronologically and in thought development towards painting in which the experience gained of the room, crystallises in paint, size and colour adding dimension. The drawings should perform a dual role, one of providing a direct link with unconscious creative processes, and one of showing a developing awareness of the vital forces and movements that motivate a painting and validate the act of creating it. A variety of techniques have been used, each in its turn revealing some significant facet of the interior. Mixed media drawings predominate, for this media with its own unique properties, is capable of providing a bridge ..... an interlocking of concept and technique where image and media are inseparable.

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  • Defining the enemy : intellectuals, soldiers and their attitudes towards the rules of engagement.

    Foss, Nicholas William (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This dissertation examines the different attitudes of soldiers and intellectuals towards the laws of war and the rules of engagement, with a particular focus on defining the enemy. In the past there has been a focus on the broader theories of the laws of war and how they work on paper. This is why studying the attitudes of soldiers who have firsthand experience of the rules of engagement is useful in understanding the moral issues in war. The general attitudes of intellectuals and soldiers towards the laws of war are first examined, relying on the past historiographical work of Michael Walzer and John Fabian Witt. This is followed by an examination of the moral ambiguities generated by war in a historical context, using specific examples from past conflicts. Soldiers’ autobiographies from the War on Terror are a rich source of analysis They reveal how the rules of engagement imposed by the legislators do not necessarily correspond to the soldiers’ perspective on the battlefield which leaves soldiers vulnerable to charges of murder.

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  • Putaringamotu/Riccarton Bush : from wilderness to native bush reserve

    Morrison, Melissa A (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This research essay examines the significance of Putaringamotu/Riccarton Bush to the various facets of Canterbury’s history to which it is connected. Putaringamotu/Riccarton Bush is a place of significance to the history of Canterbury as it helps to tell the story of the environment, Maori and the first pioneers of the Canterbury Plains. This research essay draws upon a number of primary sources, such as legislation and personal correspondence, in order to answer the question of why an area of native bush within the city of Christchurch is still significant and relevant today. The answer to this question lies in the ability of the Bush to tell the story of the Canterbury Plains, and those who have called the area home, from the 1300s until the present day. Putaringamotu/Riccarton Bush is the only remnant of the Kahikatea Swamp forests which once covered the Canterbury Plains and therefore contributes to the environmental history of New Zealand. The Bush also uncovers the cultural and social practices of local Maori before the arrival of the first European settlers. However, the reason that Putaringamotu/Riccarton Bush remains so significant today is because of its connection to the pioneering foundations of Christchurch. The Bush inspired and influenced the Deans brothers, Canterbury’s first successful pioneers, and the Canterbury Association, to choose the Plains as the location of the city of Christchurch. It is highly probable that had the Bush not existed upon the Plains then the city of Christchurch may have been established elsewhere. The current use of Putaringamotu/Riccarton Bush as a conservation area and meeting place ensures that each of these facets of Canterbury’s history are acknowledged and remain relevant and significant within Christchurch today.

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  • Toxic tabloids toxicology, the press, and the public in nineteenth-century England.

    Easton, Holly (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This dissertation examines the way in which the English public in the nineteenth century engaged with criminal toxicology, through the medium of the newspapers. It aims to fill a gap in the historiography of toxicology, by combining the approaches of single-case analysis and statistical analysis to assess public opinion and action. This dissertation argues that the public’s engagement with criminal toxicology occurred through the context in which they encountered it, namely the judicial system. In addition to this, public engagement was built upon an informed understanding of the role of toxicology in the courtroom and was capable of producing tangible change. Through examining four sensational cases of criminal poisoning over the nineteenth century, this dissertation traces the development of the general public’s understanding of toxicology and resulting reactions to it. Throughout the century, the newspapers gradually disseminated more information about trials and the toxicology involved in them to the public, which they were able to act upon, by means of placing pressure on the authorities to reconsider the outcomes of contentious trials and the laws that had contributed to them. Overall, the public engaged increasingly with toxicology through the judicial system, agitating for and successfully creating change, in the interests of ensuring justice was done in individual cases and in the future.

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