400 results for Undergraduate

  • Gendered nationalism, egalitarian revolution : women in the political discourses of Gandhi and Ambedkar.

    Wills, Frank Kerry (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This dissertation examines how women were positioned in the political discourses of B. R. Ambedkar and M. K. Gandhi through an analysis of their speeches, articles, and correspondence. Comparisons between these two men have focused on their conflicting views of the Indian caste system. However, both Gandhi and Ambedkar commented extensively on the place of women in Indian society. A comparison of their respective views reveals a shared goal of realising social, political, and legal equality for women. However, they articulated different means of achieving that goal. This dissertation argues that differences between Gandhi’s and Ambedkar’s respective discourses on women emerged from their divergent political ideologies. Chapter one shows that Gandhi’s discourse on women was a complex and fluctuating product of competing influences, including his role as leader of the Indian nationalist movement, the impact of contemporary events, and his tendency toward conservatism. This suggests that his discourse on women was subject to many of the same concerns as his general politics. Chapter two shows that Ambedkar’s discourse on women was heavily influenced by his emancipatory, modernising, egalitarian, and social interventionist political ideology. The interface between caste and gender in Ambedkar’s writing is also examined. It is argued that he identified correlations between caste and gender-based discriminations. Overall, despite the appearance of similarities between Gandhi’s and Ambedkar’s respective discourses on women, their respective discourses on women evinced separate influences and ideologies.

    View record details
  • Propaganda in prose : a comparative analysis of language in British Blue Book reports on atrocities and genocide in early twentieth-century Britain.

    Gilmour, Thomas (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper examines three British Blue Book reports published in early twentieth-century Britain during the war period. The first report examines the invasion of Belgium by the German army and their maltreatment of Belgian people. The second report discusses the Committee of Union and Progress’ acts of cruelty against Armenian Christians. Both of these reports were authored, compiled and then distributed by the British Government in Britain and other Western countries. The third report discusses German colonial rule in South-West Africa and their abuse of ‘native’ Herero. This report was compiled and authored in South- West Africa, but published for a British audience. This dissertation engages in a comparative analysis of these three Blue Book reports. It examines how they are structurally different, but thematically and qualitatively similar. Investigation begins with discussion of the reports’ authors and how they validate claims made in the respective prefaces. Subsequently, there is examination of thematic similarities between each report’s historical narratives. Historiography is employed extensively to contextualise these reports and engage in wider debates on their objectives. This dissertation engages with three major strands of historiography: The British Government’s employment of propaganda during the First World War British Blue Books reports; and wartime propaganda. The South-West African report has a lack historiography. This paper seeks to fill a gap, while also adding to modern scholarship on British Blue Books. This dissertation demonstrates that wartime British Blue Books were not unique, as they deliberately illustrate similar thematic tropes and rhetorical devices throughout both their prefaces and historical narratives.

    View record details
  • Soviets on ice : the reception of Soviet ice hockey propaganda in Canada, 1954-1981.

    Pickworth, Katherine Alice (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This research paper examines how Soviet ice hockey was received by the Canadian media from 1954 to 1981. Canadian newspapers and game commentary have been utilised in this research paper to gage reaction to the Soviet success in ice hockey, and how the media viewed the Soviet National team. Soviet ice hockey challenged the Canadian public’s core belief that they were the best at their national game. In the Cold War climate this feud between the two sporting rivals would enable the Soviets to capture the attention of the Canadian public on a level which was not emulated through another form of propaganda. As de-Stalinisation was occurring in the Soviet Union, ice hockey would emulate Nikita Khrushchev’s policy of aggressive ‘peaceful coexistence’ by beating a Western nation at its own game. This paper is the first to extensively analyse the Canadian newspapers The Globe and Mail and The Toronto Star. Unlike most historiography in this field, this dissertation combines the amateur years of the Soviet-Canadian rivalry (1954-1969), with the games against professional NHL players in the Summit Series (1972-1981). From 1954 until 1970 ice hockey was seen as a clash of capitalist and socialist systems, however, the 1972 series personalised Soviet players to the Canadian media and public. Soviet ice hockey was a successful propaganda tool into Canada through applying a personal face to the Cold War foreign power.

    View record details
  • Roll call : the motivations behind the inclusion of women on the Canterbury roll

    Parker, Thandiwe Rose (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Gender has been largely overlooked in the study of political ideas and their representation on genealogical chronicle rolls. One such roll, the Canterbury Roll, is housed at the University of Canterbury. Dating from the fifteenth-century, the five-metre long parchment features a genealogy of the kings of England, and was constructed to support the claims to the throne made by contemporary kings. It traces the lineage of the contemporary ruler Edward IV, through mythical kings such as Arthur, to the biblical figure of Noah. Over the approximately fifty years during which it was written, the Roll was subject to editing, as various political events influenced its content. This dissertation examines the women who feature on the Canterbury Roll, in both its original and edited form, in order to understand the place of women in the contemporary political context. It compares the written text of the roll with the chronicle histories on which its compilers drew, in order to determine the motivations behind the women’s inclusion. Four scribal hands are identified in this dissertation, and three of those hands are used as historical tools to uncover the motivations behind the inclusion of women. Each scribal hand reveals a different political motivation, and women were included on the Roll to shape the contemporary audience’s political perceptions. This dissertation reveals that women who conformed to a contemporary feminine ideal were celebrated while those who did not conform were portrayed negatively.

    View record details
  • Genocide on Fleet Street : the Armenian genocide in the British press, 1915-1918.

    Steel, Daniel (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper examines British attitudes towards the Armenian genocide through the three most prominent contemporary newspapers: the Times, the Manchester Guardian and the Daily Mail. In particular, it considers the nature and extent of these papers’ interest in the events and, as far as can be discerned, that of their readers. Despite substantial scholarly interest in atrocity narratives in First World War Britain, British reception of the Armenian genocide, by far the war’s worst atrocity, has attracted little attention. Historians in this area, who concern themselves overwhelmingly with atrocities committed by the German military, have given the subject only passing mention. Conversely, recent inquiries by scholars of humanitarianism have focused almost exclusively on reception amongst Britain’s pro-Armenian humanitarian advocates, giving only supplementary consideration to the press. This paper adopts a comparative approach, contrasting the presentation of the genocide in the ‘elite press’ (the Times and the Guardian) with that of the most prominent and widely-circulated ‘popular’ newspaper, the Mail, in order to consider differing attitudes amongst upper- and middle-class observers respectively. While the elite press provided significant coverage of the events, demonstrating a humanitarian concern for the Armenian victims, the Mail gave the genocide only passing attention, despite its potential propaganda value and having access to a substantial volume of graphic eye-witness accounts. Two conclusions are drawn from this disparity. First, it is suggested that the Mail’s inattention resulted from a lack of interest by their readers, indicating that the Armenian cause was a predominantly elite phenomenon. Second, it is argued that the Mail exercised a deliberate editorial decision not to reproduce much of the details published by the elite press, demonstrating that the Mail’s long-standing scholarly reputation as a government propaganda outlet ‘duping’ the public into the war through graphic atrocity stories is unfounded.

    View record details
  • Friends to China : the role and impact of the Friends’ Ambulance Unit during the Chinese ‘War of Resistance’ (1937-1945).

    Williams, Eve (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Friends’ Ambulance Unit, associated with the Society of Friends, was a group that provided an alternative option to military service for conscientious objectors during both World War I and II.1 They provided transportation and medical aid to those affected by the war, concentrating mainly on the European mainland. In 1941 however, they sent a section to China to help aid and relieve the suffering caused by the ‘War of Resistance’. China had been engaged in a bitter conflict with Japan since 1937 causing great suffering for the peoples of China. The China section of the FAU drew people from all over the world, including New Zealand. Members of the Society of Friends, Christchurch brothers Neil and John Johnson responded to a call for assistance and in 1945 they arrived in China. Their letters and other written material found in the Johnson archive located in the Macmillan Brown Library, University of Canterbury, provide an invaluable source to illustrate the important role the FAU played in China during this time. It also demonstrated that because of the scale of the war, however, the FAU’s impact was more localized than general. Very little scholarly work has been done on the contribution made by New Zealand to the China section of the Friends’ Ambulance Unit during WWII. Only one book relates to this area; Caitriona Cameron’s Go Anywhere do Anything: New Zealanders and the Friends Ambulance Unit 1945-51.2 This essay aims to highlight this relatively unknown story. It also adds to the fields of a social history of China, scholarship that examines aid and relief work and New Zealand conscientious objector literature.

    View record details
  • Investigation of Potentially Expansive Soils, 'The Birches' Subdivision, Rangiora, New Zealand

    Clendon, Nicholas (2001)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    'The Birches' is a recently developed subdivision in the township of Rangiora. Early in 1997 a Benkelman Beam test on Lowes Place, one of the two major access roads into 'The Birches', produced deflection results as high as 12.76 mm. In addition to this was the raising of a section of footpath 10-20 mm up from the curb. Early 1998 saw longitudinal shrinkage cracks appear in a house access driveway, while later in 1998 two house experienced cracking and movement of the interior wall linings, subsequently requiring redecoration. These types of damage are typical of the damage caused by expansive soils, and an investigation was put in place to evaluate these potentially expansive soils. There are no previous cases of swelling soil problems in Rangiora or on the Canterbury Plains, so a field investigation program using crack monitoring, shallow moisture pits and trenches was implemented. A range of samples were gathered from three trenches, including bulk, long and short tube, and block samples. The laboratory methods for analysing these samples included a scanning electron microscope for the identification of microscopic layering, the plotting of grading curves to establish grain distribution, the establishment of dry density, and laterally confined vertical swell levels. The aim of this was to establish both a cause, and the controlling factors of the observed soil volume expansion. The trenches revealed massive, homogenous, silty clay units, with numerous rootlets throughout. The SEM study showed no layering or bedding to be present, but showed evidence of possible bioturbation or leaching. XRD analysis discerned the clay mineralogy was, on average, 20% kaolinite and 80% muscovite. Both of these are very stable minerals, and showed no swelling properties when glycolated. This indicates the causes of volume expansion in these soils are structural. Remoulded samples were also tested, and proved to be more susceptible to volume expansion when moisture content was increased. This is because the process of remoulding destroys the stablility of the lattice structure of the soil, which has formed through repetition of the shrink/swell process. The presence of leaching and bioturbation, and the presence of kaolinite, indicates acidic leaching. The historical data, combined with the evidence of previously high levels of vegetation in the area, as indicated by the presence of rootlets in the silty clay unit, suggests the depositional environment was that of a swamp margin.

    View record details
  • Race relations in New Zealand Through an Analysis of Broadsheet Magazine 1972-1989

    Hayes, Kimberley (2013)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This research essay addresses race relations within the context of New Zealand second wave feminism, 1972-1989. The 1970s and 1980s are decades recognised for the increased tension in the relationship between Maori and Pakeha society. I argue that race relations were a crucial aspect of second wave feminism in New Zealand at this time. This history is signified by an important primary source, the New Zealand feminist magazine Broadsheet. I argue that the progression that Maori women made over time to gain a space within New Zealand second wave feminism reflected deeper issues of race relations in wider New Zealand society. Themes that emerge from a close analysis of Broadsheet magazine include Maori women's questioning of the relevance of New Zealand second wave feminism for them, the important contribution that Maori women made to New Zealand second wave feminism, and the growing but necessary confrontation between Maori and Pakeha women.

    View record details
  • Executioners of Convenience - The Wehrmacht's Atrocities on the Ostfront. Genocide and Ideology in a War of Annihilation, 1941-1943

    Cheer, Michael (2013)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Abstract This thesis explores to what degree the Wehrmacht was involved in atrocities on the Eastern Front and the structures that led to this involvement. The goal is to show that the men of the Wehrmacht were incorporated more completely into a genocidal 'war of annihilation' than has been previously thought. It will be demonstrated that the Wehrmacht Heer on the Ostfront cannot be understood as a traditional army conducting a conventional war. However, it was not made up of rabidly anti-Semitic 'willing executioners' either. This research is based mainly on perpetrator testimony, including secret POW recordings, official Wehrmacht documents and soldiers testimonies. Upon examination of these documents, it becomes clear that Wehrmacht Heer units during the Ostkreig were instructed and prepared not only to assist the SS and Einsatzgruppen in prosecuting the Final Solution, but also to act independently as a kind of 'vanguard' of annihilation in their area of operations. In contrast to existing interpretations however, this thesis will argue that in general soldiers did not commit war crimes due to Nazi indoctrination/ingrained anti-Semitism or through peer pressure and brutalisation but because of indiscriminate rules of engagement set within an extremely rigid military structure, which explicitly equated Jews with Bolshevik partisans while considering Soviet POWs and civilians to be expendable.

    View record details
  • To be Made Disabled, A Discourse Analysis of Intellectual Disability in New Zealand, 1900 - 1960

    Burt, Lucy (2013)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The New Zealand historiography on intellectual disability has been expanded in the twenty years by histories of the residential institution and the foundation of advocacy groups. However, there is still a limited field of history regarding how the intellectually disabled were discussed in twentieth century New Zealand. This thesis will discuss how the identity of the intellectually disabled was constructed as a social category, through different discourses, in twentieth century New Zealand. It shall be argued that from 1900 to at least 1960 those who created medical, government and public discourse also maintained the power to create the identity of the intellectually disabled. This argument will take the form of a discourse analysis and will draw on both primary and secondary sources. The primary sources will include government documents, medical literature and newspaper content. The secondary sources will cover material which provides context, and / or which has discussed the construction of intellectual disability. It will be argued that discourses centred on an idea of a 'problem' within the intellectually disabled individual. Also, the medical discourse and 'medicalized' understandings of intellectual disability will be seen to influence public and government discourse. Further, a tension will be shown in these discourses between the desire to assist the intellectually disabled and their families, as well as to protect the New Zealand community from these people.

    View record details
  • Immaculate Perceptions : Gender and Sanctity in Jacobus de Voragine’s Legenda aurea

    Wilson, Cressida Lilian (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    During the medieval period saints played a significant role in the religious culture of Western Europe. During the thirteenth century a Dominican monk named Jacobus de Voragine compiled and edited a collection of hagiographies, named the Legenda aurea, or ‘Golden Legend’. The lives of women saints included in this text highlight gender-specific concepts of sanctity. The sanctity of women was constructed in a distinctive way, and saints provided a model for religious women to imitate. Historians have largely ignored both female saints and the Legenda aurea as areas of research, despite the popularity they inspired in medieval society. Certain themes permeate the vitae so frequently that it appears Jacobus intended to promote particular tropes of female sanctity. Saints who were virgins were probably included to appeal to a young female audience, possibly to encourage them to join the fledgling Dominican nunneries. The economic concerns of the order are also highlighted through Jacobus’ emphasis on the saint’s renunciation of wealth, as the Dominicans survived on alms. Noble and widowed saints could have appealed to an older audience of economically autonomous women. By emphasising a return to apostolic types of sanctity Jacobus is promoting his order and safeguarding the economic interests of the Dominicans.

    View record details
  • The performance of blocks of clones in a radiata pine production forest.

    Farmery, Acacia (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Problem: Genetically identical clones of Pinus radiata are being planted in New Zealand plantation forests. There have been many clonal trials carried out; however there is a weakness in published literature surrounding the performance of clones in production blocks. Method: Five comparisons in four of Pan Pac Forests Products production forests were measured. Three comparisons were measured at age 4.5 years old and two were measured at 7.5 years old. There were six Forest Genetics clones and three different control-pollinated seedlots measured in these comparisons. Each comparison had a different number and selection of seedlots. There were six different traits measured for the trees; diameter at breast height over bark, height, acoustic velocity, straightness, branching habit, and malformation. The different traits were compared between the seedlots within each comparison. The differences in variation for diameter at breast height and modulus of elasticity were compared between clones and control-pollinated seedlots. Finally, the results by clone for the traits, excluding height, were compared to the expected performance supplied by Forest Genetics. Results: There were differences in performance between seedlots. Four clones performed well across a range of traits. One clone performed well in the 7.5 year old blocks but not in the 4.5 year old blocks. One clone did not perform well in size and stiffness. Clones were significantly less variable than control-pollinated seedlots for diameter at breast height but not for modulus of elasticity. The performance of each clone in Pan Pac Forest Products forests was very similar to the expected performance provided by Forest Genetics. Implications: There are clones that can produce desired yield, stiffness and form. Clones will provide a more uniform crop in diameter than control-pollinated seedlots. Pan Pac Forest Products can rely on Forest Genetics prediction of clonal performance as a guide to performance in their forests.

    View record details
  • An analysis of vessel loading of export logs at four New Zealand ports.

    Duval, Alfred W. (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Over half of New Zealand’s annual harvest was exported as logs in 2015 (MPI, 2016). The large scale and economic importance of log exports highlights the importance of efficient port operations. Productive cycle elements for the log loading operation were defined. The vessel loading cycle was split into six elements: three ‘action elements’ (loading, tallying, and slinging), and three ‘carting elements’ between the ‘action elements’. Time study measurements were carried out at four New Zealand ports (Tauranga, Marsden Point, Gisborne, and Port Chalmers) to identify differences in productive time to load log export vessels. Port Chalmers wasn’t compared to the other ports as it was too different operationally. Loading had the longest productive element time, followed by slinging and tallying, and lastly the ‘carting elements’. Loading was uninfluenced by port but affected by log grade, length, operator skill, and the time of day. Tallying was significantly different between the three ports with Marsden Point fastest and Tauranga slowest. Slinging was quickest in Gisborne and faster whilst loading below-deck and during the daytime. Carting elements were heavily influenced by distance to or from log stack for all four ports. Tauranga displayed the fastest historic gross load rate (JASm³/hour) yet the slowest productive cycle time. Gross load rate is influenced by delays, volume per cycle, and productive cycle time. The difference in productive time and gross load rate could therefore be assumed to be from increased volume per cycle and/or reduced delays in Tauranga. Exporters are fined for loading slower than scheduled. This cost is greater when shipping rates are high as fines are based on shipping rates. A 5% increase in loading efficiency can save the exporter US$11,000 per vessel at historic maximum shipping rates.

    View record details
  • A comparative study of the influence that motor-manual felling and mechanised felling has on stem breakage.

    Andrews, S. D. (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Motor-manual felling has been the predominate method of severing trees in the felling process of a forest harvesting operation. Yet this method has been coupled with numerous injuries and deaths, as trees can strike fallers during this task. An alternative felling method was developed in the form of mechanised tree felling, in an attempt to reduce the frequency of injuries. Subsequently, mechanised felling is poorly understood when compared to motor-manual felling upon the impact it has on stem breakage. 183 trees were assessed by measuring the frequency of breakage, height of the first break and the volume retention abilities of three felling treatments; motor-manual, mechanised felling out of the stand and mechanised felling into the stand. The effect that directional felling had upon the length to the first break was also investigated for motor-manual and mechanised felling out of the stand. The percentage of stems that broke once felled was 73%, 76% and 94% for motor-manual, mechanised out of the stand and mechanised into the stand felling respectively. The height at which the first break occurred for the aforementioned felling treatments was 71%, 71% and 69% of the total tree height. Mechanised felling out of the stand had the greatest volume retention ability with 94.5% of the trees total volume being below the first break. Followed by 93.7% for motor-manual and 91.9% for mechanised felling into the stand, however these differences were statistically insignificant (p=0.14). Lastly the length to the first break for motor-manual and mechanised felling out of the stand failed to statistically change when a tree was felled through a range of directions from downhill to uphill. The influence that motor-manual felling and mechanised felling out of the stand had on stem breakage is similar, yet mechanised felling into the stand had a much greater impact on the percentage of stems that broke. With further improvements in technology, it could be seen that the number of mechanised tree-felling operations over take motor-manual felling, as their impact on stem breakage is comparable.

    View record details
  • Native forest monitoring : tracking changes in native forest remnants.

    Arnold, T. A. H. (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Native forest monitoring is undertaken by forest companies as a requirement for certification of their forests by groups such as the FSC. It is important for companies to be able to track changes that are occurring to native forest remnants that are often spread throughout their operational plantation forest estate. Pan Pac tasked me with completing their 2016 native forest monitoring programme and review the results that have been collected since the programme was implemented in 2002. The objective of this was to both gain a better understanding of how the composition of the remnants in their5 estate is changing and to make recommendations on how the programme could be improved in the future. The majority of the 11 Permanent Sample Plots (PSPs) measured were in good or stable condition, several of which showed strong regeneration of the understory over the past 14 years. Three of the sites have been affected by heavy ungulate browsing (deer and/or goats), which has resulted in the continued suppression of the understory vegetation. While all current canopy layers of the PSP have not changed significantly, current and future disturbance such as ungulate browse could result in a change in composition from the current forest makeup. Ungulate browsing has been identified as the biggest driver of change in the native forest remnants within Pan Pac’s estate. To further examine to magnitude of this, exclosure plots could be established in impacted remnants to assess the effect of removal of browsing pests as a basis for Pan Pac to make decisions about future ungulate control. Continued monitoring of native forests is key to be able to identify as well as understand what is happening with native forest remnants. Tracking composition change is important as it allows the forest manager to target management practices such as ungulate control to combat non-natural changes that are occurring.

    View record details
  • Genetic parameter estimates for growth traits of Eucalyptus bosistoana : assessment of two progeny trials in Marlborough, New Zealand.

    Burgess, Jack (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper presents a follow up study to that was already completed by Luis et al. (2011). Luis et al (2011) investigated the survival of E. bosistoana half-sib families within two progeny trials in Marlborough, New Zealand. The study investigated genetic growth parameters of the same two progeny trials. Trees at Craven (progeny trial) were statistically taller and larger in diameter than Lawson (other progeny trial), which is likely to be a result of thinning occurring one year earlier at the Craven and Lawson North sites than at the Lawson East site. The progeny trials were set up into randomized incomplete blocks which allowed effective calculations of fixed and random effects from a mixed-effect linear model. The family, incomplete block and residual variances from the mixed-effect model made heritabilities of growth traits possible to calculate. Narrow sense heritabilities for diameter at breast height ranged from 0.13 to 0.18, while tree height heritabilities ranged from 0.1 to 0.17. The inter-site correlation of family performance was weak to moderate for both height;  Craven : Lawson North = 0.28  Craven : Lawson East = 0.44  Lawson East : Lawson North = 0.27 And diameter at breast height (dbh); Craven : Lawson North = 0.32 Craven : Lawson East = 0.39 Lawson East : Lawson North = 0.36 Heritabilities were weak to moderate for growth traits but there was substantial variation so selection is still likely to provide sufficient gain. Further studies will need to consider researching the genetic parameters of wood qualities of E. bosistoana.

    View record details
  • An investigation into the system production balance within three mechanised harvesting case studies.

    Malietoa, K. K. (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Safety issues and high costs of traditional harvesting methods have been driving mechanisation increases in New Zealand. However, productivity increases from mechanisation alters system productivity balance. This can result in underutilised machinery and cause an increase in harvesting costs in real terms. A time study was carried out to understand the system productivity balance between felling, extraction and processing and the factors affecting system component productivity rates, for three case studies. The three case studies observed were (1) a semi-mechanised cable yarder extraction operation, (2) a fully-mechanised swing yarder operation and (3) a fully-mechanised ground based operation. There were large production imbalances between felling, extraction and processing in all three case studies. Felling was the most productive system component, being 98%, 37% and 88% (case studies 1 to 3 respectively) more productive than the bottleneck. System bottleneck for case studies 1 and 3 was extraction, and processing for case study 2. The number of stems bunched, number of stems shovelled, wind throw interference and machine position shift affected felling cycle time. For every stem bunched, average productivity decreased by 35% (24m³/PMH) and 21% (20.9m³/PMH) for case studies 2 and 3 respectively. Every additional stem shovelled reduced felling productivity by 7.4m³/PMH for case study 2. Haul distance, the number of stems extracted and site factor affected extraction productivity. Haul distance and the number of stems extracted had significant impact on hourly productivity for all case studies. Site factor affected hourly productivity by 6.9m³ and 56.7m³ for case studies 1 and 3 respectively, largely attributed to the cable system employed and ground conditions. Processing was affected by the number of logs cut per stem and if delimbing occurred. Delimbing and each additional log processed, decreased productivity by 16% and 14% respectively. These three case studies showed that mechanised systems are often not well balanced and result in system components being underutilised. Companies can consider task strategies, or machine sharing between systems to minimise the effect on cost.

    View record details
  • Comparing performance of seedlot types in the Kaingaroa Forest using ground pilots and aerial LIDAR : Comparing the performance of open-pollinated, control pollinated and clonal seedlots in a plantation trial in the Kaingaroa forest utilising airborne LIDAR.

    Henderson, Theo J. A. (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Problem: As more improved planting stock such as clones and genetically improved seedlings are introduced to the market it is important to properly understand the benefits of each production type. Various breeding programmes make claims around performance of their seedlots but there is a shortage of literature around the performance of these production types in a plantation setting for most production species. Approach: One seedling, two cuttings, and 7 clonal varieties were compared in a plantation setting on a single site. The stand was measured via five permanent sample plots (PSPs) per seedlot. The seedlots were categorised by material production type and compared using pair-wise analysis to find statistically significant differences. The seedlots were then compared individually to find any intramaterial differences. Available aerial LIDAR was then used to estimate tree height for the total seedlot area and establish whether this was an accurate estimate. Average LIDAR height was then used to estimate tree height for each of the five PSPs to establish whether this would improve the prediction of heights and permit its use for large-scale evaluation of genetic material. Results: Categorising seedlots by material type there was no statistical difference for height performance but there was for DBH and basal area. Clones and open-pollinated seedlots showed superior performance over controlled-pollinated material, but not different from each other. Clones showed reduced height variability over non-clones. DBH and basal area variability was also reduced but the difference was only statistically significant versus open-pollinated seedlots. Comparing seedlots individually there was large variation in performance and variability within material types, with clones showing some superiority and non-clones inconsistent improvements. The LIDAR tree height model for whole seedlot area showed to be a significant predictor average PSP height but poorly predicted CV. Predicting PSP area provided with LIDAR improved correlations over whole stand predictions for both values. Implications: The performance superiority for clones over other production types in this trial is not as pronounced as previously suspected. Clones do, however, provide a more uniform crop. The LIDAR tree height model could be used for further analysis but not for height variability without further improvement. Result validity was, however, reduced by the lack of trial replication and randomisation. This is the key limitation and makes guaranteeing improvements are due to improved genetics (not environment) problematic.

    View record details
  • 'A Light Sniff Might Mean Death’ : Soldiers’ Responses to Poisonous Gas Throughout the First World War

    Annesley, Ellis Jayne (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This research paper examines soldiers’ responses to poisonous gas throughout the First World War. Accounts from British and Dominion, American and German soldiers who fought along the Western Front have been collected to analyse the psychological impact gas had upon a variety of men throughout the conflict. Contemporary letters and diaries as well as post-war oral testimonies and memoirs form the basis of the evidence used. The topic encompasses three strands of historical scholarship and engages with each to explore more thoroughly the responses obtained. Emphasis is placed on the psychological impact of gas upon the individuals assessed. Ultimately, this dissertation demonstrates that upon its introduction, poison gas was capable of instilling fear into men whether previously exposed to its consequences or not. However, this psychological power was to significantly diminish following the production and distribution of anti-gas protective measures in late 1916. Despite decreasing anxiety, gas retained its title as a ‘terror weapon’ from effectively inspiring fear into men who were unprotected, ill-prepared, and subsequently vulnerable, in the face of the poison.

    View record details
  • The biologies of two species of weta endemic to the Snares Island : Zealandrosandrus subantarcticus Salmon (Orthoptera : Stenopelmatidae) and Insulanoplectron spinosum Richards (Orthoptera : Rhaphidophoridae)

    Butts, Christine A. (1983)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The life histories, behaviour, diet, habitat, and diurnal activity patterns of two species of Snares Island weta, Zealandrosandrus subantaraticus and Insulanovlectron spinosum, are presented. The males and females of Z. subantarcticus had 12 instars. The males of I. spinosum had 9 instars while the females had 10 instars. Eclosion, moulting, inter- and intraspecific interactions, oviposition, and cannabalism are described. The diet of both species included arthropods, plant material, and dead seabirds. Descriptions of abdomina-femoral stridulatory apparatus for both species are presented. Reproductive parameters and sex ratio of both species were examined. Diurnal activity patterns showed an increase in activity half an hour after sunset and a decrease half an hour before sunrise for both species. These species of weta from the Snares Island showed similarities in aspects of their biologies to those of mainland species

    View record details