398 results for Undergraduate

  • Comparing performance of seedlot types in the Kaingaroa Forest using ground pilots and aerial LIDAR : Comparing the performance of open-pollinated, control pollinated and clonal seedlots in a plantation trial in the Kaingaroa forest utilising airborne LIDAR.

    Henderson, Theo J. A. (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Problem: As more improved planting stock such as clones and genetically improved seedlings are introduced to the market it is important to properly understand the benefits of each production type. Various breeding programmes make claims around performance of their seedlots but there is a shortage of literature around the performance of these production types in a plantation setting for most production species. Approach: One seedling, two cuttings, and 7 clonal varieties were compared in a plantation setting on a single site. The stand was measured via five permanent sample plots (PSPs) per seedlot. The seedlots were categorised by material production type and compared using pair-wise analysis to find statistically significant differences. The seedlots were then compared individually to find any intramaterial differences. Available aerial LIDAR was then used to estimate tree height for the total seedlot area and establish whether this was an accurate estimate. Average LIDAR height was then used to estimate tree height for each of the five PSPs to establish whether this would improve the prediction of heights and permit its use for large-scale evaluation of genetic material. Results: Categorising seedlots by material type there was no statistical difference for height performance but there was for DBH and basal area. Clones and open-pollinated seedlots showed superior performance over controlled-pollinated material, but not different from each other. Clones showed reduced height variability over non-clones. DBH and basal area variability was also reduced but the difference was only statistically significant versus open-pollinated seedlots. Comparing seedlots individually there was large variation in performance and variability within material types, with clones showing some superiority and non-clones inconsistent improvements. The LIDAR tree height model for whole seedlot area showed to be a significant predictor average PSP height but poorly predicted CV. Predicting PSP area provided with LIDAR improved correlations over whole stand predictions for both values. Implications: The performance superiority for clones over other production types in this trial is not as pronounced as previously suspected. Clones do, however, provide a more uniform crop. The LIDAR tree height model could be used for further analysis but not for height variability without further improvement. Result validity was, however, reduced by the lack of trial replication and randomisation. This is the key limitation and makes guaranteeing improvements are due to improved genetics (not environment) problematic.

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  • Factors which influence corewood stiffness in radiata pine.

    Jones, Grace (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Increasing stocking and competition with weeds significantly increased Hitman estimates of stiffness at the significance level α=0.05. Accuracy of models predicting Hitman from TreeTap measurements can be improved by customizing them for particular silvicultural regimes and diameter at 1.4m (DBH). Controlled factors: genetics, wind sway and fertilizer use, did not significantly influence Hitman estimates of stiffness. Tree height did not significantly influence stiffness estimates, but including DBH in prediction models improved models of stiffness estimates. Stiffness in 10 year old Pinus radiata stems was studied in an experiment with the following factors: genetics, herbicide/fertilizer use, stocking and wind sway. Acoustic velocity was used as an estimate of modulus of elasticity (MOE) and was estimated using 2 different tools: Hitman, a resonance based tool used on 2m log sections, and TreeTap, a time-of-flight based tool used on 1.2m outer-wood sections of standing trees. DBH and tree height were also recorded for each tree. Green density was measured using submersion in order to use the formula: MOE = green density∗ acoustic velocity² Stiffness estimates from TreeTap were strongly correlated with Hitman estimates, but were about 30% higher on average. The relationship between stiffness estimates from these tools changed with weed competition and with stocking. No significant difference in stiffness was found between the northwest and the southeast sides of the stems when using the TreeTap tool, and an average value for each tree was used for subsequent analyses. These findings are similar to those from other studies carried out on different sites, and to a previous destructive sample at the same site. There were a few major outliers, but despite these the final model relating TreeTap and Hitman estimates was significant (P<0.0001). Weed competition and stocking significantly affected the intercept (P=5.71e-05 and P=1.08e 05 respectively) of a model predicting Hitman values from TreeTap estimates of stiffness.

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  • Molecular phylogenetics of Antarctic Sea spiders (Pycnogonida)

    Nielsen, Johanna F??nss (2005)

    Undergraduate thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Whole document restricted, but available by request, use the feedback form to request access. Sea spiders, or pycnogonids, are a unique group of exclusively marine invertebrates that are found worldwide. A scarcity of pycnogonid research is reflected in the unclear position of this group with regards to the phylum Arthropoda and lack of certainty in their family-level phylogeny. Traditionally, the pycnogonid phylogeny has relied on the external morphological characters of temperate, shallow water species. The Antarctic sea spider fauna displays a high degree of endemism and a number of species have the potential to address several long-standing questions regarding the pycnogonid evolution. This research uses new sequence data from Antarctic species to provide the most complete molecular phylogenetic reconstructions of the Pycnogonida, and is the first study to formally test a number of alternative hypotheses on the interfamilial relationships of this group of organisms. The BioRoss 2004 pycnogonid collection was classified into 18 different OTUs (5 families & 10 genera) and used, in combination with publicly accessible sequences, to provide samples for this study. Partial regions of the nuclear 18S and 28S rDNA, mitochondrial 12S and 16S rDNA and protein coding COI loci were sequenced for each dataset, and the concatenated data tested for incongruence using the Partition of Homogeneity test. The distance based Neighbour Joining and character based Maximum Likelihood tree-building algorithms were used to reconstruct the pycnogonid phylogeny for each locus independently and as a concatenated dataset. A series of alternative evolutionary hypotheses based on previous studies were examined via the Shimodaira-Hasegawa test. The primary hypothesis examined was the cephalic appendage reductive trend, which implies that ancestral sea spider taxa possess the greatest complexity of anterior appendages. On all the individual locus trees the family Nymphonidae were the earliest diverged lineage of pycnogonids, although low resolution at the roots of the trees implies that the data are not strong enough to reject an alternative hypothesis of a basal Ammotheidae group. Pycnogonidae is not the most recently derived sea spider family and the cephalic appendage loss hypothesis is thus rejected. None of the phylogenies supported a close relationship between the Colossendeidae and Nymphonidae families and doubt is raised over the true identification of several GenBank sequences. Polymerous species do not form a combined, ancestral group but are instead more likely to represent recent divergences from three separate families. Strong evidence supports the placement of the transient Austropallene genus (Callipallenidae) at the base of the Nymphonidae family. This study, and ongoing work, has generated large amounts of new sequence data. This can be used in future pycnogonid phylogenetic research and/or in investigations on the highly contentious position of the Pycnogonida with regards to the phylum Arthropoda. A DNA Surveillance website has been created to assist in the molecular identification of pycnogonids from future benthic bio-discovery expeditions (http://www.dna-surveillance.auckland.ac.nz).

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  • The geology and eruptive history of the Table Mountain region, Coromandel Peninsula

    Hayward, Bruce W. (Bruce William) (1971)

    Undergraduate thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The Table Mountain region covers an area of 2,200 hectares, 17 kilometres north-east of Thames, and straddles the main Coromandel Peninsula Divide between the headwaters of the Kauaeranga and Waiwawa Rivers. It is a region of steeply dissected, bush clad slopes and rugged bluffs composed of andesite, rhyolite and sediments. These rocks belong to three Groups. The oldest group of rocks consists of andesite lavas, breccias and sediments that form the upper part of the Beesons Island Volcanics sequence and were erupted during the upper Miocene and lowermost Pliocene. Unconformably overlying these is the mid Pliocene Whitianga Group containing rhyolitic lavas and sediments. In the Table Mt. Region this Group has been divided into the Minden Rhyolites and two informal sedimentary formations. The Wainora Formation contains basal volcanic breccias and freshwater, carbonaceous, epiclastic sediments that were deposited in two lakes on the dissected surface of the older andesites. This formation contains impressions of fresh-water mussels and numerous leaves, as well as considerable amounts of silicified wood. Conformably overlying the Wainora Formation are the thicker and more extensive water and aerially deposited pyroclastic sediments and rarer ignimbrites of the Waiwawa Formation. Many of the water laid deposits are inferred to have been formed by hot pyroclastic flows entering a lake. Minden Rhyolite domes were produced, by endogenous and exogenous growth, towards the end of this phreatic eruptive period. Hydrothermal alteration is inferred to be closely associated with the four Minden Rhyolite domes of this region. During the upper Pliocene to lower Pleistocene, the Omahia Andesite Group was intruded. The narrow Waiwawa Intrusive came up along an old intrusive contact between a Minden Rhyolite dome and the Waiwawa Formation sediments. The large Table Mt. andesite mass is believed to have formed by a combination of upwelling of lava along a fissure and actual intrusion. Both the Waiwawa and Table Mt. Intrusives spilled small amounts of lava out over the surface as lava flows. In the two million years since the cessation of volcanic activity in this region, erosion has greatly altered the landscape and emphasized the harder rock masses.

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  • He aha te kai o te rangatira i te ao hurihuri? : what is the food of chiefs in a changing world?: leadership in Te Tau Ihu in the late twentieth century.

    Williams, Madi (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This research examines the nature of Māori leadership in Te Tau Ihu during the late twentieth century. A Te Tau Ihu focus has been chosen as I whakapapa to Ngāti Kuia, Ngāti Kōata, and Ngāti Apa ki te Rā Tō. The existing historiography on Māori leadership is focused on national scale leaders and fails to adequately take into account local factors. This dissertation analyses how leadership manifested in late twentieth-century Te Tau Ihu. The research was conducted using a combination of oral history and kaupapa Māori methodologies and thematic interviews were undertaken with three current Te Tau Ihu leaders. These interviews directed the research and highlighted the leadership roles and attributes that were necessary during this period. The key conclusion to emerge was that there are crucial differences within Māori leadership, depending on the iwi, region, and context. Within Te Tau Ihu leadership roles were primarily centred around a fight for cultural recognition and the initial steps of the Treaty Settlement process. They were filled by volunteers who had a range of attributes such as charisma, communication skills, bravery, manaakitanga, and humility. It was the combination of these roles and attributes that enabled Te Tau Ihu iwi to move forward so successfully into the twenty first century.

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  • ‘A clubbed skull or a good shipwreck, there is the death for a missionary… but to die a leper should be more precious still…’ : heroic missionary deaths of the 20th century at the Pacific Leprosy Asylum, Makogai Island, Fiji.

    Hawarden, Rosanne (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Through Bishop Julien Vidal of Suva, Fiji, the Missionary Sisters of the Society of Mary (SMSM) provided nursing services to leprosy sufferers in the Makogai Island leprosarium, Fiji from its inception in 1911. In a period when the cause of leprosy was known but an effective remedy was not available, Pacific leprosy patients who suffered stigmatisation and rejection by their communities, were forcibly segregated through formal legislation to remote island leprosaria. Religious and humanitarian organisations aligned leprosy control measures with their goals to evangelise and fundraise amongst the faithful. The Catholic Church became known for the care of leprosy patients with staff recognised for devoting their lives to a self-sacrificing religious martyrdom. Early histories presented a sanitised view of the arduous work involved in running a ‘total’ institution. Mythologised tales of lived events on Makogai Island were couched in religious terminology. The process of mythmaking by missionary organisations has received some attention, notably by Young and Luder, but has not focussed on missions to leprosy sufferers. Young considered the necessary conditions for missionary legends to develop while Luder analysed the mythmaking of Polynesian peoples and use of sacred imagery to cloak deeper knowledge reserved for elites. Examination of the records of Bishop Vidal exposes the layer of insider knowledge that was kept within official circles, including information on the high rates of illness amongst the nuns, whose hygiene regimes required the use of toxic chemicals. Very few missionaries died from leprosy, whereas drowning was a common fate. Two specific deaths on Makogai Island, the death of a priest in a shipwreck and a nursing sister from leprosy, were progressively mythologised. The violent death of a European priest was more likely to be mythologised than that of a ‘native’ nun who contracted leprosy. The rousing phrases of Bishop Vidal are more aspirational than actuality.

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  • A genocide denied : the ‘half-castes’ of Australia during the stolen generations of 1905-1970 as genocide.

    Duff, Amy Louise (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In the early 1990s the Wilson-Dodson enquiry was commissioned by the then Labour Government to investigate the issue of Aboriginal children being forcibly removed from their homes between 1900 and 1970. The children removed became known as the Stolen Generations. In 1997 the Wilson-Dodson enquiry published the findings in the Bringing Them Home Report which sparked intense public and academic debate around the issue of the forced removal of Aboriginal children, particularly whether it constituted genocide. In the wake of the report scholars investigated how the actions of the federal and state governments and their agencies relates to the 1949 United Nations definition of genocide. But this scholarship has not engaged specifically with the genocide of the ‘half-caste’ population. Apprehension around part-Aboriginal individuals arose in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century when many white Australians feared a growing ‘coloured’ population. This dissertation addresses this gap in the literature by exploring the removal of the ‘half-caste’ children in the states of Western Australia and New South Wales. Laws enacted by both state legislatures clearly reveals genocidal intent. The effects of the policy can be seen through victim’s testimonies, which show the long term consequences of being removed, and highlight other aspects of genocide. This research also aims to examine other aspects of genocide in relation to the part-Aboriginal population, including severe mental and physical harm, conditions of life that were calculated to bring about its destruction, and the imposition of measures intended to prevent births within the group. I argue that these actions can be considered as genocide in accordance to the United Nations definition these actions can be considered as genocide.

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  • 'The imperial character' : Alexius I Comnenus and the Byzantine ideal of emperorship.

    Rolston, Elisabeth Michelle (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The twelfth century saw what has been acknowledged by historians as a change in the nature of Byzantine emperorship with the reign of Alexius I Comnenus (1081-1118) and his succeeding dynasty. The rule of the Comneni has been associated with an emphasis on military achievement and a greater dynastic focus. While the practical changes to imperial rule under the Comneni have been well documented by historians, a focus on the character of the emperor and his depiction in historical writing has not yet received scholarly attention. The reign of Alexius was documented by two twelfth-century historians, Anna Comnena and John Zonaras. Their works offer two markedly different interpretations of Alexius's character and his suitability to occupy the imperial office. Anna Comnena's Alexiad draws on Biblical and Classical traditions to establish Alexius as the model of an ideal emperor. John Zonaras's Epitome Historiarum sets different standards for private men and for emperors. While Alexius's character is sufficiently virtuous for a private man, he falls short of the standard imposed for an emperor. This research shows that both writers create an ideal of emperorship in which the character of the emperor plays a vital role. The nature of this ideal, and the influences that inform it, are unique to each writer. Anna and John identify similar character traits in Alexius. Their point of difference, however, is whether they believe Alexius's character is suitable for the imperial office, and the extent to which he fulfils their ideal standard of emperorship.

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  • Locked out of the changing room? : a gendered history of surf lifesaving in Canterbury 1917-1990.

    Simatos, Elena Marie (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Since its beginning in the early twentieth century, surf lifesaving in New Zealand has been a predominantly male sport. This research essay examines the position of women in the Canterbury Surf Life Saving Association (CSLSA). It studies the Minutes and Annual Reports of the CSLSA in order to shed light on male attitudes toward female participation in the sport. The male attitude towards female surf lifesavers has generally been negative, although the degree of this negativity has varied across different surf clubs in New Zealand and Australia. The CSLSA was heavily focused on its public image, and this image was predominantly masculine. Women were often seen by men as lacking the physical capabilities required to participate in surf lifesaving. This research essay also addresses domestic roles within the surf clubs that allowed women to have some involvement in the clubs. It also discusses how factors such as the outbreak of World War Two allowed for women to become active surf lifesavers and begin to have a voice. There were some successful women within the CSLSA, yet only two women achieved significant recognition within the Association’s Minutes and Annual Reports. The main focus of this research essay is to determine male attitudes towards women within surf lifesaving in Canterbury.

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  • Women, migration, and madness : a case study of Seaview Lunatic Asylum, 1872-1915.

    Julian, Renée (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This dissertation examines the interconnections between migration, madness, and femininity through a case study of the women committed to Seaview Lunatic Asylum on New Zealand’s West Coast from 1872 to 1916. Psychiatric histories that include discussions of the effects that migrating to the goldfields can have on migrant’s mental health have been a recent development, although a number of these studies tend to focus on men. Moreover, while there have been studies of the connections between migration and insanity on nineteenth-century goldfields in Otago and Victoria, this has never been attempted for the West Coast. In order to bridge this gap, I examine women’s migration and mobility patterns during the West Coast rushes in addition to demographics within the asylum and the West Coast population to locate the Seaview women with the framework of broader cultural and societal trends. I then consider the ways which ‘social stressors’ and dominant attitudes towards femininity and ethnicity on the goldfields are reflected in women’s experiences of madness. The Seaview women were highly mobile, both nationally and internationally, and were part of strong Trans-Tasman migration patterns. Like many other nineteenth-century asylums, diagnoses of insanity became highly gendered because of the influence of colonial views of femininity, making perceptions and experiences of women’s madness different from men’s. Asylum records also mirror the blurred ethnic boundaries that characterised the West Coast in this period, and ‘social stressors’ such as the harsh environmental conditions on the goldfields, domestic concerns and working conditions greatly influenced the deterioration of women’s mental health and committal to Seaview.

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  • Reformation and romance : Scottish national. identity in a nineteenth century British age of reform, through the Edinburgh political press.

    Anderson, Jonathan (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In the nineteenth century, Scottish national identity among the political elite of Scotland was a contested field. Rather than there being a single conception of ‘Scottishness’ among this elite, the Whigs contributors of the Edinburgh Review and the Tory contributors of Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine each embodied a distinctive Whig and Tory Scottish identity: a Whig identity based on Scotland’s future progress within the United Kingdom and dismissive of Scotland’s ‘backward’ pre-Union heritage; and a Tory identity that romanticised and celebrated Scottish history, while casting itself as the ‘defender’ of Scottish nationhood within the United Kingdom. This study explores these different Scottish identities. It considers both how they responded to, and how they were changed by the British age of reform. Three reforms in particular – the Test and Corporation Acts repeal of 1828, Catholic Emancipation in 1829, and the Great Reform Act of 1832 – form the focus. Using magazine articles authored by prominent Scottish Whigs and Tories of the day, the research shows how these identities shifted. Scottish Whigs ardently supported all three reforms, seeing it as representing Scotland’s ‘British progress’ and ‘enlightenment’. But their arguments also employed language of Scottish exceptionalism and patriotism that they claimed to oppose. Scottish Tories, zealously opposed to reform, expressed opposition using Scottish patriotic language, particularly by portraying reforms as representing a threat to Scotland’s ancient nationhood. This dissertation argues that by the end of this reforming era, the victorious Scottish Whig identity had adopted the patriotic arguments of the Scottish Tories, who ultimately faded. It provides valuable insight into how Scotland’s governing elite viewed Scottish identity and nationhood, particularly within a wider British context, and how these identities shifted as part of the transformative effects of reform on Scotland and Britain.

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  • Gendered nationalism, egalitarian revolution : women in the political discourses of Gandhi and Ambedkar.

    Wills, Frank Kerry (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This dissertation examines how women were positioned in the political discourses of B. R. Ambedkar and M. K. Gandhi through an analysis of their speeches, articles, and correspondence. Comparisons between these two men have focused on their conflicting views of the Indian caste system. However, both Gandhi and Ambedkar commented extensively on the place of women in Indian society. A comparison of their respective views reveals a shared goal of realising social, political, and legal equality for women. However, they articulated different means of achieving that goal. This dissertation argues that differences between Gandhi’s and Ambedkar’s respective discourses on women emerged from their divergent political ideologies. Chapter one shows that Gandhi’s discourse on women was a complex and fluctuating product of competing influences, including his role as leader of the Indian nationalist movement, the impact of contemporary events, and his tendency toward conservatism. This suggests that his discourse on women was subject to many of the same concerns as his general politics. Chapter two shows that Ambedkar’s discourse on women was heavily influenced by his emancipatory, modernising, egalitarian, and social interventionist political ideology. The interface between caste and gender in Ambedkar’s writing is also examined. It is argued that he identified correlations between caste and gender-based discriminations. Overall, despite the appearance of similarities between Gandhi’s and Ambedkar’s respective discourses on women, their respective discourses on women evinced separate influences and ideologies.

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  • Propaganda in prose : a comparative analysis of language in British Blue Book reports on atrocities and genocide in early twentieth-century Britain.

    Gilmour, Thomas (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper examines three British Blue Book reports published in early twentieth-century Britain during the war period. The first report examines the invasion of Belgium by the German army and their maltreatment of Belgian people. The second report discusses the Committee of Union and Progress’ acts of cruelty against Armenian Christians. Both of these reports were authored, compiled and then distributed by the British Government in Britain and other Western countries. The third report discusses German colonial rule in South-West Africa and their abuse of ‘native’ Herero. This report was compiled and authored in South- West Africa, but published for a British audience. This dissertation engages in a comparative analysis of these three Blue Book reports. It examines how they are structurally different, but thematically and qualitatively similar. Investigation begins with discussion of the reports’ authors and how they validate claims made in the respective prefaces. Subsequently, there is examination of thematic similarities between each report’s historical narratives. Historiography is employed extensively to contextualise these reports and engage in wider debates on their objectives. This dissertation engages with three major strands of historiography: The British Government’s employment of propaganda during the First World War British Blue Books reports; and wartime propaganda. The South-West African report has a lack historiography. This paper seeks to fill a gap, while also adding to modern scholarship on British Blue Books. This dissertation demonstrates that wartime British Blue Books were not unique, as they deliberately illustrate similar thematic tropes and rhetorical devices throughout both their prefaces and historical narratives.

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  • Soviets on ice : the reception of Soviet ice hockey propaganda in Canada, 1954-1981.

    Pickworth, Katherine Alice (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This research paper examines how Soviet ice hockey was received by the Canadian media from 1954 to 1981. Canadian newspapers and game commentary have been utilised in this research paper to gage reaction to the Soviet success in ice hockey, and how the media viewed the Soviet National team. Soviet ice hockey challenged the Canadian public’s core belief that they were the best at their national game. In the Cold War climate this feud between the two sporting rivals would enable the Soviets to capture the attention of the Canadian public on a level which was not emulated through another form of propaganda. As de-Stalinisation was occurring in the Soviet Union, ice hockey would emulate Nikita Khrushchev’s policy of aggressive ‘peaceful coexistence’ by beating a Western nation at its own game. This paper is the first to extensively analyse the Canadian newspapers The Globe and Mail and The Toronto Star. Unlike most historiography in this field, this dissertation combines the amateur years of the Soviet-Canadian rivalry (1954-1969), with the games against professional NHL players in the Summit Series (1972-1981). From 1954 until 1970 ice hockey was seen as a clash of capitalist and socialist systems, however, the 1972 series personalised Soviet players to the Canadian media and public. Soviet ice hockey was a successful propaganda tool into Canada through applying a personal face to the Cold War foreign power.

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  • Roll call : the motivations behind the inclusion of women on the Canterbury roll

    Parker, Thandiwe Rose (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Gender has been largely overlooked in the study of political ideas and their representation on genealogical chronicle rolls. One such roll, the Canterbury Roll, is housed at the University of Canterbury. Dating from the fifteenth-century, the five-metre long parchment features a genealogy of the kings of England, and was constructed to support the claims to the throne made by contemporary kings. It traces the lineage of the contemporary ruler Edward IV, through mythical kings such as Arthur, to the biblical figure of Noah. Over the approximately fifty years during which it was written, the Roll was subject to editing, as various political events influenced its content. This dissertation examines the women who feature on the Canterbury Roll, in both its original and edited form, in order to understand the place of women in the contemporary political context. It compares the written text of the roll with the chronicle histories on which its compilers drew, in order to determine the motivations behind the women’s inclusion. Four scribal hands are identified in this dissertation, and three of those hands are used as historical tools to uncover the motivations behind the inclusion of women. Each scribal hand reveals a different political motivation, and women were included on the Roll to shape the contemporary audience’s political perceptions. This dissertation reveals that women who conformed to a contemporary feminine ideal were celebrated while those who did not conform were portrayed negatively.

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  • An attack on womanhood : the sterilisation of women in Nazi Germany.

    Farrow, Amelia (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This dissertation examines the practice of eugenic sterilisation of women in Nazi Germany, specifically how it impacted the lives of the women who were forced to undergo it. It aims to provide insight into an area that has not been explored much in current historiography. The paper looks at the origins of sterilisation within Germany, the experience of the women in Germany and the concentration camps, as well as the post war treatment of sterilised women. This dissertation explores a variety of sources, from the testimony of women and doctors, to Nazi sterilisation propaganda and the sterilisation laws themselves. It shows that sterilisation was not a new concept to Germany or other western countries, though the way in which it was carried out under the Nazis was unique to their racial and political ideals. The women who were forcibly sterilised suffered from both physical and psychological side effects, exacerbated by the perceptions of sterilisation at the time. Even after the war, the prevalence of sterilisation in other countries meant that little acknowledgement was given to those who had endured it within Nazi Germany. Although this changed with time, as more non-Jewish victims were given reparations in the 1980s and later, this dissertation shows that it did not erase the suffering that had already occurred.

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  • Genocide on Fleet Street : the Armenian genocide in the British press, 1915-1918.

    Steel, Daniel (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper examines British attitudes towards the Armenian genocide through the three most prominent contemporary newspapers: the Times, the Manchester Guardian and the Daily Mail. In particular, it considers the nature and extent of these papers’ interest in the events and, as far as can be discerned, that of their readers. Despite substantial scholarly interest in atrocity narratives in First World War Britain, British reception of the Armenian genocide, by far the war’s worst atrocity, has attracted little attention. Historians in this area, who concern themselves overwhelmingly with atrocities committed by the German military, have given the subject only passing mention. Conversely, recent inquiries by scholars of humanitarianism have focused almost exclusively on reception amongst Britain’s pro-Armenian humanitarian advocates, giving only supplementary consideration to the press. This paper adopts a comparative approach, contrasting the presentation of the genocide in the ‘elite press’ (the Times and the Guardian) with that of the most prominent and widely-circulated ‘popular’ newspaper, the Mail, in order to consider differing attitudes amongst upper- and middle-class observers respectively. While the elite press provided significant coverage of the events, demonstrating a humanitarian concern for the Armenian victims, the Mail gave the genocide only passing attention, despite its potential propaganda value and having access to a substantial volume of graphic eye-witness accounts. Two conclusions are drawn from this disparity. First, it is suggested that the Mail’s inattention resulted from a lack of interest by their readers, indicating that the Armenian cause was a predominantly elite phenomenon. Second, it is argued that the Mail exercised a deliberate editorial decision not to reproduce much of the details published by the elite press, demonstrating that the Mail’s long-standing scholarly reputation as a government propaganda outlet ‘duping’ the public into the war through graphic atrocity stories is unfounded.

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  • Friends to China : the role and impact of the Friends’ Ambulance Unit during the Chinese ‘War of Resistance’ (1937-1945).

    Williams, Eve (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Friends’ Ambulance Unit, associated with the Society of Friends, was a group that provided an alternative option to military service for conscientious objectors during both World War I and II.1 They provided transportation and medical aid to those affected by the war, concentrating mainly on the European mainland. In 1941 however, they sent a section to China to help aid and relieve the suffering caused by the ‘War of Resistance’. China had been engaged in a bitter conflict with Japan since 1937 causing great suffering for the peoples of China. The China section of the FAU drew people from all over the world, including New Zealand. Members of the Society of Friends, Christchurch brothers Neil and John Johnson responded to a call for assistance and in 1945 they arrived in China. Their letters and other written material found in the Johnson archive located in the Macmillan Brown Library, University of Canterbury, provide an invaluable source to illustrate the important role the FAU played in China during this time. It also demonstrated that because of the scale of the war, however, the FAU’s impact was more localized than general. Very little scholarly work has been done on the contribution made by New Zealand to the China section of the Friends’ Ambulance Unit during WWII. Only one book relates to this area; Caitriona Cameron’s Go Anywhere do Anything: New Zealanders and the Friends Ambulance Unit 1945-51.2 This essay aims to highlight this relatively unknown story. It also adds to the fields of a social history of China, scholarship that examines aid and relief work and New Zealand conscientious objector literature.

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  • Evaluating the supplementary road safety package: Models that count

    Irvine, Stephen (2004-10)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    In an attempt to lower the level of road trauma in New Zealand, the Land Transport Safety Authority introduced the Supplementary Road Safety Package (SRSP) in October 1995. The package consists of targeted speed and alcohol enforcement, and features graphic television advertising highlighting the consequences of unsafe driving. Over the first four years the campaign was allocated a budget of NZ$50.06 million and charged with reducing 80 fatalities, 450 serious injuries and 1600 minor injuries. Although a requirement of the package's approval was that it be thoroughly evaluated, no consistent conclusion has been drawn. Recognising the discrete and strictly positive nature of road trauma measures, this dissertation adds to the body of literature by adopting statistical modelling techniques specifically designed for the analysis of such count variables: The Poisson and Negative Binomial regression models. While the Poisson model finds a significant level effect on the number of serious injuries from the SRSP's introduction, no statistically significant effect is found using the more appropriate Negative Binomial model.

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  • 'A Light Sniff Might Mean Death’ : Soldiers’ Responses to Poisonous Gas Throughout the First World War

    Annesley, Ellis Jayne (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This research paper examines soldiers’ responses to poisonous gas throughout the First World War. Accounts from British and Dominion, American and German soldiers who fought along the Western Front have been collected to analyse the psychological impact gas had upon a variety of men throughout the conflict. Contemporary letters and diaries as well as post-war oral testimonies and memoirs form the basis of the evidence used. The topic encompasses three strands of historical scholarship and engages with each to explore more thoroughly the responses obtained. Emphasis is placed on the psychological impact of gas upon the individuals assessed. Ultimately, this dissertation demonstrates that upon its introduction, poison gas was capable of instilling fear into men whether previously exposed to its consequences or not. However, this psychological power was to significantly diminish following the production and distribution of anti-gas protective measures in late 1916. Despite decreasing anxiety, gas retained its title as a ‘terror weapon’ from effectively inspiring fear into men who were unprotected, ill-prepared, and subsequently vulnerable, in the face of the poison.

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