400 results for Undergraduate

  • A History of the Seabrook McKenzie Centre Christchurch 1973-2013

    Hughey-Cockerell, Ngaio (2013)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The history of the Seabrook McKenzie Centre is closely connected with a thirty-year campaign by parents and professionals for official recognition of specific learning disability as a category and for a remedial service to address the needs of children affected to be provided within mainstream schooling in New Zealand. This paper focuses on the contribution of the two professional women, Dr Jean Seabrook and Mary Cameron-Lewis who stand out, along with the patron and benefactor Sir Roy McKenzie as making a substantial contribution to the development of the Centre. Inadequate recognition by the Department of Education of children with specific learning disabilities led to the need for a separate, private, facility. This essay discusses the significance this played in contributing to the opening of the initial Centre, the subsequent expansion of the Seabrook McKenzie Centre, and the eventual opening of a school. It argues that the lack of official recognition and provision of support for these children's learning needs played a major role in the history of the Centre's establishment and continues to be a factor in its operation today.

    View record details
  • Past within the Plot: Two Narrative Historians and their Discontents

    Vesty, Julian (2013)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This dissertation examines the coexistence of 'narrative', popular history, which aims to tell a story to edify and entertain, with 'structural' history, which gained precedence in the university from the nineteenth century onward. Using the case studies of Simon Schama and Niall Ferguson, popular historians who transitioned from early 'structural' works to 'narrative' books and finally documentary, the precise nature of narrative is examined through the theory of literary historical tropes developed by Hayden White, where a political perspective engages an 'emplotment' where a form of narrative develops. After examining how tropes apply to the life experience, ideology and resulting emplotment of Schama and Ferguson, it looks at the academic criticisms of their narratives, in text and television documentary - namely, that the organisation of data into a compelling story negates accuracy and objectivity in the name of entertainment. Subsequently, the similarity of Schama and Ferguson's narrative style is compared to pre-academic historical writings from before Leopold von Ranke. The final argument is that the popular history espoused by Schama and Ferguson is a re-emergence of the older, pre-academic style, based on narrative, which predates the structural history which displaced it. This dissertation concludes by examining how the two historiographies might coexist, arguing that the new narrative can offer excitement and purpose to the structural historian, giving relevance to the rigorous work of structural history.

    View record details
  • A Most Excellent Thing: The introduction of brown trout (Salmo trutta) to Canterbury, New Zealand 1864-1872

    Kos, Jack (2013)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This essay examines the process undergone in the Canterbury province in the late 1860s and early 1870s to import Salmo trutta (brown trout) ova from Tasmania, to hatch them out and to distribute them throughout the waterways of the province. This essay seeks to answer two questions. First, how were trout introduced? Second, why was their introduction of such significance to colonists at the time? To answer these questions this essay draws upon a comprehensive range of primary sources including Society records and newspapers. The successful importation of trout represented one of the key early achievements of the fledgling Canterbury Acclimatisation Society at a time when several other attempted introductions were failing. The process undertaken to import the ova, rear hatchlings and distribute the �young trout� tested the scientific knowledge of the 1860s and 1870s. It necessitated significant interaction with international acclimatisation groups primarily in Australia but also further afield. This essay also attempts to convey the significance of the importation to Canterbury. Such was the public interest that the coverage of trout in print media extended to the hatching of individual ova or the sighting of escaped trout. Trout were afforded a romanticised status in colonial New Zealand society, largely as a result of their construction as a quintessentially British object. Their importation was motivated by several factors, namely the re-creation of a British ecology in New Zealand, the recreational opportunities they afforded and the food source they provided.

    View record details
  • Re-excavating Wairau: A study of New Zealand repatriation and the excavation of Wairau Bar.

    Hickland, Shaun (2013)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Repatriation is an increasingly significant issue in the museum world. It is concerned with the return of cultural artefacts that have been previously traded or sold into foreign countries or institutions, either at the behest of the indigenous people or the initiative of the institution holding them. This dissertation explores the role of repatriation in modern New Zealand museums and its role in furthering the often contentious relationship between Maori and museum staff. It has a specific focus on the excavation and repatriation of human remains at Wairau Bar in Marlborough. It critiques an unpublished history of the Bar written by independent historian David Armstrong, which was commissioned by Rangitane in 2009. My overall argument disputes Armstrong's portrayal of Roger Duff, ethnologist at the Canterbury Museum, as the leader of a surreptitious excavation who was consistently underhand and secretive in his dealings with Rangitane. I counter Armstrong's claims to demonstrate that Duff valued an open and transparent relationship with Rangitane and respected their cultural attitudes to ancestral remains. I conclude that these remain core values in both modern repatriation policies and museum relations with Maori. My contextual discussion draws largely on secondary scholarship and journal articles while my conclusions about Wairau Bar are largely based on primary archives and Armstrong's report.

    View record details
  • Andrew Miller and his Eagles - American Citizens, British Subjects and Rights in the ImpressmentControversy

    Rennie, Connor (2013)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In 1812 impressment was left as the implied cause for the outbreak of war between Britain and the United States of America. Scholars have focused on how impressment was involved in diplomacy. There remains, however, a lack of investigation into the justification of impressment. This dissertation explores the impressment of Americans by the Royal Navy and the resulting fallout. The research will focus on one group in particular: naturalised American citizens. The aim is to show that the conflict over impressment stemmed from Britain and America possessing different conceptualisations of citizenship and rights. The dissertation examines the history of impressment in Britain and the doctrine of indefeasible allegiance together with American arguments against the doctrine. This research is based on the correspondence of politicians, treatises, laws and secondary scholarship. Using these sources a narrative of diplomacy and rights will be constructed. Upon the examination of the evidence it becomes clear that American claims about the unjustness of the impressment of naturalised American citizens are wrong. While there was a dispute if naturalisation could occur, the fact is that the American government loudly disputed the British right to reclaim a large number of naturalised sailors when by the laws of America these sailors were not naturalised.

    View record details
  • You Wouldn't Know There Was a War On. A Cultural History of New Zealanders Serving in Bomber Command during the Second World War.

    Kimberley, Aidan (2013)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The intention of this project is to reconstruct the culture of New Zealanders serving in Bomber Command of the RAF during the Second World War. Similar work has emerged on the culture of British airmen but cultural histories looking specifically at New Zealand airmen are yet to emerge. In conducting a cultural history of this subject, this paper looks more closely at the airmens' behaviour, routines and emotions. To achieve this, it will focus on three main aspects of the New Zealanders' culture: rivalries, leisure and attitudes. Rivalries were commonplace and include sporting contests, which were encouraged as a morale boosting tool, tensions between members of aircrews, and also a bitter rivalry between Englishmen and New Zealanders which was caused by unpopular decision making by a handful of English commanders. Forms of leisure were particularly varied. Tourism was an activity New Zealanders commonly indulged in, as was visiting friends and extended family on leave, and frequenting the local concerts and stage shows. However it became clear that they had not quite grown out of their rebellious teenage selves as unsanctioned activities such as joy riding and pranks emerged. In the final chapter it is shown that the cheerful demeanour the men tried to present was the result of self-censorship to protect their families, and that once they began experiencing horrifying situations this demeanour became much harder to maintain.

    View record details
  • ‘He’ll do the right thing’: A discussion of Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan’s relationship with the Evangelical community

    Hart-Smith, Alexander (2013)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Historiographical scholarship of previous presidents is never short in supply. James Earl Carter and Ronald Wilson Reagan are no exception to this assertion and have been extensively studied by historians. Similarly, the role of religion in politics in the United States is rarely neglected by historians. The role of the Religious Right in politics and the explanation for its emergence has also been well documented by academics. There is however a surprising lack of investigation into the specific issue of how Regan, the arguably less religious man, became more commonly identified with the Religious Right than Carter. Using both a mixture of primary and secondary sources this paper attempts to answer the question of why Carter's electoral success with Evangelicals was so short-lived. Utilizing remarks from the Presidents, their former advisors, debates and prominent Evangelical leaders this dissertation seeks to offer a new insight into why the support for Jimmy Carter was so ephemeral. This dissertation will offer a rather simple resolution to the complex question of why Evangelicals shifted their support to Reagan. The Religious Right were not just interested in the election of a pious President but wanted to transform the governance of a nation after two decades of growing secularism. Ultimately it appears that Carter's decision to campaign on little more than his moral image propelled him into the White House as this title of this thesis suggests because voters and most specifically Evangelicals believed,

    View record details
  • Swaggers and society : a New Zealand experience

    Steven, Graeme D. (1979)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    The aims of this study are two-fold. First, to reach an understanding of the swagger, his lifestyle, and his outlook on life. And second, to investigate the relationships between the swagger and various groups in New Zealand society, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The North Otago region was chosen as a base for the study because it has traditionally been regarded as one of the main swagger areas in New Zealand. The main town of Oamaru had a population of 4000 to 6000 in the 1890's, and was neither wholly urban or rural. As the service centre for the North Otago hinterland and a road, rail and sea centre, Oamaru had large numbers of itinerants, passing through the town. In the rural hinterland mixed cropping predominated, and this required large numbers of seasonal workers, which were drawn from outside the region. In Chapter One it is argued that rural itinerant workers were integrated into a rural structure that was both labour intensive and seasonal. Chapter Two discusses the characteristics which separate the swagger from other rural itinerants, which I have called, the "swag-carriers". In Chapter Three the conflict between the swagger and a developing bureaucracy, and middle class ideology in the late nineteenth century, is analysed. In Chapters Four and Five, the attitudes of rural and towns people towards the swagger are investigated. A model based on the value system of "reputation" and "respectability is used in Chapter Six to explain the ambivalence of attitudes towards the swagger, and to investigate an important aspect of the swagger psychology - his self esteem and his individuality.

    View record details
  • Understanding demand for wood products in New Zealand’s major log markets.

    Drummond, Ryan C.M. (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    New Zealand’s forestry sector is largely reliant on the presence of a strong export market with 57% of the volume harvested being exported of which 99% goes to Japan, the Republic of Korea, China and India. This identifies the need to analyse demand in these countries to better understand their needs in the future. Consumption of wood products per capita is a commonly used metric for estimating demand and was used in this research. Volumes of imports, exports and production were collected from the Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) and data for a range of explanatory variables was collected from a variety of official sources. Historical trends in consumption identified that as countries develop socially and economically their consumption shifts from largely solid wood products such as sawn timber to more processed products such as wood-based panels and paper and paperboard. Consumption was modelled using linear regression techniques to develop models which could be used to forecast consumption in the future. A wide variety of potential explanatory variables were considered and the models presented represent the most effective of these. GDP per capita was found to be the single most effective explanatory variable being highly significant (p<0.01) in all models. Price was also found to be a strong determinant of consumption, understandable as price is a major component of supply and demand dynamics. Measures of construction activity were found to be related to consumption of sawn timber in all studied countries and for wood-based panels in Japan. Forecasts produced for consumption in Japan should be used as only an example of the capability of the models presented herein. More work is required to develop these equations into a form where they can be used to more accurately estimate future consumption.

    View record details
  • Factors which influence corewood stiffness in radiata pine.

    Jones, Grace (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Increasing stocking and competition with weeds significantly increased Hitman estimates of stiffness at the significance level α=0.05. Accuracy of models predicting Hitman from TreeTap measurements can be improved by customizing them for particular silvicultural regimes and diameter at 1.4m (DBH). Controlled factors: genetics, wind sway and fertilizer use, did not significantly influence Hitman estimates of stiffness. Tree height did not significantly influence stiffness estimates, but including DBH in prediction models improved models of stiffness estimates. Stiffness in 10 year old Pinus radiata stems was studied in an experiment with the following factors: genetics, herbicide/fertilizer use, stocking and wind sway. Acoustic velocity was used as an estimate of modulus of elasticity (MOE) and was estimated using 2 different tools: Hitman, a resonance based tool used on 2m log sections, and TreeTap, a time-of-flight based tool used on 1.2m outer-wood sections of standing trees. DBH and tree height were also recorded for each tree. Green density was measured using submersion in order to use the formula: MOE = green density∗ acoustic velocity² Stiffness estimates from TreeTap were strongly correlated with Hitman estimates, but were about 30% higher on average. The relationship between stiffness estimates from these tools changed with weed competition and with stocking. No significant difference in stiffness was found between the northwest and the southeast sides of the stems when using the TreeTap tool, and an average value for each tree was used for subsequent analyses. These findings are similar to those from other studies carried out on different sites, and to a previous destructive sample at the same site. There were a few major outliers, but despite these the final model relating TreeTap and Hitman estimates was significant (P<0.0001). Weed competition and stocking significantly affected the intercept (P=5.71e-05 and P=1.08e 05 respectively) of a model predicting Hitman values from TreeTap estimates of stiffness.

    View record details
  • Falcon Forestry Carriage Series 2 : a case study of productivity and operation.

    Bolitho, Callum (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The multiple drivers of workplace safety and increasing productivity are resulting in increased mechanisation within the forestry industry. The use of motorised grapples in cable harvesting is an applicable mechanisation method to the large proportion of steep terrain harvesting in New Zealand. In this dissertation a time study of the Falcon Forestry Carriage Series 2 has been undertaken in order to access its productivity and operation. Mean values of productivity were found to be 54.9m³/PMH for wood extracted from the ground, 64.6m³/PMH for bunched wood and 75.6m³/PMH for excavator fed wood after adjustment for the cycle distance and accumulation type. Longer cycles were found to decrease productivity by 0.15m³/PMH for each meter of cycle distance. Utilisation in the study was found to be 56% of total time which was similar to previous studies. 15% of total study time was accounted for by operational delays, 7% by personal delays and 23% by mechanical delays. Mechanical problems with the carriage occurred 6 times and accounted for 171 minutes or 13.4% of total delay time. Mechanical delay breakdown was similar to that found by McFadzean (2012) who recorded that 15% of total delay time was attributable to carriage mechanical delays. During a study of Operator effect it was found that the inexperienced Operator 3 and Operator 4 had a productivity of 52.2% (not statistically significantly different) and 18.5% (p value <0.05). The effects of accumulation method and cycle distance upon productivity were found to be similar to the results of previous studies, as was the utilisation of time within the study.

    View record details
  • Men’s experience of virtual simulation to aid patient education for radiation treatment to the prostate

    Flockton, Alannah - Jayne (2017)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Prostate cancer affects more than 3000 New Zealand men each year. Many of these men receive a complex type of radiation treatment which requires patients to have a full bladder and empty rectum to aid in the accuracy of treatment delivery and minimise side effects. These concepts can be difficult to explain and current patient education involves verbal and written materials. A 3D immersive teaching tool Virtual Environment Radiotherapy Training system (VERT) can visually simulate and demonstrate how radiation treatment is delivered to the prostate. There is sufficient evidence to support VERT as a useful teaching tool in the academic environment however; using VERT for one-on-one patient education is a novel approach. This qualitative, pilot study set out to explore men’s experience of VERT when it was incorporated into education sessions for prostate radiation treatment. More specifically, how VERT shaped the men’s understanding of how radiation treatment is delivered; why a full bladder and empty rectum is required; and their initial treatment experience. Data collection involved semi-structured interviews one week after the participants had experienced the VERT education and received their first week of radiation treatment. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was used to offer insight into the men’s experience of the VERT education session. The findings strongly suggest VERT education enhances patient understanding of radiation treatment through visual learning. There is a preference to have the VERT education delivered sometime near the first treatment appointment and VERT has the potential to support men through engagement, information sharing and encouraging peer support. There is a role for visual tools such as VERT to be included as part of patient education sessions for radiation treatment to the prostate.

    View record details
  • An attack on womanhood : the sterilisation of women in Nazi Germany.

    Farrow, Amelia (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This dissertation examines the practice of eugenic sterilisation of women in Nazi Germany, specifically how it impacted the lives of the women who were forced to undergo it. It aims to provide insight into an area that has not been explored much in current historiography. The paper looks at the origins of sterilisation within Germany, the experience of the women in Germany and the concentration camps, as well as the post war treatment of sterilised women. This dissertation explores a variety of sources, from the testimony of women and doctors, to Nazi sterilisation propaganda and the sterilisation laws themselves. It shows that sterilisation was not a new concept to Germany or other western countries, though the way in which it was carried out under the Nazis was unique to their racial and political ideals. The women who were forcibly sterilised suffered from both physical and psychological side effects, exacerbated by the perceptions of sterilisation at the time. Even after the war, the prevalence of sterilisation in other countries meant that little acknowledgement was given to those who had endured it within Nazi Germany. Although this changed with time, as more non-Jewish victims were given reparations in the 1980s and later, this dissertation shows that it did not erase the suffering that had already occurred.

    View record details
  • A genocide denied : the ‘half-castes’ of Australia during the stolen generations of 1905-1970 as genocide.

    Duff, Amy Louise (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In the early 1990s the Wilson-Dodson enquiry was commissioned by the then Labour Government to investigate the issue of Aboriginal children being forcibly removed from their homes between 1900 and 1970. The children removed became known as the Stolen Generations. In 1997 the Wilson-Dodson enquiry published the findings in the Bringing Them Home Report which sparked intense public and academic debate around the issue of the forced removal of Aboriginal children, particularly whether it constituted genocide. In the wake of the report scholars investigated how the actions of the federal and state governments and their agencies relates to the 1949 United Nations definition of genocide. But this scholarship has not engaged specifically with the genocide of the ‘half-caste’ population. Apprehension around part-Aboriginal individuals arose in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century when many white Australians feared a growing ‘coloured’ population. This dissertation addresses this gap in the literature by exploring the removal of the ‘half-caste’ children in the states of Western Australia and New South Wales. Laws enacted by both state legislatures clearly reveals genocidal intent. The effects of the policy can be seen through victim’s testimonies, which show the long term consequences of being removed, and highlight other aspects of genocide. This research also aims to examine other aspects of genocide in relation to the part-Aboriginal population, including severe mental and physical harm, conditions of life that were calculated to bring about its destruction, and the imposition of measures intended to prevent births within the group. I argue that these actions can be considered as genocide in accordance to the United Nations definition these actions can be considered as genocide.

    View record details
  • Reforming New Zealand's Legislative Council: a study of constitutional change, 1891 and 1912-1920

    Roberts, Marcus (2008)

    Undergraduate thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Comparison of ground invertebrate assemblages across two types of natve forest fragment edge.

    Seldon, David (2002-06)

    Undergraduate thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Evaluating the Seeding Genetic Algorithm

    Meadows, Benjamin (2012)

    Undergraduate thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This work is largely motivated by the PhD thesis of Cameron Skinner [Skinner, 2009], which features a rigorous mathematical and empirical approach to understanding the underlying mechanism behind the functioning of the genetic algorithm. The results are a new understanding of the algorithm in terms of the notions of discovery, selection and combination. Skinner uses these notions to create a modification to the genetic algorithm: the “seeding” genetic algorithm. We recognise this innovation as an important contribution to the field of evolutionary algorithms, and our focus in this dissertation will be to test its successes, failures, and the scope of its applicability.

    View record details
  • Another Look at the Faunal Remains of CA-SCR-9

    Nims, Reno (2011-06)

    Undergraduate thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    CA-SCR-9 is an important early Middle Period (3100-2800 cal BP) site from the California central coast region that has been used to characterize residential base camps from that time. Previous studies have attempted to analyze the fauna using incomplete and non-representative samples, creating multiple, contradictory conclusions about the foodways of Middle Period peoples. The goal of this study was to synthesize and analyze all identified material to answer questions about the seasonal use of SCR-9, differences between two possible phases of occupation, and the adaptive strategies of Middle Period peoples on the California central coast. Using a representative sample of the fauna, this paper finds that SCR-9‟s inhabitants primarily preyed upon mule deer. However, diverse species of marine mammals, leporids, terrestrial carnivores, birds, and marine fishes were also deposited at SCR-9, and inland site. The faunal remains from SCR-9 alone are not enough to identify relationships between sites, but these marine materials suggest that SCR-9 may have functioned as a seasonal or year round habitation site from which Middle Period peoples traveled to coastal sites such as SMA-218, which is nearly contemporaneous with SCR-9. Other writers have argued that two separate phases are represented ad SCR-9, including the Sand Hill Bluff Phase and the later Año Nuevo Phase. The fauna from these two phases is extraordinarily homogenous, suggesting there were no changes in adaptive strategy, or that rodent activity has mixed the materials, making it impossible to compare fauna from the Sand Hill Bluff and Año Nuevo phases. Fortunately, the assemblage does shed light on differential handling of taxa, and raises questions about the nature of bone grease extraction practices.

    View record details
  • Molecular phylogenetics of Antarctic Sea spiders (Pycnogonida)

    Nielsen, Johanna Fønss (2005)

    Undergraduate thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Whole document restricted, but available by request, use the feedback form to request access. Sea spiders, or pycnogonids, are a unique group of exclusively marine invertebrates that are found worldwide. A scarcity of pycnogonid research is reflected in the unclear position of this group with regards to the phylum Arthropoda and lack of certainty in their family-level phylogeny. Traditionally, the pycnogonid phylogeny has relied on the external morphological characters of temperate, shallow water species. The Antarctic sea spider fauna displays a high degree of endemism and a number of species have the potential to address several long-standing questions regarding the pycnogonid evolution. This research uses new sequence data from Antarctic species to provide the most complete molecular phylogenetic reconstructions of the Pycnogonida, and is the first study to formally test a number of alternative hypotheses on the interfamilial relationships of this group of organisms. The BioRoss 2004 pycnogonid collection was classified into 18 different OTUs (5 families & 10 genera) and used, in combination with publicly accessible sequences, to provide samples for this study. Partial regions of the nuclear 18S and 28S rDNA, mitochondrial 12S and 16S rDNA and protein coding COI loci were sequenced for each dataset, and the concatenated data tested for incongruence using the Partition of Homogeneity test. The distance based Neighbour Joining and character based Maximum Likelihood tree-building algorithms were used to reconstruct the pycnogonid phylogeny for each locus independently and as a concatenated dataset. A series of alternative evolutionary hypotheses based on previous studies were examined via the Shimodaira-Hasegawa test. The primary hypothesis examined was the cephalic appendage reductive trend, which implies that ancestral sea spider taxa possess the greatest complexity of anterior appendages. On all the individual locus trees the family Nymphonidae were the earliest diverged lineage of pycnogonids, although low resolution at the roots of the trees implies that the data are not strong enough to reject an alternative hypothesis of a basal Ammotheidae group. Pycnogonidae is not the most recently derived sea spider family and the cephalic appendage loss hypothesis is thus rejected. None of the phylogenies supported a close relationship between the Colossendeidae and Nymphonidae families and doubt is raised over the true identification of several GenBank sequences. Polymerous species do not form a combined, ancestral group but are instead more likely to represent recent divergences from three separate families. Strong evidence supports the placement of the transient Austropallene genus (Callipallenidae) at the base of the Nymphonidae family. This study, and ongoing work, has generated large amounts of new sequence data. This can be used in future pycnogonid phylogenetic research and/or in investigations on the highly contentious position of the Pycnogonida with regards to the phylum Arthropoda. A DNA Surveillance website has been created to assist in the molecular identification of pycnogonids from future benthic bio-discovery expeditions (http://www.dna-surveillance.auckland.ac.nz).

    View record details
  • The geology and eruptive history of the Table Mountain region, Coromandel Peninsula

    Hayward, Bruce W. (Bruce William) (1971)

    Undergraduate thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The Table Mountain region covers an area of 2,200 hectares, 17 kilometres north-east of Thames, and straddles the main Coromandel Peninsula Divide between the headwaters of the Kauaeranga and Waiwawa Rivers. It is a region of steeply dissected, bush clad slopes and rugged bluffs composed of andesite, rhyolite and sediments. These rocks belong to three Groups. The oldest group of rocks consists of andesite lavas, breccias and sediments that form the upper part of the Beesons Island Volcanics sequence and were erupted during the upper Miocene and lowermost Pliocene. Unconformably overlying these is the mid Pliocene Whitianga Group containing rhyolitic lavas and sediments. In the Table Mt. Region this Group has been divided into the Minden Rhyolites and two informal sedimentary formations. The Wainora Formation contains basal volcanic breccias and freshwater, carbonaceous, epiclastic sediments that were deposited in two lakes on the dissected surface of the older andesites. This formation contains impressions of fresh-water mussels and numerous leaves, as well as considerable amounts of silicified wood. Conformably overlying the Wainora Formation are the thicker and more extensive water and aerially deposited pyroclastic sediments and rarer ignimbrites of the Waiwawa Formation. Many of the water laid deposits are inferred to have been formed by hot pyroclastic flows entering a lake. Minden Rhyolite domes were produced, by endogenous and exogenous growth, towards the end of this phreatic eruptive period. Hydrothermal alteration is inferred to be closely associated with the four Minden Rhyolite domes of this region. During the upper Pliocene to lower Pleistocene, the Omahia Andesite Group was intruded. The narrow Waiwawa Intrusive came up along an old intrusive contact between a Minden Rhyolite dome and the Waiwawa Formation sediments. The large Table Mt. andesite mass is believed to have formed by a combination of upwelling of lava along a fissure and actual intrusion. Both the Waiwawa and Table Mt. Intrusives spilled small amounts of lava out over the surface as lava flows. In the two million years since the cessation of volcanic activity in this region, erosion has greatly altered the landscape and emphasized the harder rock masses.

    View record details