402 results for Undergraduate

  • A Most Excellent Thing: The introduction of brown trout (Salmo trutta) to Canterbury, New Zealand 1864-1872

    Kos, Jack (2013)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This essay examines the process undergone in the Canterbury province in the late 1860s and early 1870s to import Salmo trutta (brown trout) ova from Tasmania, to hatch them out and to distribute them throughout the waterways of the province. This essay seeks to answer two questions. First, how were trout introduced? Second, why was their introduction of such significance to colonists at the time? To answer these questions this essay draws upon a comprehensive range of primary sources including Society records and newspapers. The successful importation of trout represented one of the key early achievements of the fledgling Canterbury Acclimatisation Society at a time when several other attempted introductions were failing. The process undertaken to import the ova, rear hatchlings and distribute the �young trout� tested the scientific knowledge of the 1860s and 1870s. It necessitated significant interaction with international acclimatisation groups primarily in Australia but also further afield. This essay also attempts to convey the significance of the importation to Canterbury. Such was the public interest that the coverage of trout in print media extended to the hatching of individual ova or the sighting of escaped trout. Trout were afforded a romanticised status in colonial New Zealand society, largely as a result of their construction as a quintessentially British object. Their importation was motivated by several factors, namely the re-creation of a British ecology in New Zealand, the recreational opportunities they afforded and the food source they provided.

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  • Andrew Miller and his Eagles - American Citizens, British Subjects and Rights in the ImpressmentControversy

    Rennie, Connor (2013)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In 1812 impressment was left as the implied cause for the outbreak of war between Britain and the United States of America. Scholars have focused on how impressment was involved in diplomacy. There remains, however, a lack of investigation into the justification of impressment. This dissertation explores the impressment of Americans by the Royal Navy and the resulting fallout. The research will focus on one group in particular: naturalised American citizens. The aim is to show that the conflict over impressment stemmed from Britain and America possessing different conceptualisations of citizenship and rights. The dissertation examines the history of impressment in Britain and the doctrine of indefeasible allegiance together with American arguments against the doctrine. This research is based on the correspondence of politicians, treatises, laws and secondary scholarship. Using these sources a narrative of diplomacy and rights will be constructed. Upon the examination of the evidence it becomes clear that American claims about the unjustness of the impressment of naturalised American citizens are wrong. While there was a dispute if naturalisation could occur, the fact is that the American government loudly disputed the British right to reclaim a large number of naturalised sailors when by the laws of America these sailors were not naturalised.

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  • You Wouldn't Know There Was a War On. A Cultural History of New Zealanders Serving in Bomber Command during the Second World War.

    Kimberley, Aidan (2013)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The intention of this project is to reconstruct the culture of New Zealanders serving in Bomber Command of the RAF during the Second World War. Similar work has emerged on the culture of British airmen but cultural histories looking specifically at New Zealand airmen are yet to emerge. In conducting a cultural history of this subject, this paper looks more closely at the airmens' behaviour, routines and emotions. To achieve this, it will focus on three main aspects of the New Zealanders' culture: rivalries, leisure and attitudes. Rivalries were commonplace and include sporting contests, which were encouraged as a morale boosting tool, tensions between members of aircrews, and also a bitter rivalry between Englishmen and New Zealanders which was caused by unpopular decision making by a handful of English commanders. Forms of leisure were particularly varied. Tourism was an activity New Zealanders commonly indulged in, as was visiting friends and extended family on leave, and frequenting the local concerts and stage shows. However it became clear that they had not quite grown out of their rebellious teenage selves as unsanctioned activities such as joy riding and pranks emerged. In the final chapter it is shown that the cheerful demeanour the men tried to present was the result of self-censorship to protect their families, and that once they began experiencing horrifying situations this demeanour became much harder to maintain.

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  • Assessment of New Zealand's Forest Codes of Practice for Erosion and Sediment Control

    Pendly, Melissa Lin (2012)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    New Zealand’s forest industry operates under several codes of practice for erosion and sediment control. Inconsistency between regional forestry regulations led industry to lobby for the Proposed National Environmental Standard for Plantation Forestry (PNESPF). A national code of practice may also need to be introduced to give effect to the PNESPF. This dissertation focuses on what type of code of practice should be adopted, and under what conditions. The conditions required for a code of practice to succeed in protecting the environment were identified. The ‘external’ social and legal conditions were identified through analysis of three case studies from the international primary sector, whilst the ‘internal’ conditions relating to the development, content and implementation of a code of practice were identified through review of literature. These ideal internal conditions formed the basis of the criteria used to assess New Zealand's codes. Six of New Zealand’s forest codes of practice were classified by their type, the motivation for a corporation to comply with them, and enforcing agency. The internal conditions of these codes were then assessed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the existing documents. Overall, the codes had well-defined objectives, good planning information and clear communication. The weaknesses included regulatory approach, comprehensiveness, foundation (particularly stakeholder involvement), monitoring information and review process. The proposed national code of practice, if introduced, should be a prescriptive code. A prescriptive code is better than an outcome-based code because it is difficult to prove liability for sedimentation and erosion. Compliance with a prescriptive code should be like liability insurance, so that if a corporation is fully compliant with a prescriptive code of practice, it should not be held liable for adverse environmental impacts. This is a preliminary recommendation only, as the external conditions operating in New Zealand still need to be investigated.

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  • Race relations in New Zealand Through an Analysis of Broadsheet Magazine 1972-1989

    Hayes, Kimberley (2013)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This research essay addresses race relations within the context of New Zealand second wave feminism, 1972-1989. The 1970s and 1980s are decades recognised for the increased tension in the relationship between Maori and Pakeha society. I argue that race relations were a crucial aspect of second wave feminism in New Zealand at this time. This history is signified by an important primary source, the New Zealand feminist magazine Broadsheet. I argue that the progression that Maori women made over time to gain a space within New Zealand second wave feminism reflected deeper issues of race relations in wider New Zealand society. Themes that emerge from a close analysis of Broadsheet magazine include Maori women's questioning of the relevance of New Zealand second wave feminism for them, the important contribution that Maori women made to New Zealand second wave feminism, and the growing but necessary confrontation between Maori and Pakeha women.

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  • 'A Light Sniff Might Mean Death’ : Soldiers’ Responses to Poisonous Gas Throughout the First World War

    Annesley, Ellis Jayne (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This research paper examines soldiers’ responses to poisonous gas throughout the First World War. Accounts from British and Dominion, American and German soldiers who fought along the Western Front have been collected to analyse the psychological impact gas had upon a variety of men throughout the conflict. Contemporary letters and diaries as well as post-war oral testimonies and memoirs form the basis of the evidence used. The topic encompasses three strands of historical scholarship and engages with each to explore more thoroughly the responses obtained. Emphasis is placed on the psychological impact of gas upon the individuals assessed. Ultimately, this dissertation demonstrates that upon its introduction, poison gas was capable of instilling fear into men whether previously exposed to its consequences or not. However, this psychological power was to significantly diminish following the production and distribution of anti-gas protective measures in late 1916. Despite decreasing anxiety, gas retained its title as a ‘terror weapon’ from effectively inspiring fear into men who were unprotected, ill-prepared, and subsequently vulnerable, in the face of the poison.

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  • ‘He’ll do the right thing’: A discussion of Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan’s relationship with the Evangelical community

    Hart-Smith, Alexander (2013)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Historiographical scholarship of previous presidents is never short in supply. James Earl Carter and Ronald Wilson Reagan are no exception to this assertion and have been extensively studied by historians. Similarly, the role of religion in politics in the United States is rarely neglected by historians. The role of the Religious Right in politics and the explanation for its emergence has also been well documented by academics. There is however a surprising lack of investigation into the specific issue of how Regan, the arguably less religious man, became more commonly identified with the Religious Right than Carter. Using both a mixture of primary and secondary sources this paper attempts to answer the question of why Carter's electoral success with Evangelicals was so short-lived. Utilizing remarks from the Presidents, their former advisors, debates and prominent Evangelical leaders this dissertation seeks to offer a new insight into why the support for Jimmy Carter was so ephemeral. This dissertation will offer a rather simple resolution to the complex question of why Evangelicals shifted their support to Reagan. The Religious Right were not just interested in the election of a pious President but wanted to transform the governance of a nation after two decades of growing secularism. Ultimately it appears that Carter's decision to campaign on little more than his moral image propelled him into the White House as this title of this thesis suggests because voters and most specifically Evangelicals believed,

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  • Falcon Forestry Carriage Series 2 : a case study of productivity and operation.

    Bolitho, Callum (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The multiple drivers of workplace safety and increasing productivity are resulting in increased mechanisation within the forestry industry. The use of motorised grapples in cable harvesting is an applicable mechanisation method to the large proportion of steep terrain harvesting in New Zealand. In this dissertation a time study of the Falcon Forestry Carriage Series 2 has been undertaken in order to access its productivity and operation. Mean values of productivity were found to be 54.9m³/PMH for wood extracted from the ground, 64.6m³/PMH for bunched wood and 75.6m³/PMH for excavator fed wood after adjustment for the cycle distance and accumulation type. Longer cycles were found to decrease productivity by 0.15m³/PMH for each meter of cycle distance. Utilisation in the study was found to be 56% of total time which was similar to previous studies. 15% of total study time was accounted for by operational delays, 7% by personal delays and 23% by mechanical delays. Mechanical problems with the carriage occurred 6 times and accounted for 171 minutes or 13.4% of total delay time. Mechanical delay breakdown was similar to that found by McFadzean (2012) who recorded that 15% of total delay time was attributable to carriage mechanical delays. During a study of Operator effect it was found that the inexperienced Operator 3 and Operator 4 had a productivity of 52.2% (not statistically significantly different) and 18.5% (p value <0.05). The effects of accumulation method and cycle distance upon productivity were found to be similar to the results of previous studies, as was the utilisation of time within the study.

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  • Understanding demand for wood products in New Zealand’s major log markets.

    Drummond, Ryan C.M. (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    New Zealand’s forestry sector is largely reliant on the presence of a strong export market with 57% of the volume harvested being exported of which 99% goes to Japan, the Republic of Korea, China and India. This identifies the need to analyse demand in these countries to better understand their needs in the future. Consumption of wood products per capita is a commonly used metric for estimating demand and was used in this research. Volumes of imports, exports and production were collected from the Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) and data for a range of explanatory variables was collected from a variety of official sources. Historical trends in consumption identified that as countries develop socially and economically their consumption shifts from largely solid wood products such as sawn timber to more processed products such as wood-based panels and paper and paperboard. Consumption was modelled using linear regression techniques to develop models which could be used to forecast consumption in the future. A wide variety of potential explanatory variables were considered and the models presented represent the most effective of these. GDP per capita was found to be the single most effective explanatory variable being highly significant (p<0.01) in all models. Price was also found to be a strong determinant of consumption, understandable as price is a major component of supply and demand dynamics. Measures of construction activity were found to be related to consumption of sawn timber in all studied countries and for wood-based panels in Japan. Forecasts produced for consumption in Japan should be used as only an example of the capability of the models presented herein. More work is required to develop these equations into a form where they can be used to more accurately estimate future consumption.

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  • Swaggers and society : a New Zealand experience

    Steven, Graeme D. (1979)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    The aims of this study are two-fold. First, to reach an understanding of the swagger, his lifestyle, and his outlook on life. And second, to investigate the relationships between the swagger and various groups in New Zealand society, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The North Otago region was chosen as a base for the study because it has traditionally been regarded as one of the main swagger areas in New Zealand. The main town of Oamaru had a population of 4000 to 6000 in the 1890's, and was neither wholly urban or rural. As the service centre for the North Otago hinterland and a road, rail and sea centre, Oamaru had large numbers of itinerants, passing through the town. In the rural hinterland mixed cropping predominated, and this required large numbers of seasonal workers, which were drawn from outside the region. In Chapter One it is argued that rural itinerant workers were integrated into a rural structure that was both labour intensive and seasonal. Chapter Two discusses the characteristics which separate the swagger from other rural itinerants, which I have called, the "swag-carriers". In Chapter Three the conflict between the swagger and a developing bureaucracy, and middle class ideology in the late nineteenth century, is analysed. In Chapters Four and Five, the attitudes of rural and towns people towards the swagger are investigated. A model based on the value system of "reputation" and "respectability is used in Chapter Six to explain the ambivalence of attitudes towards the swagger, and to investigate an important aspect of the swagger psychology - his self esteem and his individuality.

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  • Factors which influence corewood stiffness in radiata pine.

    Jones, Grace (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Increasing stocking and competition with weeds significantly increased Hitman estimates of stiffness at the significance level α=0.05. Accuracy of models predicting Hitman from TreeTap measurements can be improved by customizing them for particular silvicultural regimes and diameter at 1.4m (DBH). Controlled factors: genetics, wind sway and fertilizer use, did not significantly influence Hitman estimates of stiffness. Tree height did not significantly influence stiffness estimates, but including DBH in prediction models improved models of stiffness estimates. Stiffness in 10 year old Pinus radiata stems was studied in an experiment with the following factors: genetics, herbicide/fertilizer use, stocking and wind sway. Acoustic velocity was used as an estimate of modulus of elasticity (MOE) and was estimated using 2 different tools: Hitman, a resonance based tool used on 2m log sections, and TreeTap, a time-of-flight based tool used on 1.2m outer-wood sections of standing trees. DBH and tree height were also recorded for each tree. Green density was measured using submersion in order to use the formula: MOE = green density∗ acoustic velocity² Stiffness estimates from TreeTap were strongly correlated with Hitman estimates, but were about 30% higher on average. The relationship between stiffness estimates from these tools changed with weed competition and with stocking. No significant difference in stiffness was found between the northwest and the southeast sides of the stems when using the TreeTap tool, and an average value for each tree was used for subsequent analyses. These findings are similar to those from other studies carried out on different sites, and to a previous destructive sample at the same site. There were a few major outliers, but despite these the final model relating TreeTap and Hitman estimates was significant (P<0.0001). Weed competition and stocking significantly affected the intercept (P=5.71e-05 and P=1.08e 05 respectively) of a model predicting Hitman values from TreeTap estimates of stiffness.

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  • An attack on womanhood : the sterilisation of women in Nazi Germany.

    Farrow, Amelia (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This dissertation examines the practice of eugenic sterilisation of women in Nazi Germany, specifically how it impacted the lives of the women who were forced to undergo it. It aims to provide insight into an area that has not been explored much in current historiography. The paper looks at the origins of sterilisation within Germany, the experience of the women in Germany and the concentration camps, as well as the post war treatment of sterilised women. This dissertation explores a variety of sources, from the testimony of women and doctors, to Nazi sterilisation propaganda and the sterilisation laws themselves. It shows that sterilisation was not a new concept to Germany or other western countries, though the way in which it was carried out under the Nazis was unique to their racial and political ideals. The women who were forcibly sterilised suffered from both physical and psychological side effects, exacerbated by the perceptions of sterilisation at the time. Even after the war, the prevalence of sterilisation in other countries meant that little acknowledgement was given to those who had endured it within Nazi Germany. Although this changed with time, as more non-Jewish victims were given reparations in the 1980s and later, this dissertation shows that it did not erase the suffering that had already occurred.

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  • A genocide denied : the ‘half-castes’ of Australia during the stolen generations of 1905-1970 as genocide.

    Duff, Amy Louise (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In the early 1990s the Wilson-Dodson enquiry was commissioned by the then Labour Government to investigate the issue of Aboriginal children being forcibly removed from their homes between 1900 and 1970. The children removed became known as the Stolen Generations. In 1997 the Wilson-Dodson enquiry published the findings in the Bringing Them Home Report which sparked intense public and academic debate around the issue of the forced removal of Aboriginal children, particularly whether it constituted genocide. In the wake of the report scholars investigated how the actions of the federal and state governments and their agencies relates to the 1949 United Nations definition of genocide. But this scholarship has not engaged specifically with the genocide of the ‘half-caste’ population. Apprehension around part-Aboriginal individuals arose in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century when many white Australians feared a growing ‘coloured’ population. This dissertation addresses this gap in the literature by exploring the removal of the ‘half-caste’ children in the states of Western Australia and New South Wales. Laws enacted by both state legislatures clearly reveals genocidal intent. The effects of the policy can be seen through victim’s testimonies, which show the long term consequences of being removed, and highlight other aspects of genocide. This research also aims to examine other aspects of genocide in relation to the part-Aboriginal population, including severe mental and physical harm, conditions of life that were calculated to bring about its destruction, and the imposition of measures intended to prevent births within the group. I argue that these actions can be considered as genocide in accordance to the United Nations definition these actions can be considered as genocide.

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  • Men’s experience of virtual simulation to aid patient education for radiation treatment to the prostate

    Flockton, Alannah - Jayne (2017)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Prostate cancer affects more than 3000 New Zealand men each year. Many of these men receive a complex type of radiation treatment which requires patients to have a full bladder and empty rectum to aid in the accuracy of treatment delivery and minimise side effects. These concepts can be difficult to explain and current patient education involves verbal and written materials. A 3D immersive teaching tool Virtual Environment Radiotherapy Training system (VERT) can visually simulate and demonstrate how radiation treatment is delivered to the prostate. There is sufficient evidence to support VERT as a useful teaching tool in the academic environment however; using VERT for one-on-one patient education is a novel approach. This qualitative, pilot study set out to explore men’s experience of VERT when it was incorporated into education sessions for prostate radiation treatment. More specifically, how VERT shaped the men’s understanding of how radiation treatment is delivered; why a full bladder and empty rectum is required; and their initial treatment experience. Data collection involved semi-structured interviews one week after the participants had experienced the VERT education and received their first week of radiation treatment. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was used to offer insight into the men’s experience of the VERT education session. The findings strongly suggest VERT education enhances patient understanding of radiation treatment through visual learning. There is a preference to have the VERT education delivered sometime near the first treatment appointment and VERT has the potential to support men through engagement, information sharing and encouraging peer support. There is a role for visual tools such as VERT to be included as part of patient education sessions for radiation treatment to the prostate.

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  • Novel Organic Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecules as a Potential Treatment for Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Gunatunga, Kishan (2011)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Carbon monoxide (CO) plays a role in many physiological and pathophysiological processes as a second messenger. Emerging evidence reveals the potential CO has as a therapeutic agent as it has been implicated in the modulation in a range of intracellular functions including apoptosis and proliferation. In the case of cancer, specifically triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), there is very little information regarding the effects of this molecule. Here we hypothesize that the targeted delivery of CO to a tumour will result in an anti-cancer effect in TNBC. The current study examines a novel class of compounds termed organic CO releasing molecules (CORMs) (CO-1 – CO-8) and previously published metal containing CORMs (CORM-2), as potential treatments for TNBC. Firstly a wide range of synthesised novel organic CORMs were screened for toxicity in MDA-MB-231 cells, a model for TNBC, and the lead compound CO-1 was identified from a range of 8 potential candidates (CO-1 – CO-8). Analysis of cell viability data revealed that CO-1 (1 – 200 μM) resulted in significant reductions in cell viability with an IC75 value of around 5 μM in the MDA-MB-231 TNBC cell line, while the by-product of CO-1, BP-1, demonstrated no residual cytotoxic effects. Time course and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) studies revealed that the compound released CO at a slow rate with a half-life in vitro between 9 and 24 hours. The ability of CO-1 and CORM-2 to modulate cell death via the induction of apoptosis was demonstrated using Annexin V conjugated to fluorescein (FITC) and propidium iodide (PI) staining followed by FACS analysis. CO-1 was able to induce apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells at both low (10 μM) and high (200 μM) concentrations (6% and 6% respectively) with no apoptotic or necrotic effects being observed when cells were treated with the by-product of CO-1, BP-1. The transition metal containing CORM-2 (200 μM) did not increase apoptotic markers compared to control, however treatment of cells with its “inactive” counterpart iCORM-2 (200 μM) resulted in a significant increase (7%) in apoptosis. In addition high (200 μM) but not low (5 and 10 μM) concentrations of CO-1 and CORM-2 produced a significant increase in the percentage of cells with a damaged mitochondrial membrane (3% and 5% for CO-1 and CORM-2 respectively), indicating that CO may have some concentration specific effects in vitro. High (200 μM) concentrations of both CO-1 and CORM-2 were also shown to induce mitochondrial damage in the MDA-MB-231 cell line and further to the potential anti-cancer effects of the novel compound CO-1, we have shown that low (10 μM) concentrations of the molecule causes a 1.2-fold and 1.4-fold increase in caspase 3 and p53 expression and a 1.2-fold increase in caspase 3 activation. The safety of both organic and transition metal CORMs were also assessed in the renal epithelial MDCK cell line. In MDCK cells treated with CO-1 (10 and 200 μM), COM-2 and iCORM-2 (20 and 100 μM) showed histopathological changes indicative of cell death were observed. These changes were not present in cells treated with the by-product of CO-1, BP-1. Interestingly the changes in histological architecture in MDCK cells treated with iCORM-2 appeared more extensive and severe that in cells treated with the active form of the compound CORM-2. Furthermore treatment of MDCK cells with low (10 μM) concentrations of CO-1, 20 and 200 μM CORM-2 and 200 μM iCORM-2 resulted in G2/M cell cycle arrest in the MDCK cell line. The current study proved CO-1, to be a safe and efficacious pharmacological agent with the ability to induce a cytotoxic and cytostatic effect in the MDA-MB-231 and MDCK cell line with no residual toxic effects resulting from treatment of cell with the by-product of CO-1 (BP-1). Our findings cast doubt over the notion that existing transition metal CORMs in their “inactive” form are not without biological effects. Therefore the current study has shown that novel organic CORMs have a combination of properties that translate into a desirable and potential treatment for TNBC.

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  • Another Look at the Faunal Remains of CA-SCR-9

    Nims, Reno (2011-06)

    Undergraduate thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    CA-SCR-9 is an important early Middle Period (3100-2800 cal BP) site from the California central coast region that has been used to characterize residential base camps from that time. Previous studies have attempted to analyze the fauna using incomplete and non-representative samples, creating multiple, contradictory conclusions about the foodways of Middle Period peoples. The goal of this study was to synthesize and analyze all identified material to answer questions about the seasonal use of SCR-9, differences between two possible phases of occupation, and the adaptive strategies of Middle Period peoples on the California central coast. Using a representative sample of the fauna, this paper finds that SCR-9‟s inhabitants primarily preyed upon mule deer. However, diverse species of marine mammals, leporids, terrestrial carnivores, birds, and marine fishes were also deposited at SCR-9, and inland site. The faunal remains from SCR-9 alone are not enough to identify relationships between sites, but these marine materials suggest that SCR-9 may have functioned as a seasonal or year round habitation site from which Middle Period peoples traveled to coastal sites such as SMA-218, which is nearly contemporaneous with SCR-9. Other writers have argued that two separate phases are represented ad SCR-9, including the Sand Hill Bluff Phase and the later Año Nuevo Phase. The fauna from these two phases is extraordinarily homogenous, suggesting there were no changes in adaptive strategy, or that rodent activity has mixed the materials, making it impossible to compare fauna from the Sand Hill Bluff and Año Nuevo phases. Fortunately, the assemblage does shed light on differential handling of taxa, and raises questions about the nature of bone grease extraction practices.

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  • Evaluating the Seeding Genetic Algorithm

    Meadows, Benjamin (2012)

    Undergraduate thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This work is largely motivated by the PhD thesis of Cameron Skinner [Skinner, 2009], which features a rigorous mathematical and empirical approach to understanding the underlying mechanism behind the functioning of the genetic algorithm. The results are a new understanding of the algorithm in terms of the notions of discovery, selection and combination. Skinner uses these notions to create a modification to the genetic algorithm: the “seeding” genetic algorithm. We recognise this innovation as an important contribution to the field of evolutionary algorithms, and our focus in this dissertation will be to test its successes, failures, and the scope of its applicability.

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  • Predictors of Referral Delay and Treatment Response to Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Ang, Wee Choen (Sebastian) (2017)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: Recent years have seen anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents revolutionize the treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To ensure optimal outcomes for this time-sensitive disease, current guidelines recommend that patients should be seen in clinic within two weeks of referral and treated with a loading phase of three injections, followed by a follow-up visit for reassessment. However, meeting these guidelines is challenging due to the increasing global prevalence of wet AMD and the accumulating cohort of patients requiring treatment. In addition, services with inefficient referral pathways and limited treatment capacities have been shown to threaten patient access to prompt treatment and increase adverse patient outcomes. Aims and Methods: This project is a two-year retrospective audit conducted at the Eye Department in Dunedin Public Hospital with the aims to (1) assess the efficiency of the current wet AMD referral pathway against contemporary guidelines and (2) identify any risk factors that are predictive of referral delay and treatment outcome. Relevant patient, referrer, referral and clinical characteristics were retrieved from retrospective analysis of clinical records and OCT scans of 113 patients. The outcome measures were referral delay (i.e. duration from point of referral to first assessment clinic); and treatment response measured by changes in visual acuity, changes in central macular thickness (CMT) and clearance of macular fluid. All potential predictors of these outcome measures were analysed via multivariable binomial logistic regression. Results: Only 49% of patients at Dunedin Public Hospital met referral guidelines, but 85% met treatment guidelines. Overall median time from point of referral to first treatment was 10 days. A loading phase of three bevacizumab injections significantly improved mean visual acuity by 5 ± 24 letters (p=0.03) and reduced mean central macular thickness (CMT) by 55μm (p85 years) were associated with an increased likelihood of CMT reduction (OR 9.157; 95% CI 2.6, 31.747; p<0.001 and OR 4.79; 95% CI 1.11, 20.7; p=0.036 respectively), whereas patients with longer duration of symptoms (1 to 3 months) were significantly associated with a decreased likelihood of CMT reduction compared to patients with symptoms of less than one month (OR 1.65; 95% CI 0.044, 0.616, p value = 0.007). Thicker baseline CMT was also found to be significantly associated with a greater reduction of macular fluid (OR 1.475; 95% CI 0.75, 4.578; p=0.017) after treatment, and so were females compared to males (OR 3.9; 95% CI 1.2, 12.58; p=0.02). Conclusion: This study identified that the current wet AMD referral pathway at Dunedin Public Hospital can and should be more efficient, and quality improvement work is warranted to improve compliance to contemporary guidelines.

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  • Reforming New Zealand's Legislative Council: a study of constitutional change, 1891 and 1912-1920

    Roberts, Marcus (2008)

    Undergraduate thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Comparison of ground invertebrate assemblages across two types of natve forest fragment edge.

    Seldon, David (2002-06)

    Undergraduate thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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