398 results for Undergraduate

  • Roll call : the motivations behind the inclusion of women on the Canterbury roll

    Parker, Thandiwe Rose (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Gender has been largely overlooked in the study of political ideas and their representation on genealogical chronicle rolls. One such roll, the Canterbury Roll, is housed at the University of Canterbury. Dating from the fifteenth-century, the five-metre long parchment features a genealogy of the kings of England, and was constructed to support the claims to the throne made by contemporary kings. It traces the lineage of the contemporary ruler Edward IV, through mythical kings such as Arthur, to the biblical figure of Noah. Over the approximately fifty years during which it was written, the Roll was subject to editing, as various political events influenced its content. This dissertation examines the women who feature on the Canterbury Roll, in both its original and edited form, in order to understand the place of women in the contemporary political context. It compares the written text of the roll with the chronicle histories on which its compilers drew, in order to determine the motivations behind the women’s inclusion. Four scribal hands are identified in this dissertation, and three of those hands are used as historical tools to uncover the motivations behind the inclusion of women. Each scribal hand reveals a different political motivation, and women were included on the Roll to shape the contemporary audience’s political perceptions. This dissertation reveals that women who conformed to a contemporary feminine ideal were celebrated while those who did not conform were portrayed negatively.

    View record details
  • An attack on womanhood : the sterilisation of women in Nazi Germany.

    Farrow, Amelia (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This dissertation examines the practice of eugenic sterilisation of women in Nazi Germany, specifically how it impacted the lives of the women who were forced to undergo it. It aims to provide insight into an area that has not been explored much in current historiography. The paper looks at the origins of sterilisation within Germany, the experience of the women in Germany and the concentration camps, as well as the post war treatment of sterilised women. This dissertation explores a variety of sources, from the testimony of women and doctors, to Nazi sterilisation propaganda and the sterilisation laws themselves. It shows that sterilisation was not a new concept to Germany or other western countries, though the way in which it was carried out under the Nazis was unique to their racial and political ideals. The women who were forcibly sterilised suffered from both physical and psychological side effects, exacerbated by the perceptions of sterilisation at the time. Even after the war, the prevalence of sterilisation in other countries meant that little acknowledgement was given to those who had endured it within Nazi Germany. Although this changed with time, as more non-Jewish victims were given reparations in the 1980s and later, this dissertation shows that it did not erase the suffering that had already occurred.

    View record details
  • Genocide on Fleet Street : the Armenian genocide in the British press, 1915-1918.

    Steel, Daniel (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper examines British attitudes towards the Armenian genocide through the three most prominent contemporary newspapers: the Times, the Manchester Guardian and the Daily Mail. In particular, it considers the nature and extent of these papers’ interest in the events and, as far as can be discerned, that of their readers. Despite substantial scholarly interest in atrocity narratives in First World War Britain, British reception of the Armenian genocide, by far the war’s worst atrocity, has attracted little attention. Historians in this area, who concern themselves overwhelmingly with atrocities committed by the German military, have given the subject only passing mention. Conversely, recent inquiries by scholars of humanitarianism have focused almost exclusively on reception amongst Britain’s pro-Armenian humanitarian advocates, giving only supplementary consideration to the press. This paper adopts a comparative approach, contrasting the presentation of the genocide in the ‘elite press’ (the Times and the Guardian) with that of the most prominent and widely-circulated ‘popular’ newspaper, the Mail, in order to consider differing attitudes amongst upper- and middle-class observers respectively. While the elite press provided significant coverage of the events, demonstrating a humanitarian concern for the Armenian victims, the Mail gave the genocide only passing attention, despite its potential propaganda value and having access to a substantial volume of graphic eye-witness accounts. Two conclusions are drawn from this disparity. First, it is suggested that the Mail’s inattention resulted from a lack of interest by their readers, indicating that the Armenian cause was a predominantly elite phenomenon. Second, it is argued that the Mail exercised a deliberate editorial decision not to reproduce much of the details published by the elite press, demonstrating that the Mail’s long-standing scholarly reputation as a government propaganda outlet ‘duping’ the public into the war through graphic atrocity stories is unfounded.

    View record details
  • Friends to China : the role and impact of the Friends’ Ambulance Unit during the Chinese ‘War of Resistance’ (1937-1945).

    Williams, Eve (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Friends’ Ambulance Unit, associated with the Society of Friends, was a group that provided an alternative option to military service for conscientious objectors during both World War I and II.1 They provided transportation and medical aid to those affected by the war, concentrating mainly on the European mainland. In 1941 however, they sent a section to China to help aid and relieve the suffering caused by the ‘War of Resistance’. China had been engaged in a bitter conflict with Japan since 1937 causing great suffering for the peoples of China. The China section of the FAU drew people from all over the world, including New Zealand. Members of the Society of Friends, Christchurch brothers Neil and John Johnson responded to a call for assistance and in 1945 they arrived in China. Their letters and other written material found in the Johnson archive located in the Macmillan Brown Library, University of Canterbury, provide an invaluable source to illustrate the important role the FAU played in China during this time. It also demonstrated that because of the scale of the war, however, the FAU’s impact was more localized than general. Very little scholarly work has been done on the contribution made by New Zealand to the China section of the Friends’ Ambulance Unit during WWII. Only one book relates to this area; Caitriona Cameron’s Go Anywhere do Anything: New Zealanders and the Friends Ambulance Unit 1945-51.2 This essay aims to highlight this relatively unknown story. It also adds to the fields of a social history of China, scholarship that examines aid and relief work and New Zealand conscientious objector literature.

    View record details
  • An exercise in perception

    Clairmont, Philip A (1970)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Subject chosen for this thesis is the interior of a room and its myriad aspects. When experienced subjectively it can appear as an outer protection or barrier for inner turmoil, providing security, shelter and privacy, or the direct opposite, four walls unnaturally imprisoning that which should be free. Objectively it provides a startling array of forms shapes and textures, both functional and nonfunctional, rigid and organic. The visual tensions influence and condition the actions and thoughts of the human figure within this environment. A room contains within its four walls residue of human thoughts, actions and emotions, a visual catalyst of memories and associations ; past and present. A room is in a constant state of evolution expressing itself in movements from light and dark - a place where time and space can be measurable. I have tried using a variety of means: signs and symbols, dots, dashes, line and tone to capture at once the stationary together with the transitory nature of observed appearances. I have dwelt on and emphasised those ambiguities which have arisen out of the process of creating an image and may reveal something of another reality.... of those submerged realities behind appearances and beyond normal consciousness. The language of an artist is able to cast a glimmer of light on those essential truths.....truths which normally elude civilised man. This thesis provides for sensory and visual appreciation rather than intellectual gratification (thus the emphasis on visual rather than written work). It comprises of a series of drawings, covering some aspects of one particular interior .... in this instance, my livingroom - an immediate environment. The drawings are essentially a visual record of sensory thinking, emotional and free-form imaginative interpretation of commonplace objects. The drawings follow a sequence, both chronologically and in thought development towards painting in which the experience gained of the room, crystallises in paint, size and colour adding dimension. The drawings should perform a dual role, one of providing a direct link with unconscious creative processes, and one of showing a developing awareness of the vital forces and movements that motivate a painting and validate the act of creating it. A variety of techniques have been used, each in its turn revealing some significant facet of the interior. Mixed media drawings predominate, for this media with its own unique properties, is capable of providing a bridge ..... an interlocking of concept and technique where image and media are inseparable.

    View record details
  • Defining the enemy : intellectuals, soldiers and their attitudes towards the rules of engagement.

    Foss, Nicholas William (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This dissertation examines the different attitudes of soldiers and intellectuals towards the laws of war and the rules of engagement, with a particular focus on defining the enemy. In the past there has been a focus on the broader theories of the laws of war and how they work on paper. This is why studying the attitudes of soldiers who have firsthand experience of the rules of engagement is useful in understanding the moral issues in war. The general attitudes of intellectuals and soldiers towards the laws of war are first examined, relying on the past historiographical work of Michael Walzer and John Fabian Witt. This is followed by an examination of the moral ambiguities generated by war in a historical context, using specific examples from past conflicts. Soldiers’ autobiographies from the War on Terror are a rich source of analysis They reveal how the rules of engagement imposed by the legislators do not necessarily correspond to the soldiers’ perspective on the battlefield which leaves soldiers vulnerable to charges of murder.

    View record details
  • Putaringamotu/Riccarton Bush : from wilderness to native bush reserve

    Morrison, Melissa A (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This research essay examines the significance of Putaringamotu/Riccarton Bush to the various facets of Canterbury’s history to which it is connected. Putaringamotu/Riccarton Bush is a place of significance to the history of Canterbury as it helps to tell the story of the environment, Maori and the first pioneers of the Canterbury Plains. This research essay draws upon a number of primary sources, such as legislation and personal correspondence, in order to answer the question of why an area of native bush within the city of Christchurch is still significant and relevant today. The answer to this question lies in the ability of the Bush to tell the story of the Canterbury Plains, and those who have called the area home, from the 1300s until the present day. Putaringamotu/Riccarton Bush is the only remnant of the Kahikatea Swamp forests which once covered the Canterbury Plains and therefore contributes to the environmental history of New Zealand. The Bush also uncovers the cultural and social practices of local Maori before the arrival of the first European settlers. However, the reason that Putaringamotu/Riccarton Bush remains so significant today is because of its connection to the pioneering foundations of Christchurch. The Bush inspired and influenced the Deans brothers, Canterbury’s first successful pioneers, and the Canterbury Association, to choose the Plains as the location of the city of Christchurch. It is highly probable that had the Bush not existed upon the Plains then the city of Christchurch may have been established elsewhere. The current use of Putaringamotu/Riccarton Bush as a conservation area and meeting place ensures that each of these facets of Canterbury’s history are acknowledged and remain relevant and significant within Christchurch today.

    View record details
  • Toxic tabloids toxicology, the press, and the public in nineteenth-century England.

    Easton, Holly (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This dissertation examines the way in which the English public in the nineteenth century engaged with criminal toxicology, through the medium of the newspapers. It aims to fill a gap in the historiography of toxicology, by combining the approaches of single-case analysis and statistical analysis to assess public opinion and action. This dissertation argues that the public’s engagement with criminal toxicology occurred through the context in which they encountered it, namely the judicial system. In addition to this, public engagement was built upon an informed understanding of the role of toxicology in the courtroom and was capable of producing tangible change. Through examining four sensational cases of criminal poisoning over the nineteenth century, this dissertation traces the development of the general public’s understanding of toxicology and resulting reactions to it. Throughout the century, the newspapers gradually disseminated more information about trials and the toxicology involved in them to the public, which they were able to act upon, by means of placing pressure on the authorities to reconsider the outcomes of contentious trials and the laws that had contributed to them. Overall, the public engaged increasingly with toxicology through the judicial system, agitating for and successfully creating change, in the interests of ensuring justice was done in individual cases and in the future.

    View record details
  • ‘If we never meet again’ : the migration experiences of Emma Barker in nineteenth-century Canterbury.

    Martens, Paulien (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Studies of migration from England to New Zealand in the nineteenth century have tended to neglect the stories of women. My study addresses this gap by examining the migration story of Emma Barker and her family, and analysing in what ways family dynamics resulted in a gendered experience of migration. It explores gender in a relational manner by comparing and contrasting Emma’s experiences with those of her husband, Alfred. This study also adds to the historiography of the Western family and illuminates broader issues of marriage, parenthood and migration networks. It is based on a sequence of letters written by the Barker family to their extended family in England and highlights the importance of personal correspondence in writing migration histories. This study argues for more nuanced stories of migration that challenge accounts which emphasise the alienating aspect of migration for women.

    View record details
  • Inherent contradictions : English women’s literatures’ depictions of First World War service

    Blakey, Katharine (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This dissertation examines the idealisation of middle-class men’s and women’s service during the First World War through the study of five novels written by English women between 1916 and 1918. Historiography on women in the war tends to focus on whether the war represented a “watershed” moment for women’s rights. This dissertation argues that although the war was not a watershed moment, it did create an environment which enabled the contestation of women’s traditional domestic role. Chapter One shows how the novels idealised enlistment as men’s greatest service to the war, reflecting prevalent attitudes within society and reinforcing men’s traditional masculine role. In contrast, Chapter Two shows how women’s service threatened traditional notions of domesticity. Concerns for working-class women’s moral and sexual transgressions influencing middle-class women, underlies the novels promotion of war service’s potential moral benefits. Simultaneously, they emphasise the temporary nature of war service, and women’s eventual return to traditional domesticity. The concurrent idealisation of women’s service and their return to the public sphere shows the war not as a “watershed”, but as an environment which reasserted masculinity and challenged traditional ideas of middle-class women’s domesticity.

    View record details
  • Politicising history : an historiographical analysis of the Sino-Tibetan relationship.

    Smart, Grace (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This dissertation compares the historiography of the Sino-Tibetan relationship as written by a number of Chinese, Tibetan and Western historians. The relationship between China and Tibet has been written about extensively, however the highly politicised nature of modern debate has resulted in an inability of historians to reach a consensus regarding the status of Tibet. This dissertation will use the 1950-1951 occupation of Tibet by China as a foundation from which to compare the historiography of the Sino-Tibetan relationship during the Chinese Tang, Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties, and during the Republic of China. This dissertation will also discuss which historiographical schools and modes of thought have influenced historians. Tibetan historians have been strongly influenced by modern Tibetan ethnocentric nationalism, and by Western romanticised constructions of Tibet. Chinese historians have been influenced by a combination of traditional Chinese thought and Marxist thought. The hegemony of Western political ideas has also caused Tibetan and Chinese historians to frame their arguments around Western concepts. Western historians attempt to be objective, however tend to agree with the interpretation of Tibetan historians. This is largely due to the influence of the romanticised image of Tibet in the West, which creates the idea that Tibet is a peaceful and traditional place which has been violated by Chinese aggression.

    View record details
  • Canterbury – Full Steam Ahead 1863 – 1878 : The History of the Canterbury Provincial Railways

    Cross, Alastair Adrian (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This research essay examines and investigates the history of railway transport in New Zealand by utilising the Canterbury Provincial Railways (in operation 1863-1878) as operated by the Canterbury Provincial Government as a case study. The Canterbury Provincial Railways are considered by New Zealand historians and in particular transport historians to be the beginning of the modern-day New Zealand Railways network and the start of the rail-making era of New Zealand History. I consider the role that the Canterbury Provincial Railways have played between 1863 and 1878, and to what extent the railways benefited the region of Canterbury. In addition, the place of other Provincial attempts at railway construction are also briefly considered and their place in New Zealand’s railway history next to that of the Canterbury Provincial Railways. All previous revisions of the Canterbury Provincial Railways’ history have either been to look at it in a regional rail perspective or to solely focus on the railway, but not within the wider context of Canterbury region, which this research essay seeks to do. Overall, this research essay seeks to develop better the understanding of the place the Canterbury Provincial Railways plays in the wider history not only of the Canterbury region but also New Zealand too.

    View record details
  • Blast From Byzantium : The Alexiad on Crusader-Byzantine Relations During the First Crusade

    Reynolds, Gordon (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In order to rest and regroup the pilgrim masses of the First Crusade collected in the city of Constantinople, modern day Istanbul. Thousands answered the call for help from the Byzantine Emperor, Alexios I Komnenos, far more than he anticipated. These crusaders were culturally different from the Byzantines, in need of provisions, fanatical followers of the Latin Church and well armed. This tense situation was made more troubled as Bohemond of Taranto, who had waged a war against Alexios a decade prior, arrived leading a major contingent of the expedition. The complexity of the relationship between these uneasy-­‐allies has been the topic of much debate amongst historians. This historiographical discourse has been intensified by the dearth of written sources from Byzantine eyewitnesses, the only significant source being The Alexiad, by Anna Komnene. Until recently the majority of historians studying the period treated The Alexiad as an unreliable account. Considered by many to be littered with chronological errors and tainted by the musings of an exceptionally opinionated author. Viewpoints like these are rooted in a culture of distrust surrounding The Alexiad and perhaps a conscious movement by commentators to distance themselves from the pro-­‐Hellenic writings of Steven Runciman. This dissertation is an effort to establish the cultural and political context within which Anna Komnene was writing and how her perspectives were entirely representative of contemporary Byzantine thought. As such, The Alexiad can be seen to be a highly valuable resource in studying the Crusade.

    View record details
  • Peter the Great and British Perceptions of Russia: A study of how the image of Peter informed British ideas of Russia

    Ng, Wai Nam Boswell (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In British eyes, Russia was considered a non-entity before Peter the Great came into the scene. Aside from trade, it was largely irrelevant to British interests. Very few aspects about the nation appealed to the British. Indeed, Russia was considered the home of a group of ignorant, drunken, and brutish people governed by an absolute monarchy. However, by the end of Peter’s reign, Russia was seen in a more positive light. Through the rule of Peter, Russia was able to replace the hitherto powerful Swedish Empire in northern Europe and was firmly established in the Baltic Sea with a powerful navy at its disposal. At the same time, the reforms that characterized Peter’s reign so much also led to a shift in how the British perceived Russia in cultural terms. Breaking a trend that existed close to two centuries, the British began to view Russia as a nation that was progressing towards civilisation at a significant pace. Yet Peter’s image in British eyes was significant in encouraging such changes. Many saw Peter as the heart and soul of Russia, giving rise to a tendency to assess Russia from how they perceived Peter. Throughout his reign, the British came to know Peter for a number of things. He was seen as a competent and ambitious ruler who aimed to raise his empire to the highest degree possible. At the same time, he was also seen as an autocratic reformer who was forcing civilisation upon a backward country. With such images at the back of British minds, it was easy for them to invoke an image of a Russia that was threatening and more civilised than before. These perceptions of Peter therefore helped inform British ideas of Russia in a political and cultural context.

    View record details
  • Evaluating the supplementary road safety package: Models that count

    Irvine, Stephen (2004-10)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    In an attempt to lower the level of road trauma in New Zealand, the Land Transport Safety Authority introduced the Supplementary Road Safety Package (SRSP) in October 1995. The package consists of targeted speed and alcohol enforcement, and features graphic television advertising highlighting the consequences of unsafe driving. Over the first four years the campaign was allocated a budget of NZ$50.06 million and charged with reducing 80 fatalities, 450 serious injuries and 1600 minor injuries. Although a requirement of the package's approval was that it be thoroughly evaluated, no consistent conclusion has been drawn. Recognising the discrete and strictly positive nature of road trauma measures, this dissertation adds to the body of literature by adopting statistical modelling techniques specifically designed for the analysis of such count variables: The Poisson and Negative Binomial regression models. While the Poisson model finds a significant level effect on the number of serious injuries from the SRSP's introduction, no statistically significant effect is found using the more appropriate Negative Binomial model.

    View record details
  • Falcon Forestry Carriage Series 2 : a case study of productivity and operation.

    Bolitho, Callum (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The multiple drivers of workplace safety and increasing productivity are resulting in increased mechanisation within the forestry industry. The use of motorised grapples in cable harvesting is an applicable mechanisation method to the large proportion of steep terrain harvesting in New Zealand. In this dissertation a time study of the Falcon Forestry Carriage Series 2 has been undertaken in order to access its productivity and operation. Mean values of productivity were found to be 54.9m³/PMH for wood extracted from the ground, 64.6m³/PMH for bunched wood and 75.6m³/PMH for excavator fed wood after adjustment for the cycle distance and accumulation type. Longer cycles were found to decrease productivity by 0.15m³/PMH for each meter of cycle distance. Utilisation in the study was found to be 56% of total time which was similar to previous studies. 15% of total study time was accounted for by operational delays, 7% by personal delays and 23% by mechanical delays. Mechanical problems with the carriage occurred 6 times and accounted for 171 minutes or 13.4% of total delay time. Mechanical delay breakdown was similar to that found by McFadzean (2012) who recorded that 15% of total delay time was attributable to carriage mechanical delays. During a study of Operator effect it was found that the inexperienced Operator 3 and Operator 4 had a productivity of 52.2% (not statistically significantly different) and 18.5% (p value <0.05). The effects of accumulation method and cycle distance upon productivity were found to be similar to the results of previous studies, as was the utilisation of time within the study.

    View record details
  • Understanding demand for wood products in New Zealand’s major log markets.

    Drummond, Ryan C.M. (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    New Zealand’s forestry sector is largely reliant on the presence of a strong export market with 57% of the volume harvested being exported of which 99% goes to Japan, the Republic of Korea, China and India. This identifies the need to analyse demand in these countries to better understand their needs in the future. Consumption of wood products per capita is a commonly used metric for estimating demand and was used in this research. Volumes of imports, exports and production were collected from the Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) and data for a range of explanatory variables was collected from a variety of official sources. Historical trends in consumption identified that as countries develop socially and economically their consumption shifts from largely solid wood products such as sawn timber to more processed products such as wood-based panels and paper and paperboard. Consumption was modelled using linear regression techniques to develop models which could be used to forecast consumption in the future. A wide variety of potential explanatory variables were considered and the models presented represent the most effective of these. GDP per capita was found to be the single most effective explanatory variable being highly significant (p<0.01) in all models. Price was also found to be a strong determinant of consumption, understandable as price is a major component of supply and demand dynamics. Measures of construction activity were found to be related to consumption of sawn timber in all studied countries and for wood-based panels in Japan. Forecasts produced for consumption in Japan should be used as only an example of the capability of the models presented herein. More work is required to develop these equations into a form where they can be used to more accurately estimate future consumption.

    View record details
  • Swaggers and society : a New Zealand experience

    Steven, Graeme D. (1979)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    The aims of this study are two-fold. First, to reach an understanding of the swagger, his lifestyle, and his outlook on life. And second, to investigate the relationships between the swagger and various groups in New Zealand society, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The North Otago region was chosen as a base for the study because it has traditionally been regarded as one of the main swagger areas in New Zealand. The main town of Oamaru had a population of 4000 to 6000 in the 1890's, and was neither wholly urban or rural. As the service centre for the North Otago hinterland and a road, rail and sea centre, Oamaru had large numbers of itinerants, passing through the town. In the rural hinterland mixed cropping predominated, and this required large numbers of seasonal workers, which were drawn from outside the region. In Chapter One it is argued that rural itinerant workers were integrated into a rural structure that was both labour intensive and seasonal. Chapter Two discusses the characteristics which separate the swagger from other rural itinerants, which I have called, the "swag-carriers". In Chapter Three the conflict between the swagger and a developing bureaucracy, and middle class ideology in the late nineteenth century, is analysed. In Chapters Four and Five, the attitudes of rural and towns people towards the swagger are investigated. A model based on the value system of "reputation" and "respectability is used in Chapter Six to explain the ambivalence of attitudes towards the swagger, and to investigate an important aspect of the swagger psychology - his self esteem and his individuality.

    View record details