400 results for Undergraduate

  • Exploring the physiological and functional differences between stem cells isolated from the human right atrium and left ventricle

    Donnelly, Hayden (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Recent discovery of resident cardiac stem cells (CSCs), capable of cardiac lineage differentiation and paracrine mediated effects, suggest promise for cardiac tissue repair. The best site in the heart for obtaining CSCs remains to be determined. We therefore aim to investigate the differences between CSCs isolated from the right atrial appendage (RAA) and the left ventricle (LV) in patients undergoing on-pump cardiac surgery. Isolated CSCs were characterized using flow cytometry for the CSC specific surface markers CD90 and CD105. Hematopoietic lineage cells were identified using the CD34 surface marker. To date, approximately 80% of isolated cells (n=10) have been confirmed to be CD34 negative and CD105 positive. To exclude fibroblast contamination, immunofluorescence was performed to detect the expression of β-MHC, confirming the ability of the CSCs to differentiate into a cardiomyocyte lineage. Typically, administered CSCs undergo massive cell death in the first six weeks. Therefore, survival and paracrine factor production under conditions mimicking the microenvironment of the myocardial infarct territory were investigated. This involved measuring levels of apoptosis and production of important paracrine factors, SDF-1α and VEGF-A under conditions of hypoxia (1% O2) and serum starvation for 3 days. This was done via a luminescent caspase 3/7 assay and sandwich ELISA respectively. Results show (n = 3) lower relative caspase activity for RAA compared to LV at a ratio of 0.88 (95% CI 0.71 to 1.07, p = 0.107) and in the setting of serum starvation, hypoxia had a protective effect at a ratio of 0.79 and 0.87 for RAA and LV respectively (95% CI 0.56 to 1.11, p = 0.149 and 95% CI 0.79 to 0.95, p = 0.027). The relative expansion potential was also observed over the first 8 weeks (n=3). However, no statistically significant difference between RAA and LV expansion potential was shown. This is a preliminary study, establishing a foundation for a fair head-to-head comparison of RAA and LV. It is my hope that data collection will continue and with more statistical power, stronger statements will be made about either the equivalency, or the superiority of, one or the other cell types.¬

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  • The Use of the Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI) in General Practice: A Mixed Methods Study

    Ding, Thomas Gregory (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Background Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) is an increasingly prevalent long-term illness globally. The Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI) is a well-established, simple, relatively quick, inexpensive and non-invasive assessment useful in diagnosing and quantifying PAD with varying symptomology. Though literature has documented many theoretical benefits associated with its use, ABPIs are still underutilised in general practice. Aims The study aimed to investigate the usefulness of ABPIs in general practice. Methods This study used quantitative analysis of routine electronic practice data from Mosgiel Health Centre between 2006-2015. The study also analysed thirteen one-to-one interviews with healthcare professionals regarding views on the usefulness of the ABPI in general practice. Results The quantitative arm showed that of 379 patients having ABPI tests over ten years, half were completed to investigate venous compression therapy eligibility and half investigated arterial-related symptoms. Of all patients who had ABPIs, 26% were referred to the vascular department. ABPIs helped to prevent inappropriate referrals in over 70% of cases. Patients living in more socially deprived areas were over-represented in the ABPI group. The qualitative arm showed that GPs are aware that ABPIs are beneficial to patients: through ruling in or out PAD to aid management, to aid triage for hospital-based systems and to implement immediate therapy in the community. Practical barriers were discussed, including cost, time and low patient need. Conclusion There are marked benefits associated with ABPI use in general practice. However, practical barriers need to be overcome before ABPIs are considered as a viable investigation for some GPs.

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  • Hepatitis B in Oman, risk factors and sequelae

    AlHarthi, Rahma (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Background Hepatitis B is a major public health problem worldwide. The prevalence of hepatitis B is dependent on the modes in which it is transmitted. There are two common modes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) spread: vertical (mother to neonate) and the horizontal (via infected blood or body fluids). Chronic infection with HBV can progress to liver cirrhosis and liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma; HCC). Oman is regarded as an intermediate endemicity region and has had neonatal vaccine against HBV since 1990; however, little research has been conducted in Oman regarding risk factors for hepatitis B and its contribution to end stage liver disease and HCC. Aims  To identify the prevalence of major risk factors for acquiring hepatitis B in Omani patients currently infected with HBV (positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)).  To estimate the contribution of hepatitis B to liver cirrhosis in Oman. Methods The prevalence of major risk factors was identified by interviewing HBsAg positive patients using a standard questionnaire. Patients were recruited from outpatient clinics at two tertiary referral hospitals in Oman’s capital city Muscat. Data on patients with liver cirrhosis admitted to two tertiary hospitals in Muscat over a period of seven years was abstracted from medical records. The diagnosis of cirrhosis was confirmed using defined criteria and the aetiology confirmed from the results of diagnostic tests including HBV serology. This data was analysed to estimate the contribution of HBV to cirrhosis in the cohort. Results For the first objective, 279 patients were interviewed. The number of male and female patients was similar, and 75.5% of the participants were aged 20 – 39 years. Antenatal screening was the most common means of detecting HBV infection in women and prior to blood donation was the most common means of identifying HBV infection in men. With respect to HBV transmission risk factors, intra-familial contact with HBV infected persons and behavioural risks such as body piercing (females) and barber shaving (males) were more common than nosocomial risk factors. Knowledge about HBV infection was scarce among our participants. For the second objective, we identified records from 419 patients with cirrhosis. The median age was 59 years and males accounted for two thirds of the total studied population. 97.1% of patients were of Omani ethnicity. There was evidence of previous or current HBV infection (positive anti-bodies to hepatitis B core antigen) in 51.3% of the cirrhotic patients. 21.5% had active HBV (positive HBsAg). Of the patients with current HBV 91.2% were infected with HBV alone while 8.8% were co-infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Hepatitis C was present in 30.5% of cirrhotic patients and nearly half of those patients had evidence of past exposure to HBV. When stratified by gender, HBV infection was more common among male cirrhotic patients compared to females. Conclusions This study found that risk factors for HBV infection in Omani patients include direct contact of infected individuals within a family and exposure to high-risk behaviours such as piercing and barber shaving. Reducing vertical and horizontal transmission of hepatitis B in Oman could be improved by the implementation of routine antenatal screening of pregnant women and a greater focus on contact screening respectively. Future work is required to determine whether the association with behavioural risk factors is causal, particularly piercing and shaving at barber shops. If confirmed, relatively simple and effective interventions could be developed to reduce the risk of horizontal transmission related to these activities. We found that third of the patients identified with liver cirrhosis had past exposure to HBV and 20% had evidence of chronic infection. Most patients were of older age and male sex. This group of patients may benefit from antiviral therapy to prevent decompensation and regular surveillance for early diagnosis and treatment of HCC. Further research is required to assess the role of other exposures (alcohol, co-infection with other viruses) in the prognosis of hepatitis B to cirrhosis in Oman.

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  • Mapping Perspectives on an Ethically Challenging Paediatric Case

    Reyneke, Marizanne (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Objectives This project aims to identify and examine in detail some of the ethically challenging aspects of the care of infants who have serious medical conditions, by looking at a multidisciplinary team (MDT) and whãnau involved in a single neonatal case. An objective is to identify what was especially important to the whãnau during the care of their baby, and examine the perspectives of various MDT members around these factors. A further objective is to identify the differing perspectives of various health professionals as well as the whãnau relating to specific themes identified, and map how these perspectives relate to one another. In order to make more sense of this data, I look at clinical and ethical frameworks that are appropriate to apply to the results of this study. An overarching objective here is to produce information that can inform health professionals, as to enhance their practise collaboratively and effectively in such testing paediatric cases during their professional careers. In particular, the case- related data may constitute a useful resource for inter-professional education sessions. Study design Seven MDT members (transport nurse, social worker, neonatologist, charge nurse, paediatrician, clinical geneticist and midwife) and the whãnau were interviewed using semi-structured qualitative interviews. Interviews were transcribed in full, and then analysed using a grounded theory-lite coding system to extract important themes. Results The analysis revealed several important themes, with each overarching theme encompassing several smaller sub-themes. The themes explored were: 1) Communication 2) Ethical issues 3) Source of perspective The family identified that effective communication from the MDT was a crucial element throughout all stages of their journey with their baby. In general, MDT members also valued communication highly, both within the team itself, and between the team and the whanau. It emerged that different MDT members have different priorities when it came to the way that they used communication. The family emphasised that it was important to them to consider the impact on the family as a whole when it came to ethical decision points. The MDT tended to focus more on the best interest of the baby as an individual. It was found that very few of the MDT members interviewed could recall any specific ethics education, and even fewer MDT members consistently used an ethical framework to assist them when considering ethically complex cases. Conclusion The single in-depth paediatric case study revealed the intricacies involved in making ethical decisions, working well within a multi-disciplinary team, and forming a relationship with the whãnau. It is clear that cases such as these are multi-faceted and that many factors contribute to either a poor or good outcome for the whãnau. Upon analysis and discussion of results and themes, I conclude that using the Family- Centered Care clinical model and Ethic of Care ethical framework in similar cases may show great benefit for both the families and MDTs. Early inter-professional education may be one way of implementing these models and ideas.

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  • Declining Intramuscular Newborn Vitamin K Prophylaxis: An Exploration of Parental Decision Making and Influencing Factors

    Miller, Hayleigh (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Objective Newborn infants are at risk of potentially life-threatening vitamin K deficiency bleeding. This is readily prevented with prophylactic vitamin K at birth. In New Zealand, the recommended route of prophylaxis is intramuscular (IM) but the uptake rates are lower than that of comparable countries. This study investigated the reasoning of parents who opted out of IM vitamin K prophylaxis for their newborn. Study Design Semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifteen families from the Otago/Southland region of New Zealand about their choice to opt out of IM vitamin K. Interview data was analysed using thematic analysis in order to elucidate themes capturing important aspects of parental decision making. Results Parents opt out of IM vitamin K for a variety of reasons. These were clustered into three main themes: parental beliefs and values, concerns about their child’s welfare, and external influencing factors. Parents also raised a number of concerns regarding other perinatal and childhood interventions. Conclusion This study identified factors that influence parental decision making, and lead to a decision to opt out of IM newborn vitamin K prophylaxis. These findings can contribute to the wider body of literature that informs public health initiatives focused on newborn vitamin K prophylaxis.

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  • Following the journey of seven patients with recurrent high grade glioma through hypo-fractionated salvage radiation therapy and beyond

    Knight, Jenny (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Primary glioblastoma multiforme is the main primary brain cancer in adults. It is a diagnosis that carries with it a devastatingly poor prognosis. Best current practice, consisting of debulking surgery, radiation therapy and Temozolomide chemotherapy, results in a mean overall survival of 15-20 months after diagnosis. There is no standard treatment for relapsed high grade glioma. The most promising chemotherapy regimens, using Temozolomide, Bevacizumab and Irinotecan, have resulted in a mean overall survival of 8.8 to 9.3 months from salvage therapy. Several clinical studies have reported a mean overall survival of 3.9 - 12.5 months after salvage hypo-fractionated radiation therapy. The aim of salvage treatment for high grade glioma patients is the palliation of symptoms and maintenance of quality of life. The research presented in this thesis follows the journey of seven patients with recurrent high-grade glioma through their salvage radiation therapy and beyond at Auckland Radiation Oncology between September 2014 and December 2015. The objectives were to 1] gain an insight into the impact of hypo-fractioned re-irradiation on Health Related Quality of Life during and after the completion of salvage treatment and to 2] determine the nature and severity of tumour associated symptoms before, during and after completion of hypo-fractioned re-irradiation. A prospective observational study design was used with a variety of methods of gathering information to document the patients’ journeys. Patients completed the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 and BN-20 quality of life questionnaires to capture self-reported severity of symptoms scores, overall health and quality of life at baseline, during and after treatment. The author attended follow-up consultations with the radiation oncologist to gain an insight into the disease and treatment-related symptoms and their effect on day-to-day life. Any notes taken during the consultations were cross referenced with notes from the treatment radiation therapists and radiation oncologist in the patient file. The author also reviewed patient notes and CT and MRI scans to understand the disease trajectory from primary diagnosis to recurrence and gain details of the radiation therapy treatment plan. The intent was to document treatment-related side effects using the Common Terminology for Adverse Events (CTCAE) adverse events criteria. CTCAE scoring was discontinued after the first patient due to the burden of an additional interview with these vulnerable patients and the similarity of the CTCAE items to those covered in the quality of life questionnaires. Side effects were also discussed during consultations with the radiation oncologist, which the author attended. The journey of each of the seven patients was very distinct. Patient expectations regarding their health and quality of life throughout salvage therapy depended on a combination of age, stage in life, time to relapse, severity of disease symptoms and the extent to which they had accepted their prognosis. All of the patients experienced some level of psychosocial distress. Six patients reported at least “a little worry or depression”; patients also reported feeling at least “a little uncertain about their future”. Salvage re-irradiation to a median dose of 35Gy in 10 fractions was found to be well tolerated although a decrease in overall health and quality of life from baseline was reported in five of the seven patients during the two weeks of treatment. Fatigue, exacerbation of tumour symptoms and disruption to daily life worsened during radiation treatment. A majority of patients responded to salvage re-irradiation with a partial response and six patients had further salvage chemotherapy. Most patients reported an increase in or reasonably stable overall health and quality of life scores after completion of radiation treatment. Limitations of the study included cohort demographics and a short and varied follow-up time. Because of the time constraints of an honours thesis project, only a small number of patients participated. Patients enrolled early in the study were followed for a much longer period of time (up to 15 months) than patients who enrolled later (minimum of five months). Even though this small cohort was very heterogeneous with respect to age, stage in life, time to relapse and salvage treatment, they all attended a private clinic and most likely belonged to a higher socioeconomic class where the pressures of having to keep working to provide for the family were not key factors. The cohort also lacked ethnic diversity as all patients identified themselves as NZ European. The patients themselves were supposed to fill in quality of life questionnaires at the start, during treatment and follow. This did not happen for all time points for all patients because in a few instances the author was not advised of a change in follow-up appointments or could not be released from clinical duties to hand out the questionnaires and in some cases patients were too sick to fill them in. Overall, the experience of this small cohort of patients suggests that hypo-fractionated radiation may be a salvage therapy option for at least some patients with relapsed high grade glioma. One of the major costs of salvage radiation therapy for patients is disruption to everyday life due to the logistics of attending daily treatment sessions. It is therefore appropriate that it is delivered over a relatively short period of two weeks. The study further identified the need for more research into the physical and psychosocial wellbeing of high grade glioma patients and the best ways to support them in coping with the challenges that living with an incurable brain tumour presents.

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  • The Overlap of Hyperventilation Syndrome with Asthma and Anxiety

    Shin, Hayden Hyunjae (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Hyperventilation Syndrome (HVS) is a functional breathing disorder characterised by recurrent or chronic changes in breathing pattern causing respiratory and non-respiratory complaints that cannot be attributed to any specific medical diagnosis. HVS is thought to be common yet often unrecognised or misdiagnosed as ‘difficult-to-control’ asthma. HVS can co-exist with asthma and is also a differential diagnosis of asthma. There are also similarities and overlaps between HVS and anxiety disorders. There is no gold standard for the diagnosis of HVS, but the Nijmegen Questionnaire (NQ), a 16-item symptom checklist for HVS symptoms, is most commonly used in both clinical and research settings. A high NQ indicates HVS. However, this questionnaire includes several symptoms that are also associated with asthma and anxiety disorders. This casts doubts as to whether the NQ can distinguish HVS as a distinct clinical entity. Some view HVS as undiagnosed asthma, while others consider that it is a form of panic disorder. The aim of this thesis was to explore the overlap of HVS with asthma and anxiety in a general population sample. The prevalence of HVS and its association with asthma diagnosis, symptoms, objective markers of severity, and anxiety diagnosis at age 38 years were studied in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a longitudinal investigation of 1,037 individuals born between 1972 and 1973 in Dunedin, New Zealand. Nearly one in 10 Study members had HVS according to the NQ and it was approximately twice as common in women as men (12.1% vs. 6.5%, respectively; P = 0.003). There was a substantial overlap between HVS and asthma with up to one-third of asthmatic women (35.4%) and one-eighth of asthmatic men (13.5%) potentially affected with co-morbid HVS. A different pattern of NQ symptom scores was found in people with only HVS compared to that of people with only asthma. Additionally, the objective markers of asthma including FEV1/FVC ratio and bronchodilator response differed significantly between those with only HVS and those with only asthma, suggesting that HVS can be distinguished from asthma using the NQ and is not merely undiagnosed asthma that is falsely detected by the NQ due to overlapping symptoms. Asthmatics with high NQ scores showed higher symptom scores for all 16 NQ items, rather than scoring high only for the asthma-like symptoms suggesting that these high NQ scores represented co-morbid HVS rather than more severe asthma. Further, there were no differences observed in the objective markers of asthma between those with both asthma and HVS and those with asthma alone. A large overlap was also found between HVS and anxiety disorders, especially with panic disorder (PD). The high NQ scores found in those with both HVS and panic disorder could not solely be explained by co-morbid panic disorder diagnosis: despite a large overlap in symptoms, only approximately half of the total NQ score could be attributed to panic disorder and HVS is thus likely to be distinct from panic. This is the first descriptive study of the prevalence and the overlap of HVS with asthma and anxiety in a large population-based sample. A substantial number of young adults in the general population have HVS and it is more common in those with asthma or anxiety disorders. It is important to assess for, and recognise HVS in these contexts.

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  • The effect of polymeric formula on enterocyte differentiation

    Budd, Gabrielle (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Exclusive Enteral Nutrition (EEN) is commonly used in the management of Crohn's disease (CD). Polymeric formulae (PF), comprising whole proteins along with the daily requirements of vitamins and minerals, are commonly used for EEN. The mechanism by which several weeks of PF treatment induces remission is incompletely understood and appears to be a combination of modulation of the intestinal microbiota and anti-inflammatory effects on the intestinal mucosa. These include a reduction in inflammatory cytokine production and improved barrier function.The hypothesis for the current work was that PF caused an increased rate of differentiation of enterocytes at physiological concentrations. This was tested using Caco-2 cell culture and murine enteroids as in vitro models of the intestine.When Caco-2 cells were treated with PF, it caused an increase in intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) expression and activity, a marker of enterocyte differentiation. This was associated with a decrease in cell proliferation and viability. Murine enteroids dissociated after several hours of exposure to PF, possibly due to interference with Wnt signalling. It was hypothesised that the observed effect of PF on Caco-2 cells might be mediated via the vitamin D receptor (VDR). However, when the activity of this receptor was reduced through use of an inhibitor, no change in PF-induced IAP activity and/or decrease in proliferation was observed. This suggests that the VDR pathway is not the primary driver of the accelerated differentiation seen in PF-treated cells.

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  • 24 – hour oxygen saturation recordings at discharge in preterm infants

    Wellington, Grace Charlotte (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Preterm infants have an immature respiratory system and therefore experience an increased number of respiratory pauses and oxygen desaturations. There is now advanced pulse oximetry technology that can record oxygen saturations every two seconds for extended periods of time. There has been insufficient literature that reports the incidence of intermittent hypoxia at time of discharge home from the neonatal unit in preterm infants using new generation oximeters. These respiratory events preterm infants experience have been shown to have some effect on neurodevelopment, but their effect on growth has not been investigated before. The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intermittent hypoxia in preterm infants at time of discharge home from the neonatal unit. The study also addresses the issue of artefact within oximetry recordings and compares results from automatically edited, manually edited and unedited oximetry data, as well as determining whether overnight 12-hour recordings are of equal value to full 24-hour recordings. The secondary aim of this study was to determine whether intermittent hypoxia at discharge has any effect on post discharge growth and to determine changes in amount of intermittent hypoxia from discharge oximetry to oximetry one-month post discharge. We recruited preterm infants from the Wellington neonatal intensive care unit. A 24-hour pulse oximetry recording was performed immediately prior to the infant’s discharge home. These oximetry recordings were analysed and median values for measures reported from oximetry recordings were determined. Rules to manually edit oximetry data were created and applied to oximetry recordings. These manually edited reports were then compared with automatically edited and unedited reports. Each recording was also edited to resemble a 12-hour overnight recording and this was compared to the full 24-hour recording. Infants born less than 32 weeks gestational age were further followed up with weekly growth measurements for one-month. A repeat 24-hour oximetry recording was performed at one-month post discharge for these infants and compared to their discharge recording. We report high rates of intermittent hypoxia in preterm infants at time of discharge home from the neonatal unit. For example the median 4% oxygen desaturation index (DSI 4%). was 57.9 events per hour. The incidence of these events decreased with advancing post-menstrual age. Rates of intermittent hypoxia one month post discharge were greatly decreased from discharge with improvements of 42% - 57% seen, with DSI 4% reducing to 25.5 events per hour. This study did not show a significant association between intermittent hypoxia and post-discharge growth, possibly because of the small sample size in this study subgroup. There were few clinically relevant differences on reports edited manually compared with automatically edited reports, with some difference when compared to unedited reports. We recommend automatically editing oximetry reports as this gives similar results to manual editing for the majority of measures, however the nadir of the fall in oxygen saturation is often artefact, and even after automatic editing is the one measure that may remain false. The 24-hour oximetry reports were clinically similar to 12-hour recordings and therefore we suggest 12-hour oximetry studies are sufficient.

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  • Groundwater modelling of the Omaha aquifer system

    Martin, G. A. (1994)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    55 p. ; 27 cm. Bibliography: p.53-55. University of Otago department : Surveying

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  • "Unfortunate folk" : a study of the social context of committal to Seacliff Asylum 1928-1937

    Holloway, Judith Anne (1991)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    137 leaves :ill., facsims ; 30 cm. Bibliography: leaves 134-137. Typescript (photocopied)

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  • The hill of health : aspects of community at Waipiata Sanatorium 1923-1961

    Haugh, Susan Margaret (2005)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    102 leaves, [21] p. of plates :ill., facsim., map, ports. ; 30 cm. Bibliography: leaves 101-102.

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  • Potions, pills and poisons : quackery in New Zealand, circa 1900-1915.

    Gray, Jennifer Margaret (1980)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    112 leaves ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 108-112).

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  • Jurassic sediments at Chaslands mistake.

    Geary, Geoffrey Clive (1976)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    v, 34 leaves ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Geology

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  • Mineralogy and geochemistry of paralavas in Otago and Southland, New Zealand

    Rait, Rachel Jane (1992)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    74 leaves :ill., 1 map ; 30 cm. Bibliography: leaves 71-74. Errata note on t.p. University of Otago department: Geology.

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  • Why did so many babies die? : infant mortality and causes of death in Dunedin, 1900-1920

    Schumacher, Conrad (1998)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    ix, 93 leaves :ill., maps ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. Typescript (photocopy).

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  • Preventable deaths? : the 1918 influenza pandemic in Nightcaps.

    Bulling, Gillian M. (1991)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Typescript (photocopied)

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  • Attitudes to marriage in selected New Zealand periodicals, 1960-1969

    Bannister, Carole A. (1991)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    ix, 73 leaves ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. Typescript (photocopy).

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  • 11 week Beta-Hydroxy beta-Methylbutyric acid (HMB) supplementation: Effects on body composition and exercise performance in trained athletes.

    McIntosh, Nicholas Dean (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: Originally used in the farming industry to ‘bulk up’ cattle, interest in the leucine metabolite, beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), has been growing following a clinical trial which demonstrated significant improvements in strength and body composition in humans. Subsequent trials reaffirmed that previously untrained individuals benefitted from supplementation. However, trials involving athletes have demonstrated mixed results with short (0.05), nor was there a statistically significant difference with respect to skin fold measurements (p>0.05). Conclusion: The increase in body mass found in this study is consistent with other long term (>6 week) HMB supplementation studies. These gains in body mass may have influenced running performance as a larger mass is required to be moved. As no significant differences in body composition or strength were seen, the findings of this study suggest caution needs to be taken when supplementing with HMB as negative performance effects may occur. Therefore close attention to the type of activities required by the athlete needs to be considered prior to supplementation.

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  • The geology of the Round Hill area, upper Hakataramea Valley

    Falconer, Mark Lloyd (2000)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    viii, 79 [7] leaves ; 26 cm. Bibliography: l. [84-86] University of Otago department: Geology.

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