404 results for Undergraduate

  • Low country Liz : the making of a rural Southland woman

    Crawford, Jenny (1995)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    The wealth of archives and primary material left by Elvira Begg presents an exciting opportunity to examine as closely as possible the histories of rural Southland women. It was the discovery of these treasures that first inspired me to write about rural women's history. The focus of this work centres on the experiences of an educated city girl who met and married a young man with a farming background. Personal diaries, a collection of poems and an unpublished autobiography left by Mrs Begg form the basis of this study. Elvira's life will be traced chronologically, but the central focus will be on the transition from city to farm life, and how the experience affected this woman. The aim is to examine her life in Christchurch and the intellectual environment of Canterbury University, then look at the impact of the transition to an isolated sheep station in Eastern Southland. Christchurch during the 1930s provides the background to Elvira's life as an educated city girl. Chapter Two deals with her initial experiences and first impressions of rural New Zealand. In Chapter Three, entitled 'The Making of a Farmer's Wife', the focus is on the way Elvira adapted to the new environment over the years. Rural New Zealand between the 1940s and 1960s provides the historical context for her experiences in Southland. I will also examine Elvira's unique response to the challenges of rural life, in particular looking at her writings under the pseudonym 'Low Country Liz'. One woman's life also raises theoretical issues relating to women's biography. Questions of identity and constructions of 'self' are relevant in this context. […] This study does not aspire to make broad conclusions about the experiences of rural women. Rather it is hoped that an examination of this woman's life will help to illuminate aspects of life in rural Southland, whether by illustrating homogeneity or highlighting diversity. The intention is to expose the myth of the stereotypical 'Southland farmer's wife' and to show the diversity of backgrounds which have shaped the stereotype of Southland women. [extract from Introduction]

    View record details
  • A Survey of Māori Medical Graduates from Te Whare Wānanga o Otāgo

    Barnett, Lauren Helena (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    INTRODUCTION Māori health workforce development is an important part of the strategy for improving Māori health and reducing inequalities and Māori doctors are an important part of this workforce. This research aimed to identify the nature and level of contribution made to Māori health by Māori medical graduates from Otago. It further aimed to investigate Māori medical graduate perspectives in relation to their medical education, current work and professional development, expectations and needs as Māori health practitioners. METHODS Māori medical graduates from Otago were surveyed using either an internet-based or postal survey to determine their roles in Māori health and their perspectives. The University of Otago Alumni Database was used to identify this population and contact them. There were 77 respondents in total with 70 completing the questionnaire fully for analysis. A descriptive analysis of the data was undertaken using Survey Monkey, Excel and SPSS. Although mainly quantitative, free-text comments made by participants were also analysed for themes. RESULTS There was a 53.4% response rate for the internet survey and a 19.4% response rate for the postal Survey. Respondents reflected a diversity of Māori doctors across gender, age, stage in career, locality of work and roles in Māori health with the overall population being relatively youthful (67% under 40 years). Time spent in Māori health varied with 22% spending 50% or more of their time on Māori health and 44% working in areas of high Māori population. Respondents reported many additional roles in Māori health spanning teaching, public health and leadership roles. The number of roles was greater among senior doctors (mean number 4.75) when compared with junior doctors (1.55). Māori graduates reported high levels of expectations, a need to be culturally and clinically competent and a mixed-experience of colleges, training programmes, work places and medical school. CONCLUSION This research strongly supports the hypothesis that Māori doctors are contributing greatly to Māori health. This contribution includes working in areas of high Māori population, in working with Māori health providers and across a broad range of roles and responsibilities spanning community, professional, leadership, academic, public health and training support roles. The involvement in Māori health is spread across all areas of the Māori medical workforce and appears to begin during registrar training, growing as doctors’ progress in their careers. Findings from the perspectives of Māori doctors indicate high levels of passion for Māori health, a need for both clinical and cultural competency and high levels of expectation on Māori doctors to be competent in Māori health. Understanding and support of Māori doctors during training, in the Medical Colleges and workplaces varies considerably indicating a positive direction by some Colleges and workplaces however inconsistent progress in meeting the support needs of Māori doctors. These findings provide a valuable platform for discussion with a range of stakeholders about the needs of Māori doctors and a valuable platform for Māori health practitioner professional development, starting at University.

    View record details
  • Cancer Stem Cells in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Tongue

    Baillie, Ranui Francesca (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: Given the discovery of cancer stem cells (CSCs) within haematological and solid tumours and the expression of primitive markers by infantile haemangioma, it was hypothesised that a CSC population would also be present in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC). A deeper understanding of the cells that drive tumourigenesis is required for the development of mechanism-based therapies for OTSCC. Aims: This study aimed to identify and characterise the CSC population within OTSCC based on their protein and gene expression profiles. Methods: Immunohistochemical staining, Western Blotting, mass spectrometry and Nanostring analysis were employed to investigate the expression of a panel of proteins and genes in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, and snap frozen tissues of OTSCC from 21 patients. Markers used include epithelial cancer markers (p63 and EMA), CSC markers (CD44, CD133 and SOX2) and embryonic stem cell (ESC) markers (Oct-4, Nanog and pSTAT3). Results: Widespread and overlapping expression of p63, EMA, CD44, SOX2, pSTAT3, Nanog and Oct-4 was identified within the OTSCC. Co-expression of CD44, SOX2, Oct-4, Nanog and pSTAT3, was found within the OTSCC cells, while cells scattered within the peri-tumoural stroma expressed CD44, CD133, pSTAT3, Nanog and Oct-4. A CD44+/SOX2+/Nanog+/Oct-4+/pSTAT3+ but CD133-/EMA-/p63- CSC population was identified in OTSCC. Expression of CSC and ESC markers by differentiated phenotype structures, and the presence of polyploid giant cancer cells that are CD44+/Nanog+ were novel findings. Conclusions: The unique widespread distribution of the CSC population with co-expression of epithelial cancer cell, CSC and ESC markers within OTSCC suggests that these cells are comprised of several overlapping sub-populations that are organised hierarchically within the tumour. The lack of CD133 expression in OTSCC tumour cells brings into question the utility of this protein as a CSC marker. The findings demonstrate a unique expression signature for the CSC population within the OTSCC samples investigated and support a hierarchical CSC model of carcinogenesis, while the novel findings provide interesting avenues for further research.

    View record details
  • Fatigue in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Al-Mandhari, Rashid Abdullah (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Introduction: Fatigue is a common yet undertreated symptom in patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Treating underlying inflammation lead to improved health outcomes and fatigue. However, fatigue can persist in remission. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate fatigue in IBD and relate to possible contributing factors. Method: Patients were identified through the Episoft database. Following consent, all patients were provided with a questionnaire regarding demographics, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, CDAI and SCCAI, Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI), multi-dimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI). Patients were asked to complete a full blood count and faecal calprotectin (FCP). Fatigued remission patients without evidence of anaemia and with depleted iron stores (serum ferritin <0.001). Disease indices and FCP but not CRP were significantly associated with fatigue. Younger patients, females, those with a shorter time since diagnosis and patients following a diet complained of more fatigue. There was no significant difference between diseases. Patients in remission but with depleted iron stores (n=13) complained of significantly more fatigue than those with sufficient iron stores (p=0.012). Of those, 7 patients received i.v. iron leading to significant improvement in fatigue levels after four weeks. Conclusion: Fatigue is multifactorial and highly prevalent in IBD even in remission. Reduced serum ferritin is associated with fatigue also in remission.

    View record details
  • A century of land tenure on the Benmore Sheep Station.

    Mains, N. J. (1976)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    19 p., [2] leaves of plates :ill. ; 27 cm. Includes bibliographical references.

    View record details
  • The snow hazard in Mackenzie County : farmers' perceptions and adjustments.

    Bray, Janet Constance (1981)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    104 leaves ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Geography.

    View record details
  • Mutations in the WNT mediator, DVL1, cause an osteosclerotic form of Robinow Syndrome

    Bunn, Kieran James (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    This project aimed to clinically and biochemically characterise a novel phenotype which we have named Robinow Syndrome – Osteosclerotic type (RS-OS). Robinow Syndrome (RS) is a rare form of mesomelic dwarfism defined by a distinctive facial gestalt known as “fetal facies” – a combination of features including hypertelorism and midface hypoplasia. RS can be caused by loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding components of planar cell polarity WNT signalling. Osteosclerosis is associated with gain-of-function mutations in mediators of a different aspect of WNT signalling, the canonical WNT pathway. This thesis details three sporadic cases of RS-OS. Before this project began a combination of next generation and Sanger sequencing identified that two of these individuals had similar heterozygous de novo mutations in gene for the pan-WNT component DVL1, which has not previously been associated with RS. A third case was identified during this project and Sanger sequencing revealed another, similar, de novo mutation in DVL1. All three DVL1 mutations fall within the 14th exon and cause a -1 frameshift which predicts a DVL1 product with the wild type C-terminal sequence replaced by a novel amino acid sequence, which is shared across all three affected individuals. We hypothesised that these DVL1 mutations cause osteosclerosis through a gain-of-function leading to an increase in canonical WNT signalling. Transcript from cell lysates of cultured dermal fibroblasts taken from an affected individual were analysed by Sanger sequencing and restriction enzyme digest revealed that the mutation-bearing mRNA was endogenously expressed. Transient transfection of mouse C2C12 cells with EGFP-tagged DVL1 constructs showed similar protein levels between mutant and wild type DVL1 with fluorescent Western blotting. Taken together these experiments showed that the mutant allele is endogenously transcribed as a persistent mRNA, and that the majority of the protein product of that transcript is stable. Canonical WNT signalling was studied with a transient transfection-based TOPFlash assay. These revealed that, paradoxical to the osteosclerotic phenotype, the mutant DVL1 was significantly less active in the canonical WNT pathway than wild type DVL1. However the co-expression of the mutant DVL1 alongside the wild type DVL1 lead to a significant (~3-fold, P < 0.01) increase in canonical WNT activity over the same amount of wild type DVL1 expressed alone. This co-expression may explain the clinical osteosclerosis: the affected individuals are heterozygous for the DVL1 mutations thus are likely to co-express mutant and wild type DVL1. This work establishes that novel mutations in DVL1, a gene previously not associated with RS, causes an osteosclerotic form of RS. These mutations are likely to lead to osteosclerosis through a gain-of-function mechanism, with an increase in canonical WNT signalling. However this gain-of-function, in vitro, depends upon the presence of wild type DVL1 alongside the mutant DVL1. This wild type-dependent gain-of-function is, to our knowledge, unique amongst Mendelian disorders.

    View record details
  • Skin cancer in IBD patients treated with immunomodulators

    Bahi, Morwan (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Background Both NMSC and IBD primarily manifest in the Caucasian population. Given the predominance of Caucasians in the New Zealand population, and New Zealand’s specific latitude and ozone layer depletion, it is not surprising that NZ has amongst the highest rates of both IBD and NMSC. This is a major concern as thiopurine immunosuppression in IBD patients in NZ predisposes these patients to even higher risk of NMSC, given the peak background levels of the disease. Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the rate of non-melanoma skin cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease treated with thiopurine immunomodulators (azathioprine and mercaptopurine) in New Zealand. Methods 180 thiopurine-immunosuppressed IBD patients from Dunedin and North Shore (Auckland) were examined to investigate the incidence of NMSC. Age- and gender-matched controls were recruited in both centres. All patients and controls completed a consent form and study questionnaire. Participants then received a full body skin examination to identify the presence of a suspicious skin lesion. Suspicious lesions were filmed and reviewed by the study dermatologist who then made recommendations as to which lesions require further following by the patient’s general practitioner. Results 359 participants were recruited (Auckland controls n=87, Auckland patients n=83, Dunedin controls n=92, Dunedin patients n=97) with a mean age of 41.4. Overall 43.2% were male. Among the 180 patients, AZA doses were available for 157 with 145 known to have used AZA for at least 6 months (median duration 42 mo, range 6 mo–300 mo). Out of the 145 patients who had received AZA, 13 cases of skin cancers were recalled, compared to 6 among the 201 who did not receive AZA. An additional 16 suspicious lesions were found among the AZA group (including 2 for patients already with a history of skin cancer) and 8 among the non-AZA group. Based on the mean 60.4 months of AZA use reported, this would give crude incidence rates for skin cancer or suspicious lesions of 37/1000 patient years for the AZA group and 14/1000 patient years for the non-exposed group. From unadjusted regression, AZA use of 6 mo or more was associated with higher risk of skin cancer or suspicious lesions (RR 2.67, 95% CI 1.40–5.10, p=0.003). This association persisted after separately adjusting for confounders (skin complexion, age, gender, tanning bed use, sunblock use and duration of sun exposure). Conclusion The results of this project support reports of increased risk of NMSC in IBD patients with use of thiopurines, as suggested by international studies. Despite peak background rates of NMSC in New Zealand, thiopurines raised NMSC risk even further. It was also evident immunosuppressed IBD patients were generally unaware of their increased NMSC risk and experience poor sun-safety. The majority of patients denied prior skin checks. As a result of our findings, it is recommended that IBD patients be advised regarding NMSC and sun safety, and also be scheduled for regular skin monitoring. These services can be provide by the IBD nurse.

    View record details
  • The Minimally Conscious State: A Snapshot : An introduction to the state, and its current management in clinical practice

    Corbett, Jared Michael (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    The Minimally Conscious State is a relatively new state, defined in order to separate patients who show signs of conscious awareness from those who are otherwise vegetative. Extensive research in this area has allowed for production of a definition, and from that, application of diagnostic testing and management strategies, usually adapted from those previously used in vegetative patients. There has been much research around the applicability of these tests and strategies in situations of minimally conscious states, including research by Owen and Coleman, which found that bedside assessment of awareness might not be sensitive to changes in consciousness in these patients. In this thesis I argue that until we have clear and reproducible diagnostic and prognostic guidelines, situations of minimally conscious patients should be approached carefully, and with a patient-centered view of management. This is consistent with work by Honeybul et al., which describes concepts such as the Risk of Unacceptable Badness (RUB), substantial benefit and futility. A patient-centered sanctity of life clause should be applied in these situations, essentially a consideration as to what each patient would consider just and unjust procedures: procedures that would harm what they consider to be a life well lived. I also include discussion about previous legal cases of patients either in vegetative states or other similar disorders of consciousness, particularly in terms of how they were viewed in court i.e. whether there were any particular commitments to clauses such as sanctity of life. Ultimately decisions in these situations should be kept out of the courtroom; in order to do that, doctors need to be considerate of patient world-views, and aware of concepts such as sanctity of life and their applications.

    View record details
  • Management and allocation of fresh water in New Zealand:

    Bartrum, Lisa Cherie (2004)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    93 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 69-80). University of Otago department: Law.

    View record details
  • Falling branches, dying roots? : bank branch closure in small towns

    McKirdy, Callum Blair (2000)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    iii, 140 leaves ; 30 cm. Bibliography: leaves 134-140. University of Otago department: Geography.

    View record details
  • A world of (linguistic) possibility : the rights-consistent interpretive directives of the New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990 and the United Kingdom Human Rights Act 1998

    Fenton, Bridget (2007)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    iv, 89 leaves :col. ill., maps (some folded) ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 84-89) University of Otago department: Law.

    View record details
  • Child Mortality after Discharge from a Health Facility Following Suspected Pneumonia, Meningitis and Septicaemia in Rural Gambia

    Chhibber, Aakash Varun (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Background Two years away from 2015, the decline in child mortality is not fast enough to reach Millennium Development Goal 4. The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) is a strategy that simplifies management of child health. Beyond effective disease management, IMCI recommendations for care following illnesses are based on limited evidence from the field. The aim of this project was to find (1) the magnitude of and (2) risk factors for child mortality following discharge from a health facility in a low-income setting. Methods This study used an established population-based surveillance system for suspected invasive pneumococcal disease in Upper River Region, The Gambia, West Africa. Children that survived admission for suspected pneumonia, meningitis or septicaemia at the Region’s only referral centre (Basse Major Health Centre, Upper River Region) were followed for 180 days after discharge. Vitality status monitored by the DSS informed time-to-death information in a survival analysis that identified predictors of post-discharge mortality. Two multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were constructed. Model A described the clinical syndrome on admission (provisional diagnosis) and risk of post-discharge mortality. Model B used a reverse step-wise approach to find pre-discharge risk factors for mortality following discharge. Results The cohort that survived admission had higher mortality rates than the background rate in the community. Overall, 105 (2.8%) of 3735 patients died during the 6 months of follow-up. Half of the deaths occurred within 45 days of discharge. Approximately half as many patients died in the six months following discharge as died during hospital admission. Age stratified post-discharge mortality rates were three to six times higher than community mortality rates. In addition to demonstrating the protective effect of increasing age at discharge (HR 0.98 [95%CI: 0.96, 0.99] for every month increase in age), Model A showed that, compared to pneumonia alone, a provisional diagnosis of: pneumonia with visible signs of severe malnutrition had a HR 8.74 (95%CI: 4.93, 15.49); meningitis with visible signs of severe malnutrition had a HR of 13.90 (95%CI: 5.43, 35.58); sepsis with visible signs of severe malnutrition had a HR 18.79 (95%CI: 11.65, 30.32). Model B showed independent risk factors associated with post-discharge mortality were: the presence of neck stiffness on assessment (HR 17.60 [95%CI: 7.36, 42.10]); low mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) (<10.5cm, HR 11.52 [4.59, 28.90]); visible signs of severe malnutrition (HR 3.94 [95%CI: 2.11, 7.36]); non- medical discharge (HR 6.22 [95%CI: 2.98, 13.01]); discharge during dry season (HR 2.33 [95%CI: 1.44, 3.77]); decreasing peripheral arterial haemoglobin oxygen saturation (HR 0.95 [95%CI: 0.93, 0.98] per percent increase); decreasing haemoglobin concentration (HR 0.82 [95%CI: 0.74, 0.90]) per unit g/dL increase); and decreasing axillary temperature (HR 0.70 [0.58, 0.84] per unit oC increase). Conclusion Gambian children in Upper River Region with suspected invasive pneumococcal disease are at increased risk of death following discharge from a health facility, and most of these deaths occur early. There are identifiable risk factors for death, including neck stiffness, low MUAC, visible signs of severe malnutrition, non-medical discharge, discharge during dry season, decreasing peripheral arterial haemoglobin oxygen saturation, decreasing haemoglobin concentration and decreasing axillary temperature. These data add to the evidence base needed to inform the development key guidelines and may be helpful towards development of a tool with clinical utility to identify children for intervention after discharge from hospital.

    View record details
  • A promised land? : Russian refugees in New Zealand after 1945

    McFarland, Paulette R. (1997)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    vii, 68 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. Cover title. Typescript (photocopy).

    View record details
  • Access to irrigation water : private property rights applied to water

    Milmine, Craig A. (2000)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    58 leaves, [3] leaves of plates :ill., maps ; 27 cm. University of Otago department: Geography.

    View record details
  • The righteousness which exalteth a nation : prohibition in Dunedin 1919-1923

    Blackman, Anna Ruth (1987)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    iv, 78, [3] leaves :ill., ports. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references.

    View record details
  • Rib Fractures in Infants: Retrospective Survey of Fractures and Biomechanical Study.

    Blackburne, William Bligh (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Literature suggests that rib fractures are highly associated with abuse and the present understanding is that antero-posterior compression associated with the ‘shaken baby syndrome’ is their cause. However, this mechanism rests on a number of assumptions with little experimental data to support them. Recent work using a porcine model of fractures suggests that, in the case of lateral fractures this may be highly unlikely. This work shows a feasible alternate mechanism, that of blunt force trauma (BFT), for the cause of these lateral fractures. A piglet model is used and shows the ease with which ribs fracture as a result of BFT, compared to the difficulty of fracture seen previously in compressive injury. The initial development of a computational simulation of these ribs for use in injury scenarios is also outlined here. Secondly, skeletal surveys from New Zealand’s largest children’s care facility, Starship Hospital, were examined to give a picture of non-accidental injury (NAI) and how its patterns compare with accidental injury in New Zealand. It has been found that, as in foreign studies, there are a number of lesions highly associated with abuse and these include rib fractures, which are highly specific (97%) for NAI. Unusuallyhigh frequencies of lateral-type rib fractures (46.4%) were found and half the cases were found to be unilateral. This is not wholly in line with the currently accepted idea that rib fracture is due to antero-posterior compression, in which bilateral, posterior fractures are said to be most common. Overall, this work brings into question the traditional mechanism of rib fractures, provides a highly useful snapshot of abusive injury in NZ and also sets a strong foundation for future work.

    View record details
  • Review of a multidisciplinary team approach to patient positioning in head-and-neck cancer: a quantitative analysis

    Moore, Sarah (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Accurate patient positioning is extremely important in radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer. With the introduction of three-dimensional cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) at the Wellington Blood and Cancer Centre (WBCC), it was agreed that positioning accuracy required improvement. This led to the establishment of a multidisciplinary team (MDT) focused on patient positioning. Following a number of process changes made by the MDT, improvements in setup accuracy were observed but not formally quantified. The aim of this thesis was to retrospectively quantify setup accuracy at WBCC, using CBCT images of 96 patients treated for head-and-neck cancer. On average 7 CBCT scans per patient were sequentially registered using each of the following match structures: C1-C3, C3-C5, C5-C7, C7-caudal, mandible occipital bone and the larynx. This enabled quantification of patient deformation as the measure of setup accuracy, by calculating the position of each structure relative to C1-C3. Statistical Process Control (SPC) was then used to assess trends in setup accuracy over time, allowing identification of specific time points where improvements occurred and correlation with process changes to be made. The multiple rigid registration protocol and deformation values calculated for this patient cohort clearly demonstrated the relative movement of anatomical sub regions in the head-and-neck. SPC charts showed that a significant and consistent reduction in deformation was achieved since the instigation of the MDT. A reduction in the magnitude and variation of the patient systematic 3D-deformation vector was observed, from 2.8 mm ± 0.1 mm (1 S.D.) in 2011 to 0.9 ± 0.0 mm (1 S.D.) in late 2013/early 2014. Statistical correlation analysis revealed that the introduction of new head supports (p = 0.003), as well as retraining of staff in making immobilisation equipment (p = 0.003) had a significant impact on patient systematic deformation. Both of these changes were actions initiated by the multidisciplinary team, which shows that a multidisciplinary approach to patient positioning had a positive impact on setup accuracy in our department.

    View record details
  • The role of cytoskeletal elements in the trafficking of KCa3.1 to the basolateral membrane of polarised epithelial cells

    Farquhar, Rachel (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    The intermediate conductance, Ca2+-activated K+ channel (KCa3.1) is targeted to the basolateral membrane in polarized epithelia where it plays an essential role in promoting trans-epithelial ion transport. KCa3.1 is found in many tissues in the body and plays an important role in many physiological and pathological processes (e.g., regulation of salt and fluid transport in the gastrointestinal tract, atherosclerosis, sickle cell disease and asthma). Functional KCa3.1 must be targeted to the basolateral membrane, a process that is dependent upon proper cytoskeletal function. The cytoskeleton is comprised of actin and microtubule filaments. Actin filaments are comprised of polymerised G-actin monomers bound to form filamentous F-actin strands. Microtubules are long filamentous structures comprised of tubulin subunits, made from α-tubulin and β-tubulin monomers. This study examines the role of microfilaments and microtubules in the trafficking of KCa3.1 to the basolateral membrane of polarised epithelial cells. To address this, Fischer Rat Thyroid cells grown on filter inserts to form a confluent epithelium were stably transfected with the Biotin Ligase Acceptor Peptide (BLAP)-KCa3.1 construct. This construct allowed for the selective labeling of basolaterally expressed KCa3.1 using streptavidin. Selective labeling of membrane bound KCa3.1 allowed for the measurement of changes in KCa3.1 expression, in response to drugs that disrupt cytoskeletal elements, to reflect changes in KCa3.1 located on the basolateral membrane. This measure allowed for a direct correlation to be drawn between targeted disruption of specific cytoskeletal elements, e.g. microtubules and microfilaments, and expression of basolaterally-located KCa3.1. PCR was used to determine the mRNA expression levels of KCa3.1 in stably transfected cell lines and SDS-PAGE techniques were employed to investigate protein expression levels of KCa3.1. Western blotting was used to explore the effects of Cytochalasin D (Cyto D), Latrunculin A (Lat A), and Myosin Light Chain Inhibitor-7 (ML-7) which inhibit the function of actin (Cyto D, Lat A) and myosin light chain kinase (ML-7) respectively. Toxicity tests were performed to determine cell survival under a range concentrations of 0-20 μM (0, 3, 5 hr) for all three drugs with cell survival reduced with 20 μM at t = 5 hr for Cyto D and Lat A. Cyto D was administered over intervals of 0, 3 and 5 hr at 10 μM resulting in a decreased relative expression of KCa3.1 (compared to control) of 0.6±0.14 at t = 3 and further decrease in the expression of the channel at t = 5 hr with a relative expression of 0.12±0.035 (n = 5, p < 0.05). Lat A was also administered over intervals of 0, 3 and 5 hr at 10 μM causing a relative reduction in the expression of KCa3.1 at the basolateral membrane compared to the control. At t = 3 hr the expression of KCa3.1 was reduced to 0.7±0.065 and decreased to 0.3±0.049 at t = 5 hr (n = 4, p < 0.001). Finally, cells treated with microtubule inhibitor ML-7 showed a relative reduction in KCa3.1 expression of 0.55±0.12 at t = 3 hr, the expression was further decreased to 0.33±0.11 at t = 5 hr compared to the control. These data confirm that microtubules and microfilaments of the cytoskeleton are crucial in trafficking KCa3.1 to the basolateral membrane of polarised epithelial cells.

    View record details
  • Between two worlds : a study of the letters, diaries and reminiscences of some Otago and Southland soldiers in the Great War.

    Chen, Mindy (1982)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    vii, 60 leaves :ill. (some col.), col. maps ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references.

    View record details