776 results for 1997

  • The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital

    Costanza, R; d'Arge, R; de Groot, R; Faber, S; Grasso, M; Hannon, B; Limburg, K; Naeem, S; O'Neill, RV; Paruelo, J; Raskin, RG; Sutton, P; van den Belt, M (1997-05-15)

    Journal article
    Massey University

    The services of ecological systems and the natural capital stocks that produce them are critical to the functioning of the Earth’s life-support system. They contribute to human welfare, both directly and indirectly, and therefore represent part of the total economic value of the planet. We have estimated the current economic value of 17 ecosystem services for 16 biomes, based on published studies and a few original calculations. For the entire biosphere, the value (most of which is outside the market) is estimated to be in the range of US$16–54 trillion (1012) per year, with an average of US$33 trillion per year. Because of the nature of the uncertainties, this must be considered a minimum estimate. Global gross national product total is around US$18 trillion per year.

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  • Exploiting the advantages of object-oriented programming in the implementation of a database design environment

    Stanger, Nigel; Pascoe, Richard (1997-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    In this paper, we describe the implementation of a database design environment (Swift) that incorporates several novel features: Swift’s data modelling approach is derived from viewpoint-oriented methods; Swift is implemented in Java, which allows us to easily construct a client/server based environment; the repository is implemented using PostgreSQL, which allows us to store the actual application code in the database; and the combination of Java and PostgreSQL reduces the impedance mismatch between the application and the repository.

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  • Public perceptions, gang "reality" and the influence of the media : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology

    Green, Alexandra (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This research was designed to address the hypothesis that there is a wide disparity between how the public perceive gangs and the 'reality' from the gang's perspective and; that in part, the New Zealand media are responsible for this difference, portraying a negative image of gang members. Sixty members of the Horowhenua public and seven gang respondents were interviewed. The small sample size of the gang respondents made it impossible to statistically compare the two groups. Analysis was carried out on the spoken discourse of the public and gang respondents and the printed discourse of the news media. Chi square analysis was used on the public respondent sample. Demographic characteristics of the public respondents such as gender, ethnicity and employment status resulted in observable differences in the public's perceptions of gangs. In particular, feelings of having a gang resident in their neighbourhood, estimates on the number of people involved with gangs in New Zealand and perceptions of the media accuracy in reporting about gangs. Previous contact with a member of a gang was also found to influence respondents' perceptions of media accuracy. Increasing the sample size is likely to clarify these findings. Ethical and practical implications in conducting research on gangs are discussed and suggestions for future research are identified. Some practical implications of the present findings are mentioned.

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  • Assessing the portability of the standard shiftwork index : the impact of shiftwork on New Zealand : television production sample : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Goddard, Teresa Anita (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The portability of the Standard Shiftwork Index (SSI) and the impact of shiftwork was assessed on a sample of television production employees in Auckland, New Zealand. Sixty three respondents completed the SSI and reported a moderate impact of shiftwork on physical and psychological health and moderately high sleep disturbance. Social and domestic life yielded the greatest detrimental impact. Gender related coping strategies was the only significant difference within the sample. Chronic fatigue, somatic anxiety, general job satisfaction and disengagement were significantly related to intention to leave the organisation. Statistical analysis of effect size indicated equivalent levels of power in both the U.K and the present sample. Overall, the results for the present sample were comparable to the U.K sample, indicating the portability of the SSI to the present sample. Organisational restructuring was considered a potential moderator of the overall moderate impact of shiftwork on the sample.

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  • An evaluation of the production and profitability of alternative management regimes for Pinus radiata on a high fertility site : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science in Plant Science at Massey University

    Blair, Alexander Jason (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Conversion of farmland to forestry is occurring at the rate of approximately 60,000ha/annum, much of it on hill country sheep and beef properties. The potential productivity of ex farm sites is high, mainly due to improved soil fertility but may produce trees with defects such as excessive branching, large branches and stem malformations. Adapting silvicultural practices to suit plantations on high fertility sites is necessary to effectively utilise this potential. However, many of the tools available for planning and assessing alternative silvicultural options in Pinus radiata stands have limitations for farm sites. This study utilises a 12.5ha stand of Pinus radiata established in 1973 on a Manawatu hill country sheep and beef property. Currently 'Tuapaka' has 31.3ha of Pinus radiata occupying land use capability class VI and VII. Of this total, 12.5ha is nearing maturity, while remaining areas are now reaching a stage where decisions on silvicultural management are necessary. The growth modelling system, STANDPAK, was used as an aid for developing and evaluating silvicultural options on Tuapaka. Existing Pinus radiata growth models have been primarily derived from traditional forest site data. They can be utilised for simulating growth on ex farm sites but will generally provide more accurate predictions of growth and yield if they are configured with local growth data. The EARLY and NAPIRAD growth models are recommended for simulating the growth of Pinus radiata on farm sites and formed the basis for the simulation of the Tuapaka stand. Inventory data, including diameter at breast height, mean crop height, and stocking were collected from the existing 12.5ha stand and used to configure these growth models and other STANDPAK components. Site index at Tuapaka was found to be 23m, with a high basal area increment potential. The best STANDPAK configuration combined the growth models EARLY (high +20% basal area increment) and NAPIRAD (switched at mean top height 18m). The results from this configuration predicted basal area to within 6% of the field estimate. These configurations were used to simulate and evaluate the growth of a new stand (at the 1ha level) for both clearwood and framing regimes. The combined influence of low site index and high basal area increment created problems associated with maintaining a target diameter over stubs (DOS) while utilising an acceptable number of pruning lifts. The required number of pruning lifts to achieve a 6.0m pruned height was able to be manipulated by delaying thinning, reducing the green crown length (CRL) at the first and second lifts, and maintaining a high ratio of unpruned trees through to thinning. Net present value (NPV) was primarily used as the selection criteria to determine the best regimes, because it reflects the final harvest revenues and associated silvicultural costs. The most profitable regime required a 3 lift pruning schedule. This regime provided the best compromise between final harvest value and silvicultural costs and was achieved by severe early pruning (CRL of 2.0m and 2.2m), delayed thinning, and maintaining a high ratio of unpruned to pruned trees. Clearwood regimes were more profitable than the framing regimes because of a higher average timber value which more than compensated for increased silvicultural costs and reduced log volume. The clearwood regime produced a final merchantable volume of 698m3 /ha, of which 37% graded in the higher value pruned log class. This regime had a pre tax net revenue of $39,500/ha and an NPV of $2,681/ha (8% discount rate). In contrast, the best framing regime produced a merchantable volume of 787m3/ha, a net revenue of $18,800/ha, and a NPV of $1,100/ha. The best clearwood and framing regime were subjected to economic analysis at the estate level (31.3ha) to determine the best silvicultural options for existing and future stands on Tuapaka. The clearwood regime was the most profitable, having a pre tax IRR of 9.1%, compared with 7.6% for the framing regime. These returns are likely to exceed the potential returns from farming, particularly on steep hill country.

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  • A job full of conflicts : the experience of women child protection social workers in New Zealand : a thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for degree of Master of Social Work

    Hunter, Marnie (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This qualitative study researched the experiences of ten women who worked as care and protection social workers in the Children, Young Persons and Their Families Service in New Zealand. Although there is an extensive literature on social work theory and practice, little has been recorded internationally or in New Zealand about the experiences of women social workers throughout the span of their working lives. This thesis sought to redress that imbalance. The participants had a minimum of three years and a combined total of eighty three years, working in the agency. They were interviewed about their general work experiences, the way they practised social work, the effects of the work on them, the influence of feminist ideas on their work and about identifying as lesbian or as heterosexual in their workplaces. The participants' general work experiences were analysed within the framework of a theory about women's career choice and work behaviour. Their social work practice was analysed against a number of sets of practice principles in the feminist social work literature. A chapter was devoted to exploring the experiences of lesbian social workers. The participants found their work satisfying and challenging but also stressful. This stress was greatly compounded by changes to the organisation's management practices which had arisen from the State sector reforms. These had generated an environment in which it was impossible to practise social work thoroughly and safely. The social workers' enthusiasm and hope was being sapped by the organisation's obsession with outputs, administration, and data collection. Guidelines for the future of statutory child protection services in New Zealand were developed, based on the participants' experiences.

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  • Japanese culture reflected in the language : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Japanese at Massey University

    MacInnes, Mieko (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Culture and language have influenced each other as they have evolved! Should this statement be correct, then second language learning becomes second culture learning. However, this fact is not generally known by most second language teachers and students. The focus of this study has been to examine how the Japanese culture is reflected in the language, and to demonstrate how cultural aspects can be accommodated in the learning environment. The teaching method used is called "Interactive Competence Approach" which integrates sociocultural competence with linguistic and communicative competence, while giving students an awareness, that learning the Japanese language is also learning its culture. The most effective method of cross-cultural training, "cultural assimilator" is employed to increase students' competence. The relationship between Japanese language and society is best illustrated in the use of politeness, especially honorifics. They are the core of Japanese polite expressions and reflect vertical and uchi/soto (in-group and out-group) social dimensions. This vertical and group oriented society is the reflection of the concept of "ie", a basic family unit. Ellipses and indirect expressions are also well-developed to consider other people's feelings and avoid confrontations. Therefore, using this style of language, it is natural then that the Japanese way of communication, which is often described as "implicit" and "indirect" has evolved. Finally, two major suggestions are formed from integrating these observations and findings: 1. JSL teachers should place more emphasis on politeness in interactions, and honorifics should be simplified. 2. JSL teachers should assist students in improving cross-cultural competence thus enabling them to unravel any social differences while making their own personal adjustments.

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  • Rheology and microstructure of acid milk gels : the role of fat globule membrane : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology in Food Technology at Massey University

    Cho, Young-Hee (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of different compositions of fat globule membranes as well as heat treatment of reconstituted skim milk, on the properties of acid milk gels. Rheological and microstructural properties of acid milk gels were determined. Recombined milks were made by mixing reconstituted skim milk with homogenised (20.7 and 3.5MPa, first and second stage pressures, respectively) emulsions which were stabilised by low-heat, medium-heat or high-heat skim milk powder, sodium caseinate, whey protein concentrate, heated (80 °C for 30 min) whey protein concentrate, Tween 60 or the native fat globule membrane of whole milk. To study the effect of milk heat treatment, unheated reconstituted skim milk or milk heated at 80 °C for 30 min was used for making recombined milk. Gels were formed by acidification of recombined milk with glucono-δ-lactone by incubating at 30 °C for 16 h. Each type of emulsion was characterised by determining the size distribution of fat globules, protein load and composition of fat globule membrane. The average fat globule size in the emulsion systems varied from 0.66 to 0.48 μm. Emulsions made with low-heat skim milk powder had the highest protein load (7.05 mg/m2), because of the adsorption of large particles (casein micelles) on to fat globules. In contrast, emulsion systems made with whey protein concentrate had the lowest protein load (1.13 mg/m2). The membrane of emulsions stabilised by skim milk powder solutions contained both caseins and whey proteins while whey protein concentrate stabilised emulsions had both β-lactoglobulin than α-lactalbumin adsorbed onto the fat globule surface. The membrane of Na caseinate stabilised emulsions contained all caseins at the surface. The rheological properties of recombined milk during acidification were determined by low amplitude oscillation using a Bohlin Rheometer and a penetration test using the Instron. The storage modulus (G') of acid gels made from recombined milk that was made from heated skim milk were in the range ~ 180 to 530 Pa, whereas acid gels made from recombined milk made from unheated skim milk systems produced gels with G' values in the range ~ 20 to 90 Pa. The G' of acid gels made from recombined milk containing fat globules stabilised by different materials was in the order: heated whey protein concentrate > sodium caseinate > skim milk powders > Tween 60, unheated whey protein concentrate or natural membrane material (fresh cream). The results of the penetration test were variable and did not fully agree with the trends from the oscillation tests. For all recombined milk systems both the pH of gelation and the gelation time were influenced by the heat treatment of reconstituted skim milk, i.e. heating increased the pH of gelation and decreased the gelation time. The microstructure of the acid gel network was determined by confocal scanning laser microscopy. Acid gels made from unheated reconstituted skim milk appeared to be formed from irregular clusters and strands, interspersed with fat globules whereas more crowded structure was observed from unheated systems. Recombined fat globules appeared to be embedded in the matrix. Differences in microstructures between gels containing different types of fat globule membranes were not very clear. Acid gels made from Tween 60 and whole milk were different from the other fat systems; the fat globules in the Tween 60 stabilised milk appeared to be very small while in contrast those in whole milk were much larger probably because whole milk was not homogenised. Possible mechanisms have been proposed which explain the effects of heat treatment on gel properties and the role of fat globule membrane material in gel structure and stiffness.

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  • The effects of sport participation on children's emotional well-being : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Donaldson, Sarah J (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Examined the relationship between level of children's sports participation and emotional well-being including self reported emotional and behavioral problems, self-concept, achievement motivation and participation motivation. Data was collected from 203 Form One and Two students from five schools using a multitrait- multimethod assessment methodology. Information was obtained concerning participation in and perceptions about sporting activities. Emotional well-being was assessed by the Youth Self-Report (Achenbach, 1991) and the Self-Perception Profile for Children (Harter, 1985). The study found that increased levels of sports participation had a positive relationship with aspects of emotional well-being particularly self-concept. Results also showed children with increased perceptions of sport related competencies reported significantly fewer emotional and behavior problems than children who were, by an external standard (i.e., teacher rating of athletic competence), actually competent at sport. The study replicated and extended research in this area. Caveats are discussed including issues relating to inferring a causal relationship between sports participation and emotional well-being. Future research and methods for studying the psychological effects of sport are recommended.

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  • Modeling and microbiology of a New Zealand dairy industry activated sludge treatment plant : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of [Technology in] Environmental Engineering at Massey University

    Rule, Glenys Jane (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    An extended aeration activated sludge plant treating dairy factory wastewater was studied. The effectiveness of organic and nutrient removal was investigated in conjunction with the causes of existing foaming and bulking problems. Excellent removal efficiencies of 99.7% BOD5, 98.8% COD, and 96.9% TKN were achieved thoughout the period studied. The removal of total phosphorus however, was only 33.8% and this may become an issue that requires attention in the future. The dominant filamentous organisms in the sludge were identified as Type 0914, Type 0092, Nocardia pinensis, Nocardia amarae-like organisms, and Nostocoida limicola III. It was determined that these organisms were the major cause of the bulking and foaming conditions at the Waste Treatment Plant, although the use of surfactants in the factories and nitrogen and iron deficiencies were probably also contributing. All of the dominant filaments identified have been previously found to exist in large numbers in low food to organism ratio/high sludge age conditions. It was therefore recommended that the sludge age be reduced and the F/M ratio increased by increasing the amount of sludge wasted from the treatment plant. Existing kinetic coefficients were used, together with the Activated Sludge SIMulation programme utilising Activated sludge Model No. 1, to successfully model the existing system. This model can now be used by treatment plant employees (with some training required) to predict the results of alterations to plant operation and/or configuration.

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  • Participatory management of irrigation systems in the Philippines : an impact assessment : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science in Agricultural Systems and Management at Massey University

    Labramonte, Louella L (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Increased national food production is an objective underlying irrigation development in the Philippines. As the population increases, so does food demand. Irrigation is an integral component of agricultural development to meet this growing food demand. Farmer participation has been shown to be a key factor in the successful development of irrigation, although other factors must be combined with participation in order to ensure successful outcomes. This study attempted to find out how farmer-managed irrigation systems impacted on the socio-economic conditions of rural people in the Iloilo Province of the Philippines. Two levels of respondents were interviewed for the study: 15 representatives of Irrigator Associations (IAs) and 144 farmers from four of these associations in the Iloilo Province. The surveys was conducted in January and February 1996. The survey data were evaluated relative to a conceptual model that comprised four sets of factors (socio-economic/demographic, physical, management and attitudinal) to explain the area under irrigated rice, a proxy variable for management participation. The farmers in all four irrigation systems had an average age of 49 ± 12 years. The farm size was generally small (1.07 ± 1.51 ha) but the area of irrigated rice owned and leased by farmers averaged to 1.23 ± 0.25 ha. Rice farming provided more than 80% of the household income in the study area. This helped to support 3.8 ± 2.3 children per household. Socio-economic/demographic and physical factors were significantly (P<0.05) associated with management and attitudinal factors. Variables included in a multiple regression model collectively explained 53% of the variation in the irrigated rice area. Other than farm size, distance of the homestead from the main water source, participation in resolving conflicts with officers of the IA and attendance of IA meetings were significant explanatory variables in the model. It is recommended that similar studies of other regions where irrigation is widely used be undertaken and that this include situations where participatory approaches are not adopted. The role of women in irrigation activities should be quantified, as it was not actively explored in the current study. Keywords: Irrigation development, participation, factors, irrigated rice area.

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  • Excellence in dementia care : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Social Work at Massey University

    Melling, Patricia Mary (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis is based on the belief that the functioning and quality of life of persons with dementia has the potential to improve in an environment where autonomy and independence are fostered within the abilities of the individual and the limitations of their disability. The thesis draws on critical theory to formulate a comprehensive framework aimed at empowering workers and caregivers to improve the quality of life for people with dementia living in residential facilities or at home. The thesis then shows how this critical approach can be applied in practice. Two surveys were conducted. The first, examined whether workers were able to implement changes in residential facilities following an educational programme. The second evaluated the usefulness of a booklet produced for family caregivers on choosing residential care for their loved ones. The thesis examines the policy implications and concludes with recommendations directed at policy makers and managers, which, if adopted, would provide the best quality of care for people with dementia.

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  • Participation as a human right is key to solving water problems in Tonga : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University,

    Paea, 'Ana Malia Tofovaha Suluka (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The aim of this study was to identity the equity issues that hinder the participation of the people in the management and the maintenance of the rural water systems in Tonga. Five villages in Tongatapu were selected for the study as well as the appropriate Tongan Government Departments and donors. Participatory observation and interviews were techniques used for collecting information from the participants. Published and unpublished materials on water and other related materials were referred to in this study as well. Despite the need for water supply systems in rural areas of Tonga and the increasing demands for water, it was found that many systems, which were delivered in a very top-down manner, were not working effectively. The major finding was that economic, social and political structures in Tonga impeded the participation of grassroots people in the management of water systems. Although modern technologies are being introduced to solve water problems in Tonga, their successes are partial. Previous studies that were carried out in Tonga in trying to find ways of solving water management problems in Tonga also have had partial successes. This study concludes that unless participation is considered a human right, water management problems in Tonga can not be solved.

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  • Evaluation of Lotus corniculatus for increasing the efficiency of growth in young deer : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Masters of Applied Science, Animal Science option at Massey University

    Adu, Emmanuel Kwadwo (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    A grazing trial with lactating red deer (Cervus elaphus) hinds and their calves (EXPERIMENT 1), and an indoor digestion and calorimetric study (EXPERIMENT 2) were conducted at Massey University, New Zealand during 1996, to measure the feeding value of Lotus corniculatus compared to perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne)/white clover (Trifolium repens) pasture for increasing the efficiency of growth in young deer. Half of the hinds and their calves were grazed on Lotus corniculatus and the other half were grazed on perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture during summer (Chapter Three) in a rotational grazing system. Half of the hinds in each group suckled pure red calves with the other half suckling hybrid (0.25 elk : 0.75 red deer) calves. The indoor experiments (Chapter Four) involved feeding one animal of a pair on either freshly cut perennial ryegrass or freshly cut Lotus corniculatus during autumn and spring, in metabolism cages and calorimetry chambers at maintenance (1M) and twice maintenance (2M) levels of energy intake. 1. EXPERIMENT 1 (CHAPTER THREE). Liveweight gains of hinds and their calves, weaning weight of calves and voluntary feed intake of hinds were measured on Lotus corniculatus or perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture during lactation in summer 1996. The percentage of dead matter in both the forage on offer and diet selected was lower in Lotus corniculatus than in perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture. The condensed tannin (CT) levels in Lotus corniculatus and perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture were 21 g and 1.6 g total CT/kg DM respectively. Organic matter digestibility (OMD) was higher for Lotus corniculatus than for perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture. Hinds grazing Lotus corniculatus had higher voluntary feed intake (VFI) and liveweight change than hinds grazing perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture, and liveweight gain and weaning weight of calves were greater on lotus. Liveweight gain and weaning weight of hybrid deer were superior to pure red deer calves, with pre-weaning liveweight gain of hybrid deer calves grazed on Lotus corniculatus exceeding 500 g/d for the first time. CT in Lotus corniculatus was more tightly bound in red deer oesophageal fistula (OF) extrusa samples than in comparable studies with sheep. 2. EXPERIMENT 2 (CHAPTER FOUR) Energy losses as methane, urine and heat were consistently lower when the deer were fed Lotus corniculatus (21 g total CT/kg DM) than perennial ryegrass (< 1 g total CT/kg DM), but faeces energy losses were similar for the two forages. The efficiency of utilisation of ME for growth (kg) was lower in autumn-grown than in spring-grown perennial ryegrass, and tended to be greater in autumn-grown Lotus corniculatus than autumn-grown perennial ryegrass. No significant differences existed in faecal N and urine N losses in deer fed the two forages, and N retention was similar in deer fed Lotus corniculatus and perennial ryegrass. Presence of CT-binding salivary proteins in deer but not in sheep is advanced as a reason for N retention not being greater on lotus. 3. The overall conclusion from this thesis was that as a summer feed during deer lactation, the feeding value of Lotus corniculatus is higher than that of perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture but essentially similar to that of other special purpose feeds developed for deer production such as chicory (Cichorium intybus) and red clover (Trifolium repens). The most cogent explanations for the higher performance in deer fed Lotus corniculatus is the higher VFI and the greater efficiency with which ingested energy was utilised. Because of the presence of salivary CT-binding proteins in deer, forages with higher CT concentrations are suggested for the realisation of the beneficial effects of forage CT on the efficiency of protein digestion in farmed deer. Two such forages are sulla (Hedysarum coronarium; 35-60 g CT/kg DM) and Lotus pedunculatus (50-100 g CT/kg DM). The incorporation of Lotus corniculatus into the pastoral agricultural system of NZ may be hindered by the slow establishment of the plant, and by the special management system required. It may be better suited agronomically to warm low to medium fertility hill country conditions, such as found in East Coast areas, where competition from other plant species is less.

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  • Approaches to water pricing in local government : four New Zealand case studies : being a thesis presented to Massey University in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Resource and Environmental Planning

    Slatter, Melissa Donna (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis is an examination of water pricing techniques adopted by territorial authorities in New Zealand. The overall goal is to determine if current pricing mechanisms for the residential supply of water encourage conservation of the resource. This thesis examines some international conservation techniques, and evaluates them with reference to selected case studies in New Zealand. Four case-studies were carried out in an attempt to understand the effectiveness of water pricing in New Zealand. These were Christchurch City Council, Hamilton City Council, Palmerston North City Council and Tauranga District Council. Questionnaires were sent to the water supply managers of each of the territorial authorities and interviews were carried out with these people to investigate water conservation issues in their districts. The research findings show that all four territorial authorities have problems with meeting the peak demands of water consumption. Therefore, various bans and restrictions are in place across many areas at different times of the year. Although water conservation is an issue in the regional and district plans for each of these territorial authorities, measures to reduce consumption at peak times have been relatively unsuccessful. All of the territorial authorities under-price the supply of water and barely meet operational costs. Currently, there is no consideration of a rate that would penalise consumers for the overuse of water. The international literature indicates that once a suitable pricing framework is established, water meters are the best tool for effectively reducing consumption. Although water meters are installed in two of the four cases, they are not being effectively utilised to promote conservation and reduce demand. For those territorial authorities not using water meters, a review of current conservation programmes is recommended. The current pricing structure is not proving to be sufficient in reducing either peak demand, or minimising water wastage.

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  • Internet realities, amazing but time consuming? : a case study of student teachers' interpretations of the Internet : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education at Massey University

    Smits, Robyn (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The Internet has the potential to foster significant changes in the way education is organised and conceptualised. The problem underlying this study is that of the role of the Internet in education. This study aimed to describe and analyse the experiences of a group of student teachers as they used the Internet during independent study time. The research questions focused on the thoughts and feelings that the student teachers had about their Internet use, the ways that they made use of the Internet and their interpretations of the Internet for their professional use, for children's learning, and the future of education. An evaluative case study approach was chosen using a combination of questionnaires, interviews and diaries to gather data. The case for the study comprised the cohort of students in their second year of a two year training programme for a Diploma of Teaching. All members of this group were invited to participate and sixteen students chose to do so. The research was carried out in three phases over a six month period from March to September 1997. The results indicate that the participants' skills in searching the Internet developed during the project, at least to beginners level. However, skill development using e-mail was less apparent. The major problem identified was that it was very time consuming to use the Internet. Usage patterns showed that the students were either 'low', 'medium' or 'high' users, with a third of the group in each category. 'Low' users tended to choose not to use the Internet, mainly due to its time consuming nature. 'Medium' users tended to be strongly focused on using the Internet as a professional tool and 'high' users tended to make recreational as well as professional use of the Internet. When considering the classroom use of the Internet the student teachers tended to stress its value as a tool for research by children, however they expressed concern about classroom management issues. With respect to the place that the Internet might take in education the future, these student teachers tended to support its use as a tool in a conventional classroom but argue against the Internet taking a major role in the organisation of education. The results suggest that while providing student teachers with independent access to the Internet has some benefits, many student teachers are likely to need support in order to become competent Internet users. One of the conclusions of this study is that support for learning Internet skills in independent study time should be provided so that compulsory teacher education courses can focus on pedagogical issues. However, this study also concludes by arguing that an understanding of both the concept of the 'information age' and its implications for education, are necessary if teachers are to be leaders in debates on the role of the Internet in education. While this was a small scale case study it is clear from its findings that a great deal of further research into the pedagogical issues associated with the Internet is needed.

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  • Studies with the asparagus "mother fern" culture in a temperate climate : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science in Plant Science at Massey University

    Lekholoane, Lekholoane Ignatius (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    In temperate regions, asparagus is normally harvested in spring. An extended harvest season could prolong the supply of fresh asparagus and perhaps lead to an economic gain through high off-season prices. High production costs and low yield of some alternative strategies compared to the normal spring harvest seem to discourage their commercial use. However, field investigations on the mother fern system in a temperate climate have not been done. From 1995 through to 1996, field and controlled climate growth cabinets studies were conducted to evaluate the asparagus mother fern system in New Zealand. Separate field experiments, for UC 157 and Rutgers Beacon were carried out. Harvesting treatments were, normal spring harvest (September-early December) and two mother fern treatments, run from October-March and December-March. The carry-over effects of the experiment was determined in the spring of 1996, when the crop was harvested for one month (September-October) using the normal spring harvest system only. In the field study, peak spear production occurred in early December and mid-January, for normal spring harvest and mother fern treatments, respectively. Production of spears declined steadily from January to the end of March. The mother fern treatments resulted in a harvest season, which was 15 weeks longer than the normal harvest. However, the total-, marketable- and cumulative yields, and mean spear weight were significantly lower than for a 'normally' harvested crop. The normal spring harvest produced thicker and heavier spears than mother fern treatments. Spears from the latter were also more seedy than those from normal harvest. Environmental factors (insufficient moisture level, decreasing temperature) and possibly correlative inhibition may have been the causes of the reduced production of the mother fern system. UC 157 produced higher yields than Rutgers Beacon. The latter produced a large number of thin spears, which resulted in a high rejection rate. The follow up experiment did not show any marked treatment differences in total yield and number of spears. The experiment conducted in controlled climate growth cabinets studied the effects of temperature and harvesting systems (normal harvest and mother fern system) on spear and fern growth. Potted, one-year old plants, cvs. UC 157 and Jersey Giant, were grown at constant temperatures ranging from 15°C to 35°C at increments of 5°C. Spears (>8mm basal diameter, with closed tips) were harvested from these plants and used to visually assess postharvest shelf life at 20°C. The relative spear growth rate, spear production rate per plant increased with rising temperature from 15°C through to 30°C, beyond which they declined. Relative spear growth rate, spear production rate per plant and average basal spear diameter of mother fern plants were lower than for those under the normal harvest. Average spears diameter did not show any trend with respect to growing temperature. Correlative inhibition and respiratory activity of the fern, including the production of new roots and buds may have led to a reduction in reduced performance of the mother fern plants. The relative spear growth rate of Jersey Giant was higher than UC 157. The postharvest storage life of spears stored at 20°C in unperforated polythene bags averaged seven days. Growing temperature, harvesting system, cultivar did not influence the storage life of spears.

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  • The effect of dairy herd management and milking practices on milk quality : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science in Agricultural Systems and Management at Massey University

    Gutierrez, Pablo Londono (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    A mail survey of 200 dairy farmers supplying Tasman Milk Products Ltd (TML) in northern South Island, New Zealand in July 1996 received 46 % response (92 suppliers). This study was undertaken to gauge the effect of mastitis control practices of the mastitis control (SAMM) plan on milk yield and quality in seasonal supply dairy herds. This survey was written to acquire data on the relationship between important dairy husbandry practices and the status of the milk quality of the herd. These practices included dairy hygiene and teat disinfection; diagnosis and treatment of clinical mastitis; culling; dry cow therapy; and characteristics, maintenance and repair of the milking machine. The data were analysed by the Statistic Analytical Systems (SAS®) and significant results were taken to be at p < 0.05. The study showed that the production of milk solids per hectare was significantly (p=0.002) and negatively correlated with BSCC. 60 % of TML suppliers practiced selective teat washing before milking, and 80 % of suppliers practiced teat spraying in all cows after milking for the entire lactation. Herd testing of individual cows was practiced by 87 % of the TML respondents. Most (77 %) farmers, herd tested 2-monthly. An average 8 % of cows in respondent's herds were diagnosed as having clinical mastitis; all such cases were treated with intramammary antibiotics. 80 % of the cows treated recovered satisfactorily and the remaining 20 % needed re-treatment. An average, 3 % of the cows in each herd were culled for clinical mastitis or high somatic cell counts. The mean Bulk (milk) somatic cell count during the 1995/96 lactation for suppliers surveyed was 217,000 cells/mL. 35 % of farmers achieved a season average BSCC less than 150,000 cells/mL and only 3 % of farms had a seasonal average of more than 400,000 cells/mL. 90 % of TML respondents practiced dry cow therapy selectively. 64 % of TML respondents used selective DCT in heifers with SCC at or below 80,000 cells/mL and in cows at or below 120,000 cells/mL which is below the levels for heifers and mature cows recommended by the SAMM plan. At 35 % of farmers achieved a seasonal average SCC of less than 150,000 cells/mL, clearly demonstrates the effort being made by local suppliers to produce high quality milk on their farms. The study revealed that these "low SCC" suppliers used similar practices of dairy husbandry and milking procedures to the remaining 75% of suppliers with BSCC above 150,000 cells/mL. A majority (45 %) (p<0.05) of suppliers who had a BSCC below 250,000 cells/mL, used the SAMM plan during the season. It was suggested that hygiene, detection and treatment of sites of infection with antibiotics (lactating or dry cow therapy), drying-off or culling will continue to be the main herd husbandry options for keeping SCC at an optimum level. It was evident that TML suppliers are willing to produce not only as much milk as possible, but also milk of a premium quality. It was concluded that the absence of significant detectable effects of the SAMM plan on milk yield among TML suppliers responding to this study begs the question as to whether or not the mastitis control programme affects the BSCC, hence milk yield. The current study, however, identified the progress achieved by the dairy company and its suppliers in this matter by using individual components of the mastitis control plan. Key words: Milk quality, SAMM plan, somatic cells, Bulk somatic cell counts.

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  • Maintaining a loving vigil : parents' lived experience of having a baby in a neonatal unit : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Nursing at Massey University

    Murphy, Maureen (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Technological aspects of preterm birth and the care of preterm infants are continually examined, yet the impact of the event on families, and particularly parents, has not received the same attention. A review of the nursing literature illustrated that there are very few published articles examining parents' experiences in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, and in particular the effect this has on parents as a couple. Most studies focus on the mother, and there are a small number specifically focusing on the father. This study sought to elicit the experience of both parents as a couple. This research used phenomenology to examine five couples' experiences following the births of their preterm infants and their subsequent care in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Semistructured interviews were conducted with the parents as a couple. While each couple viewed the experience through their special lens, this study identified themes experienced by all the couples. They described a struggling-within-themselves in an attempt to face and survive the experience. The parents were living through a time-of-uncertainty, and talked about the factors that helped them, and those that made the ordeal more difficult. The three relationships the parents described as being essential were: with each other, with their baby and with significant others. Although their concern for their babies never left them, eventually the parents were able to move-from-fear and feel increasingly comfortable with their experience as they participated more and more fully in the care of their baby. The research examined the parents' loving vigil with their baby and demonstrated the need for neonatal nurses to provide supportive intervention to influence positively the parents' struggle through the ordeal.

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  • Analysis of complex surveys : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masterate in Science in Statistics at Massey University

    Young, Jane (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Complex surveys are surveys which involve a survey design other than simple random sampling. In practice sample surveys require a complex design due to many factors such as cost, time and the nature of the population. Standard statistical methods such as linear regression, contingency tables and multivariate analyses are based on data which are independently and identically distributed (IID). That is, the data is assumed to have been selected by a simple random sampling design. The assumptions underlying standard statistical methods are generally not met when the data is from a complex design. A measure of the efficiency of a design was found by the ratio of the variance of the actual design over the variance of a simple random sample (of the same sample size). This is known as the design effect (deff). There are two forms of design effects; one proposed by Kish (1965) and another termed the misspecification effect (meff) by Skinner et al. (1989). Throughout the thesis, the design effect referred to is Skinner et al. (1989)'s misspecification effect. Cluster sampling generally yields a deff greater than one and stratified samples yields a deff less than one. Some researchers have adopted a model based approach for parameter estimation rather than the traditional design based approach. The model based approach is one which each possible respondent has a distribution of possible values, often leading to the equivalent of an infinite background population, called the superpopulation. Both approaches are discussed throughout the thesis. Most of the standard computing packages available have been developed for simple random sample data. Specialized packages are needed to analyse complex survey data correctly. PC CARP and SUDAAN are two such packages. Three examples of statistical analyses on complex sample surveys were explored using the specialized statistical packages. The output from these packages were compared to a standard statistical package, The SAS System. It was found that although SAS produced the correct estimates, the standard errors were much smaller than those from SUDAAN. This led, in regression for example, to a much higher number of variables appearing to be significant when they were not. The examples illustrated the consequences of using a standard statistical package on complex data. Statisticians have long argued the need for appropriate statistics for complex surveys.

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