794 results for 1998

  • Stakeholder influences on assessment methodology.

    Warren, J. M. (1998)

    Working Papers
    Open Polytechnic

    This is a Work-in-Progress paper backgrounding a research activity currently being undertaken in New Zealand establishing the requirements for assessment from various stakeholders and comparing to educational philosophies. Part of the initial study investigates the requirements of human resource practitioners, who are registered members of the Institute of Personnel Managers (IPM), when recruiting for management positions. The study contrasts qualifications obtained as certification under the New Zealand Qualifications Authority (NZQA) unit standards and degrees obtained through universities. This reinforced the tension between the need to provide education at degree level, with aims to develop autonomous decision makers, and the NZQA level 7 which assesses observable competencies in the skills to perform required managerial functions. The research attempts to identify the stakeholders in education including industry, education and training providers, professional associations, and the individual students. There are future plans to extend investigations from New Zealand into Australasian and global requirements. This paper will review earlier philosophical debates between providing education and training and examine works alerting educationalists to the danger of increasingly assessing for diplomas of specific abilities. This and the current concerns still emphasising contrasting concepts of teaching between technocratic-reductionist and professional-contextualist based philosophies will be incorporated into research and the requirements of various stakeholders will be examined. A paper has been presented at the recent ANZAM Conference [Warren, 1997] with a request for interested parties to share information and experiences of the application of competency-based standards within a qualification framework and to share experiences of other frameworks. The next stage of this research is outlined with the preparation and use of questionnaires for identified primary stakeholders.

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  • The learning styles of first year distance education students.

    Hutton, J. L. (1998)

    Working Papers
    Open Polytechnic

    The purpose of this paper is to report on the results of research in progress on the learning styles of first year students studying with The Open Polytechnic of New Zealand. The paper reviews background literature on learning styles and distance education. It examines the learning styles profiles of the students and discusses the instructional design implications of those profiles.

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  • Perceptions of the average driver's speed compared to perceived driver safety and driving skill.

    Walton, D.; Bathurst, J. (1998)

    Working or discussion paper
    Open Polytechnic

    This study investigates the self-enhancement bias in driver attitudes, the finding that drivers rate themselves better than the average driver on safety and skill perceptions (Svenson, 1978, 1981; McCormick, Walkey & Green, 1986). A sample of 86 New Zealand drivers were asked their perceptions of their own and others' speeds in two conditions, 50 km/h and 100 km/h. The results established the self-enhancement bias for speed and safety, but not skill. Between 85% and 90% of drivers claimed to drive slower than the 'average driver.' A new methodological technique derived from Harr? and Gillett (1994) was used to investigate the direction of the self-enhancement bias. The results support Downward Comparison Theory (Wills, 1981) because drivers consider other drivers negatively, rather than exaggerating their self-perceptions.

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  • Developments in the provision of quality electronic summative assessments.

    French, P. (1998)

    Working Papers
    Open Polytechnic

    This is a Work in Progress paper backgrounding a research area which is to be developed further at the Open Polytechnic. This initial study overviews the written and electronic literature available at 29 June 1998 identifying developments in the field of electronic assessment. In this study I have focused on ascertaining what was available electronically in summative assessment methods. For some institutions this has simply resulted in the range of traditional forms of assessment being translated onto a computer, while other groups have developed variations available only because of computer usage. This has ranged from the use of electronic mail to transmit assignments between student and tutors to the development of computer adaptive testing. Specifically the study covers summative testing via multichoice questions, constructed answers, essays and practical performance assessments via simulations. There is little information available on summative electronic testing in alternative forms of assessment and so this study does not specifically cover learning contracts, projects, peer assessment, oral examinations, seminar presentations, case studies, laboratory work, or other submitted written work such as literature reviews, book reviews, reports or journalling. The next stage of the research is to select an appropriate electronic medium for application to an Open Polytechnic programme and to explore the conversion of the assessments in this programme to an electronic base.

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  • The first time-derivative of the EEG: A possible proxy for the order-parameter for the cerebral cortex

    Sleigh, James W.; Steyn-Ross, D. Alistair; Steyn-Ross, Moira L. (1998)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Many important aspects of the function of the cerebral cortex can be captured in a two dimensional lattice model. From this analogy, the change from the awake state to the unconscious state can be understood as a form of order/disorder phase transition . If this is so, there should exist an order-parameter that has zero value when the cortex is disordered (the anaesthetic state), and which rapidly climbs to an arbitrary positive value when the cortex becomes ordered (the awake state). Although the `spatially-meaned soma potential' v of the cortex, relative to its unconscious state value v0, can be considered to be the order-parameter, it is not possible to measure the mean soma potential directly. However, fluctuations in the soma potential give rise to the time-varying EEG signal v(t) which is easily measured.

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  • Principal appraisal : fluxion and abatement : a grounded theory of principal appraisal in a small selection of New Zealand schools : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Educational Administration at Massey University

    Strong, Neville G. L (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the circumstances in and around the principal appraisal process in five New Zealand primary schools. An outcome of this investigation was to generate a theoretical explanation of what was happening in this appraisal process. Data were gathered from five principals and their appraisers through a questionnaire and an interview. Through a constant comparative analysis of the data, a basic social process was discovered that consisted of four conceptual categories labelled as metamorphosis, metamorphic reaction, adaptation and palatableness. These categories were linked into a core category labelled fluxion and abatement. Fluxion and abatement is a conceptual statement of a continually changing appraisal process that has been grappled with and abated in a meaningful way by the appraisal participants. That no school site, of principal appraisal development and implementation, closely resembles another, is testimony of the fluxion and abatement theory. That schools are still talking of adaptation to the latest metamorphosis of professional standards and that a palatableness state is some time, even years, away, strengthens the theory produced in this study. These findings have important implications for a number of areas of school operation. The first is leadership. Will the school site strengthen or move away from a collaborative model of leadership? The study argues for a supportive board of trustees to the principal, who should engender a transformational leadership style. These collaborative approaches will see schools as educative communities rather than managed organisations. The second implication is in teaching and learning. Principals, working with their staff, need to have refined the meaningful data on what is happening in teaching and learning within their schools. The third implication is the principal appraisal process. This process should be used as a purposeful tool to achieve and produce evidence of the other stated implications. The last implication, school effectiveness, is the prospective outcome of such a principal appraisal process.

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  • The production and consumption of history : a discourse on heritage and nostalgia in the 1990s : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Geography at Massey University

    Brown, Annette Margaret (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The dialectic of history as an ideology and history as a commodity can underpin a discourse on the production and consumption of history as heritage and nostalgia in the 1990s. History as an ideology is erased from the dominant space of representation, by history as a commodiy; therefore, history as an ideology needs to be discussed separately from history as a commodity even though they are not independent categories; this is because they are mutually constitutive of each other. The processes and structures that underwrite this dialectic, Capitalism and Modernity, produce different outcomes in different places and at different times; outcomes such as the cabinets of curiosity during early modernity, modernist and postmodernist museums, heritage sites such as country houses, a shopping mall and a disneyfied theme park arranged around a historic locale and the gentrification of some parts of the inner City of London. These objects of history are produced, reproduced and consumed by social actors in different places and at different times. The production and consumption of history as an object does not explain why these particular outcomes exist in the places and the times that they do. These outcomes need to be explained, and can be explained, by using a dialectical methodology. Such an explanation would look at the underlying processes and structures of Capitalism and modernity.

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  • Sustaining the physical and social dimensions of wilderness tourism: the perceptual approach to wilderness management in New Zealand

    Higham, James E S (1998)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Full text available only via related link.

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  • Using parent newsletters to enhance junior primary school mathematics : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Educational Studies (Mathematics) at Massey University

    Savell, Janice Robyn (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Parent Newsletters were investigated as a means of increasing home-school contact in the Junior Primary School mathematics classroom. An action research model using three cycles, was used to develop and trial the newsletter. The first newsletter was based on BSM activities and used by five teachers at a school sited in a military housing area. The second and third formats of the newsletters were written in consultation with one teacher to integrate with her topic based mathematics programme in a Palmerston North primary school. A questionnaire was used to gather background information and invite parents to be interviewed for further comments. Teachers and responding parents were interviewed in a semi-structured format. Participants commented on a range of other home-school contact issues. A follow-up interview was conducted with the parents from the Palmerston North school three months after the newsletters had ceased. Teachers and parents were positive about the benefits of the newsletters. Newsletters did increase parental awareness of the junior school mathematics programme. For one child with special needs an obvious improvement in classroom performance was directly attributable to the effect of the newsletters. Interviews revealed a number of inconsistencies between parents and teacher views of their roles and responsibilities. Problems of parent-school communication were highlighted. Teachers supported the newsletters, but felt that heavy workloads did not allow time for teacher production. The research tentatively confirms the value of mathematics newsletters as a means of helping children and as a means of keeping parents informed. additionally, the research gives rise to questions on the duality of information flow and equality of benefits accrued.

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  • Needs, social support and psychological well-being in the older person : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Bailey, Robyn Dulcie (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The purpose of the present study was twofold. First, to investigate the relationships between functional ability, received social support and psychological well-being. Second, to determine whether formal tangible support was more effective than informal tangible support in reducing the deleterious effects of functional ability difficulties on the psychological well-being of older adults. Subjects were 89 older adults (aged 64 to 90 years) who were recruited from the A2 Service Coordination Database of the MidCentral Health Crown Health Enterprise. They were interviewed in their homes. The questionnaire was comprised of four sets of questions containing measures of functional ability, informal and formal tangible support received to help with functional ability difficulties, received general social support with three subscales (tangible support, emotional support and informational support) and psychological well-being. The results partially upheld the prediction that difficulties with functional ability would be related to lower psychological well-being; instrumental activities of daily living were related to lower psychological well-being, although this was not the case with activities of daily living. Social support was not found to be associated with psychological well-being with one exception; in the opposite direction to the hypothesis, higher levels of informal received needs-aligned tangible support were related to better psychological well-being. The results failed to confirm that formal or informal support buffered the negative impact that functional ability difficulties have on psychological well-being. Functional ability difficulties were associated with higher levels of all the forms of received social support except for informational support. The findings indicate that the problems with functional ability caused by chronic illness could be linked to lower psychological well-being in older adults. Tangible support from informal sources may be associated with better psychological well-being. The theoretical and methodological implications of the findings are discussed. It is suggested that future research investigate older adults attitudes towards receiving support from the different sources available to them.

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  • The social construction of grief associated with sudden death : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Mist, Kevin E (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This research explores how grief is socially constructed, by analysis of the everyday language people use when talking about grief associated with the sudden or unexpected death of a family member. The study deconstructs grief talk in transcripts of interviews with ten participants recently bereaved. The texts were read and discourses producing grief and subjectivity are illustrated. With grief being constituted through language, this was analysed by use of Potter and Wetherell (1992) model of discourse analysis. The study tends to support the notion that there are idiosyncratic aspects to grief which are constructed and constituted in multiple discourses. Grief, is constructed as inner complex emotions that are influenced by social and cultural factors which bring understanding and meaning to the loss. Grief is something that people 'do' rather than something that is 'done' to them, and therefore, is personal management as people deal and cope with a mixture of other emotions and thoughts which are embodied within the individual. These emotions and thoughts to some extent are able to be controlled. Grief, although an inner complex emotional response to death, is dealt with and managed in social relatedness. However, there are aspects of grief that could not be constructed linguistically, suggesting that grief is not entirely socially or culturally constituted. Thus, there may be aspects to grief which are never resolved, as there are no words to give meaning to that experience. Grief, has many determinants which affect the outcome of bereavement.

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  • The measurement of stress and burnout among university students : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Collins, David (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study examines stress and burnout in a university student population and focuses on the relationship between interpersonal and academic demands and perceived stress and burnout. The mediating roles of social support and life events on the demand-burnout relationship is also considered. Four measures were used in this study. The Student Stress Inventory was used as a stress measure and the Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to measure student burnout. The Student Life Events Questionnaire was used for the measurement of concurrent stressors that the student had experienced and the Multi-Dimensional Support Scale was used to identify levels of social support and by what source the support was provided. The results of this study suggest that a high level of social/academic problems in combination with low levels of support and interaction from lecturers leads to lower levels of personal accomplishment and higher levels of depersonalisation and emotional exhaustion. It was also concluded that high levels of social support from family and friends, and from other students leads to an increase in personal accomplishment and a decrease in depersonalisation and emotional exhaustion. The manner in which counselling services and academic departments can use these findings identify students at risk before problems reach serious proportions is also discussed.

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  • Integrated management : from concept to practice : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Resource and Environmental Planning at Massey University

    Rennison, David Stanhope (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    New Zealand's key environmental management statutes are notable for requiring the integrated management of resources. This thesis explores the extent to which integrated management is actually occurring between two different agencies operating under the Resource Management Act 1991 and the Conservation Act 1987. The level of integration between Tasman District Council and the Department of Conservation is analysed with reference to a case study of management issues along the coast of Abel Tasman National Park. The primary issue here is that increased human activity along the Park coast has attendant social and environmental impacts; these should be addressed in an integrated manner by both agencies. The concept of integrated environmental management is defined and explained by means of a literature review. Following this, the potential for integrated management in the New Zealand context is assessed by reviewing the requirements of legislation and relevant commentary. Subsequent to developing this theoretical framework, research investigations centre on the Abel Tasman case study. First, interviews are conducted with those who prepared the Proposed Tasman Regional Policy Statement and Proposed Tasman Resource Management Plan; and the Nelson-Marlborough Conservation Management Strategy and Abel Tasman National Park Draft Management Plan, amongst other practitioners. Second, these plans are coded; and the findings of both research methods are then analysed. It is shown that the degree to which integrated management can be achieved is dependent on institutional factors. New Zealand's environmental management regime contains both opportunities and barriers to the implementation of integrated management, and this is reflected in the case study. The extent to which integration is achieved between Tasman District Council and the Department of Conservation is limited, due to inadequate funding, staffing and statutory deadlines. Statutory and informal processes followed by the two agencies in preparing plans lacked the comprehensive interaction and effective co-ordination that are the key operational ingredients to integrated management. The lack of capacity within agencies is attributed to a lack of political commitment to the processes of integration. The intentions embodied in the legislation are being compromised by pressure on agencies and staff to be cost-effective. Nevertheless, significant improvements to the regime were noted by practitioners.

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  • Factors which influence the decision of sexual offenders against children to attend a sex offender treatment programme at Te Piriti or Kia Marama : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Norrie, Joan (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Treatment of individuals who sexually offend against children has been shown to be associated with reductions in recidivism both in New Zealand, (Johnston, 1996) and overseas (Gendreau, 1996). Laven (1993) and Jury (1993) found in two New Zealand studies of incarcerated child sex offenders that when they were offered treatment to help them address their offending they more often than not declined. Barbaree (1991) noted that offenders often present as denying, minimising, rationalising or being vague about their sexual offending behaviours. Treatment for incarcerated individuals who have sexually offended against children is provided by the New Zealand Department of Corrections Psychological Service specialist prison-based Child Sex Offender Treatment Programme at Auckland (Te Piriti) and Christchurch (Kia Marama). However, participation in the programme is voluntary. The main purpose of the study was to examine the effects of a motivational and educational pretherapy intervention, First Step, on factors such as Stage of Change and Victim Empathy which were believed to be associated with the decision to seek entry to the Sex Offender Treatment Programme. A secondary purpose was to investigate which factors the child sex offenders considered while making their decision to seek or decline treatment in the programme. The subjects were 104 male incarcerated offenders convicted of sexual offences against children under the age of sixteen years. They were resident in one of three minimum security prisons, Tongariro/Rangipo, Ohura and Waikeria, New Zealand. All of the subjects were referred by the prison Case Management Committee to Department of Corrections, Psychological Service for assessment when they arrived in the prison. Of the total of 104 participants, 39 attended First Step. The other 65 were involved in a related study (Knowles, 1997) at Waikeria Prison. They were included to provide additional information on select issues related to helpseeking. Participation was voluntary and access to the First Step programme was not contingent on participation in the study. Also, there were no custodial consequences (e. g., temporary paroles or early release) contingent on participation in the study. The design for the treatment portion of the study was a two by two factorial, repeated measures design with two conditions, a wait-list control and a treatment condition (First Step). An assessment of treatment readiness and victim-specific empathy was made using the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA) questionnaire based on Prochaska, DiClemente et al's (1982, 1985, 1989, 1991, 1995) Transtheoretical Stages of Change model and Marshall et al's (1995) Person Specific Empathy Scale which were administered at pre and post wait-list and treatment conditions. The results of this study provide important data for enhancing our understanding of the effects of a pre therapy intervention on motivation and of the factors that influence the incarcerated child sex offender's decision to seek entry to a Sex Offender Treatment Programme. There was evidence that the motivational and educational intervention, the First Step programme, had an influence on the way that the offenders thought about their offending behaviour. In particular, this was supported by a general pattern of movement through the Stages of Change as illustrated by changes in the numbers of offenders in identified Stages of Change clusters. The support for First Step further buttresses Barbaree (1991) and O'Donohue and LeTourneau (1993) proposals for the necessity, particularly in cases where the problem is denied, for a pre-treatment intervention designed to encourage a frame of mind that is more amenable to treatment entry and compliance. Some positive treatment produced changes were also noted on the empathy scale. Apart from a motivational intervention, other factors identified by the sample as being influential in the treatment-seeking decision-making process included both internal (e. g., desire for self improvement, acceptance of responsibility for the offending, denial of offending, fear and shame) and external (e. g., awareness of treatment procedures at the Sex Offender Treatment Programme, family support and custody conditions) factors. The discussion focuses on future use of pretherapy, motivational interventions and the integration of such factors.

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  • "It's just such a problem, really" : a discourse analysis of young women's talk on contraception : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Watson, Lucy (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    A discourse analysis was undertaken of young women's discussion of their experiences and concerns with choosing and using contraception. Ten women, aged between 21 and 25, with experience of using contraception, were individually interviewed by the author using an open, loosely structured interviewing schedule. Transcripts of the interviews were made and formed the object of analysis. The focus of the analysis was influenced predominantly by Parker's conception of discourse analysis (1990, 1992). Six main discourses were identified in the participants' talk; the moral discourse, sexual desire discourse, natural health discourse, live life discourse, individual responsibility discourse, and equality discourse. Participants' use of the discourses was found to be concentrated around three particular topic areas; choosing and using contraception, non-use of contraception, and the responsibility of contraception. Women's discussion of the issues involved in contraception use involved a complex and often contradictory negotiation of the identified discourses. Participants predominantly drew on the discourses to explain their contraceptive decisions and preferences, to justify 'risky' behaviour, and to point out inadequacies in the range of contraceptives available. An examination was also made of the function of the discourses in Western society in general, and of their histories in Western culture. An understanding of women's constructions of the issues involved in contraception use is valuable for all women, as well as for health professionals and others involved in counselling and advising women in the area of contraceptive decision-making and use.

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  • Native health nursing in New Zealand 1911-1930 : a new work and a new profession for women : thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Nursing at Massey University

    McKillop, Ann Margaret (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The focus of this thesis is the practice of the nurses employed in the Native Health Nursing Scheme in New Zealand from 1911 to 1930. These nurses were a vanguard movement for change in community nursing services as they established a new role and developed innovative ways of practising nursing while claiming greater autonomy and accountability for nurses who worked in community settings. Consequently they contributed to an increase in status for nurses in New Zealand. The Native Health Nursing Scheme was established by the Health Department to replace the Maori Health Nursing Scheme, an initiative by Maori leaders for Maori nurses to provide nursing care for their own people. The original scheme had foundered amid under-resourcing, a lack of support from hospital boards and administrative chaos. Government policy for Maori health was openly assimilationist and the mainly non-Maori Native Health nurses carried out this policy, yet paradoxically adapting their practice in order to be culturally acceptable to Maori. Their work with the Maori people placed the Native Health nurses in a unique position to claim professional territory in a new area of practice. As they took up the opportunities for an expanded nursing role, they practised in a manner which would develop the scope and status of nursing. The geographical isolation of their practice setting provided the nurses with the challenge of practising in an environment of minimal administrative and professional support, while also offering them the opportunity for independence and relative autonomy. Obedience, duty and virtue, qualities highly valued in women of the day, were expected especially in nurses. These expectations were in direct contrast to the qualities necessary to perform the duties of the Native Health nurse. The conditions under which these nurses worked and lived, the decisions they were required to make, and the partnerships they needed to establish to be effective in the communities in which they worked, required courage, strength, organisational ability and commitment.

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  • Food intake and exercise study in older adults : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Nutritional Science at Massey University

    Ley, Sarah (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study aimed to explore the relationships between food intake, body composition and exercise levels of a group of people (8 men and 34 women) currently exercising with the Sport North Harbour programs. Food intake was estimated by three day records and a calcium food frequency questionnaire. Participants kept two week exercise diaries using the PEPSA scoring system to record levels of activity. In addition bioelectrical impedance analysis was carried out and data collected on supplement use, nutrition education, alcohol intake and gardening and housework undertaken in the last four weeks. Mean exercise levels for the group were approximately one hour per day with walking the most popular form of exercise. Fat free mass (FFM) for women was found to decline with age despite this level of exercise. The quality of food intake was similar to that obtained from the LINZ study participants 45 years and older. 35% of women and 12% of men under-reported energy intake according to the FAO/WHO/UNU criteria. No relationships were found between energy intake, energy expenditure or levels of FFM. Extremely good correlations (r=>0.9) were found between the PEPSA system and other validated methods of recording activity levels. Despite these older adults exercising to provide health benefits they were not choosing a desirable food intake which would specifically provide health benefits; over 50% took dietary supplements. It is recommended that nutrition be included as an integral part of programs to promote exercise in older adults.

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  • Response style, gender, and depressed mood : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology

    Madsen, Suzanne Mary (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The present study was an attempt to replicate and extend the observational study reported by Nolen-Hoeksema, Morrow, and Fredrickson (1993). Nolen-Hoeksema et al. found support for Nolen-Hoeksema's 'response style' theory -- which explains the gender difference in depression rates as a byproduct of gender-specific styles of responding to depression (a ruminative style being associated with longer and more severe episodes of depression). Sixty-four students completed three initial pencil-and-paper measures and then tracked their naturally occurring depressed moods for thirty consecutive days via a 'Daily Emotion Report'. Participants recorded the characteristics of their depressed moods (e.g., severity and duration), their responses to these moods (e.g., type and effectiveness), and the characteristics of any event precipitating the mood (e.g., seriousness). Over the 30-day period, individuals showed a high consistency in response to depressed mood. However, contrary to Nolen-Hoeskema et al.'s findings, there were no sex differences in levels of depression nor in response styles to depressed mood. Of Nolen-Hoeksema's two response styles, distraction was used predominantly by respondents and 'distracters' tended to fare better than 'ruminators'. The number of initial ruminative and distractive responses and the initial severity of the moods at episode onset did not differ significantly over the month, nor did they prolong episodes. Regression analyses showed that severity of sadness was the most important and consistently significant predictor of the duration of depressed mood.

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  • Kaitiakitanga and the conservation and heritage management of the Kaituna River : a planning project presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Resource and Environmental Planning at Massey University

    Park, Matiu C (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis investigates kaitiakitanga as an integral component of the Maori environmental management system and the theoretical and practical implications of this concepts incorporation in modern resource management, in particular the conservation and heritage management of the Kaituna River, Okere, Rotorua. With increasing attention being focused on the development of bicultural policies for resource management, this thesis pursues the effectiveness of New Zealand's environmental mandate as inclusive of Maori and Treaty of Waitangi concerns. Through the use of an extensive literature research and retroductive interviews, this thesis examines both the Maori and Western world-views and their resource management perspectives and practices. In terms of giving expression to kaitiakitanga, an investigation of the hierarchies, priorities and partnerships developed to resolve competing resource conflicts was undertaken, as well as the various legally based structures and mechanisms for processing and implementing partnership arrangements and recognising iwi rights and values. The Kaituna River was chosen as a case study because of the current ongoing resource management conflict between Maori and the Crown with respect to recreational use and commercial development versus Maori cultural and spiritual values. The case study complemented the findings of this research in that, despite the widespread formal recognition of kaitiakitanga by management agencies and the various statutory and non-statutory mechanisms that could be used to accord Maori management authority, there have been neither a sufficiency, nor an appropriate choice of formally established structures to allow Ngati Pikiao to exercise, as Treaty partners, their kaitiakitanga responsibilities. More specifically, the situation investigated at the Kaituna River established the current inability ofNew Zealand's political and judiciary systems to apply kaitiakitanga effectively as a mechanism for dealing with resource management issues involving Maori and the Crown. At present, kaitiakitanga is expressed in the RMA as a principle to which territorial authorities shall have "particular regard" in achieving the purpose of the Act It is to be effected through the requirement the RMA places on these authorities to "take into account" the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi. The problem is though, as many Maori involved in resource management are realising, it is a requirement which those with responsibilities under the RMA may choose to readily avoid. Whether the kaitiakitanga role of hapu and iwi will become better understood, appreciated and given effect to by resource management agencies involved and the promised Treaty of Waitangi partnership is being affirmed still remains to be seen. While the case study was specific to the Kaituna River, the findings of this thesis could be relevant to any conflicting resource management situation between Maori and the Crown in New Zealand. The development of new principles and/or a new planning framework relating to the kawanatanga response needs to become consistent with New Zealand's dual mainstream planning heritage. Legal and constitutional adjustments may be needed to facilitate formal collaborative management structures and negotiated agreements at all levels.

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  • The rise and fall of CCAC : a case study in heritage politics : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Museum Studies at Massey University

    McCarthy, Kerry (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Museums are publicly funded community organisations. In New Zealand today most museum funding is provided by local governments but central government also plays a role. Fundamental to museum activity is the preservation of collections which are assembled on behalf of the contributing community as material representations of its heritage and which are intended to be held in perpetuity for the information and enjoyment of present and future generations. Conservation is the chief means by which preservation is achieved and it has received increasing prominence as a scientific, technical and management activity in museums in the second half of the twentieth century. During the 1970s calls for improved standards of conservation in New Zealand's museums led central government to establish a ministerial advisory committee within the Department of Internal Affairs. This committee (the Interim Committee for the Conservation of Cultural Property) was to guide and facilitate collection conservation and the training of personnel through funding allocation and the provision of policy advice. It was replaced in 1987 by the Cultural Conservation Advisory Council, a similarly constituted body with a closely aligned mandate. These committees were formed during a period of interventionist government philosophy but since the mid 1980s New Zealand government has radically altered this stance and has withdrawn from service delivery in many areas. Government reforms have focused on the application of private market principles to the public sector, financial stringency and improved accountability. The Cultural Conservation Advisory Council was reviewed in 1991 and its activities discontinued. It is clear that shifting political philosophies had a strong influence on this outcome but there were several other contributing factors. The Council did not succeed in establishing an endorsed heritage policy for government and did not secure unified heritage sector support to advocate for its continuation. Since the Council's demise central government has not renewed its leadership role in promoting the conservation of New Zealand's cultural property. However, a number of discrete initiatives have arisen and important advances have been made in seeking to define government's role in heritage management and preservation generally and in the care of taonga Maori in particular. Australia has recently adopted a National Conservation and Preservation Policy for Moveable Cultural Heritage and is moving towards programme delivery in this area. This initiative may provide a useful model for New Zealand. As well as analysing central government's activities in cultural property conservation, this thesis points to the wider question of government's place in cultural activities generally and notes that traditional rationales and justifications must be reworked in light of new political philosophies in order to achieve a meaningful solution for communities and the heritage which they value.

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