1,196 results for 2000

  • A suggested paradigm for environmental accounting in New Zealand.

    Orr, B. (2000)

    Working Papers
    Open Polytechnic

    In this paper the author examines important aspects of environmentalism and suggests a paradigm for environmental accounting in New Zealand. There are different aspects of environmentalism that can be considered, and the author explores some of these aspects. The author argues that the suggested paradigm provides a basis for assessing any attempted accounting and also promotes consideration of environmental aspects that a traditional accounting approach might not include. The paradigm is an attempt to include, and also go beyond, the interpretation of the environment in a physical and limited sense.

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  • New Zealand stakeholders' views of company environmental reporting.

    Orr, B. (2000)

    Working Papers
    Open Polytechnic

    This paper contains an analysis of New Zealand stakeholder views about company environmental reporting. The analysis explores a sample of stakeholder views associated with company activity and reporting of environmental issues. Stakeholder opinion indicates that a wide range of environmental issues are associated with company activity. This opinion translates into an expectation that such issues will be reported in company reports. In the sample, stakeholders also provide their views on appropriate forms of environmental reporting and possible enforcement. A majority of stakeholders desire transparency when reporting environmental issues in company reports. Some stakeholder opinion argues for a transparency of the wider effects of environmental decisions.

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  • Student retention and support in open and distance learning.

    Grote, Bill (2000)

    Working Papers
    Open Polytechnic

    Tertiary education institutions take the issue of student retention and successful completion of courses and programmes by students very seriously. The substantial literature on this topic suggests that withdrawal and drop-out are particularly prevalent in open and distance learning. However, literature does not appear to offer any clear answers as to the causes of the problem, nor does it present any proven solutions that would reduce the incidence of withdrawal or drop-out. This study, based on a literature survey and experience gained in an open and distance learning environment, finds that much of the completion data cited in the literature has little comparative value. Hence, it is suggested that the 'problem of drop-out' in open and distance learning, relative to that in face-to-face provision, has been overstated and that the two modes of delivering tertiary education cannot be compared directly.

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  • Towards the implementation of sustainable business practices in New Zealand organisations: A review of current activities and new trends such as the Natural Step framework.

    Gehrke, T. (2000)

    Working Papers
    Open Polytechnic

    The purpose of this paper is to review the current business practices of organisations that are working towards environmental sustainability in New Zealand, and to note new trends. Business managers are aware of the competitive advantage they may gain through such practices and a number of New Zealand businesses have taken up the challenge of implementing sustainable practices over the last decade. International companies and local businesses reliant on overseas markets are in the forefront of combining regulatory compliance with meeting additional environmental performance criteria. However, there are a number of New Zealand businesses that restrict their efforts to regulatory compliance only. Small businesses, in particular, perceive that long-term investment may need to precede any expected gain and, as a result, are reluctant to commit to environmentally sustainable practices. In New Zealand, local government is a major driver of the move towards sustainable business practices. It is raising awareness and fostering business involvement through local award schemes, coordination services, and having field officers work directly with businesses to assist them with sustainable business practices, such as waste management. There are a number of initiatives from which businesses can choose if they wish to operate in a more environmentally sustainable way, ranging from cleaner production and process-oriented changes to the introduction of an environmental management system (EMS). There is however, a lack of coordinated and subsidised advice to businesses, particularly small businesses, on the range of sustainable business practices available to them. There is also a need for education to reinforce the fact that many businesses can achieve financial gain from very little investment in sustainable practices (often time only). For example, a quick waste stream analysis undertaken to determine what wastes are being generated where in a production process is likely to give rise to alternative cost- and environment efficient practices. In this light, The Natural Step concept (TNS) can be examined as a possible overarching strategy that businesses may apply when developing sustainable business practices. TNS is a framework that provides direction and context for initiatives towards environmentally sustainable business practices. It consists of four scientifically accepted system conditions that are deemed necessary for sustaining the environment?s life support systems. The Natural Step concept originated from a consensus process among Swedish scientists in the 1980s and has since been adopted by many scientists, businesses and local governments throughout Scandinavia, North America, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. Companies that have introduced TNS into their operations include IKEA Furniture, Scandic Hotels, Interface Carpet, Electrolux, and the Collins Pine Company. The Warehouse and Phoenix Foods, a small New Zealand-based company, are currently working towards meeting the TNS four-system conditions. The TNS concept could be used to foster a more coordinated and national approach for New Zealand businesses wanting to move towards sustainable practices, as it allows for a degree of freedom that can be tailored to the requirements of particular industry and business operations to combine profitable business activities and processes with sustainable practices.

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  • Employability: 'The Big E' of the education and business interface.

    Hornblow, D. (2000)

    Conference paper
    Open Polytechnic

    Discussion of how well learner-workers should be able to live within their worlds of education and business.

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  • Voluntary audits: An empirical study.

    Hay, D.; Davis, D. (2000)

    Working Papers
    Open Polytechnic

    This study examines 380 incorporated societies in New Zealand. It investigates the demand for audits in a modern voluntary audit setting, in which a number of levels of auditor qualification and reputation can be chosen. Where audits are not compulsory, a substantial number of organisations do choose to appoint auditors. Voluntary audits of all types are associated with larger organisational size. The results of this study support the audit as a form of monitoring and bonding, contracting, signalling and organisational control; they do not support the insurance explanation for auditing in a voluntary setting.

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  • Psychology practicals: Delivering by use of and interactive CD-ROM.

    Jackson, P. (2000)

    Working or discussion paper
    Open Polytechnic

    A project is described in which a CD-Rom package was developed for use in delivering psychology practicals to students studying psychology at a distance at the introductory level (stage one) of a degree programme with The Open Polytechnic of New Zealand. Development occurred in two phases: investigation of the concept, and design/development of the package. Design factors such as disk capacity, text versus visual components, interactivity, and navigation problems are discussed. Seven experiments were chosen, covering a variety of domains in the field of experimental psychology and based on the key experiments in these domains. Included in this paper are synopses of the literature reviewed as a part of the investigation phase.

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  • Locating plant materials for the reconstruction of the Makotukutuku wharepuni.

    Burtenshaw, M. K.; Harris, G. F.; Lucas, R.; Te Whaiti, H. (2000)

    Working Papers
    Open Polytechnic

    Plants and plant material used by Maori are identified from the Makotukutuku Valley in the vicinity of the Cross Site. Possible materials used to construct the sixteenth century Makotukutuku Wharepuni are described. Access restricted. Please contact Mike Burtenshaw at The Open Polytechnic of New Zealand (0508 650 200).

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  • Factors influencing change: Agricultural and environmental education in New Zealand: A review of the 1990s.

    Treeby, B. (2000)

    Working Papers
    Open Polytechnic

    This paper discusses the main factors that have contributed to changes in agricultural and environmental education in New Zealand during the 1990s. The part played by central and regional government, the strategies, applications and new initiatives are also discussed. As the 1990s have progressed, there has been an increasing focus on (1) sustainability, (2) the need for greater environmental protection especially for indigenous biodiversity, (3) more effective environmental education, (4) community based action on land-care issues, (5) the need for the application of conservation management on private lands, (6) market-driven eco-certification, (7) the accelerating accessibility and application of Internet-based technology to obtain global and regional information.

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  • Reflections on Absolutism in E.T.A. Hoffman's Das Frauelein von Scuderi.

    Laurs, A. (2000)

    Journal article
    Open Polytechnic

    Reflections on Absolutism in E.T.A. Hoffman's Das Frauelein von Scuderi.

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  • Tomorrow's professions: The pressures for change.

    Swinson, C. (2000)

    Working Papers
    Open Polytechnic

    Professional organisations have been successful in serving the public interest and the private interests of their members. This paper examines the future of professional bodies in light of changes in public expectations, the political environment and technology. It questions whether professional bodies will be able to react sufficiently quickly to the challenges brought about by these changes. The paper concludes by offering a number of predictions for the future of professional bodies.

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  • Tumatanui: The experience of a whanau group at Te Waananga-O-Aotearoa: (A bicultural research project).

    Taurima, W.; Cash, M. (2000)

    Working Papers
    Open Polytechnic

    Tena koutou tena koutou a tena koutou katoa He rangahau a kaupapa tenei o te Maori tertiary sector, e hangai ana i Te Waananga-O-Aotearoa, te waananga tino nui i Aotearoa. Ko ?Breaking Boundaries? te tino whakaaro i tenei rangahau, e whakaurua ana hoki he kitenga whakamoemiti ki nga roopu whakahaere Maaori e haere tonu ai ki te whakatutuki te taumatai i a e mahi ana i te ao umanga kahore kau ana he tikanga. E ti tino whakamaooha ana matou ki nga waananga no roto i tene mea e kiia nei ko te ?Tumatanui?, he kitenga ki roto i te waananga. E kimihia ana matou mo te wairua o te me nga rereketanga. Na enei rereketanga, ne taea ai mo te waananga hei angaatu. Noreira, ka nui nga mini ki nga kaikawea o te moohiotanga kua homaingia a raatou koorero he tino whakamaramatanga ki a taatou katoa. He whakawhetai hoki ki a raatou mo a raatou haapai, tautoko, me a raatou puku whakaaro ki Te Waananga-O-Aotearoa me te tokomaha o nga momo tauira. Ko te Ako te ara Ko te moohiotanga te rama This research is a case study of Maori tertiary education sector. It focuses on Te Waananga-O-Aotearoa, the largest Maori waananga in New Zealand. Our research philosophy, ?Breaking Boundaries? involves an appreciative inquiry of Maori organisations that continue to break boundaries while operating in a culturally deficient business environment. We are looking, in an appreciative way, at a waananga from within, giving what we called in ?Tumatanui? the inside view of a waananga. We are looking for the spirit of the place, the things that make it different and successful. For this we are eternally grateful to our knowledge carriers who came forth with their stories which you will find enlightening. We are also grateful for their support and dedication to the waananga and its students of many cultures. Learning is the path Knowledge is the light

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  • Aptitude testing as a predictor of success: the Christchurch experience

    Ross, J. (2000)

    Conference item
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Christchurch Polytechnic has used an aptitude test to aid selection of students since 1975 and its usefulness as a predictor of success has been informally debated regularly since that time. In recent years, it has been used to assist in the selection process but achievement of a poor test result has not necessarily been used to exclude a student from beginning study. This paper examines the results of aptitude tests over a period of three years, and the subsequent performance of those students who joined the Certificate in Business Computing (CBC) programme for full-time study. Aptitude Test results are examined by section (pattern matching, mathematical reasoning, logic, words) in an attempt to find out if any one section provides a better indicator of success than the rest. The measure of success used is based on achievement of passes in the nine modules undertaken by new CBC students in their first semester of study. Trends which are observed in this analysis suggest that at the Pass mark which has been used so far, the test does not give a valid indication of success or otherwise. Whether or not a student succeeds in their first semester is not significantly dependent on whether or not they Passed the Aptitude Test. When a higher pass mark is considered, then there is a small level of correlation between achievement of that mark in the test and subsequent success in CBC study. Results in the logic section of the test provide the best indicator but the figures show that many students who did not score well in that section were still able to succeed in their study. The ability to predict success or otherwise in CBC study by using scores achieved in the Aptitude Test as a critical indicator remains inconclusive.

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  • Workplace assessment: balancing the needs of student and organisation

    Wieck, M (2000)

    Conference item
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    This paper compares the needs of the student and employer as they undertook a cooperative education project, completed during the last six months of a fulltime, three-year degree in business computing. Some apparent conflicts of interest were examined and ways to resolve these conflicts were explored using Alexander’s patterns framework. The study derives from experiences with the first two cohorts of the Bachelor of Business Computing (BBComp) at Christchurch Polytechnic, where students apply the knowledge and skills gained on the course to real challenges and opportunities presented to them by companies in a business computing environment. The respective outcomes are negotiated between student and employer before the project begins. The student must in addition meet the academic requirements of the Polytechnic; they submit a number of assessments both during and after the project’s completion. The employer’s focus is on producing a commercial product subject to typical constraints such as budget, quality and time. Conflict may arise when - despite the agreed outcomes - the exigencies of the commercial environment force changes upon the student, deflecting them from their original intent. The author has responsibility for the coordination of the student project and acts as arbiter for both parties.

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  • 80% of what? - a preliminary investigation of tutors' understanding of the 80% pass mark for DipBC modules

    Kennedy, D.; Ross, J. (2000)

    Conference item
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    “I don’t take an awful lot of notice of the 80% thing” Tutor comment. As new people are recruited to join the many teams of NDBC teaching staff throughout the country, “old timers” attempt to explain the concept of mastery that is supposed to form the basis of assessment procedures in the various modules. The concept is described in the NZQA approved document, commonly known as the Bluebook, which details the NDBC, and other, qualification requirements. In that document, a figure of 80% is suggested as a guideline pass mark for assessments which concern knowledge-based modules. This paper focuses on the meaning of that 80% guideline since, for many, both the explanation and the practice of assessing mastery provide a hurdle with an element of mystery. We attempt to unravel some of the mystery by examining what the current practice is in one Polytechnic and to suggest that our methods may be forcing a dumbing down of assessments which target the comprehension sections of modules. The descriptors for the diploma modules categorise the learning required for each module using the RCAP model. It seems that even with Recall sections some tutors have trouble relating the 80% to the assessment. The Application and Problem Solving areas have largely become the things we assess using assignments. This paper examines how the 80% pass mark is being applied to assignments and to the comprehension elements of various courses, for it is in these areas of cognitive processing that competency (or 80%of competency) is harder to establish particularly in areas of original, creative thought. The paper raises the question of honesty of assessment practices in terms of marking guides and suggests that we should be insisting on using both appropriate tools for generating valid evidence and appropriate means of judging student performance against a course’s learning outcomes, rather than trying to force pass marks to add up to 80%.

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  • Database design and the reality of normalisation

    Kennedy, D. (2000)

    Conference item
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    What is normalisation all about? Why do we teach it? How do we teach it? How can we explain normalisation to our students so that they will understand it? This paper presents a method of teaching normalisation that, experience has shown, students can understand. The paper also considers the broader questions of: ¨ Why is normalisation important? ¨ Where does it fit in the process of database design? ¨ How important is it in the “real world”? Database design can be done using an entity relationship diagram (ERD) - a top down approach or by normalisation of sets of data - a bottom up approach The question is, What do real database designers do? ¨ What methodologies do they use? ¨ How important is normalisation? ¨ What normalisation rules do they use i.e. how far do they take it? ¨ How important is denormalisation? This paper presents a summary of findings, from interviews with database designers, that should help us in our teaching of Database design.

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  • "Have-nets and have-nots" - what determines internet access in New Zealand

    Smythe, M. (2000)

    Conference item
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Internet access and social issues: Various commentators overseas have speculated that access to the Internet is a dynamic force for social good, improving communication, education, employment, medical care, and political participation. This has come about due largely to the opportunities the Internet and other technologies seemingly represent to empower individuals. In addition there is an increasing amount of information becoming available only on the Internet. Consequently, issues of access to Information Technology and the Internet are becoming of increasing concern to policy-makers both in NZ and overseas, where terms such as “digital divide” and “information haves and have-nots” are appearing regularly in various media. At a recent Unesco conference is was stated that “Unesco could use its mandate of promoting access to information ...to define a universal right of access to the Internet with which member states would have to comply”(Pullar-Strecker, 1998).

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  • The Szigliget maar/diatreme, Bakony- Balaton Highland Volcanic Field (Hungary)

    Nemeth, Karoly; Korbely, Barnabas; Karatson, David (2000-01-01)

    Journal article
    Massey University

    A preliminary volcanological mapping has been carried out in the western part of the Bakony- Balaton Highland Volcanic Field (BBHVF) around Szigliget (Hungary) village. Pyroclastic rocks have been found building up the three distinct hillsides in the area. The pyroclastic rock beds in each hillside show similar north-westward dip direction and similar textural and compositional characteristics, suggestive of a complex but closely related volcanic system in the area. The pyroclastic deposits have been grouped into three units according to their textural, compositional and stratigraphic characteristics. Unit 1 which represents the lowermost stratigraphic position crops out in the southern side of the study area. It consists of coarse-grained, matrix-supported massive to weakly bedded, accidental lithic clast-rich, block-bearing lapilli tuffs / tuff breccias, extremely rich in deep-seated accidental lithic and peridotite lherzolite clasts. Unit 2 which represents an intermediate stratigraphic position crops out in the southern and north-east hilltops. It consists of coarse-grained accidental lithic clast-rich, normal graded, bedded, vitric lapilli tuffs / tuff beds. Deep-seated accidental lithic clasts are common, but large peridotite lherzolite fragments are relatively rare. Unit 3 which represents the highest stratigraphic position in the area crops out in the northwestern side. It consists of fine-to-coarse grained, bedded, accidental lithic clast-rich vitric lapilli tuff / tuff beds. Deep-seated lithic clasts as well as peridotite lherzolite fragments are rare. Accidental lithic clasts, derived from shallow prevolcanic strata (Neogene sediments), have a dominant proportion of pyroclastic rocks in this unit. In each unit the volcanic glasses are angular, non- to highly vesiculated tephrite to phono-tephrite shards. The presence of sideromelane glass shards and the large amount of accidental lithic clasts in beds from each units indicate subsurface phreatomagmatic explosive processes during formation of pyroclastic rocks at Szigliget. The pyroclastic rocks are interpreted as part of a former crater rim deposits around maar basin which subsequently subsided inward into a vent. Unit 1 is interpreted to be a lower diatreme deposit and Unit 2 and Unit 3 a series of near-vent pyroclastic density currents and fallout tephra.

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  • Experimental study of contact transition control incorporating joint acceleration feedback

    Xu, W. L.; Han, J. D.; Tso, S. K. (2000-09)

    Journal article
    Massey University

    Joint acceleration and velocity feedbacks are incorporated into a classical internal force control of a robot in contact with the environment. This is intended to achieve a robust contact transition and force tracking performance for varying unknown environments, without any need of adjusting the controller parameters, A unified control structure is proposed for free motion, contact transition, and constrained motion in view of the consumption of the initial kinetic energy generated by a nonzero impact velocity. The influence of the velocity and acceleration feedbacks, which are introduced especially for suppressing the transition oscillation, on the postcontact tracking performance is discussed. Extensive experiments are conducted on the third joint of a three-link direct-drive robot to verify the proposed scheme for environments of various stiffnesses, including elastic (sponge), less elastic (cardboard), and hard (steel plate) surfaces. Results are compared with those obtained by the transition control scheme without the acceleration feedback. The ability of the proposed control scheme in resisting the force disturbance during the postcontact period is also experimentally investigated.

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  • Enterprising behaviour of ordinary people

    Van Gelderen, Marco (2000)

    Journal article
    Massey University

    Starting out with the idea that everybody is in principle capable of enterprising behaviour, the concept of enterprise is applied to non-business people as well as business people. A random sample of people is asked to furnish an example of enterprising behaviour that they have shown themselves. Further, they are asked what is enterprising about this behaviour. The results show that in different realms of enterprising behaviour different dimensions of enterprise are mentioned. For example, people giving an example from their leisure time regard merely being active as enterprising, employees mention risky elements in their work, business owners emphasize autonomy, and students regard it as enterprising that they work for their professional or personal development. So people can be enterprising in different areas of life and in different manners. Obtaining a domain of enterprising behaviours and dimensions is a first step in constructing a scale of ''enterprising behaviour of ordinary people''.

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