5,079 results for 2015

  • Housing buy-back schemes.

    Skinnon, J. (2004, February)

    Journal article
    Open Polytechnic

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  • test

    Test (2015)


    Open Polytechnic

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  • Supporting New Zealand graduate midwives to stay in the profession: An evaluation of the Midwifery First Year of Practice programme

    Dixon,L; Calvert,S; Tumilty, E; Kensington, M; Gray, E; Campbell, N; Lennox, S; Pairman, S (2015)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Background: the transition from undergraduate midwifery student to working as a confident midwife can be challenging for many newly qualified midwives. Supporting a smooth transition may have a positive impact on the confidence and retention of the new graduates with in the workforce. In New Zealand the Midwifery First Year of Practice programme (MFYP) was introduced in 2007 as a structured programme of support for new graduate midwives for the whole of their first year of practice.The main components of the programme include support during clinical practice, provision of a funded mentor midwife chosen by the new graduate midwife, financial assistance for education and a requirement to undertake aquality assessment and reflection process at the end of the first year. Aim: the aim of this study was to explore the retention of new graduates in midwifery practice following participation in the Midwifery First Year of Practice programme. Method: data was obtained from the register of MFYP participants between the years 2007 and 2010. This data was cross referenced with the Midwifery Council of New Zealand register and work force data for 2012. Findings: between the years 2007 and 2010 there were 441 midwives who graduated from a midwifery pre-registration education programme in New Zealand. Of these 415 participated in the MFYP programme. The majority were of New Zealand European ethnicity with 10% identifying as Māori. The mean age of participants reduced from 36.4 (SD 7.3) in 2007 to 33.4 (SD 8.1) in 2010. The overall retention rate for new graduate midwives who had participated in the MFYP programme was 86.3%, with 358 midwives still pracising in 2012. Conclusion: there is good retention of new graduate midwives within New Zealand and the MFYP programme would appear to support retention.

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  • Microbial carbon concentration in samples of seabird and non-seabirdforest soil: Implications for leaf litter cycling

    Hawke, D.J.; Vallance, J. R. (2015)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    The paucity of leaf litter in seabird forest is usually explained by litter burial in burrows, but burial byitself fails to address the processes controlling decomposition. We measured soil microbial C in samplesfrom a Westland petrel (Procellaria westlandica) colony both within and outside the breeding season,and compared the results with two non-seabird forests. From the few studies of seabird soil microbialC, we initially hypothesised a soil microbial C concentration sequence of occupied burrows > unoccupiedburrows > adjacent forest floor > non-seabird forest. Instead, the highest values came from non-seabirdforest, a pattern consistent with published meta-analyses on the effects of N addition. Within the colony,highest concentrations were in forest floor soil and there was no burrow occupation effect. However,seabird forest soil microbial C followed a strong inverse relationship with soil ı13C (r = −0.58; P < 0.001)as well as the expected relationship with total soil C (r = 0.75); the relationship with soil ı13C in non-seabird forest was not significant (P = 0.29). We propose that soil microbes in seabird forest repeatedlyprocess a single pool of increasingly refractory terrestrial soil C, facilitated by seabird guano priming oforganic matter mineralisation. In this context, the paucity of leaf litter in seabird forest can be seen asa consequence of microbial C limitation in a nutrient-saturated system, an explanation consistent withrecent theory.

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  • Going commercial: Navigating student radio in a deregulated media marketplace

    Reilly, B.; Farnsworth, J. (2015)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    This article describes an unusual form of student instructional radio, which is organized to run as a fully commercial broadcaster. Drawing on the case of a New Zealand student station, Mode 96.1FM, we look at how it functions in a highly competitive commercial environment. The student-run station reformats itself every year and attempts to emulate the styles and success of much larger national and local commercial music stations. We investigate two aspects. First, the tensions this creates between commercial, industry and educational objectives. Second, how students become located within the commodified speech practices intrinsic to marketing and branding. We also discuss how the station attempts to reconcile these in terms of seeking out diverse listening publics.

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  • Essential advising to underpin effective language

    Hobbs, M.; Dofs, K (2015)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    This paper is aimed at managers, teachers and advisors who are involved with language learner advising. It will first give a historic background to autonomy and advising (Benson & Voller, 1997; Crabbe, 1993; Holec, 1981) , then discuss what advising means and what skill set is required for this. The paper will also look at how autonomy is linked to advising, strategies for effective language learning (Oxford,1990), and self-regulation while using these strategies (Oxford, 2011; Ranalli, 2012; Rose 2012). It will then touch on more recent ideas around processes for helping students become more effective and more autonomous through advising (Mynard & Carson, 2012). Some practical approaches for advising (Kelly, 1996; Mozzon-McPherson, 2002 2007; Riley, 1997) will be referred to, as will the all-important differences between teaching and counselling approaches. Finally, the article will briefly discuss reflection as a useful professional development tool.

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  • Women’s birthplace decision-making, the role of confidence: Part of the Evaluating Maternity Units Study, New Zealand

    Grigg, C.; Tracy, S.; Schmied, V.; Daellenbach, R.; Kensington, M. (2015)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    Objective: to explore women's birthplace decision-making and identify the factors which enable women to plan to give birth in a freestanding midwifery-led primary level maternity unit rather than in an obstetric-led tertiary level maternity hospital in New Zealand. Design: a mixed methods prospective cohort design. Methods: data from eight focus groups (37 women) and a six week postpartum survey (571 women, 82%) were analysed using thematic analysis and descriptive statistics. The qualitative data from the focus groups and survey were the primary data sources and were integrated at the analysis stage; and the secondary qualitative and quantitative data were integrated at the interpretation stage. Setting: Christchurch, New Zealand, with one tertiary maternity hospital and four primary level maternity units (2010–2012). Participants: well (at ‘low risk’ of developing complications), pregnant women booked to give birth in one of the primary units or the tertiary hospital. All women received midwifery continuity of care, regardless of their intended or actual birthplace. Findings: five core themes were identified: the birth process, women's self-belief in their ability to give birth, midwives, the health system and birth place. ‘Confidence’ was identified as the overarching concept influencing the themes. Women who chose to give birth in a primary maternity unit appeared to differ markedly in their beliefs regarding their optimal birthplace compared to women who chose to give birth in a tertiary maternity hospital. The women who planned a primary maternity unit birth expressed confidence in the birth process, their ability to give birth, their midwife, the maternity system and/or the primary unit itself. The women planning to give birth in a tertiary hospital did not express confidence in the birth process, their ability to give birth, the system for transfers and/or the primary unit as a birthplace, although they did express confidence in their midwife. Key conclusions and implications for practice: birthplace is a profoundly important aspect of women's experience of childbirth. Birthplace decision-making is complex, in common with many other aspects of childbirth. A multiplicity of factors needs converge in order for all those involved to gain the confidence required to plan what, in this context, might be considered a ‘countercultural’ decision to give birth at a midwife-led primary maternity unit. Keywords: Decision-making; Place of birth; Primary maternity unit; Tertiary hospital; New Zealand; Confidence

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  • Tenuous affair: Environmental and outdoor education in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Straker, J.; Irwin, D. (2015)

    Journal article
    Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Te Wānanga Ōtautahi

    The relationship between outdoor education and environmental education in Aotearoa New Zealand has undergone many changes since formal education began in early colonial times. Discussion draws from qualitative doctoral research undertaken by the authors that investigated education for sustainability in outdoor education and howmeaning is ascribed to outdoor experiences. The article describes how environmental education and outdoor education had common historical roots in nature studies that eventually were teased apart by the development of separate agendas for learning and assessment, coupled with the political context of the 1970s and 1980s. The article finds that contemporary forces relating to the economy, society and the environment are now driving a re-engagement of the two discourses in Aotearoa New Zealand at a variety of levels, from schools to national bodies, and that this re-engagement signals a positive outcome for addressing key environmental issues and engaging students in the outdoors.

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  • Dancing to a different tune: adaptive evolution fine-tunes protein dynamics

    Donovan, Katherine Aleisha (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The molecular mechanisms that underpin adaptive evolution are not well understood. This is largely because few studies relate evolved alleles (genotype) with their physiological changes (phenotype), which move a population to better fit its environment (adaptation). The work described in this thesis provides a case study exploring the molecular changes underlying adaptive evolution in a key allosteric enzyme. It builds upon a long-term evolution experiment by Richard Lenksi, where twelve replicate populations of Escherichia coli have adapted in parallel to better fit their low-glucose environment. I focused on the allosteric enzyme pyruvate kinase type 1, since this has been shown to adapt to this environment. First, I used X-ray crystallography to determine a higher resolution structure (2.2 Å) than previously available of the wild-type PK1 enzyme for comparison with the evolved enzymes. I resolved the ambiguous space-group problem that affects these crystals, and demonstrated that the kinetic function of the recombinant enzyme is the same as previously reported. In addition, I propose a new model for allosteric activation: a combination of structural and dynamic analyses determined that the allosteric signal is transferred by a series of dynamic changes between the allosteric site, upon fructose-1,6-bisphosphate binding, and the active site for increased substrate binding. The functional analyses demonstrated that all eight evolved PK1 enzymes have a reduced activity compared to the wild-type PK1 at physiological substrate concentrations. Not only did the evolved PK1 enzymes show a parallel decrease in activity, but they all showed changes to substrate binding affinity and seven of the eight showed an altered allosteric activation mechanism. These results suggest that natural selection has selected for enzymes with a reduced activity by altering the functional mechanism of the evolved enzymes. However, in crystal and in solution structure characterisation determined that all of the evolved PK1 enzymes have maintained the same structural fold as the wild-type PK1. Although the fold is the same, substrate binding promiscuity suggested a change in the flexibility of the enzyme, allowing substrates of different sizes and shapes to bind. Computational and experimental dynamics studies determined that natural selection has selected for reduced activity by altering the dynamics in all of the evolved PK1 enzymes, and it has used altered dynamics to change the allostery of the enzymes. Therefore, this study provides the first example of adaptive evolution fine-tuning protein dynamics to alter allostery. This thesis describes the molecular mechanisms underlying one aspect of adaptation of Escherichia coli to the low-glucose environment in Lenski’s long-term evolution experiment. The adaptive mutations in Escherichia coli’s pyruvate kinase type 1 serve to increase the availability of phosphoenolpyruvate for glucose uptake. From a molecular perspective, natural selection has selected for adaptive amino acid substitutions that produce an enzyme with reduced catalytic activity at low phosphoenolpyruvate concentrations, thus decreasing phosphoenolpyruvate consumption. In addition, the adaptive mutations have altered the enzymes’ affinity for the allosteric activator (fructose- 1,6-bisphosphate), fine-tuning them to match the concentration of fructose-1,6- bisphosphate in the cell at the point of glucose re-introduction. Overall, this work describes the intricate relationship between genetic changes and the resulting phenotype and demonstrates the parallel nature of adaptation for this particular case study. Whereby, parallel changes are mapped from organismal fitness, to enzyme function and to enzyme structure. The dynamic changes, however, are not parallel thus making the prediction of specific changes in adaptive evolution difficult.

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  • Modernizing Childbirth in Colonial Bengal: A History of Institutionalization and Professionalization of Midwifery, c.1860-1947

    Guha, Ambalika (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In colonial India, medicalization of childbirth has been historically perceived as an attempt to ‘sanitise’ the zenana (secluded quarters of a respectable household inhabited by women) as the chief site of birthing practices and to replace the dhais (traditional birth attendants ) with trained midwives and qualified female doctors. This thesis has taken a broader view of the subject but in doing so, focusses on Bengal as the geographical area of study. It has argued that medicalization of childbirth in Bengal was preceded by the reconstitution of midwifery as an academic subject and a medical discipline at the Calcutta Medical College. The consequence was the gradual ascendancy of professionalized obstetrics that prioritised research, surgical intervention and ‘surveillance’ over women’s bodies. The thesis also shows how the medicalization of childbirth was supported by the reformist and nationalist discourses of the middle-class Bengalis in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The thesis begins from the 1860s when the earliest scientific essays on childbirth and pregnancy began to appear in Bengali women’s magazines such as Bamabodhini Patrika. It ends in the 1940s, when nationalism profoundly influenced the professionalization of obstetrics - midwifery being perceived as the keystone in a nation’s progress. Bengal being the earliest seat of British power in India it was also the first to experience contact with the western civilization, culture and thought. It also had the most elaborate medical establishment along western medical lines since the foundation of the Calcutta Medical College in 1835. It is argued in the extant literature that unlike the West where professionalized obstetrics was characterised as essentially a male domain, the evolving professional domain of obstetrics in Bengal was dominated by female doctors alone. Questioning that argument, the thesis demonstrates that the domain of obstetrics in Bengal was since the 1880s shared by both female and male doctors, although the role of the latter was more pedagogic and ideological than being directly interventionist. Together they contributed to the evolution of a new medical discourse on childbirth in colonial Bengal. The thesis shows how the late nineteenth century initiatives to reform birthing practices were essentially a modernist response of the western educated colonized middle class to the colonial critique of Indian socio-cultural codes that also included an explicit reference to the ‘low’ status of Bengali women. Reforming midwifery constituted one of the ways of modernizing the middle class women as mothers. In the twentieth century, the argument for medicalization was further driven by nationalist recognition of family and health as important elements of the nation building process. It also drew sustenance from international movements, such as the global eugenic discourse on the centrality of ‘racial regeneration’ in national development, and the maternal and infant welfare movement in England and elsewhere in the inter-war years. The thesis provides a historical analysis of how institutionalization of midwifery was shaped by the debates on women’s question, nationalism and colonial public health policies, all intersecting with each other in Bengal in the inter-war years. The thesis has drawn upon a number of Bengali women’s magazines, popular health magazines, and professional medical journals in English and Bengali that represent both nationalist and official viewpoints on the medicalization of childbirth and maternal and infant health. It has also used annual reports of the medical institutions to chart the history of institutionalization of midwifery and draws upon archival sources - the medical and educational proceedings in particular - in the West Bengal State Archives and the National Archives of India.

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  • Evaluation of composite laminates interleaved with nanofibre and microfibre veils

    Collins-Gargan, Rosalie (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The research covered in this thesis aimed to investigate the use of nanofibre and microfibre veils in carbon fibre reinforced composites and assessed the potential of the veils to improve damage resistance during impact and fatigue loading. It was hypothesised that the interleavings would increase the amount of energy required for crack propagation because of toughening due to fibre reinforcement mechanisms such as crack deflection, fibre pull out and fibre breakage. The work was undertaken as a combined project between the University of Waikato (Hamilton, New Zealand) and Revolution Fibres Ltd (Auckland, New Zealand). During this investigation, six thermoplastic polymers were chosen (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), acrylonitrile styrene acrylate (ASA), polystyrene (PS), chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polycarbonate (PC)) that could potentially be used for the electrospinning of polymer nanofibre veils. Nanofibre veils were successfully produced from PMMA, and a polymer blend of polyamide 6,6 (PA6,6) and PMMA, (referred to as 'nanoNyplex'). These veils, along with three other nanofibre veils (nanoPA6,6, poly vinyl butyral (nanoPVB), and poly ether sulfone (nanoPES)), three microfibre veils (polyphenylene sulfide (microPPS), polyetherimide (microPEI), and woven polyamide 6 (microtricot)) procured from other manufacturers, and three veils combining one of the nanofibre veils with each of the microfibre veils (microPPSnanoPA6,6, microPEInanoPA6,6, and microtricotnanoPA6,6) were then used as interleaves in the manufacture of carbon fibre reinforced epoxy composite panels. Interleaves were placed between every ply of prepreg. After curing the panels, test specimens were created to assess fatigue, vibration damping and compression after impact performance. From the vibration damping study, it was found that the nanoNyplex interleaving improved damping the most. It was thought that energy dissipation was due friction brought about by the movement of the interleaving fibres in the matrix, resulting in friction due to weak adhesion between the nanoNyplex fibres and the epoxy matrix. From the compression after impact (CAI) section of this study, it was found that specimens interleaved with nanoPA6,6, microPPS and microPPSnanoPA6,6 had the highest CAI strengths. From optical inspection, it appeared (in general) that as the CAI strength of the specimen increased, the length of the damage region also increased. However, those identified with the highest CAI strengths had shorter damage regions. From the fatigue section of this study, it was found that the use of most interleavings, (apart from microtricot) increased the number of cycles to failure. Post fatigue test scanning electron microscopy confirmed that crack deflection was present for most interleaved specimens. Some evidence of pull out and breakage of the interleaving fibres was seen on the fracture surfaces of the nanoPA6,6, microPPS, microPEI, microPEInanoPA6,6 and microPPSnanoPA6,6 interleaved specimens. For both CAI and fatigue, it was found that improvement was generally greater with veils that had a large number of fibres per unit area and high adhesion strength with the matrix. However, for CAI it seems that high fracture toughness was also desirable.

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  • He rongo i te reo rauriki, i te reo reiuru – Discourse analysis and conversations of historical conservation in New Zealand newspapers

    Whaanga, Hēmi; Wehi, Priscilla M. (2015-11-23)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Biocultural conservation encompasses all forms of diversity: biological, cultural and linguistic. This requires the nurturing of human cultures, customs, languages, knowledge, and the plants and animals on which they depend. The current biodiversity crisis in Aotearoa and worldwide has led to wide ranging debate about environmental management and the cost of conservation. For Māori, however, much more than species diversity is at stake. In Te Ao Māori, people are linked directly to flora and fauna through whakapapa (ancestry). As such, conservation can be viewed, not in terms of preserving ‘otherness’, but in terms of preserving ‘us-ness’: our very selfhood. We use discourse analysis to examine the concept of ‘conservation’ in 19thC Aotearoa, and how this is perceived by Māori communities in particular. To investigate these relationships, we deconstruct and re-examine the notion of conservation and the range of interpretations associated with it that are evident in both Māori and English language newspapers published between 1840s and the early part of the 20thC. We highlight discussion of species that we have identified as culturally significant from an analysis of whakataukī, ancestral sayings that are an important part of Māori oral tradition. Our analyses focus on the complex inter-relationships between language, society and changing conservation thought in Aotearoa in the late 19th century, and how Māori society engaged with this concept.

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  • E koekoe te tūī, e ketekete te kākā, e kūkū te kererū: Indigenous methods of naming native and introduced bird species of Aotearoa

    Whaanga, Hēmi; Scofield, Paul; Raharuhi, Urukeiha; Green, Lynda; Matamua, Rangi; Temara, Pou; Roa, Tom (2015)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    Naming in Māori society is a relationship of mana. It is a relationship formulated on establishing and reinforcing connections, identity, and place through whakapapa, between the person or group doing the naming and the thing being named. Māori have always named our world and therefore our realities. The overall goal of this Ngā Pae o te Māramatanga-funded extension of excellence project was to research and investigate indigenous methodologies of naming native and introduced bird species of Aotearoa and to develop a naming protocol for the naming of birds in Aotearoa/New Zealand. In addition to semi-structured interviews and a wānanga, reviews of scientific, archival and oral Māori resources, were undertaken.

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  • Māori Astronomy and Matariki

    Whaanga, Hēmi (2015-12-02)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Presented at the Māori Astronomy and Matariki to Year 10 Hamilton Girls’ High School Camp.

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  • Stigma: You do your time, you come out and do more: A phenomenological analysis of the experiences of stigma as lived by ex-prisoners.

    MacLennan, Brigitte Amber (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis explores the phenomena of stigma and its effects upon offenders who have spent time in prison. There has been a long history of stigma attached to those who have engaged in criminal activity. As far back as the late 1800's it was concluded that a criminal could be identified by their physical facial features alone. While it is no longer common to stigmatise offenders based on the distance between a person’s eyes, there is still a great deal of stigma attached to having been in prison which can prevent offenders from living a pro-social life. There is little research in this area, particularly within the New Zealand context. This thesis uses phenomenological research to engage with the participants in order to gain an understanding of their lived experiences with stigma. Interviews were conducted to explore this phenomenon. Allowing offenders who have served time in prison to have their experiences heard has potential implications for policy makers with regards to release conditions and also for services that are run in prisons. Making successful transitions from prison living to living a pro-social life has benefits for not only the offender, but the community in which they are residing as a whole.

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  • Māori leaders' well-being: A self-determination perspective

    Roche, Maree A.; Haar, Jarrod M.; Brougham, David M. (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This research draws on interviews with 18 Māori leaders from various leadership positions within business, community, political and marae organisations, to garner an understanding of how their leadership roles interact with their own well-being. Analysis of interviews revealed that crosscultural developments in self-determination theory could be gained by incorporating Māoritikanga and values into a model of well-being for Māori leaders. Largely, the principles of tinorangatiratanga (autonomy and self-determination), mana (respect and influence), whānau (extended family), whakapapa (shared history) and whanaungatanga (kin relations, consultation and engagement), were united into a model of leader well-being. This ensured that mātauranga Māori (Māori knowledge) informed our model of Māori leader well-being, while also drawing on the burgeoning Western research in the area of well-being, specifically self-determination theory. Overall, we find that similarities exist with self-determination theory and Māori tikanga and values. However, in contrast to self-determination theory, autonomy and competence are developed within relationships, which means that ‘others’ underpin Māori leaders’ well-being. From this perspective, we present a view of the psychological and well-being resources that Māori leaders draw on to guide them through complex times.

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  • Toward creating simpler hydrological models: a LASSO subset selection approach

    Bardsley, W. Earl; Vetrova, V. V.; Liu, S. (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    A formalised means of simplifying hydrological models concurrent with calibration is proposed for use when nonlinear models can be initially formulated as over-parameterised constrained absolute deviation regressions of nonlinear expressions. This provides a flexible modelling framework for approximation of nonlinear situations, while allowing the models to be amenable to algorithmic simplification. The degree of simplification is controlled by a user-specified forcing parameter λ. That is, an original over-parameterised linear model is reduced to a simpler working model which is no more complex than required for a given application. The degree of simplification is a compromise between two factors. With weak simplification most parameters will remain, risking calibration overfitting. On the other hand, a high degree of simplification generates inflexible models. The linear LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator) is utilised for the simplification process because of its ability to deal with linear constraints in the over-parameterised initial model.

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  • Shifting Downtown

    Dewhirst, Winston (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Tendency: Haphazard development consumes the landscape stripping it of character and disrupting natural processes. Development of this type is prevalent in small growing rural towns featuring foreign urban designs transposed over the land which create a conflict between permanent urban infrastructure and the transient landscape. Natural processes have become ‘natural hazards’, and the landscape has become ‘green spaces’ which are completely indifferent to the original landscape character. The Thesis looks at the possibility of settlement patterns which retrofit the natural systems into an urban framework. This forms a symbiotic relationship between movement patterns of natural processes and the urban development patterns, aiming to keep the original character of the landscape as the urban centres identity and give space for natural systems to function. The town of Paraparaumu is used as a case study.

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  • Measuring the sustainability of logistics in small island nations in the Pacific : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Logistics and Supply Chain Management at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Joy, Jullian Gilbert (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis examines the factors which small island nations in the Pacific could consider measuring as indicators when monitoring and reporting on the sustainability of supply chain management practices, focused on the logistics elements. A theoretical framework is derived from a review of appropriate literature to guide the research, which employs a case study methodology. The case study provides a cross sectional view of the reporting environment for early 2015, focused on the small island developing states (SIDS) that are members of the Pacific Islands Forum. Governmental regional organisations are the core participants for the development of the research, due to the nature of the political and business environment in these Pacific nations. One private company and one academic institute are also included as possible triangulation validations. The research finds that no effective measuring or reporting is currently being conducted in relation to assessing the holistic sustainability levels of logistics in the region. The lack of past adequate cross sectional or other methodology of data capture and reporting by the nations, has consequently resulted in a lack of adequate longitudinal data sets. Such data is needed to reliably inform and enable effective decision and policy making on logistics activity and investment in the region. The research finds that monitoring and reporting systems would operate effectively at the regional government level, with data disaggregation to national and indicator level. The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) method of reporting fits within the political environment, and the research finds that this, linked with the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) indicators, which are to apply from 2015 to the year 2030, could provide a suitable monitoring and reporting framework. This would enable a consistent longitudinal data capture. The research’s recommended methodology will enhance the monitoring value and improve the opportunity for effective further research for the sustainability levels of logistics and other related societal functions in the small island nations.

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  • ECHELON: Espionage without ethics : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Philosophy at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Bole, John (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    In June 2013, Edward Snowden disclosed the extent of mass surveillance conducted across entire societies by five Western Governments. Snowden apparently hoped to generate a global debate on the appropriateness of these activities and the risk /reward trade-offs that society was being asked to make. Snowden seems to have either overestimated the concern of the average person or misunderstood their current level of understanding and acceptance of surveillance. Either way, the debate was short. In general, society seemed to register a level of disquiet but no specific concern. This paper seeks to determine if the disquiet is a consequence of human morality and to identify any specific moral concern.

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