95,838 results

  • Tūhono : the United Collective : an exhibition report presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Māori Visual Arts, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Hauraki, Glenn Douglas

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This exhibition report provides a detailed outline of the pathway undertaken to complete the requirements of a Masters of Māori Visual Arts Thesis and the presentation of works Tūhono in December 2017. Tūhono explores the combination of tikanga Māori and customary techniques alongside modern and contemporary processes. The three pou whakairo were developed to align with the kaupapa Te Kore, Te Pō, and Te Ao Mārama. A range of tools and techniques, both traditional and contemporary were used to explore the medium.

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  • "Hua oranga" : A Māori measure of mental health outcomes : a report / prepared for the Ministry of Health

    Kingi, Te Kani R; Durie, Mason H

    Book
    Massey University

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  • Survival of Staphylococcus aureus during the manufacture and ripening of camembert cheese : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Food Technology, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Kang, Zhetong

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Staphylococcal Food Poisoning (SFP) is the third most common cause of food poisoning internationally, caused by an enterotoxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus. S. aureus contamination in dairy products, including cheese, can lead to SFP. The survivability of S. aureus during the manufacture and ripening of Camembert cheese was the focus of this study. Camembert cheeses were manufactured using pasteurized milk inoculated with one of three S. aureus strains, comprising two reference strains ATCC 4163, ATCC 9144 and one dairy strain 172 RR. Each strain was tested in triplicate. The results showed that manufacturing and ripening of Camembert cheese reduced the risk of food safety associated with contamination with S. aureus with a 1.6 to 3.1 log reduction. The largest decrease occurred following drainage, which was particularly evident in 172 RR, and coincided with the lowest pH. The combined effect of culture blend (starter and secondary flora) activity and low pH are believed to contribute to the death of S. aureus.

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  • Unified Total Site Heat Integration: Targeting, Optimisation and Network Design

    Tarighaleslami, Amir Hossein (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Process industries in New Zealand use 214.3 PJ of process heat, of which approximately 65 % is fossil fuels. Despite increasing energy demands, depleting fossil fuel resources, and pressure to reduce Greenhouse Gas emissions, low grade heat in large-scale processing sites is still not fully utilised. This thesis presents methods to target, optimise and design more practical heat recovery systems for large industrial sites, i.e. Total Sites, and overcome technical limitations of current methods. Original contributions of this thesis to literature include novel developments and applications in six areas: i) a new Total Site Heat Integration (TSHI) targeting method – Unified Total Site Targeting (UTST) – which sets realistic targets for isothermal and non-isothermal utilities and heat recovery via the utility system; ii) a new TSHI optimisation and utility temperature selection method to optimise Total Cost of the utility system; iii) a new Utility Exchanger Network synthesis and design method based on the targets achieved by the UTST method and optimal temperatures from optimisation method; iv) a new method for calculating assisted heat transfer and shaft work to further improve TSHI cogeneration and performance; v) examination of heat transfer enhancement techniques in TSHI to achieve higher heat recovery and lower required area by substituting conventional utility mediums by nanofluids in the utility system; and vi) a spreadsheet software tool called Unified Total Site Integration to apply the developed methods to real industrial cases. The developed methods have been applied to three large industrial case studies. Results confirm that heat recovery and utility targets obtained from the UTST method were lower but more realistic to achieve in practice when compared to conventional TSHI methods. The three industrial case studies represent a wide variety of processing industries. In summary, the over-estimation of TSHI targets for the three case studies from using the conventional method compared to the new method are 0.2 % for the Södra Cell Värö Kraft Pulp Mill, 22 % for a New Zealand Dairy Factory, and 0.1 % for Petrochemical Complex. The Total Annualised Costs (TAC) for the three case studies are minimised using a new derivative based approach. Results show TAC reductions 4.6 % for Kraft Pulp Mill, 0.6 % for Dairy Factory, and 3.4 % for Petrochemical Complex case studies. In addition, sensitivity analysis for the optimisation is undertaken. The UTST method with its modified targeting procedure is demonstrated to generate simpler Utility Exchanger Network designs compared to conventional methods, which confirm the original targets are realistic and achievable. A new method for calculating assisted heat integration targets applied to an example Total Site problem increased heat recovery by 1,737 kW, which is a 21% increase in Total Site heat recovery, and increased shaft work by 80 kW. Lastly, the addition of nanoparticles to create a closed nanofluid heat recovery systems shows heat recovery from liquid-liquid heat exchangers increases of 5 % to 9 % using an intermediate fluid with 1.5 vol. % CuO/water.

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  • A detailed characterisation of the wave climate around New Zealand and its variability

    Godoi, Victor Azevedo (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Ocean waves can cause severe social and economic impacts. Therefore, understanding their behaviour is of paramount importance for the effective management of coastal and ocean hazards. This thesis thoroughly investigates four aspects (described below) of the wave climate around New Zealand and its variability by using 44 years (1958–2001) of wave hindcast data. These data were provided by the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research Ltd, and were produced using the WAVEWATCH III model forced with wind and ice fields from the ERA-40 reanalysis project. Relationships between mean wave parameters (significant wave height (Hs), peak and mean wave periods, and peak wave direction) and several climate patterns were analysed. Climate indices representative of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), Zonal Wavenumber-3 Pattern (ZW3), and Southern Annular Mode (SAM) were correlated with the mean wave parameters using the Pearson’s correlation coefficient and the wavelet spectral analysis. Moreover, mean annual and inter-annual variabilities and trends in Hₛ were computed for the 44-year period. In general, larger annual and inter-annual variabilities were found along the coastline, in regions dominated by local winds. An increasing trend in Hₛ was found around the country, with values varying between 1 and 6 cm/decade at the shoreline. The largest trends in Hₛ were detected to the south of 48°S, suggesting a relationship with the trend toward a positive SAM. The wave parameters showed a strong connection with seasonal to decadal variabilities in the SAM throughout the period analysed. In addition, larger waves were observed during extreme ENSO and IOD events at inter-annual timescales, while they were more evident at intra-seasonal and seasonal timescales in the correlations with the ZW3. Negative phases of the ZW3 and ENSO and positive phases of the IOD, PDO, and SAM were associated with larger waves around most parts of New Zealand. A detailed climatology of extreme wave events for New Zealand waters was also established, and estimates of Hₛ for up to 100-year return periods were calculated. Although comparisons to buoy data at three locations around New Zealand showed negative biases in the hindcast data, the latter still provided a suitable basis for trend, spatial distribution, and frequency analyses. Results indicate some similarities to patterns previously shown in the mean wave climate, with the largest waves found in southern New Zealand, and the smallest ones observed in areas sheltered from southwesterly swells. The number of extreme events varied substantially throughout the year for the period 1958–2001, while their intensity was more consistent. Extreme events occurred more/less frequently in winter/summer months. The greatest mean annual variability of extreme Hₛ was found on the north coasts of both the North and South Islands, where more locally-generated storms drive the extremes. The inter-annual variability was largest along the north coast of the country and on the east coast of the South Island, suggesting relationships with La Niña-like effects and the SAM, respectively. Furthermore, the known trend for a more positive SAM may explain the increasing number of extreme events on the south and east coasts observed in trend analysis. Clusters of storm waves contribute disproportionately to coastal erosion hazards because the coastline has insufficient time to recover between events. The change in occurrence of clustered storms and its association with atmospheric oscillation modes were also investigated in New Zealand waters. In order to do so, long-term averages of cluster parameters (number of storms within the cluster, potential for coastal erosion, and cluster duration) were firstly assessed. Then, the relationships between clustering and the ENSO, IOD, ZW3, PDO, and SAM were explored through correlation analysis over several timescales. Clusters were more frequently observed to the northeast of New Zealand and on the central eastern coast of the South Island. The most vulnerable regions to cluster-induced coastal erosion were southern New Zealand and the northwestern coast, which resulted from steady southwesterly swells, although clusters with the longest duration occurred on the east coast of the South Island. Trends suggest that clusters have incorporated more storms, have become more hazardous, and have increased in duration, particularly along the South Island coastline. Although these trends may be sensitive to the reanalysed wind fields used to force the wave hindcast, they reflect trends in the ENSO, PDO, and SAM. Stronger southwesterly winds during El Niño (negative ENSO) and El Niño-like conditions (positive IOD/PDO) generated more clustered storms mainly on the southwestern coast of New Zealand, whereas increases in clustering were observed on the north coast during La Niña and La Niña-like conditions (stronger northeasterly winds). Higher occurrence of clustering was also evident on the west coast during the strong atmospheric zonal flow associated with negative ZW3. Lastly, strengthened westerlies related to positive SAM led to increased clustering primarily to the south of New Zealand. The last aspect of the wave climate around New Zealand explored in this thesis was the modulation of Hₛ variability by wind anomalies associated with the co-occurrence of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and ENSO. For this purpose, Hₛ and wind anomalies composites were created using 23 years (1979–2002) of the wave hindcast data and ERA-40 winds. Composites were calculated for November–March periods, when simultaneous ENSO-MJO phase pairs are potentially most active. Results showed striking features: El Niño-related wave conditions (which consist of increased Hₛ along the west and south coasts of New Zealand) are reinforced during MJO phase 8, whereas the wave conditions associated with La Niña (which consist of larger Hₛ along the north coast) are enhanced during MJO phase 6; Similar wave anomalies are generated during opposing ENSO phases (La Niña and El Niño) when these are combined with MJO phases 3 and 5, respectively; The majority of statistically significant Hₛ anomalies disappear from the study area during El Niño-MJO phase 6 and La Niña-MJO phase 4, showing the neutralising nature of some phase combinations; Lastly, negative Hₛ anomalies are experienced during El Niño-MJO phase 4, in contrast to the positive anomalies expected during El Niño events. These results clearly show the importance of remote forcing to wave anomalies in the New Zealand region and highlight the need to assess atmospheric and oceanic conditions considering multiple climate oscillations. This thesis has shown that the wave climate around New Zealand is affected by a range of atmospheric conditions, which have significantly different impacts along the coastline. All these conditions should be taken into account in order to mitigate future hazards. Therefore, the results presented here may assist coastal communities and stakeholders as well as offshore activities around the country in better prepare for potential impacts. Additionally, these results contribute to enhancing the research community knowledge of wave climatology in an area with recognised

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  • The Influence of Analogy Instructions on Motor Skills: Processing, Preference and Performance

    van Duijn, Tina (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    When teaching a movement to novices, communicating knowledge about the movement by comparison with a similar, well-known concept (an analogy) may be effective, as no other verbal instructions or rules need to be provided. The aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate the potential underlying mechanisms that influence motor performance after analogy instruction. This may help guide the development of appropriate and useful analogies in clinical and other practical settings. Five chapters discuss experiments conducted in early learning of complex motor skills. In order to investigate the mechanism of analogy learning in children, Chapter 2 investigated children’s acquisition of a golf-chipping task. We asked whether an analogy presented after initial, explicit practice has an influence on performance, and whether this effect is moderated by the propensity to consciously control the mechanics of one’s movements (movement specific reinvestment). Movement-specific reinvestment predicted improvement in chipping accuracy after introduction of the analogy, indicating that children’s motor learning by analogy may depend on personal characteristics associated with conscious control. A reliable and objective measure to deduct underlying conscious processes during movement is electroencephalography (EEG). Chapter 3 explored the relationship between working memory (WM) capacity, cortico-cortical communication (EEG high-alpha power and coherence), and propensity for conscious control of movement (movement specific reinvestment) during novice performance of a complex motor task. Results revealed that the capacity for short-term storage and processing of visuo-spatial information is an important factor in early motor control. Analogies allegedly reduce reliance on verbal information processes during motor planning, which is a feature of psychomotor efficiency. In Chapter 4, we investigated whether analogy instructions promote higher psychomotor efficiency, characterised by greater high-alpha power in the left hemisphere of the brain and reduced coactivation between the verbal processing (T7) and motor planning regions of the brain (Fz) during motor performance. Hockey push-pass accuracy during a combined task (passing coupled with decision-making) was significantly better following practice using an analogy instruction compared to explicit instructions, and left-temporal EEG high-alpha power was significantly higher in the analogy condition. The analogy instruction may have influenced verbal aspects of information processing without impacting on efficiency of motor planning, and may thus promote cognitive, rather than psychomotor, efficiency. Individual characteristics of information processing may have an influence on how analogy instructions are interpreted and used. Chapters 5 and 6 investigated the associations between analogy learning and verbal or visuomotor processing as measured by EEG coherence, visual-verbal instruction preference, and performance. While Chapter 5 tentatively suggests that analogy learning may be of greater benefit to people who tend to rely on visual processes during motor planning, Chapter 6 suggests that changes in information processing (measured by EEG high-alpha power) and in performance after analogy instruction, depended on verbal preference. The findings are discussed with respect to the implicit motor learning framework and theories of movement automaticity. The thesis is rounded off by suggesting future studies and providing some guidelines for the use of analogy instructions in different groups of learners.

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  • Transport and retention of benthic marine invertebrates in the Southern Tauranga Basin

    Monahan, Bradley John (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Dispersal is the process in which individuals are transferred between populations, and is essential for population sustainability and longevity. In estuarine soft sediment communities, dispersal often occurs as the interaction between the individual and tidal flows. Many coastal benthic marine invertebrate populations have been considered open because of the dispersal potential of a pelagic larval phase, with populations maintained by an external supply of recruits. However, for estuarine populations, recent evidence has suggested that populations may be more closed because of local hydrodynamic conditions causing larval retention within the source estuary. In this thesis, field observations and numerical simulations were used to investigate the effect of estuary morphology on the transport and retention of benthic invertebrate larvae in Tauranga Harbour, a large (218 km2), shallow (mean depth = 2.8 m) meso-tidal estuary. Previous studies indicate that residence times extracted from hydrodynamic modelling vary throughout the harbour, due to residual circulation patterns caused by complex channel morphology. Field observations indicate increased abundance and differing community composition of invertebrate larvae in the upper harbour compared to the lower. Tidal circulation is asymmetrical, with transport through a seaward channel during flood tides, and in a landward channel during ebb, suggesting that larval retention in the upper harbour may provide a source of larvae for the lower harbour. Larval transport pathways were evaluated by a coupled hydrodynamic-transport model and confirmed those observed in the field. Modelled larvae, released under different stages of spring-neap tidal cycle in the upper harbour, were retained for up to 16 d whereas retention for larvae released in other harbour locations was much more variable and depended on the timing of release and direction of initial transport. Results of this study highlight the impact of complex channel morphology (particularly at a scale of 10s to 100s of meters) on the large scale circulation and subsequent transport and retention of benthic invertebrate larvae. Understanding these influences on the transportation of benthic invertebrate larvae and the identification of retentive regions, will aid future population management or conservation efforts

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  • Students’ experiences of learning in a virtual classroom

    Gedera, Dilani S.P. (2014)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Online learning environments can offer learners opportunities for flexibility, interaction and collaboration distinctly different from face-to-face learning environments. However, the integration of educational technologies also presents challenges and concerns in relation to students’ learning. This article attempts to develop a better understanding of students’ experiences of learning with the specific online learning technology of Adobe Connect virtual classroom. The study was conducted in a university in New Zealand using a case study method. With Activity Theory as its research framework, the research methods of this study include individual interviews, online observation and analysis of other relevant documents. This article includes some of the findings of the research and a discussion on how the synchronous technology— Adobe Connect virtual classroom, used in an online learning environment affected students’ active participation in e-learning activities. The article also offers some suggestions that can be of use to instructors who teach online courses.

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  • Soil inorganic nitrogen in spatially distinct areas within a commercial dairy farm in Canterbury, New Zealand

    Ekanayake, Dinanjana; Owens, Jennifer; Hodge, Simon; Trethewey, Jason A. K.; Roten, Rory; Westerschulte, M.; Belin, S.; Werner, Armin; Cameron, Keith C.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    For precision nitrogen (N) fertilisation of grazed dairy paddocks, soil N distribution needs to be quantified. It is expected that farm infrastructure will affect inorganic-N distribution due to its influence on cow grazing behaviour. Surface soil from four spatially distinct areas (main gate, water troughs, non irrigated and the remaining pasture) was analysed for soil ammonium-N (NH₄⁺-N) and nitrate-N (NO₃⁻ -N) from three paddocks (180 soil samples) on an irrigated commercial dairy farm in Canterbury, New Zealand. Variation between paddocks was higher for NO₃⁻ (P<0.001) but not for NO₃⁻(P=0.37), though there was variation in NO₃⁻ with distance from the gates and troughs. This study demonstrates methods for classifying spatially distinct areas of grazed pasture to quantify their influence on inorganic-N distribution. Further research is required to better understand variability.

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  • No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide

    Seebens, H.; Blackburn, T. M.; Dyer, E. E.; Genovesi, P.; Hulme, Philip E.; Jeschke, J. M.; Pagad, S.; Pyšek, P.; Winter, M.; Arianoutsou, M.; Bacher, S.; Blasius, B.; Brundu, G.; Capinha, C.; Celesti-Grapow, L.; Dawson, W.; Dullinger, S.; Fuentes, N.; Jäger, H.; Kartesz, J.; Kenis, M.; Kreft, H.; Kühn, I.; Lenzner, B.; Liebhold, A.; Mosena, A.; Moser, D.; Nishino, M.; Pearman, D.; Pergl, J.; Rabitsch, W.; Rojas-Sandoval, J.; Roques, A.; Rorke, S.; Rossinelli, S.; Roy, H. E.; Scalera, R.; Schindler, S.; Štajerová, K.; Tokarska-Guzik, B.; Van Kleunen, M.; Walker, K.; Weigelt, P.; Yamanaka, T.; Essl, F.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Although research on human-mediated exchanges of species has substantially intensified during the last centuries, we know surprisingly little about temporal dynamics of alien species accumulations across regions and taxa. Using a novel database of 45,813 first records of 16,926 established alien species, we show that the annual rate of first records worldwide has increased during the last 200 years, with 37% of all first records reported most recently (1970-2014). Inter-continental and inter-taxonomic variation can be largely attributed to the diaspora of European settlers in the nineteenth century and to the acceleration in trade in the twentieth century. For all taxonomic groups, the increase in numbers of alien species does not show any sign of saturation and most taxa even show increases in the rate of first records over time. This highlights that past efforts to mitigate invasions have not been effective enough to keep up with increasing globalization.

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  • Europe's other debt crisis caused by the long legacy of future extinctions

    Dullinger, S.; Essl, F.; Rabitsch, W.; Erb, K. H.; Gingrich, S.; Haberl, H.; Hülber, K.; Jarošík, V.; Krausmann, F.; Kuḧn, I.; Pergl, J.; Pyšek, P.; Hulme, Philip E.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Rapid economic development in the past century has translated into severe pressures on species survival as a result of increasing land-use change, environmental pollution, and the spread of invasive alien species. However, though the impact of these pressures on biodiversity is substantial, it could be seriously underestimated if population declines of plants and animals lag behind contemporary environmental degradation. Here, we test for such a delay in impact by relating numbers of threatened species appearing on national red lists to historical and contemporary levels of socioeconomic pressures. Across 22 European countries, the proportions of vascular plants, bryophytes, mammals, reptiles, dragonflies, and grasshoppers facing medium-to-high extinction risks are more closely matched to indicators of socioeconomic pressures (i.e., human population density, per capita gross domestic product, and a measure of land use intensity) from the early or mid-, rather than the late, 20th century. We conclude that, irrespective of recent conservation actions, large scale risks to biodiversity lag considerably behind contemporary levels of socioeconomic pressures. The negative impact of human activities on current biodiversity will not become fully realized until several decades into the future. Mitigating extinction risks might be an even greater challenge if temporal delays mean many threatened species might already be destined toward extinction.

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  • Transfer Pathways Programme (TPP) : New research to determine pathway-specific contaminant transfers from the land to water bodies

    Stenger, Roland; Wilson, Scott; Barkle, Greg; Close, M. E.; Woodward, Simon; Burbery, Lee; Pang, L.; Rekker, Jens; Wöhling, T.; Clague, Juliet; McDowell, Richard; Thomas, Steve; Clothier, B.; Lilburne, L.; Miller, B.

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    Land use (source) can only be defensibly linked to an effect on a receiving water body (receptor) if the critical transfer pathways and the hydrological and biogeochemical processes that occur along them are understood. Depending on the natural setting of the catchment and the contaminant concerned, surface runoff, interflow, artificial drainage, shallow and deep groundwater may be critical pathways. The Transfer Pathways Programme, which was successful in the MBIE 2015 investment round, has therefore been developed to quantify pathway-specific transfers of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) that take lag times and attenuation potentials of the different pathways into account. The multi-disciplinary research team will be working closely with industry (DairyNZ) and council partners (Waikato Regional Council, Environment Canterbury, Marlborough District Council), as well as iwi on achieving the programme‟s aims.By 2018 we will have established how N and P transfer is partitioned across the pathways relevant in four case study areas (Wairau Aquifer, Ashley-Waimakariri, Hauraki, Upper Waikato). A catchment typology scheme will facilitate the application of transfer pathway understanding in other, less well studied catchments. Concurrently, we will apply an iterative modelling framework to integrate existing data of different types and quality, identify knowledge gaps, characterise and quantify fluxes, analyse uncertainty, and ultimately derive simplified models for management purposes. The quantitative understanding of the contaminant transfers through the various pathways together with the tools developed will enable stakeholders in land and water management to develop fit for purpose policies, management practices and mitigation measures. The research will thus help to maximise economic benefits from land use while achieving the water quality targets mandated by the community.

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  • Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis of tiotropium treatment for Bronchiectasis: Evidence from a cross over randomised trial

    Coomarasamy, Christin

    Thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the relative cost-effectiveness of administering tiotropium compared to a placebo in adult patients with non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis with airflow obstruction, from a funder perspective. Methods: Clinical efficacy data was obtained from a randomised placebo-controlled crossover study of tiotropium treatment in adult patients with stable, non-CF bronchiectasis in combination with aggregated hospital costs and cost of health services (NZ, 2016) obtained via self-reported health utilisation data. A decision tree/Markov model consisting of patient transition and outcomes was developed. A cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis was performed to produce incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) and reported in costs per exacerbation avoided and costs per quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained. Sensitivity and scenario analyses were also conducted to test the robustness of outcomes illustrated by using cost-effectiveness acceptability curves against a willingness-to-pay threshold (WTP) and identifying the conditions in which tiotropium could be cost- effective for bronchiectasis patients. The WTP threshold was based on the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Results: There were no significant differences between costs and outcomes for treatment and control arms. The mean (Standard error) number of exacerbations was 1.2 (0.12) for tiotropium and 1.23 (0.11) for the placebo; the mean QALYs was 0.88 and 0.87 respectively. First year costs per patient were NZD 641 (95% CI $583, $702) for tiotropium (TI) and NZD 503 (95% CI $430, $585) for placebo (PL) treatment in the year 2016. Patients treated with tiotropium gained 0.62 (95% CI 0.58, 0.65) quality adjusted life years compared to 0.59 (95% CI 0.56, 0.62) QALYs for the placebo. In incremental terms, TI gained additional QALYs of 0.03 units and 0.01 of exacerbation events at an incremental cost of NZD 137 resulting in the cost per exacerbation avoided of NZD 12,896 (95% CI $5,850, $15,300) and the cost per QALY gained of NZD 4,655 (95% CI $3,900, $7,650). The reported incremental cost effectiveness ratios are well-below the willingness-to-pay threshold for New Zealand (~ NZD 40,000). Conclusion: The results from this study show that tiotropium may be cost-effective compared to a placebo, particularly in terms of improving QALYs, but less likely in respect of reducing exacerbations. Sensitivity analysis suggests that favourable outcomes may be linked to patients with moderate to severe bronchiectasis. Further studies are required before a more definitive answer can be reached.

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  • Carry trade and its relationship with the Stock Market: Evidence from New Zealand

    Jin, Dacheng

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This study investigates the New Zealand dollar carry trade and its effect on the New Zealand stock market. Using a Vector Autoregression (VAR) model, the Granger causality relationship is from carry trade to stock market. The US dollar, Euro and Swiss Franc dominate carry trade as funding currencies and the New Zealand Dollar as investment currency. There is no evidence of Japanese Yen and New Zealand Dollar carry trade during the sample period of 2007 to 2017. Carry trade returns’ effect on New Zealand stock market sector returns are generally attributed with various degree and preference. The basic materials sector is the only exception, where there is no Granger causality relationship in either direction. It also indicates carry trade returns positively affect the New Zealand stock market in both periods of crisis and post crisis. However, the Granger causality relationship is stronger in crisis period than it is in post crisis period.

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  • The concept of luxury hotel in the context of 21st century China: An insight into factors influencing guests’ satisfaction with luxury hotels in China

    Zhao, Jiali

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The factors influencing different types of guests’ satisfaction with hotels has been studied in different countries; however, researches into factors influencing different types of hotel guests' satisfaction in the Chinese context are limited. Therefore, the aim of this study is to learn about satisfaction with hotels in the Chinese context. This study examines online comments by Chinese guests regarding satisfaction with luxury hotels in Beijing and hotel description on their websites, to find the factors influencing Chinese business and leisure guests' satisfaction. The research was conducted using a qualitative approach. Ten luxury hotel descriptions were collected from their official websites, and 150 Chinese guests' comments online were collected, about ten luxury hotels in Beijing. Content analysis was adopted for analysing the collected data. The results of this study show luxury hotels described themselves as providing luxurious accommodation and traditional Chinese design of hotels. However, both Chinese business and leisure guests placed less emphasis on luxurious accommodation and traditional Chinese design of hotels. Both business and leisure guests placed considerable emphasis on hotel location. Furthermore, staff service also plays an important role in the business guests' satisfaction; amenities are a significant factor influencing leisure guests' satisfaction with luxury hotel in Beijing. The results of this study contribute to the current literature about the factors influencing hotel guests' satisfaction in China, and how hotels see themselves on their websites. The results of study can also be useful for hotels as they could distinguish their characteristics in their descriptions from their competitors, and can be materials using to better introduce themselves on their websites. In addition, factors influencing different types of Chinese guests' satisfaction with luxury hotels in Beijing can be a reference regarding the needs of Chinese guests in luxury hotels.

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  • 牛津大学饱蠹楼图书馆所藏十九世纪中国音乐教材述略 (Musical teaching texts in Chinese preserved at the Bodleian’s Library, Oxford University)

    Gong, Hong-Yu (2017-12-21T13:30:56Z)

    Journal article
    Unitec

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  • Simulation is not a pedagogy

    Erlam, Gwen; Smythe, L.; Wright-St Clair, V. (2017-12-21T13:30:36Z)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    Simulation as a teaching/learning tool has evolved at an unprecedented pace which some believe has occurred despite a lack of research into pedagogies appropriate to guide this technology-based learning tool. There seems to be some confusion as to what simulation actually is. Some have called simulation a pedagogy, which is incorrect. Simulation is not a pedagogy, but an immersive teaching/learning platform which is a representation of a functioning system or process. Simulation has been used in undergraduate nursing education in a focused manner for nearly 20 years. Its effectiveness in improving clinical reasoning and critical thinking is not certain if overall instructional design principles do not reflect suitable philosophical paradigms. Simulation as a teaching/learning platform is maximized when instructional design includes the inspiration of behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. Behaviorist design principles include rote learning, repetition, modular learning, stimulus-response, and conditioning. Cognitivist design principles include observational techniques, bootstrapping, and equilibration in the form of assimilation and accommodation. Constructivist design principles include new habit formation through experience and interaction with a “mature social medium” in the form of a simulation facilitator. All of these philosophical underpinnings have the potential to maximize simulation when used as underpinnings in the overall design.

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  • Is there a housing crisis in New Zealand or is it only a metaphor? Results of a critical metaphor analysis

    Romova, Zina; Varley, Steve (2017-12-21T13:30:58Z)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    This paper reports on a corpus-based study of metaphor use in the discourse of the Auckland housing topic in News and Commentary sections of The New Zealand Herald over the months of July to September 2016, the time of intense debate in the media on the housing situation in Auckland. The paper outlines an approach combining cognitivist and the Critical Metaphor Analysis. The study aims to reveal the persuasive ideological functions of metaphors in the News and Commentary genres and the covert intentions of the writers with particular reference to perceptions of a housing crisis a year before elections in the country. Our findings include a classification of metaphors used in the reporting of and commenting on the housing situation in Auckland based on cognitivist conceptualisation of metaphors, a comparative statistical analysis of the metaphors used in the News and the Commentary genres, and an explanation of the factors that may influence the recipients' decoding of the identified metaphors. We conclude from the analysis of the newspaper texts and the corpora that the metaphorical language used in both these genres promotes the readership's perception of a market in crisis.

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  • Proof of Concept Studies for the Practical Application of Joule Heating as a Phytosanitary Treatment for Export Pinus radiata (D. Don) Logs

    Heffernan WJB (2013)

    Reports
    University of Canterbury Library

    Following initial feasibility work in 2007 [1] and a MAFBNZ funded project in 2009 [2], the Joule heating concept for log sterilization was incorporated into the STIMBR PGP project as section 1.5.2. This report details the construction, commissioning and testing of the log sterilizing apparatus which had largely been conceived and designed by the EPECentre before the start of this project. The procedure for sterilizing test logs is described and the results obtained with two such logs are presented and discussed against the objectives of section 1.5.2. Finally suggestions for further work, refinements to the system and tests to fill gaps in current knowledge are proposed, including the author’s current impression as to how a wharf-side machine might operate. Tests on the first log show that after treatment all measured locations in the timber exceed 56C for over 5 hours. Tests on the second log show that after treatment all measured locations in the timber exceed 56C for over 8 hours and 70C for about 3.5 hours. In both cases this includes the geometric centre of the log. These tests, therefore, show that Joule heat sterilization undoubtedly can work.

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  • A parsec-scale optical jet from a massive young star in the Large Magellanic Cloud.

    McLeod AF; Reiter M; Kuiper R; Klaassen PD; Evans CJ (2018)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    Highly collimated parsec-scale jets, which are generally linked to the presence of an accretion disk, are commonly observed in low-mass young stellar objects. In the past two decades, a few of these jets have been directly (or indirectly) observed from higher-mass (larger than eight solar masses) young stellar objects, adding to the growing evidence that disk-mediated accretion also occurs in high-mass stars, the formation mechanism of which is still poorly understood. Of the observed jets from massive young stars, none is in the optical regime (massive young stars are typically highly obscured by their natal material), and none is found outside of the Milky Way. Here we report observations of HH 1177, an optical ionized jet that originates from a massive young stellar object located in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The jet is highly collimated over its entire measured length of at least ten parsecs and has a bipolar geometry. The presence of a jet indicates ongoing, disk-mediated accretion and, together with the high degree of collimation, implies that this system is probably formed through a scaled-up version of the formation mechanism of low-mass stars. We conclude that the physics that govern jet launching and collimation is independent of stellar mass.

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