89,483 results

  • Sustaining cooperation in laboratory public goods experiments: A selective survey of the literature

    Chaudhuri, Ananish (2011)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    I survey the literature post Ledyard (Handbook of Experimental Economics, ed. by J. Kagel, A. Roth, Chap. 2, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1995) on three related issues in linear public goods experiments: (1) conditional cooperation; (2) the role of costly monetary punishments in sustaining cooperation and (3) the sustenance of cooperation via means other than such punishments. Many participants in laboratory public goods experiments are ???conditional cooperators??? whose contributions to the public good are positively correlated with their beliefs about the average group contribution. Conditional cooperators are often able to sustain high contributions to the public good through costly monetary punishment of free-riders but also by other mechanisms such as expressions of disapproval, advice giving and assortative matching.

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  • Detailed analysis of inflammatory and neuromodulatory cytokine secretion from human NT2 astrocytes using multiplex bead array

    Burkert, K; Moodley, K; Angel, Catherine; Brooks, Anna; Graham, Euan (2012)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Astrocytes are a very important cell type in the brain fulfilling roles in both neuroimmunology and neurotransmission. We have conducted the most comprehensive analysis of secreted cytokines conducted to date (astrocytes of any source) to determine whether astrocytes derived from the human Ntera2 (NT2) cell-line are a good model of human primary astrocytes. We have compared the secretion of cytokines from NT2 astrocytes with those produced in astrocyte enriched human brain cultures and additional cytokines implicated in brain injury or known to be expressed in the human brain. The concentration of cytokines was measured in astrocyte conditioned media using multiplex bead array (MBA), where 18 cytokines were measured simultaneously. Resting NT2 astrocytes produced low levels (???1-30pg/ml) of MIP1??, IL-6 and GM-CSF and higher levels of MCP-1, IP-10 and IL-8 (1-11ng/ml) under non-inflammatory conditions. All of these in addition to IL-1??, TNF??, and IL-13, were increased by pro-inflammatory activation (TNF?? or IL-1?? stimulation). In contrast, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-7, IL-10, IL-12, LT??, and IFN?? were not detected in astrocyte conditioned media under any of the culture conditions tested. NT2 astrocytes were unresponsive to IL-2 and the adenyl cyclase agonist, forskolin. Interestingly, IFN?? stimulation selectively increased IP-10 secretion only. As astrocytes stimulated with IL-1?? or TNF?? produced several chemokines in the ng/ml range, we next assessed the chemoattractant properties of these cells. Conditioned media from TNF??-stimulated astrocytes significantly chemoattracted leucocytes from human blood. This study provides the most comprehensive analysis of cytokine production by human astrocytes thus far, and shows that NT2 astrocytes are highly responsive to pro-inflammatory mediators including TNF?? and IL-1??, producing cytokines and chemokines capable of attracting leucocytes from human blood. We conclude that in the absence of adult human primary astrocytes that NT2-astrocytes may provide a valuable alternative to study the immunological behaviour of human astrocytes.

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  • Compulsory community mental health treatment: Literature review

    O'Brien, Anthony; McKenna, Brian; Kydd, Robert (2009-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Following their introduction in the United States in the 1970s various forms of compulsory treatment in the community have been introduced internationally. Compulsory treatment in the community involves a statutory framework that mandates enforceable treatment in a community setting. Such frameworks can be categorized as preventative, least restrictive, or as having both preventative and least restrictive features. Research falls into two categories; descriptive, naturalistic studies and controlled and uncontrolled comparative studies. The research has produced equivocal results, and presents numerous methodological challenges. Where programmes have demonstrated improved outcomes debate continues as to whether these Outcomes are associated with legal compulsion or enhanced service provision. Service user, family and clinician perspectives demonstrate a divergence of views within and across groups, with clinicians more strongly in support than service users. The issue of compulsory community treatment is an important one for nurses, who are often at the forefront of clinical service provision, in some cases in statutory roles. Critical reflection on the issue of compulsory community, treatment requires understanding of the limitations of empirical investigations and of the various ethical and social policy issues involved. There is a need for further research into compulsory community treatment and possible alternatives. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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  • Determinants of outcomes after head cooling for neonatal encephalopathy

    Wyatt, JS; Gluckman, Peter; Liu, PY; Azzopardi, Denis; Ballard, R; Edwards, AD; Ferriero, DM; Polin, RA; Robertson, CM; Thoresen, Marianne; Whitelaw, A; Gunn, Alistair (2007)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    OBJECTIVE. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of factors that may determine the efficacy of treatment with delayed head cooling and mild systemic hypothermia for neonatal encephalopathy. METHODS. A total of 218 term infants with moderate to severe neonatal encephalopathy plus abnormal amplitude-integrated electroencephalographic recordings, assigned randomly to head cooling for 72 hours, starting within 6 hours after birth (with the rectal temperature maintained at 34.5 ?? 0.5??C), or conventional care, were studied. Death or severe disability at 18 months of age was assessed in a multicenter, randomized, controlled study (the CoolCap trial). RESULTS. Treatment, lower encephalopathy grade, lower birth weight, greater amplitude-integrated electroencephalographic amplitude, absence of seizures, and higher Apgar score, but not gender or gestational age, were associated significantly with better outcomes. In a multivariate analysis, each of the individually predictive factors except for Apgar score remained predictive. There was a significant interaction between treatment and birth weight, categorized as ???25th or <25th percentile for term, such that larger infants showed a lower frequency of favorable outcomes in the control group but greater improvement with cooling. For larger infants, the number needed to treat was 3.8. Pyrexia (???38??C) in control infants was associated with adverse outcomes. Although there was a small correlation with birth weight, the adverse effect of greater birth weight in control infants remained significant after adjustment for pyrexia and severity of encephalopathy. CONCLUSIONS. Outcomes after hypothermic treatment were strongly influenced by the severity of neonatal encephalopathy. The protective effect of hypothermia was greater in larger infants.

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  • Therapeutic hypothermia changes the prognostic value of clinical evaluation of neonatal encephalopathy

    Gunn, Alistair; Wyatt, JS; Whitelaw, A; Barks, J; Azzopardi, D; Ballard, R; Edwards, AD; Ferriero, DM; Gluckman, Peter; Polin, RA; Robertson, CM; Thoresen, M (2008-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Objective To evaluate whether therapeutic hypothermia alters the prognostic value of clinical grading of neonatal encephalopathy.Study design This study was a secondary analysis of a multicenter study of 234 term infants with neonatal encephalopathy randomized to head cooling for 72 hours starting within 6 hours of birth, with rectal temperature maintained at 34.5 degrees C +/- 0.5 degrees C, followed by re-warming for 4 hours, or standard care at 37.0 degrees C +/- 0.5 degrees C. Severity of encephalopathy was measured pre-randomization and on day 4, after re-warming, in 177 infants; 31 infants died before day 4, and data were missing for 10 infants. The primary outcome wits death or severe disability at 18 months of age.Results Milder pre-randomization encephalopathy, greater improvement in encephalopathy from randomization to day 4, and cooling were associated with favorable outcome in multivariate binary logistic regression. Hypothermia did not affect severity of encephalopathy at day 4, however, in infants with moderate encephalopathy at day 4, those treated with hypothermia had a significantly higher rate of favorable outcome (31/45 infants, 69%, P =.006) compared with standard care (12/33, 36%).Conclusion Infants with moderate encephalopathy on day 4 may have a more favorable prognosis after hypothermia treatment than expected after standard care.

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  • Common Law Actions on the Margin

    Tobin, Audrey (2008)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The boundary areas between illness and disease will always be difficult to draw. This paper considers two areas that have led to difficulty in the context of the accident compensation scheme: cases involving mental injury alone and cases of unplanned pregnancy. The author argues that in a comprehensive accident compensation scheme the definition of personal injury should take cognizance of developments in medical knowledge, and include mental injury. An unplanned pregnancy as a personal injury to the mother creates special difficulties, and indeed does some violence to the definitions in the legislation. The author suggests that a legislative amendment to clarify this is desirable.

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  • Food pyramids, keeping clean and sex talks: Pre-service teachers, experiences and perceptions of school health education.

    Sinkinson, Margaret; Hughes, Dianne (2008)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper reports findings from the first stage of an anticipated four-stage research project investigating the effectiveness of teacher education in health education. Prior to receiving any teacher education in health education, pre-service teachers (student teachers) were surveyed for their experiences of secondary school health education, and their beliefs about and attitudes toward the subject. Data were collected from questionnaire surveys (n=295) and focus group interviews (n=61). Results showed that student teachers had more exposure to school health education than had been assumed, and had more positive attitudes toward the subject area than indicated by other studies into school health education. Many reported having had sexuality education and drug and alcohol programmes, but these were commonly described in contexts of safety rules and risk avoidance behaviours. Participants had greater understanding of and more exposure to mental health education than had been predicted. Those aged 20 years and younger reported significantly greater exposure to a range of school health education topics than did those aged 21 - 30 years, or 30+ years. This difference is attributed to the younger participants receiving health education based on the Health and Physical Education in the New Zealand Curriculum, introduced into schools in 1999.

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  • Back to the future: Reoccurring issues and discourses in health education in New Zealand schools

    Sinkinson, Margaret (2011)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    A key function of health education in New Zealand schools has always been to educate individuals to be responsible and accountable for their own health status. Educational, economic and political stances on what best constitutes effective health education however, shift over time. The outcome of these shifts is that a multiplicity of disciplines and theoretical frameworks has informed pedagogical practices in this subject area, and continue to do so. Psychology, sociology, philosophy and biological sciences are all visible in school health education syllabi. Currently a range of concepts and theories underpin the subject, ranging from critical theory and post structuralism to cognitive behavioural theory and behaviour change models. Although various disciplines, concepts and theories have fashioned the delivery and content of past and present school health education, none have proved particularly effective in moving it away from pervasive and enduring discourses of individualism. Examined in this article are socio-political influences on curriculum directions and discourses over the last century, including the part played by external bodies in determining health education subject matter and health behaviour emphases.

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  • Social deprivation and use of mental health legislation in New Zealand

    O'Brien, Anthony; Kydd, Robert; Frampton, C (2011-08-22)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomic status has consistently been associated with poorer health outcomes. Few studies have used ecological analysis to explore relationships between area measures of deprivation and use of mental health legislation. METHODS: We used an ecological design to explore associations between two area measures of relative deprivation and the two most commonly used sections of New Zealand mental health legislation. RESULTS: High levels of relative deprivation were positively correlated with use of both acute and long-term community care provisions of mental health legislation with the correlation with long-term care achieving significance (r = .518, p = .016). Low levels of relative deprivation showed negative correlations with use of both provisions. The correlation of -.493 between low levels of relative deprivation and acute care provisions was significant at p = .023. In stepwise regression, the proportion of the population aged 15-64 contributed to the model for section 11, but ethnicity contributed to neither model. CONCLUSION: Mental health legislation is used disproportionately in areas with high levels of relative deprivation. The results have implications for regional allocation of funding for mental health and social services to support community-based care. Further research is needed to explore other factors that may account for the regional variation.

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  • Use of Tasers on people with mental illness. A New Zealand database study

    O'Brien, Anthony; McKenna, Brian; Thom, KA; Diesfeld, K; Simpson, AIF (2010)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Abstract Background In 2006 -2007 New Zealand police deployed the Taser X26 electro-muscular incapacitation device for a twelve month trial across four police districts. Criteria for use of the Taser included "individuals in various states of mental health crisis". Aims To provide a descriptive analysis of the use of Tasers by the New Zealand police; to identify those incidents that involved people in mental health emergencies; and to compare this use with that which occurred in incidents of criminal arrest. Method Descriptive analysis of the police Tactical Operations Database Results Tasers were deployed on a total of 141 people in 124 events, and discharged 19 times. Of the 141 subjects, 30 (21%) involved people in mental health emergencies. Tasers were more than twice as likely to be discharged at mental health emergencies (8 of 30; 27%) than at criminal arrests (11 of 111; 10%) (X2 = 5.69; df =1; p = .017). There were two incidents of involvement of a Taser as part of police response to inpatient mental health services and two incidents involving mental health community residential accommodation. Conclusions Introduction of Tasers into policing in New Zealand will disproportionately impact on people with mental illness. Guidelines are needed to manage the future use of Tasers in mental health emergencies.

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  • Novel core promoter elements and a cognate transcription factor in the divergent unicellular eukaryote Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Smith, AJ; Chudnovsky, L; Barbosa, Augusto; Delgadillo-Correa, MG; Jonsson, ZO; Wohlschlegel, JA; Johnson, PJ (2011-04)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    A highly conserved DNA initiator (Inr) element has been the only core promoter element described in the divergent unicellular eukaryote Trichomonas vaginalis, although genome analyses reveal that only ???75% of protein-coding genes appear to contain an Inr. In search of another core promoter element(s), a nonredundant database containing 5' untranslated regions of expressed T. vaginalis genes was searched for overrepresented DNA motifs and known eukaryotic core promoter elements. In addition to identifying the Inr, two elements that lack sequence similarity to the known protein-coding gene core promoter, motif 3 (M3) and motif 5 (M5), were identified. Mutational and functional analyses demonstrate that both are novel core promoter elements. M3 [(A/G/T)(A/G)C(G/C)G(T/C)T(T/A/G)] resembles a Myb recognition element (MRE) and is bound specifically by a unique protein with a Myb-like DNA binding domain. The M5 element (CCTTT) overlaps the transcription start site and replaces the Inr as an alternative, gene-specific initiator element. Transcription specifically initiates at the second cytosine within M5, in contrast to characteristic initiation by RNA polymerase II at an adenosine. In promoters that combine M3 with either M5 or Inr, transcription initiation is regulated by the M3 motif.

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  • "Sexuality isn't just about sex": Pre-service teachers' shifting constructs of sexuality education.

    Sinkinson, Margaret (2009)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper presents the findings of a three-year study into pre-service (student) teachers, experiences of and beliefs about sexuality education in New Zealand schools. It reports on participants, own memories of school sexuality education programmes, and examines changes in their constructs of sexuality education during their teacher education in health education. Comparisons between their original beliefs about what constitutes ,good, sexuality education and those they had developed after three years of teacher education are made. Before beginning and after completing introductory health education courses in 2004, and third year health education specialism courses in 2006, quantitative and qualitative data were collected. Analysis of early data showed that participants saw learning about physical safety and disaster prevention as constituting effective sexuality education. By the end of 2006, although physical safety and avoiding risk were still presented as important aspects of sexuality education, a theme of ,sexuality isn,t just about sex, had emerged. Positive and comprehensive approaches to teaching about sexuality now defined their constructs of sexuality education. Only few participants, however, demonstrated embedded understanding of sexuality as a social construction, or expressed critical or socio-ecological perspectives of sexuality education.

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  • How critical are the tibiofemoral joint reaction forces during squatting in Asian populations?

    Thambyah, Ashvin (2008)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This study examines tibiofemoral joint moments and forces when performing a squat. The relevance of studying such an activity is to understand better the mechanical factors involved in the higher incidence of tibiofemoral osteoarthritis in Asian populations where squatting is a common daily activity. In this study, motion analysis data of walking versus squatting were compared, specifically looking at net external knee flexion moments, ground reaction forces and tibiofemoral contact forces. It was found that while squatting resulted in more than 2.5 times larger peak external moments compared with walking, tibiofemoral contact forces were not significantly different. This was due to reduced ground reaction forces recorded for the squatting phase compared to the larger dynamic effects of deceleration at heel strike during walking. The most significant finding of this study was that in squatting, there was a reversal in the tibiofemoral shear reaction force from posterior-directed to anterior-directed, occurring under full compressive load and within a fraction of a second. It is believed that repeated squatting results in many such reversals in shear reactions that may ultimately have significant implications to the long term mechanical function and structural integrity of the joint cartilage.

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  • On How Degeneration Influences Load-Bearing In The Cartilage-Bone System: A Microstructural And Micro-Mechanical Study.

    Thambyah, Ashvin; Broom, Neil (2007)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Objective: This study investigated the microanatomical response to compression of intact and degenerate cartilage-on-bone samples with the aim of elucidating the functional consequences of articular surface disruption and related matrix changes. Method: Two groups of mature bovine patellae were identified at the time of harvest; those with intact cartilage and those with cartilage exhibiting mild to severe degeneration. Cartilage-on-bone samples were statically compressed (7 MPa) to near-equilibrium using an 8-mm diameter cylindrical indenter, and then formalin-fixed in this deformed state. Following mild decalcification full-depth cartilage???bone sections, incorporating the indentation profile and beyond, were studied in their fully hydrated state using differential interference contrast optical microscopy (DIC). Results: Differences in matrix texture, degree of disruption of the articular surface layer (or its complete absence), number of tidemarks and absence or presence of vascularization of the calcified cartilage zone were all observable features that provided clear differentiation between the normal and degenerate tissues. Under load a chevron-type shear discontinuity characterized those samples in which the strain-limiting surface layer was still largely intact. The extent to which this shear discontinuity advanced into the adjacent non-directly loaded cartilage continuum was influenced by the integrity of the cartilage general matrix. For those tissues deficient in a strain-limiting articular surface there was no shear discontinuity, the cartilage deformation field was instead shaped primarily by its osteochondral attachment and a laterally-directed compressive collapse of a much weakened matrix. In the degenerate samples the altered matrix textures associated with different regions of the deformation field are interpreted in terms of an intrinsic fibrillar architecture that is weakened by two fundamental processes: (1) a de-structuring resulting from a reduction in connectivity between fibrils and (2) subsequent aggregation of these now disconnected fibrils. Conclusion: DIC microscopy provides a high-resolution description of the integrated osteochondral tissue system across the full continuum of matrices, from normal to severely degenerate. Our study demonstrates the important functional role played by the strain-limiting articular surface, the consequences associated with its disruption, as well as the loss of effective stress transmission associated with a ???de-structured??? general matrix. The study also provides new insights into the integration of cartilage with both its subchondral substrate and the wider continuum of non-directly loaded cartilage.

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  • FA-presentable groups and rings

    Nies, Andre; Thomas, R (2008)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    We consider structures which are FA-presentable. It is known that an FA-presentable finitely generated group is virtually abelian; we strengthen this result by showing that an arbitrary FA-presentable group is locally virtually abelian. As a consequence, we prove that any FA-presentable ring is locally finite; this is a significant restriction and allows us to say a great deal about the structure of FA-presentable rings. In particular, we show that any FA-presentable ring with identity and no zero divisors is finite.

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  • On new bone formation in the pre-osteoarthritic joint

    Thambyah, Ashvin; Broom, Neil (2009)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Objective: This study investigated the structural alterations in the osteochondral junction, traversing the intact-to-lesion regions, with the aim of elucidating the way in which the pre-osteoarthritic (pre-OA) state progresses to fully developed osteoarthritis (OA). Method: Thirty bovine patellae showing varying degrees of degeneration, with lesions located in the distal???lateral quarter, were used for this study. Cartilage-on-bone blocks were cut along the lateral facet to include both the lesion site in the distal end and the intact site in the proximal end. The blocks were formalin-fixed, mildly decalcified and microtomed to obtain 30 ??m ??? thick osteochondral slices. Using differential interference contrast optics, the tissue microstructure was captured at high resolution in its fully hydrated state. Results: There were structural changes in the osteochondral junction beneath the still-intact articular cartilage adjacent to the lesion site. The changes observed in traversing from the intact to the lesion site exhibited characteristics that were strikingly similar to those associated with primary bone formation. The evidence suggests that disruption of the cartilage continuum by a lesion has wider mechanobiological consequences at the osteochondral junction. Conclusion: The progression of OA appears to involve new bone formation adjacent to lesion sites. We hypothesise that the new bone spicules that appear in regions beneath intact cartilage adjacent to lesion sites provide a snapshot of the elusive pre-OA state.

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  • Post-hypoxic hypoperfusion is associated with suppression of cerebral metabolism and increased tissue oxygenation in near-term fetal sheep

    Jensen, EC; Bennet, Laura; Hunter, Christian; Power, GC; Gunn, Alistair (2006)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Secondary cerebral hypoperfusion is common following perinatal hypoxia???ischaemia. However, it remains unclear whether this represents a true failure to provide suf???cient oxygen and nutrients to tissues, or whether it is simply a consequence of reduced cerebral metabolic demand. We therefore examined the hypothesis that cerebral oxygenation would be reduced during hypoperfusion after severe asphyxia, and further, that the greater neural injury associated with blockade of the adenosine A1 receptor during the insult would be associated with greater hypoperfusion and deoxygenation. Sixteen near-term fetal sheep received either vehicle or 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) for 1 h, followed by 10 min of severe asphyxia induced by complete occlusion of the umbilical cord. Infusions were discontinued at the end of the occlusion and data were analysed for the following 8 h. A transient, secondary fall in carotid artery blood ???ow and laser Doppler ???ow was seen from approximately 1???4 h after occlusion (P < 0.001), with no signi???cant differences between vehicle and DPCPX. Changes in laser Doppler blood ???ow were highly correlated with carotid blood ???ow (r??= 0.81, P < 0.001). Cortical metabolism was suppressed, reaching a nadir 1 h after occlusion and then resolving. Cortical tissue PO_{2} was signi???cantly increased at 1, 2 and 3 h after occlusion compared to baseline,and inversely correlated with carotid blood ???ow (r??= 0.69, P < 0.001). In conclusion, contrary to our initial hypothesis, delayed posthypoxic hypoperfusion was associated with suppression of cerebral metabolism and increased tissue PO_{2}, and was not signi???cantly affected by preceding adenosine A1 blockade. These data suggest that posthypoxic hypoperfusion is actively mediated and re???ects suppressed cerebral metabolism.

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  • A metazoan/plant-like capping enzyme and cap modified nucleotides in the unicellular eukaryote Trichomonas vaginalis

    Barbosa, Augusto; Hirt, RP; Johnson, PJ (2010-07-15)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The cap structure of eukaryotic messenger RNAs is initially elaborated through three enzymatic reactions: hydrolysis of the 5′-triphosphate, transfer of guanosine through a 5′-5′ triphosphate linkage and N7-methylation of the guanine cap. Three distinctive enzymes catalyze each reaction in various microbial eukaryotes, whereas the first two enzymes are fused into a single polypeptide in metazoans and plants. In addition to the guanosine cap, adjacent nucleotides are 2′-O-ribose methylated in metazoa and plants, but not in yeast. Analyses of various cap structures have suggested a linear phylogenetic trend of complexity. These findings have led to a model in which plants and metazoa evolved a two-component capping apparatus and modification of adjacent nucleotides while many microbial eukaryotes maintained the three-component system and did not develop modification of adjacent nucleotides. Here, we have characterized a bifunctional capping enzyme in the divergent microbial eukaryote Trichomonas vaginalis using biochemical and phylogenetic analyses. This unicellular parasite was found to harbor a metazoan/plant-like capping apparatus that is represented by a two-domain polypeptide containing a C-terminus guanylyltransferase and a cysteinyl phosphatase triphosphatase, distinct from its counterpart in other microbial eukaryotes. In addition, T. vaginalis mRNAs contain a cap 1 structure represented by m7GpppAmpUp or m7GpppCmpUp; a feature typical of metazoan and plant mRNAs but absent in yeast mRNAs. Phylogenetic and biochemical analyses of the origin of the T. vaginalis capping enzyme suggests a complex evolutionary model where differential gene loss and/or acquisition occurred in the development of the RNA capping apparatus and cap modified nucleotides during eukaryote diversification.

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  • Draft genome sequence of the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis

    Carlton, JM; Hirt, RP; Silva, JC; Delcher, AL; Schatz, M; Zhao, Q; Wortman, JR; Bidwell, SL; Alsmark, UC; Besteiro, S; Sicheritz-Ponten, T; Noel, CJ; Dacks, JB; Foster, PG; Simillion, C; Van de Peer, Y; Miranda-Saavedra, D; Barton, GJ; Westrop, GD; Müller, S; Dessi, D; Fiori, PL; Ren, Q; Paulsen, I; Zhang, H; Bastida-Corcuera, FD; Barbosa, Augusto; Brown, MT; Hayes, RD; Mukherjee, M; Okumura, CY; Schneider, R; Smith, AJ; Vanacova, S; Villalvazo, M; Haas, BJ; Pertea, M; Feldblyum, TV; Utterback, TR; Shu, CL; Osoegawa, K; de Jong, PJ; Hrdy, I; Horvathova, L; Zubacova, Z; Dolezal, P; Malik, SB; Logsdon, JM Jr; Henze, K; Gupta, A; Wang, CC; Dunne, RL; Upcroft, JA; Upcroft, P; White, O; Salzberg, SL; Tang, P; Chiu, CH; Lee, YS; Embley, TM; Coombs, GH; Mottram, JC; Tachezy, J; Fraser-Liggett, CM; Johnson, PJ (2007-01-12)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    We describe the genome sequence of the protist Trichomonas vaginalis, a sexually transmitted human pathogen. Repeats and transposable elements comprise about two-thirds of the ∼160-megabase genome, reflecting a recent massive expansion of genetic material. This expansion, in conjunction with the shaping of metabolic pathways that likely transpired through lateral gene transfer from bacteria, and amplification of specific gene families implicated in pathogenesis and phagocytosis of host proteins may exemplify adaptations of the parasite during its transition to a urogenital environment. The genome sequence predicts previously unknown functions for the hydrogenosome, which support a common evolutionary origin of this unusual organelle with mitochondria.

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  • All’s well? New Zealand beginning teachers’ experience of induction provision in their first six months in school

    Grudnoff, Alexandra (2011)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    While the importance of induction for increasing beginning teacher retention and supporting professional development is widely recognized, less is known about the nature of support that novices encounter when they first start teaching. This study investigated twelve first-year New Zealand primary teachers’ perceptions of their induction experiences in their first six months of teaching. Semi-structured interviews (N=24) were the primary sources of data for this qualitative study. The study showed that despite New Zealand’s longstanding commitment to the induction of beginning teachers, the participants’ experiences were diverse and variable. The findings point to the learning and development opportunities open to beginning teachers when they work in schools that both recognise novices’ particular needs and have a school-wide commitment to the ongoing professional learning of all teachers.

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