91,117 results

  • Review of Cambridge Academic Content Dictionary, by P. Heacock (Ed.). Cambridge; Cambridge University Press

    Roe, Elizabeth (2009)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The focus of this dictionary is clear from the contrasting colours and fonts of the cover title: 'Cambridge academic content dictionary', with the first and last words in white, and 'Academic Content' in blue. The blurb emphasises the academic focus: 'With more than 2,000 content-area words, from algebra to zoology'. In all, there is a promising-sounding 1,113 pages of definitions and a 20-page, largely science-based, reference section at the end. This makes it a fairly hefty book for its suggested target users (high school students and beyond) to carry around. It comes with a CD-ROM dictionary/thesaurus. As a teacher of EAP courses for tertiary ESOL students, I was keen to see the quantity and type of academic _content that this dictionary offers.

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  • Review of Oxford Learner's Thesaurus: A dictionary of synonyms. Oxford; Oxford University Press.

    Roe, Elizabeth (2011)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    As a "dictionary of synonyms", the Oxford Learner's Thesaurus (OLT) with CD-ROM lives up to its name, and it is a resource that its target users (EFL learners of Upper Intermediate level and above) should find useful The OLT's aim is not just to list synonyms, as a conventional thesaurus does, but also to provide extensive information on synonym meaning, frequency of use, collocation, and register to help learners understand the differences in meaning and usage of similar words. Its content is from unspecified corpora: written and spoken, British ·and American English, and one Business English corpus. The 2,000 headword synonyms each have a 'synonym' group' of three to ten words (enough to inform but not overwhelm), presented in descending order of frequency of rise. ....

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  • Review of Listening in the language classroom, by J. Field. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008

    Roe, Elizabeth (2010)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This book is a valuable addition to the Cambridge Language Teaching Library series, authored by subject-specific experts. As a frequently-cited author of publications related to the listening language skill, John Field is well-placed to contribute to this series. The theme of the book is how teachers can give the neglected skill of listening a primary focus in the EFLIESL classroom. Field is critical of what he tenus the 'comprehension approach', i.e. the orthodox, teacher-driven, listening lesson methodology of: (I) teacher pre-teaches vocabulary/elicits predictions, (2) learners listen to answer comprehension questions, (3) teacher checks answers and reviews linguistic content. This focus on 'product' (correct answers) and the belief that mere practice leads to improvement is, in his opinion, flawed. Field proposes an alternative 'process' approach whereby teachers anticipate and diagnose learners' problems with second language (L2) input processing, and provide tasks to meet their developmental needs in order to prepare them better for listening outside of the classroom.

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  • Evaluation of Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer approaches as a tool to quantify the stability of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides

    Rupenthal, Ilva; Green, CR; Alany, Raid (2012)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AsODN) are rapidly degraded by nucleases in biological fluids which compromises their efficacy as therapeutic agents. This study evaluated two Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) approaches, Acceptor Photobleaching and Sensitized Emission, in terms of their suitability for quantification of oligonucleotide stability in various colloidal carrier systems in vitro. The influence of the formulations' pH and viscosity on the validity of the two approaches was determined and showed that the donor fluorescence intensity was highly susceptible to pH fluctuations of the medium. Moreover, the Acceptor Photobleaching approach proved to be unsuitable for the proposed studies due to Brownian motion of molecules in liquid formulations, suggesting that this method can only be used for immobilized specimens. The stability of a 30-mer AsODN incorporated into various in situ gelling systems was evaluated using the Sensitized Emission approach. This approach appeared to offer a simple tool to evaluate the stability of AsODN and showed stable molecules over a period of one week. However, a number of criteria, such as photobleaching due to repeated exposure, pH of the surrounding medium and sample preparation need to be carefully considered when performing quantitative FRET measurements.

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  • Behind the scenes: narrative and self-referentiality in Edo illustrated popular fiction

    Marceau, Lawrence (2010-05-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This essay provides an introduction to and an annotated, illustrated translation of Atariyashita jihon-doiya (It's a hit! The 'local book' wholesaler), a kiby??shi (a genre of heavily illustrated fiction dating from the late 1700s and early 1800s) written and illustrated by Jippensha Ikku and published by Murataya Jirobei in 1802. Contemporary scholars have given It's a Hit low marks for individuality, especially when comparing this late kiby??shi with works by such masters as Koikawa Harumachi and Sant?? Ky??den. However, by examining both text and image in this and related works, one can see that It's a Hit proves distinctive in that author, publisher and others involved in the craft of production appear explicitly in the text, so that reader/viewers can gain direct access to their world. By interpreting the work from such a self-referential perspective, this study suggests that the work in fact plays with Ikku's self-effacing persona, and allows for a new approach to appreciating kiby??shi production as readers vicariously share the author's own experience. Later authors, including Sant?? Ky??den and Shikitei Sanba, followed up on Ikku's lead with their own self-referential works, revealing the composition process itself.

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  • Boron Complexes of Pyrrolyl Ligands

    Brothers, Penelope (2011-08-17)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Complexes of boron with ligands containing pyrrolyl motifs are surveyed. The ligands range from simple pyrrolyl groups to dipyrroles and linear terpyrroles. Macrocyclic ligands include tripyrroles, which encompass subphthalocyanines, subporphyrins, subtriazaporphyrins, and subtribenzoporphyins, the familiar tetrapyrroles porphyrin and corrole but also N-confused and -fused porphyrins, and expanded porphyrins containing up to eight pyrroles. The role of boron in these compounds depends on the nature of the ligand. Boron acts as a Lewis acid center in simple boron pyrrolyl compounds, and as a structure-directing and templating agent in the cyclic terpyrroles and some of the expanded porphyrins. The difluorboron dipyrrins are well-known as fluorescent dyes. Boron porphyrins and corroles are unusual in containing two coordinated boron atoms rather than the single coordinated atom usually occurring in these ligands, and the proximity of two boron atoms at close quarters in the ligand cavities gives rise to some unusual reaction and redox chemistry. The survey is organized by the number of pyrrole moieties occurring in the ligand and focuses on new and unique chemistry observed for the complexes.

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  • The role of language proficiency in academic success: perspectives from a New Zealand university

    Elder, C; Bright, C; Smith, Sandra (2007)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The paper reports on a 3???part investigation of the part played by language proficiency in the academic experiences and study outcomes of undergraduate students at an English???medium university with a linguistically and culturally diverse student population. The first part of the study was a predictive validity analysis of the relationship between performance on a post???entry diagnostic assessment (known as DELNA) and subsequent grade point average and fail rates of students from different disciplinary backgrounds after the first and second semesters of language study. The second part of the study uses samples of performance on the writing component of DELNA to elicit feedback from Faculty members, again from different disciplines, regarding the linguistic qualities of students??? writing and its impact on the grades they assigned to their work. Finally, using a more qualitative approach, the role of the language is explored via detailed accounts of the study experience elicited from seven undergraduate students, all from non???English???speaking backgrounds. Findings reveal that English proficiency makes an important but complex contribution to the study experience but, for a range of reasons, this is not always reflected in academic outcomes.

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  • Transcriptional activation of p53 by Pitx1

    Liu, Dongxu; Lobie, Peter (2007)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Little is known about factors that stimulate transcription of the p53 tumor suppressor gene. Here, we report that the human pituitary homeobox 1 (hPitx1) transcription factor increases the expression of p53 at the mRNA and protein levels in human mammary carcinoma (MCF-7) cells. Increased p53 mRNA expression was due to activation of the p53 promoter by hPitx1. hPitx1 bound directly to the p53 promoter and functionally utilized two hPitx1 consensus elements. The predominant consensus element utilized by hPitx1 to stimulate p53 transcription was located within the first exon of the p53 gene. A hPitx1 mutant (hPitx1-R141P) acting as a dominant inhibitor repressed p53 transcription. Forced expression of hPitx1 resulted in cell-cycle arrest and p53-dependent apoptosis in p53-replete MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, hPitx1 stimulated the transcription of p53 target genes involved in cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis (p21 and PTGF-beta), again in a p53-dependent manner. Depletion of endogenous hPitx1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) in MCF-7 cells resulted in decreased basal expression of p53 and consequently of p21 and placental transforming growth factor beta (PTGF-beta). Depletion of p53 by siRNA dramatically attenuated hPitx1-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Thus, p53 is a direct transcriptional target gene of hPitx1. This observation is concordant with the recent identification of hPitx1 as a tumor suppressor gene.

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  • Trefoil factor-3 is oncogenic and mediates anti-estrogen resistance in human mammary carcinoma

    Kannan, N; Kang, J; Kong, X; Tang, J; Perry, Johanna; Mohankumar, KM; Miller, LD; Liu, ET; Mertani, HC; Zhu, T; Grandison, PM; Liu, Dongxu; Lobie, Peter (2010)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    We report herein that trefoil factor-3 (TFF3) is oncogenic and mediates anti-estrogen resistance in human mammary carcinoma. Forced expression of TFF3 in mammary carcinoma cells increased cell proliferation and survival, enhanced anchorage-independent growth, and promoted migration and invasion. Moreover, forced expression of TFF3 increased tumor size in xenograft models. Conversely, depletion of endogenous TFF3 with small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased the oncogenicity and invasiveness of mammary carcinoma cells. Neutralization of secreted TFF3 by antibody promoted apoptosis, decreased cell growth in vitro and arrested mammary carcinoma xenograft growth. TFF3 expression was significantly correlated to decreased survival of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen. Forced expression of TFF3 in mammary carcinoma cells increased ER transcriptional activity, promoted estrogen-independent growth and produced resistance to tamoxifen and fulvestrant in vitro and to tamoxifen in xenograft models. siRNA-mediated depletion or antibody inhibition of TFF3 significantly enhanced the efficacy of anti-estrogens. Increased TFF3 expression was observed in tamoxifen-resistant (TAMR) cells and antibody inhibition of TFF3 in TAMR cells improved tamoxifen sensitivity. Functional antagonism of TFF3 therefore warrants consideration as a novel therapeutic strategy for mammary carcinoma.

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  • Trefoil Factor-1 (TFF1) Enhances Oncogenicity of Mammary Carcinoma Cells

    Amiry, Naeem; Kong, XJ; Muniraj, Nethaji; Kannan, Nagarajan; Grandison, Prudence; Lin, J; Yang, YL; Vouyovitch, CM; Borges, S; Perry, Johanna; Mertani, HC; Zhu, T; Liu, Dongxu; Lobie, Peter (2009-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The functional role of autocrine trefoil factor-1 (TFF1) in mammary carcinoma has not been previously elucidated. Herein, we demonstrate that forced expression of TFF1 in mammary carcinoma cells resulted in increased total cell number as a consequence of increased cell proliferation and survival. Forced expression of TFF1 enhanced anchorage-independent growth and promoted scattered cell morphology with increased cell migration and invasion. Moreover, forced expression of TFF1 increased tumor size in xenograft models. Conversely, RNA interference-mediated depletion of TFF1 in mammary carcinoma cells significantly reduced anchorage-independent growth and migration. Furthermore, neutralization of secreted TFF1 protein by polyclonal antibody decreased mammary carcinoma cell viability in vitro and resulted in regression of mammary carcinoma xenografts. We have therefore demonstrated that TFF1 possesses oncogenic functions in mammary carcinoma cells. Functional antagonism of TFF1 can therefore be considered as a novel therapeutic strategy for mammary carcinoma. (Endocrinology 150: 4473-4483, 2009)

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  • Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT)-5A and STAT5B Differentially Regulate Human Mammary Carcinoma Cell Behavior

    Tang, Jianzhong; Zuo, ZH; Kong, XJ; Steiner, Michael; Yin, ZN; Perry, Johanna; Zhu, T; Liu, Dongxu; Lobie, Peter (2010-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Increased activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-5 has been reported in various malignancies including mammary carcinoma. However, it is only recently that potentially distinct roles of STAT5A and STAT5B in neoplasia have begun to emerge. Herein we systematically delineate the functions of STAT5A and STAT5B in human mammary carcinoma cell lines MCF-7 and T47D. Forced expression of constitutively active (CA) STAT5A enhanced both survival and anchor-age-independent growth of human mammary carcinoma cells but concordantly suppressed cell motility as revealed in colony scattering, cell migration, and invasion assays. In contrast, forced expression of CA STAT5B exhibited lower potency than CA STAT5A in enhancing survival and anchorage-independent growth of mammary carcinoma cells and exerted no effects on cell motility. Differential expression of genes that regulate cellular survival and motility was concomitantly observed on forced expression of CA STAT5A or CA STAT5B. Small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of STAT5A significantly impaired anchorage-independent growth of human mammary carcinoma cells, whereas a smaller reduction was observed upon small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of STAT5B. Depletion of endogenous STAT5A also significantly enhanced cell motility, whereas depletion of endogenous STAT5B exhibited no effect. Xenograft studies provided data concordant with the in vitro effects of the two STAT5 isoforms. We therefore demonstrate that STAT5A and STAT5B differentially regulate behavior of human mammary carcinoma cells. (Endocrinology 151: 43-55, 2010)

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  • Artemin-stimulated progression of human non-small cell lung carcinoma is mediated by BCL2

    Tang, JZ; Kong, XJ; Kang, J; Fielder, GC; Steiner, Michael; Perry, Johanna; Wu, ZS; Yin, Z; Zhu, T; Liu, Dongxu; Lobie, Peter (2010-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    We herein show that Artemin (ARTN), one of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family of ligands, promotes progression of human non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Oncomine data indicate that expression of components of the ARTN signaling pathway (ARTN, GFRA3, and RET) is increased in neoplastic compared with normal lung tissues; increased expression of ARTN in NSCLC also predicted metastasis to lymph nodes and a higher grade in certain NSCLC subtypes. Forced expression of ARTN stimulated survival, anchorage-independent, and three-dimensional Matrigel growth of NSCLC cell lines. ARTN increased BCL2 expression by transcriptional upregulation, and inhibition of BCL2 abrogated the oncogenic properties of ARTN in NSCLC cells. Forced expression of ARTN also enhanced migration and invasion of NSCLC cells. Forced expression of ARTN in H1299 cells additionally resulted in larger xenograft tumors, which were highly proliferative, invasive, and metastatic. Concordantly, either small interfering RNA-mediated depletion or functional inhibition of endogenous ARTN with antibodies reduced oncogenicity and invasiveness of NSCLC cells. ARTN therefore mediates progression of NSCLC and may be a potential therapeutic target for NSCLC.

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  • Artemin Stimulates Oncogenicity and Invasiveness of Human Endometrial Carcinoma Cells

    Pandey, Vijay; Qian, PX; Kang, Jian; Perry, Johanna; Mitchell, Murray; Yin, ZN; Wu, ZS; Liu, Dongxu; Zhu, T; Lobie, Peter (2010-03)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Here, we provide evidence for a functional role of artemin (ARTN) in progression of endometrial carcinoma (EC). Increased ARTN protein expression was observed in EC compared with normal endometrial tissue, and ARTN protein expression in EC was significantly associated with higher tumor grade and invasiveness. Forced expression of ARTN in EC cells significantly increased total cell number as a result of enhanced cell cycle progression and cell survival. In addition, forced expression of ARTN significantly enhanced anchorage-independent growth and invasiveness of EC cells. Moreover, forced expression of ARTN increased tumor size in xenograft models and produced highly proliferative, poorly differentiated, and invasive tumors. The ARTN-stimulated increases in oncogenicity and invasion were mediated by increased expression and activity of AKT1. Small interfering RNA-mediated depletion or antibody inhibition of ARTN significantly reduced oncogenicity and invasion of EC cells. Thus, inhibition of ARTN may be considered as a potential therapeutic strategy to retard progression of EC. (Endocrinology 151: 909-920, 2010)

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  • When Transmission Fails

    Tucker, Christopher (2010)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    One popular answer is that these deductions are instances of transmission failure (for example, Wright 1985, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2008; Davies 1998, 2000, 2003; McLaughlin 2000; and Dretske 2005).1 Roughly, to say that NMD and ZD are instances of transmission failure is to say that they cannot transmit justification from their premises to their conclusions....

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  • Why Open-Minded People Should Endorse Dogmatism

    Tucker, Christopher (2010)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Open-minded people should endorse dogmatism because of its explanatory power. In more careful (but less catchy) words, the purpose of this paper is to provide a reason to accept dogmatism by showing how well it addresses four issues concerning non-inferential justification. In this context, dogmatism doesn???t pick out an attitude of stubborn adherence to some doctrine; rather, it is a view about non-inferential justification,1 the sort of justification a proposition has in any way except in virtue of the justification of another belief. Its basic idea is that certain experiences suffice for prima facie2 non-inferential justification.3 In this paper, we will focus on the following version: (Radical) Dogmatism: Necessarily, if it seems to S that P, then S thereby has prima facie (non-inferential) justification for P. ....

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  • Hypoxic selectivity and solubility -- investigating the properties of A-ring substituted nitro seco-1,2,9,9a-tetrahydrocyclopropa[c]benz[e]indol-4-ones (nitroCBIs) as hypoxia-activated prodrugs for antitumor therapy

    Tercel, Moana; Yang, SJ; Atwell, Graham; Smith, E; Gu, Yongchuan; Anderson, Robert; Denny, William; Wilson, William; Pruijn, Frederik (2010-07-15)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Nitro seco-1,2,9,9a-tetrahydrocyclopropa[c]benz[e]indol-4-ones (nitroCBIs) are a new class of prodrugs for antitumor therapy that undergo hypoxia-selective metabolism to form potent DNA minor groove alkylating agents. Although hindered by poor aqueous solubility, several examples have shown activity against hypoxic tumor cells in vivo. Here we investigate structural properties that influence hypoxic selectivity in vitro, and show that for high hypoxic selectivity nitroCBIs should combine an electron-withdrawing group of H-bond donor capacity on the A-ring, with a basic substituent on the minor groove-binding side chain. Substitution on the A-ring is compatible with the introduction of functionality that can improve water solubility.

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  • Differential localization of GABAA receptor subunits within the substantia nigra of the human brain: an immunohistochemical study.

    Waldvogel, Henry; Baer, KB; Gai, WP; Gilbert, Raymond; Rees, Mark; Mohler, Hans; Faull, Richard (2008)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    ??-Aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptors (GABAAR) are inhibitory heteropentameric chloride ion channels comprising a variety of subunits and are localized at postsynaptic sites within the central nervous system. In this study we present the first detailed immunohistochemical investigation on the regional, cellular, and subcellular localisation of ??1, ??2, ??3, ??2,3, and ??2 subunits of the GABAAR in the human substantia nigra (SN). The SN comprises two major regions, the SN pars compacta (SNc) consisting of dopaminergic projection neurons, and the SN pars reticulata (SNr) consisting of GABAergic parvalbumin-positive projection neurons. The results of our single- and double-labeling studies demonstrate that in the SNr GABAA receptors contain ??1, ??3, ??2,3, and ??2 subunits and are localized in a weblike network over the cell soma, dendrites, and spines of SNr parvalbumin-positive nonpigmented neurons. By contrast, GABAARs on the SNc dopaminergic pigmented neurons contain predominantly ??3 and ??2 subunits; however there is GABAAR heterogeneity in the SNc, with a small subpopulation (6.5%) of pigmented SNc neurons additionally containing ??1 and ??2,3 GABAAR subunits. Also, in the SNr, parvalbumin-positive terminals are adjacent to GABAAR on the soma and proximal dendrites of SNr neurons, whereas linear arrangements of substance P-positive terminals are adjacent to GABAA receptors on all regions of the dendritic tree. These results show marked GABAAR subunit hetereogeneity in the SN, suggesting that GABA exerts quite different effects on pars compacta and pars reticulata neurons in the human SN via GABAA receptors of different subunit configurations.

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  • STAT3alpha is oncogenic for endometrial carcinoma cells and mediates the oncogenic effects of autocrine human growth hormone

    Tang, JZ; Kong, XJ; Banerjee, A; Muniraj, N; Pandey, V; Steiner, Michael; Perry, Johanna; Zhu, T; Liu, Dongxu; Lobie, Peter (2010-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    We herein demonstrate an oncogenic role for signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3alpha (the full length STAT3 isoform), which also mediates autocrine human GH (hGH)-stimulated oncogenicity, in human endometrial carcinoma (EC) cells. Autocrine hGH stimulated Y705 phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT3-mediated transcriptional activity in a SRC and Janus-2 Kinase dependent manner in human EC cell lines. Forced expression of a constitutively active variant of STAT3alpha increased proliferation, anchorage-independent, three-dimensional (3D) Matrigel, and xenograft growth and promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition, migration, and invasion of EC cells. Conversely, the oncogenic capacity of EC cells was significantly impaired by treatment with JSI-124, an inhibitor of STAT3 phosphorylation and activity, small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of STAT3alpha, or a dominant-negative variant of STAT3alpha. Furthermore, the enhanced EC cell oncogenicity stimulated by autocrine hGH, was also abrogated by functional inhibition or small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of STAT3alpha. STAT3alpha may therefore be a common mediator of oncogenic signaling pathways stimulating progression of EC.

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  • Artemin Reduces Sensitivity to Doxorubicin and Paclitaxel in Endometrial Carcinoma Cells through Specific Regulation of CD24

    Pandey, V; Jung, Y; Kang, J; Steiner, Michael; Qian, PX; Banerjee, A; Mitchell, Murray; Wu, ZS; Zhu, T; Liu, Dongxu; Lobie, Peter (2010-08)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    We have previously reported that artemin (ARTN) stimulates the oncogenicity and invasiveness of endometrial carcinoma cells. Herein, we demonstrate that ARTN modulates the sensitivity of endometrial carcinoma cells to agents used to treat late-stage endometrial carcinoma. Forced expression of ARTN in endometrial carcinoma cells decreased sensitivity to doxorubicin and paclitaxel. Accordingly, depletion of ARTN by small interfering RNA or functional inhibition of ARTN with antibodies significantly increased sensitivity of endometrial carcinoma cells to doxorubicin and paclitaxel. Forced expression of ARTN in endometrial carcinoma cells abrogated doxorubicin-induced G2-M arrest and paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. ARTN increased CD24 expression in endometrial carcinoma cells by transcriptional up-regulation, and CD24 was partially correlated to ARTN expression in endometrial carcinoma. Forced expression of CD24 in endometrial carcinoma cells stimulated cell proliferation and oncogenicity, enhanced cell invasion, and decreased sensitivity to doxorubicin and paclitaxel. Depletion of CD24 in endometrial carcinoma cells abrogated ARTN-stimulated resistance to doxorubicin and paclitaxel. ARTN-stimulated resistance to doxorubicin and paclitaxel in endometrial carcinoma cells is therefore mediated by the specific regulation of CD24. Functional inhibition of ARTN may therefore be considered as an adjuvant therapeutic approach to improve the response of endometrial carcinoma to specific chemotherapeutic agents.

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  • Artemin is oncogenic for human mammary carcinoma cells

    Kang, Jian; Perry, Johanna; Pandey, Vijay; Fielder, Graeme; Mei, B; Qian, PX; Wu, ZS; Zhu, T; Liu, Dongxu; Lobie, Peter (2009-05-14)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    We report that artemin, a member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family of ligands, is oncogenic for human mammary carcinoma. Artemin is expressed in numerous human mammary carcinoma cell lines. Forced expression of artemin in mammary carcinoma cells results in increased anchorage-independent growth, increased colony formation in soft agar and in three-dimensional Matrigel, and also promotes a scattered cell phenotype with enhanced migration and invasion. Moreover, forced expression of artemin increases tumor size in xenograft models and leads to highly proliferative, poorly differentiated and invasive tumors. Expression data in Oncomine indicate that high artemin expression is significantly associated with residual disease after chemotherapy, metastasis, relapse and death. Artemin protein is detectable in 65% of mammary carcinoma and its expression correlates to decreased overall survival in the cohort of patients. Depletion of endogenous artemin with small interfering RNA, or antibody inhibition of artemin, decreases the oncogenicity and invasiveness of mammary carcinoma cells. Artemin is therefore oncogenic for human mammary carcinoma, and targeted therapeutic approaches to inhibit artemin function in mammary carcinoma warrant consideration. Oncogene (2009) 28, 2034-2045; doi:10.1038/onc.2009.66; published online 13 April 2009

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