91,117 results

  • Usability of Web-based Knowledge Portals to support Educational Research Organizations : A CRPP Case Study

    Laxman, Kumar; Natarajan, G; Hedberg, J (2006)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Introduction The Centre for Research in Pedagogy and Practice (CRPP) is housed within the National Institute of Education in Singapore. The Centre brings together researchers, educators and administrators for research and development of new and innovative ways of teaching and learning. The Centre's key research goal is to redesign pedagogy in order to enhance instructional practices which in turn will help students face the challenges of the global economies. With these objectives in mind, the Centre provides evidence as the basis for future educational policy and decision making in Singapore.

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  • Models of disability, work and welfare in Australia

    Humpage, Louise (2007)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    In discourse around disability there has been a shift away from a ???medical model???, which perceives disability as an individual problem to be ???cured??? or contained, towards a ???social model???. The latter focuses on the relationship between people with disabilities and their social environment, locating the required interventions within the realm of social policy and institutional practice. Drawing upon a small qualitative study conducted in Melbourne, this article argues that recent plans by the Australian government to introduce mutual obligation requirements for recipients of the Disability Support Pension (DSP) sit in tension with this shift from the medical to the social models of disability. Mutual obligation is based on the assumption that income support recipients need to be taught how to be more ???self-reliant???, to ???participate??? in society more fully and to become ???active???, rather than ???passive???, citizens. This language appears to overlap with that used to articulate a social model, which places emphasis on participation in the community and attempts a shift away from reliance on the medical profession. However, examples from interviews conducted with current and former DSP recipients demonstrate that, in practice, mutual obligation is likely to reinforce a medical model of disability, frame DSP recipients as ???conditional??? citizens and ignore the obligations of the state and society regarding access and inclusiveness for people with disabilities.

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  • Moderation of breastfeeding effects on the IQ by genetic variation in fatty acid metabolism

    Caspi, A; Williams, B; Kim-Cohen, J; Craig, IW; Milne, Barry; Poulton, R; Schalkwyk, LC; Taylor, A; Werts, H; Moffitt, TE (2007-11-20)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Children's intellectual development is influenced by both genetic inheritance and environmental experiences. Breastfeeding is one of the earliest such postnatal experiences. Breastfed children attain higher IQ scores than children not fed breast milk, presumably because of the fatty acids uniquely available in breast milk. Here we show that the association between breastfeeding and IQ is moderated by a genetic variant in FADS2, a gene involved in the genetic control of fatty acid pathways. We confirmed this gene-environment interaction in two birth cohorts, and we ruled out alternative explanations of the finding involving gene-exposure correlation, intrauterine growth, social class, and maternal cognitive ability, as well as maternal genotype effects on breastfeeding and breast milk. The finding shows that environmental exposures can be used to uncover novel candidate genes in complex phenotypes. It also shows that genes may work via the environment to shape the IQ, helping to close the nature versus nurture debate.

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  • The Validity of the Family History Screen for Assessing Family History of Mental Disorders

    Milne, Barry; Caspi, A; Crump, R; Poulton, R; Rutter, M; Sears, MR; Moffitt, TE (2009-01-05)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    there is a need to collect psychiatric family history information quickly and economically (e.g., for genome-wide studies and primary care practice). We sought to evaluate the validity of family history reports using a brief screening instrument, the Family History Screen (FHS). We assessed the validity of parents' reports of seven psychiatric disorders in their adult children probands from the Dunedin Study (n = 959, 52% male), using the proband's diagnosis as the criterion outcome. We also investigated whether there were informant characteristics that enhanced accuracy of reporting or were associated with reporting biases. Using reports from multiple informants, we obtained sensitivities ranging from 31.7% (alcohol dependence) to 60.0% (conduct disorder) and specificities ranging from 76.0% (major depressive episode) to 97.1% (suicide attempt). There was little evidence that any informant characteristics enhanced accuracy of reporting. However, three reporting biases were found: the probability of reporting disorder in the proband was greater for informants with versus without a disorder, for female versus male informants, and for younger versus older informants. We conclude that the FHS is as valid as other family history instruments (e.g., the FH-RDC, FISC), and its brief administration time makes it a cost-effective method for collecting family history data. To avoid biasing results, researchers who aim to compare groups in terms of their family history should ensure that the informants reporting on these groups do not differ in terms of age, sex or personal history of disorder. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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  • Beyond Internalism and Externalism: Husserl and Sartre’s Image Consciousness in Hitchcock and Bunuel

    Minissale, Gregory (2010)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    One of the dualisms dominating recent debates in the philosophy of mind and epistemology concerns internalism and externalism. The former posits a subject immersed in a mental life that functions as the source of truth about the world. The latter suggests that the subject’s knowledge is largely dependent on environmental and physical factors where the truth about reality is to be found, rather than in the subject’s mind.1 However, experiences of art and film indicate ways to move beyond this impasse, especially when examined in the light of Husserl and Sartre’s phenomenology. ....

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  • 'Issues and History in Popular Music' POPMUS 106 Learning critical theory by exploring the familiar

    Zemke-White, KM (2006)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • How many dudes you know roll like this?: the re-presentation of hip hop tropes in New Zealand rap music

    Zemke-White, KM (2005)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    New Zealand artists take globalised American rap, converting it to suit specific local sites, peoples and struggles. Rappers in Aotearoa/New Zealand, reinforce, explode and re-present essential hip hop tropes, using them to celebrate and negotiate complex contemporary identities and locations. This paper first summarises the New Zealand hip hops scene, then engages with the trope of 'keeping it real' showing how New Zealand hip hop artists 'keep it real' by keeping it Pacific and local. New Zealand 'gangsters' decry the exigencies of their own poorer neighbourhoods, and rap's 'place' tropes extol, solidify and explore a local hip hop. Rap's bragging and battles are used to celebrate hip hop, to promote MC skills, and to articulate communities ('represent'). Narrative and auto-biography tell individual and community stories, reflecting in particular Pacific immigrant communities and the indigenous Maori youth. New Zealand rap manages to keep 'authentic' to the original hip hop culture by re-presenting core tropes and attributes; and maintaining the whole culture (including graf art, DJ-ing and b-boying). This is not mimicry, but the tropes themselves allow for localised expressions which reflect unique cultural and diasporic identities.

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  • 'This Is My Life' Biography, Identity and Narrative in New Zealand Rap Songs

    Zemke-White, KM (2007)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Rap music is distinctive among its fellow contemporary pop musics in many facts. One of its essential fatures is the biographical story telling and narrative format available to the rapper. This article explores New Zealand ' life story' rap texts, highlighting how rap's features of auto-biography, candour and self reflexivity reveal insights into the lives of young people. Rap lyrics offer touching personal images of social issues such as class, poverty, ethnicity, identity and family life. The songs examined here broach sensitive issues providing a means for better understanding diaspora and youth communities in New Zealand. The revealing reflections of these narrative raps offer a viable lternative (or addition) to ethnographic conversations of interviews in understanding rap artists and the communities they speak for and represent. ...

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  • Strain-specific differences in perinatal rodent oligodendrocyte lineage progression and its correlation with human

    Dean, Justin; Moravec, MD; Grafe, M; Abend, N; Ren, J; Gong, X; Volpe, JJ; Jensen, FE; Hohimer, AR; Back, SA (2011)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Progress in the development of rat models of human periventricular white matter injury (WMI) has been hampered by uncertainty about the developmental window in different rodent strains that coincides with cerebral white matter development in human premature infants. To define strain-specific differences in rat cerebral white matter maturation, we analyzed oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage maturation between postnatal days (P)2 and P14 in three widely studied strains of rat: Sprague-Dawley, Long-Evans and Wistar (W). We previously reported that late OL progenitors (preOL) are the major vulnerable cell type in human periventricular WMI. Strain-specific differences in preOL maturation were found at P2, such that the W rat had the highest percentage and density of preOL relative to the other strains. Overall, at P2, the state of OL maturation was similar to preterm human cerebral white matter. However, by P5, all three strains displayed a similar magnitude and extent of OL maturation that persisted with progressive myelination between P7 and P14. PreOL were the predominant OL lineage stage present in the cerebral cortex through P14, and thus OL lineage maturation occurred latter than in white matter. The hippocampus also displayed a later onset of preOL maturation in all three strains, such that OL lineage maturation and early myelination was not observed to occur until about P14. This timing of preOL maturation in rat cortical gray matter coincided with a similar timing in human cerebral cortex, where preOL also predominated until at least 8 months after full-term birth. These studies support that strain-specific differences in OL lineage immaturity were present in the early perinatal period at about P2, and they define a narrow window of preterm equivalence with human that diminishes by P5. Later developmental onset of preOL maturation in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus coincides with an extended window of potential vulnerability of the OL lineage to hypoxia-ischemia in these gray matter regions.

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  • Delayed cortical impairment following lipopolysaccharide exposure in preterm fetal sheep

    Dean, Justin; van de Looij, Y; Sizonenko, SV; Lodygensky, GA; Lazeyras, F; Bolouri, H; Kjellmer, I; Huppi, PS; Hagberg, H; Mallard, C (2011)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    OBJECTIVE: Preterm infants exhibit chronic deficits in white matter (WM) and cortical maturation. Although fetal infection/inflammation may contribute to WM pathology, the factors contributing to cortical changes are largely unknown. We examined the effect of fetal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure on WM and cortical development as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electroencephalography (EEG), and histopathology in fetal sheep at preterm human equivalent age. METHODS: LPS was administered to fetal sheep at 102.5 ± 0.5 days of gestation. Continuous biophysical recordings were analyzed for 10 days after LPS. At postmortem, measurement of cerebral WM and cortical tissue volumes was achieved by stereological techniques. Specific effects of LPS on MRI-assessed T(1)-weighted and T(2)-weighted images, and immunohistochemical expression of oligodendrocytes, proliferating cells, cortical NeuN-positive and Nurr1-positive neurons (subplate marker), and cell death mechanisms were examined. RESULTS: We observed reductions in WM (~21%; LPS, 1.19 ± 0.04 vs control, 1.51 ± 0.07 cm(3); p < 0.001) and cortical (~18%; LPS, 2.34 ± 0.10 vs control, 2.85 ± 0.07 cm(3); p < 0.001) volumes, associated with overt and diffuse WM injury, T(1)-/T(2) -weighted signal alterations, and reduced numbers of WM oligodendrocytes (LPS, 485 ± 31 vs control, 699 ± 69 cells/mm(2); p = 0.0189) and NeuN-positive (LPS, 421 ± 71 vs control 718 ± 92 cells/mm(2); p = 0.04) and Nurr1-positive (control, 2.5 ± 0.6 vs LPS, 0.6 ± 0.1 cells/mm(2); p = 0.007) cortical neurons after LPS. Moreover, there was loss of the normal maturational increase in cortical EEG amplitude, which correlated with reduced cortical volumes. INTERPRETATION: Fetal exposure to LPS prior to myelination onset can impair both white matter and cortical development in a preclinical large animal model, supporting a role for maternal/fetal infection in the pathogenesis of preterm brain injury

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  • An organotypic slice culture model of chronic white matter injury with maturation arrest of oligodendrocyte progenitors

    Dean, Justin; Riddle, A; Maire, J; Hansen, KD; Preston, M; Barnes, AP; Sherman, LS; Back, SA (2011)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    BACKGROUND: CNS myelination disturbances commonly occur in chronic white matter lesions in neurodevelopmental and adult neurological disorders. Recent studies support that myelination failure can involve a disrupted cellular repair mechanism where oligodendrocyte (OL) progenitor cells (OPCs) proliferate in lesions with diffuse astrogliosis, but fail to fully differentiate to mature myelinating OLs. There are no in vitro models that reproduce these features of myelination failure. RESULTS: Forebrain coronal slices from postnatal day (P) 0.5/1 rat pups were cultured for 1, 5, or 9 days in vitro (DIV). Slices rapidly exhibited diffuse astrogliosis and accumulation of the extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA), an inhibitor of OPC differentiation and re-myelination. At 1 DIV ~1.5% of Olig2+ OLs displayed caspase-3 activation, which increased to ~11.5% by 9 DIV. At 1 DIV the density of PDGFRα+ and PDGFRα+/Ki67+ OPCs were significantly elevated compared to 0 DIV (P < 0.01). Despite this proliferative response, at 9 DIV ~60% of white matter OLs were late progenitors (preOLs), compared to ~7% in the postnatal day 10 rat (P < 0.0001), consistent with preOL maturation arrest. Addition of HA to slices significantly decreased the density of MBP+ OLs at 9 DIV compared to controls (217 ± 16 vs. 328 ± 17 cells/mm2, respectively; P = 0.0003), supporting an inhibitory role of HA in OL lineage progression in chronic lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Diffuse white matter astrogliosis and early OPC proliferation with impaired OL maturation were reproduced in this model of myelination failure. This system may be used to define mechanisms of OPC maturation arrest and myelination failure related to astrogliosis and HA accumulation

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  • Widening the lens on child health

    Kearns, Robin; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Neuwelt, Patricia (2005)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    In this issue of the Journal, Shaw, Blakely, Crampton, and Atkinson1 provide stark evidence of inequalities in child mortality across a range of causes. Their findings provide another sobering reminder that the clich?? of New Zealand being ???a great place to bring up kids??? holds true for some, but it cannot be presumed to be the case for all.

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  • Impact of a workshop on motivation to pursue a career in child and adolescent mental health

    Lucassen, Mathijs; Merry, Sally; Robinson, Elizabeth (2007)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether a 3 h workshop on child and adolescent mental health positively influenced nursing, occupational therapy and social work students??? career intentions.

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  • Microglial MyD88 signaling regulates acute neuronal toxicity of LPS-stimulated microglia in vitro

    Dean, Justin; Wang, X; Kaindl, AM; Gressens, P; Fleiss, B; Hagberg, H; Mallard, C (2010)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Although the role of microglial activation in neural injury remains controversial, there is increasing evidence for a detrimental effect in the immature brain, which may occur in response to release of neurotoxic substances including pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, the signaling mechanisms involved in microglial-induced neuronal cell death are unclear. Microglia isolated from the brains of wild-type (WT) or MyD88 knockout (KO) mice were exposed to PBS or the TLR4-ligand LPS (100 ng/mL) for 2, 6, 14, or 24 h, and the microglia-conditioned medium (MCM) collected. Detection of multiple inflammatory molecules in MCM was performed using a mouse 22-plex cytokine microbead array kit. Primary neuronal cultures were supplemented with the 14 or 24 h MCM, and the degree of neuronal apoptosis examined after exposure for 24 h. Results showed a rapid and sustained elevation in multiple inflammatory mediators in the MCM of WT microglia exposed to LPS, which was largely inhibited in MyD88 KO microglia. There was a significant increase in apoptotic death measured at 24 h in cultured neurons exposed to CM from either 14 or 24 h LPS-stimulated WT microglia (p<.05 vs. WT control). By contrast, there was no increase in apoptotic death in cultured neurons exposed to CM from 14 or 24 h LPS-stimulated MyD88 KO microglia (p=.15 vs. MyD88 KO control). These data suggest that MyD88-dependent activation of microglia by LPS causes release of factors directly toxic to neurons

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  • An 'inclusive' society: A 'leap forward' for Maori in New Zealand?

    Humpage, Louise (2006)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Existing literature, which has emerged largely from Europe and Britain, suggests that the concepts of social exclusion and inclusion are fundamentally limited when accounting for ???difference???. This paper extends this literature by considering the way in which a social exclusion/inclusion discourse has played out in a ???white settler??? society where the ???difference??? embodied by the highly ???excluded??? indigenous population is a central concern for social policy. The paper argues that the goal of an ???inclusive society???, which has framed New Zealand social policy since 1999, promotes an equal opportunity approach that sits in tension with the specific needs and rights of Maori as indigenous peoples and partners in the 1840 Treaty of Waitangi. The ambiguous consequences of this goal highlight the need for settler societies to develop policy that reflects their own socio-political circumstances, rather than simply adopt policy discourses that are popular internationally.

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  • Facile One-Pot Synthesis and Thermal Cyclopolymerization of Aryl Bistrifluorovinyl Ether Monomers Bearing Reactive Pendant Groups

    Zhu, K; Iacono, ST; Budy, SM; Jin, Jianyong; Smith, DW (2010-05-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    A diverse pool of aryl bistrifluorovinyl ether (BTFVE) compounds with reactive pendant groups were prepared in a facile, high yielding three step "one-pot" synthesis from commercial 4-bromo(trifluorovinyloxy)benzene. Monomers were confirmed from ATR-FTIR, (1)H, (13)C, and (19)F NMR, and HRMS analysis. Aryl BTFVE compounds were thermally polymerized to afford perfluorocyclobutyl (PFCB) aryl ether polymers with high number average molecular weight (M(n)) for homopolymers (17,050-27,090) and copolymers with 4,4'-bis(trifluorovinyloxy)biphenyl monomers (27,860-56,500). The PFCB aryl ether homo- and copolymers collectively possess high thermal stability (>299 degrees C in N(2)) and are readily solution processable producing optically transparent films. The thermal polymerization was achieved and reactive moieties remained intact, aside from those functionalized with acrylates. In the case with acrylate functionalized polymers, orthogonal polymerization was achieved by first photopolymerizing the acrylates followed by thermal curing of the aryl trifluorovinyl ether endgroups. Preliminary results in this study produced the successful preparation of photodefinable PFCB aryl ether material. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 48: 1887-1893, 2010

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  • Skin stimulation, objects of perception, and the blind

    Hughes, Barry (2007)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The model developed is not as comprehensive as might be desired on two counts: in that how the transition from proximal stimulation at the skin gives rise to the perception of external objects is taken for granted, and in that another population of participants, the blind, constitute an important group from which we can understand somatosensory processing and neural plasticity.

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  • Revisioning comparative welfare state studies: An 'indigenous' dimension

    Humpage, Louise (2010)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Although welfare states have been categorised according to a wide but never conclusive range of dimensions, little attention has been paid to the specific forms of recognitive justice that influence the development of the welfare state, particularly in countries where internally colonised indigenous peoples not only constitute a disproportionate number of welfare recipients, but also hold additional rights to those associated with citizenship. Socio-economic disparities between indigenous and non-indigenous peoples are considerable in 'liberal' welfare states where significant recognition of indigenous rights has been made and where indigenous peoples now play a significant role in delivering social provision. Such disparities are narrower in the 'social democratic' welfare states, such as Norway, Sweden and Finland (where Sami people live), which have focused largely on the application of more universalistic social rights but have provided little space for indigenous-focused social provision. Uncertainty thus remains about the best mix of recognition and redistribution needed to produce good outcomes for indigenous peoples in terms of both welfare and greater indigenous autonomy and control. Drawing on the cases of New Zealand and Australia, this article proposes a framework for examining different welfare states that aims to shed some light on this critical issue.

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  • Synthesis and electronic factors in thermal cyclodimerization of functionalized aromatic trifluorovinyl ethers.

    Spraul, BK; Suresh, S; Jin, Jianyong; Smith, DW (2006-05-31)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    A series of 19 p-substituted aromatic trifluorovinyl ether compounds were prepared from versatile intermediate p-Br-C(6)H(4)-O-CF=CF(2) and underwent thermal radical mediated cyclodimerization to new difunctional compounds containing the 1,2-disubstituted perfluorocyclobutyl (PFCB) linkage. The synthetic scope demonstrates the functional group transformation tolerance of the fluorovinyl ether, and the dimers are useful as monomers for traditional step-growth polymerization methods. (19)F NMR spectra confirmed that p-substitution affects the trifluorovinyl ether group chemical shifts. The first kinetic studies and substituent effects on thermal cyclodimerization were performed, and the results indicated that electron-withdrawing groups slow the rate of cyclodimerization. The data were further analyzed using the Hammett equation, and reaction constants (rho) of -0.46 at 120 degrees C and -0.59 at 130 degrees C were calculated. This study presents the first liner free energy relationship reported for the cyclodimerization of aromatic trifluorovinyl ethers to PFCB compounds.

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  • First identification of biradicals during thermal [2 pi + 2 pi] cyclopolymerization of trifluorovinyl aromatic ethers

    Mifsud, N; Mellon, V; Jin, Jianyong; Topping, CM; Echegoyen, L; Smith, DW (2007-09-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The thermal cyclopolymerization of three trifluorovinyl aromatic ether monomers 1,1,1-tris (4-trifluorovinyloxyphenyl)ethane (1), 4,4'-bis(4-trifluorovinyloxy)biphenyl (2) and 2,2-bis(4-trifluorovinyloxyphenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropane (3) were monitored in situ using time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy over a temperature range of 150-210 degrees C. The signals observed during the early stages of perfluorocyclobutyl. polymer production suggest the formation of a triplet state corresponding to the proposed biradical intermediate with a strong dipole-dipole interaction. A doublet splitting shows the presence of hyperfine coupling due to fluorine. The characterization of radical species formed during the polymerization of monomer 1 using model compounds and polymerization kinetics of monomer 2 are also presented. (c) 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.

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