86,511 results

  • Dietary biomarkers for the assessment of sugars intake in New Zealand populations

    Kruimer, Devonia (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Nutritional studies typically assess dietary intake of sugars using self-reporting techniques (i.e. diet records, 24-h recalls, and food frequency questionnaires). These techniques, however, are prone to misreporting, leading to attenuation and inconsistency in observed diet-disease relationships. Alternative assessment techniques are required to overcome these research limitations and to strengthen the evidence base for dietary intake recommendations. Recently, two biomarkers of sugar intake have been developed: urinary sugars excretions, used as a predictive biomarker of total sugars intake; and carbon stable isotope ratios (13C/12C; expressed as δ13C), used in various tissues as a predictive biomarker of corn- and cane-derived sugar intake. To date, much research has been carried out on populations where intake of sugars is predominately from corn. The research described in this thesis evaluates the use of urinary sugars excretion in 24-h urine collections and spot urine collections, and the use of carbon stable isotope ratios in red blood cells and hair, as biomarkers of sugars intake in populations where the majority of sugars consumed originates from sugar cane. Additionally, the comparative performances of urinary excretion of sugars and stable isotope ratios as biomarkers was evaluated. Data was analysed from a controlled-feeding study (n = 12), and from two cross-sectional studies. The first cross-sectional study involved young Pacific people (n = 80), and the second study, in conjunction with Ngāti Porou Hauora, involved the Māori Tairāwhiti population (n = 168) around Gisborne and the East Coast of New Zealand. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 7-day diet record in the controlled-feeding study, while a culturally appropriate FFQ, designed to measure intake of sugars, was administered in the Pacific youth and the Māori Tairāwhiti population. Urinary sucrose excretion was most strongly associated with total sugar intake, as measured using a 7-day weighed diet record (r = 0.87); however, urinary sugar excretion measured during the controlled-feeding experiment did not show a linear relationship between the sugars consumed and sugars excreted in the urine. A study conducted in the Māori Tairāwhiti population demonstrated that, urinary sugars in spot samples were associated with self-reported intakes of sucrose (r = 0.22; n = 168). Carbon stable isotopes measured in red blood cells and hair were not associated with self-reported intakes in the pilot study. In young Pacific people, a dual isotope model with δ13C and δ15N was correlated with self-reported intakes of sugar-sweetened beverage intake (R2 = 0.35) in normal-weight adolescents (body mass index (BMI): 19-25 kg/m2), but not in overweight and obese participants. Conversely, δ13Calanine was not found to be correlated with any of the self-reported sugar intakes overall, and in any of the BMI categories. In a subsample of the Māori Tairāwhiti population (n = 36) δ13Calanine was correlated with added sugar intake (r = 0.38). Bulk measures of δ13C and δ15N were not associated with self-reported sugar intakes. The comparative performance of urinary sugars and stable isotope ratios as biomarkers of sugars intake does not give any firm indication of the superiority of using one over the other. Nevertheless, the research of this thesis has identified the potential use of both urinary sugar excretion and carbon stable isotope ratios as biomarkers of sugar intakes.

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  • Sodium intake and adherence to dietary recommendations in patients undergoing hemodialysis in the SoLID Trial in New Zealand

    Xie, Zhengxiu (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: In New Zealand (NZ), the prevalence of dialysis is increasing with Māori and Pacific people over-represented. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is responsible for the majority of deaths in the NZ hemodialysis (HD) population. There are few definite interventions to improve CVD mortality risk in dialysis patients except transplantation. The Sodium Lowering in Dialysate (SoLID) Trial was a multi-centre randomised controlled trial conducted in NZ from 2012 to 2016. The trial compared the use of low sodium dialysate (135 mmol/L (mM) sodium) with conventional dialysate (140 mM sodium) in HD patients over a 12-month period. The main outcomes included left ventricular (LV) mass (primary outcome), CVD mortality, blood pressure (BP), and interdialytic weight gain (IDWG). Dietary sodium intake also has a critical role in kidney health. There are few data on sodium intake and its relationship with outcomes in dialysis populations. Therefore, this Nutritional Sub-study of the SoLID Trial represents a major opportunity to describe intake of sodium and other nutrients in a multi-ethnic sample of dialysis patients in NZ, and the response of sodium intake to manipulation of dialysate sodium (DNa). As part of the core trial design, longitudinal dietary data were therefore collected to document nutrient intake in trial participants. Objectives: 1) Describe baseline dietary intake of sodium, and other nutrients, in the context of recommended ranges for intake from relevant clinical practice guidelines 2) Compare baseline dietary sodium intake with a range of socio-demographic and health related characteristics, as well as intake of other nutrients 3) Compare baseline dietary sodium intake with 6 months and 12-month data 4) Compare dietary sodium intake in the low DNa vs high DNa group at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Methods: Recruitment of participants Participants were patients on HD recruited in 10 centres from 7 District Health Boards (DHBs) in NZ (Counties Manukau, Auckland, Waitemata, Waikato, Capital & Coast, Canterbury, and Southern), with an accrual period of 36 months between May 2013 to May 2016, and patient follow-up of 12 months. Participants were eligible for the study if they were incident or prevalent patients treated with maintenance HD, aged 18 years or older, suitable for both low and standard sodium dialysate with pre-dialysis serum sodium concentration of ≥135mM. Dietary information collection and analysis Ninety-nine participants randomised into the SoLID trial, were asked to provide baseline data and a 3-day weighed food diary (3DWFD) at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Diaries were analysed using Foodworks 8 professional, supplemented by other sources of nutrient information. Univariate and logistic regression analyses were used to assess the differences in baseline characteristics of participants by sodium intake category. The significance of changes in nutrient intakes between baseline and 6 months and baseline and 12 months was assessed by paired t-tests. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to model a number of factors against baseline sodium intake (mg/day). Inferential statistical analyses were undertaken and two sorts of regression models were built to analyse the treatment effect of DNa on oral sodium intake at 6 and 12 months. Results: Of the 99 participants recruited to the SoLID Trial, 86 completed at least one 3DWFD, 85 completed a 3DWFD at baseline, 61 completed a 3DWFD at 6 months, 60 completed a 3DWFD at 12 months, and 52 completed a 3DWFD at all three time periods. The Nutritional Sub-study population had a mean (standard deviation (SD)) age of 52 (13) years. The largest ethnic group was NZ European and Other (NZEO) (44%) followed by Pacific (30%). The mean (SD) sodium intake was 2502 (957) mg/day at baseline, 2738 (1251) mg/day at 6 months, 2415 (1125) mg/day at 12 months. According to NZ Renal Dietitians’ recommendation, more than half of the participants exceeded the sodium intake target. Of 59 participants who completed baseline and 12-month diaries, paired t test showed 12-month mean sodium intake (2317 mg/day) was significantly lower than baseline mean sodium intake (2636 mg/day) (P=0.0082). Multivariate regression analysis shows baseline sodium intake was positively associated with energy intake (β=211, P<0.0001). For other nutrients, 5% (baseline), 7% (6 months) and 3% (12 months) of participants met the recommended calorie density; nine percent (baseline), 7% (6 months), and 15% (12 months) of participants ate the recommended minimum of 1.2g/kg of protein per day; about two thirds of participants were consuming inadequate fibre across all the three time periods. In contrast, saturated fat contributed around 14% of total energy. Approximately two out of five participants had excessive phosphorus intake at all the three time periods. More than 90% of participant exceeded the idea sodium/potassium ratio of 1:1 at all three time periods. There were changes in dietary sodium intake in low DNa and high DNa groups over time. The sodium intake was similar at baseline between two groups (2531 vs 2475 mg/day); the high DNa group had higher sodium intakes at 6 months (3004 vs 2481 mg/day) and 12 months (2527 vs 2289 mg/day) compared to low DNa group, however, the mean treatment effect was not significant according to mixed-effects linear modeling (P=0.063 at 6 months, P=0.411 at 12 months) and repeated measure analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) (P=0.067). Conclusion: This study showed a high proportion of dialysis patients in SoLID Trial did not meet current renal-specific dietary recommendations. The data suggest excess sodium intake at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. It is also evident that there was poor intake of calorie, protein, fibre and excess intake of saturated fat, and phosphorus. Health professionals, especially renal dietitians, need to consider barriers for non-adherence and continue to promote lower sodium intake without compromising energy and protein intake. The results from the study merit further research, especially, into the effect of DNa on dietary sodium intake.

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  • The centralised development of elearning resources : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Masters of Education (Elearning) at Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

    O'Brien, Raymond John


    Massey University

    This thesis explores the centralisation of elearning resource development in New Zealand Institutes of Technology and Polytechnics (ITPs). There was a significant gap in existing research relating to the organisation of elearning resource development. The tertiary education sector has been subject to significant and rapid change with associated challenges. Centralisation has been mooted as contributing to a solution for these challenges. The lack of research around centralised development of resources makes it difficult to support such a claim. To address this, the thesis explored three areas: the extent to which centralised development of elearning has been adopted, the perceived advantages and disadvantages of a centralised model, and the attitudes teaching staff hold towards a centralised model. The study applied a mixed method convergent parallel research design. This drew on data from interviews with elearning managers and from a survey of teaching staff. Findings established that three categories of centralisation exist in New Zealand ITPs; decentralised, centralised and highly centralised. The typical composition and functions of the centralised teams were defined for each category. The findings supported the perceived advantages and disadvantages identified in existing research, but also identified additional advantages. These included better project management, more clarity around roles and responsibilities, that elearning resources produced by a centralised unit was more student focussed and specific cost saving information. Levels of understanding around the financial advantages of a centralised model were inconsistent. The attitudes teaching staff held towards a centralised model were seen as to some extent ambivalent. Attitudes were more positive where the staff already operated within a centralised model. The thesis makes a significant contribution where there was a gap in existing research. This new knowledge is directly relevant to current decisions around cost of development, composition of central teams, expectations when adopting a centralised model, and planning to centralise or decentralise. These findings are both timely and significant as recent mergers, qualification reviews and the expectation to innovate and adopt new models of delivery increase the need for more efficient solutions to creating elearning resources.

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  • Agent-based Persuasive Route Recommendation for Public Goods

    Sengvong, Sotsay

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Over many decades, the transport sector has played a significant role in contributing to economic growth. Unfortunately, this sector has not only provided positive effects, but also has produced a number of negative impacts on society. These impacts are known as the external costs, and include traffic pollution, congestion and accident costs. Transport users rarely take these costs into consideration when they make travel decisions. As a result, the number of external costs is growing and is likely to continue to increase in parallel with the increase of urban mobility. This thesis proposes a novel recommendation system, known as the Agent-based Public-Friendly Route Recommendation (APF2R). The APF2R can help commuters make green, safe and less congested travel decisions, while supporting society to mitigate the external costs. A novel persuasive reward algorithm is introduced, which can be used by other researchers to balance two conflicted parties. This study demonstrates an agent-based model, which was used to evaluate the persuasiveness of recommendation systems. The result of the proposed system shows potential in addressing the problem of external costs. An analysis of the experimental results undertaken here, captures the evolution of the distance of users’ ranks. These results indicate a means of persuasion in connection with behavioural change.

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  • Museum Exhibit Ideas for Virtual Antarctic Historic Hut Experience

    Sickinger, David (2005)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The aim of this report was to investigate museum exhibit ideas for a Virtual Antarctic historic hut experience. The author's one-line response to probably the most important question on the GCAS course application form is reproduced below: 2. Indicate !tow, 011 completion oftlte course, you intend to use the experience btfuture postgraduate research, education, community work or in your career. Since I work at HIT Lab NZ, perhaps we could see if we could put together some type of interactive exhibit to help educate people on Antarctica. With this background information in mind, the author was contacted by Nigel Watson from the Antarctic Heritage Trust (AHT) at the beginning of the GCAS course. He suggested a topic idea for the personal project dealing with virtually visualizing the historic huts. Nigel is interested in providing "virtual access to showcase the Antarctic historic huts and the Antarctic 'heroic-era' legacy" (Personal Communication, Watson, 2004). A GCAS 2001/2002 student conducted a literature review on the subject that did a nice job of reviewing what was currently available on Antarctica at the time, various technologies that are available, and suggestions on what could be done in the future to create a much better virtual hut experience (Hyde, 2002). The author of this report assumes familiarity with the terminology that was nicely explained in Peter Hyde's literature review and would suggest reading it prior to this report if unfamiliar with any terms mentioned. This report focused on what could be done in a museum setting and an attempt was made to provide some actual Antarctic related samples that could be used to pursue project funding. There is information about HIT Lab NZ (www.hitlabnz.org) towards the end of the report but mention is made throughout the report on ways this University of Canterbury lab could contribute towards a project such as this. There are 34 historic interest sites in the Ross Sea Region that the AHT recognizes (www.heritage-antarctica.org/index.cfm/default) under 3 different category classifications. The AHTs main focus is currently on four of the huts and they are: 1) Cape Adare Huts, Northern Victoria Land (British Southern Cross Expedition 1898 - 1900, led by Carsten Borchgrevink) 2) Discovery Hut, Ross Island, Hut Point (National Antarctic Expedition 1901- 04, led by Commander RF Scott) 3) Nimrod Hut, Ross Island, Cape Royds (British Antarctic (Nimrod) Expedition 1907 - 09, led by Ernest Shackleton) 4) Terra Nova Hut, Ross Island, Cape Evans (British Antarctic Expedition 1910- 1913, led by Captain RF Scott) For some more insight into the huts, refer to the GCAS 2003/2004 Syndicate report that investigated the question whether the huts should be removed, repaired, or restored (Evans et al, 2004). The authors of this report passed on a personal communication from J. Heap about comments that were made in a case where an attempt was made to get grant money. Questions where asked about who would actually get to see the huts located in Antarctica and a discussion followed dealing with creating a Virtual Reality experience so the general public would be included (Evans et al, 2004, p. 43). This author's GCAS 2004/2005 Syndicate project report investigated the question "Raising the bar for an International Polar Year 2007-2008, how much will this IPY raise the bar compared to IGY?" (available from Gateway Antarctica). The official website for the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2008 can be found at: www.ipy.org. An Education, Outreach, and Communication (EOC) Committee has been established for the IPY. They have set up five target areas for education and outreach initiatives that include school children, potential new polar researches, Arctic communities, the general public, and decision-makers (ICSU IPY 2007-2008 Planning Group, 2004). Creating a Virtual Antarctic experience for a museum to showcase during IPY would represent a perfect time to get the message out about the historic huts. The huts could be part of a bigger virtual world that included 3D-models of certain key buildings from Scott Base, McMurdo, and the South Pole as well as key land formations such as Mount Erebus. The IPY offers a perfect catalyst to pursue project funding as there are currently 29 nations planning to be involved (as of January 2005). There exists the potential to put together a traveling museum exhibition that would be experienced by several thousand people during the timeframe that IPY is taking place. Not only would the message get out about the Antarctic huts to the public but it also provides an opportunity to generate revenue. A great deal of the project time went into working with software and trying to make small demos. So in addition to the screen capture pictures in the report, there are also seven places that refer to a movie clip (provided on a CD, places highlighted by a"*" at the beginning of a line) since a variety of software was used which would have to be installed to view otherwise. Note that the software used to record the video only captured at 15 frames per second (fps) and so the motion appears jerky at times but the demos run smoothly on the source computer.

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  • Emerging Fisheries – Threat or Opportunity?

    Gibson, Mark; McKay, David; Nicholls, Jill; Paton, Mark (1999)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Between the months of January and March, 1999, the Canterbury Univesity's inaugral course for the Certificate in Continuing Educatron, Antarctic Studies, engaged a research syndicate to investigate and report upon threats and opportunities related to emerging fisheries in the Southern Ocean. This report is the product of that study, and has been prepared in support of an oral presentation Of the syndicate's findings, at Canterbury university, on Friday 19 February, 1999. The purpose Of this report is to encourage discussion and evaluation of dominant perspectives which determine current fisheries management, towards a significant shift in understanding, values and human interactions with marine ecosy<ems.

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  • TEAM SELECTION IN ANTARCTICA

    Lindsay, Margaret (2005)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    A number of memoirs about journeys to Antarctica commence with or recall "for as long as I can remember I dreamed of travelling to Antarctica'. Antarctica, Terra Australis Incognita or Antarktikos have held humans captivated as the inhospitable white continent surrounded by deep, dark stormy seas for all of human history. So how do you get to visit Antarctica? And why would you visit? Who and how you want to experience Antarctica will determine how and why you visit. As a tourist, you will part with large quantities of money and be in the hands of your guides and Antarctica. As a modem day explorer or adventurer you will part with really large quantities of money and will be in the hands of sponsors, organisations, politics and Antarctica. Or you can visit Antarctica as a participant of one of the National Antarctic Programmes, either in a paid capacity, as a volunteer or as a participant of an art/education/writers program. In this capacity you will be in the hands of the National Antarctic Program, a scientific base, organisation, politics and Antarctica. Note that any way that you visit Antarctica; you will always be in Antarctica's hand. Antarctica is the highest, driest, windiest and coldest content and those that select to visit and work in Antarctica must exhibit certain characterisations, attitudes and the ability to adapt and survive. This report will introduce the reasons why and who goes to Antarctica and the criteria an Antarctican must fulfil to be selected to work and live in Antarctica. The selection process used by Scott, Shackleton and Mawson from the heroic period and today's selection process for Antarctica New Zealand will be explained. The final section will be a general overview of how the selection process is important in regards to the "assembly effects" and well-being while on the ice.

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  • Human Artefacts in Antarctica – Treasure to be Conserved or Junk to be Removed?

    Cadenhead, Natalie; Johnston, Lindsay; Kestle, Linda; Webb, Keryn (1999)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The question generating this report was perceived by the syndicate to be a limited question as it is couched in very black and white terms with no middle ground indicated. There was considerable debate concerning the definitions and assumptions and the emotive tone Of the question. Due to the possibility of the wide scope Of the question, the bulk Of the artefacts discussed will be those of the Ross Sea Region with reference to Other Antarctic where appropriate. Several definitions concerns were raised from research into the question. The following definitions will provide clarity. Artefacts are movable historic items Of all descriptions that are directly associated with an Antarctic expedition, and which were taken to Antarctica for consumption or use there, or were created by members of an expedition while in the Antarctic. 1 Conservation refers to the professional preservation techniques involved in maintaining an artefacts structural and contextual integrity. Conservation is about doing reversible 'repairs' to an Object and does not include restoration where new permanent materials may be adhered to the artefact, Conservation aims to minimize avoidable loss or decay Of an area, site, or associated artefact. Rubbish 2 refers to an item which . Is in such poor condition that it is not reasonably possible to conserve it 2. Has a limited life if left untreated Does not contribute in any significant way to Our understanding Of the human history of Antarctica 3. Does not contribute to the visual qualities Of the site or building of which it is a part 4. 5 Is not a unique or relatively rare item Junk refers to any item that is regarded as Of little value. Rubbish is junk. 3 Treasure refers to items that are valued for their uniqueness, rarity, associations, and emotional attachment, Relic refers to a part or a fragment of an object left after the rest has decayed. Any Object valued as a being a memorial or souvenir of the past, including corpses. The question generating this report was perceived by the syndicate to be a limited question as it is couched in very black and white terms with no middle ground indicated. There was considerable debate concerning the definitions and assumptions and the emotive tone Of the question. Due to the possibility of the wide scope Of the question, the bulk Of the artefacts discussed will be those of the Ross Sea Region with reference to Other Antarctic where appropriate. Several definitions concerns were raised from research into the question. The following definitions will provide clarity. Artefacts are movable historic items Of all descriptions that are directly associated with an Antarctic expedition, and which were taken to Antarctica for consumption or use there, or were created by members of an expedition while in the Antarctic. 1 Conservation refers to the professional preservation techniques involved in maintaining an artefacts structural and contextual integrity. Conservation is about doing reversible 'repairs' to an Object and does not include restoration where new permanent materials may be adhered to the artefact, Conservation aims to minimize avoidable loss or decay Of an area, site, or associated artefact. Rubbish 2 refers to an item which . Is in such poor condition that it is not reasonably possible to conserve it 2. Has a limited life if left untreated Does not contribute in any significant way to Our understanding Of the human history of Antarctica 3. Does not contribute to the visual qualities Of the site or building of which it is a part 4. 5 Is not a unique or relatively rare item Junk refers to any item that is regarded as Of little value. Rubbish is junk. 3 Treasure refers to items that are valued for their uniqueness, rarity, associations, and emotional attachment, Relic refers to a part or a fragment of an object left after the rest has decayed. Any Object valued as a being a memorial or souvenir of the past, including corpses.

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  • Valuing Antarctic: Why, How and With What Result?

    Creek, Alan; Elliott, Tui; Littlewood, Chandra; Pearce-Haines, Megan; Pilkington, Stephen (2001)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In society today, economic valuation is often assumed to be the only possible way of assigning value to things as it is the principal method used by most government and corporate policy makers. It is because Of this that natural resources are Often undervalued (Primack, 1998). However, other valuing systems exist for different environments and environmental attributes, so there is no reason why valuing Antarctica should be limited in this way. The aim of this report is to suggest that there are more ways to assign value to things than economic, and that recognising this may lead to very different decisions concerning the future of Antarctica. Any valuing approaches used must be comparable to each other, or relative to a recognised standard. Antarctica offers this opportunity as it has not only economic value but also recreational, scientific, aesthetic, intrinsic, historical, educational, strategic and many more. This report focuses on the first five valuing perspectives listed above as they reflect the spectrum of values currently existing in the different societies and belief systems of the world and are most relevant to Antarctica. Each of these perspectives requires consideration of the stakeholders involved, be it governments investing money into treaty-state programmes, scientists, environmental groups or inhabitants Of the continent itself such as plants and animals. These stakeholders demonstrate the variety of interest in the valuing of Antarctica. This report discusses the valuing Of Antarctica from each perspective, how and why the valuing may occur, applicable metrics and possible outcomes, both present and In society today, economic valuation is often assumed to be the only possible way of assigning value to things as it is the principal method used by most government and corporate policy makers. It is because Of this that natural resources are Often undervalued (Primack, 1998). However, other valuing systems exist for different environments and environmental attributes, so there is no reason why valuing Antarctica should be limited in this way. The aim of this report is to suggest that there are more ways to assign value to things than economic, and that recognising this may lead to very different decisions concerning the future of Antarctica. Any valuing approaches used must be comparable to each other, or relative to a recognised standard. Antarctica offers this opportunity as it has not only economic value but also recreational, scientific, aesthetic, intrinsic, historical, educational, strategic and many more. This report focuses on the first five valuing perspectives listed above as they reflect the spectrum of values currently existing in the different societies and belief systems of the world and are most relevant to Antarctica. Each of these perspectives requires consideration of the stakeholders involved, be it governments investing money into treaty-state programmes, scientists, environmental groups or inhabitants Of the continent itself such as plants and animals. These stakeholders demonstrate the variety of interest in the valuing of Antarctica. This report discusses the valuing Of Antarctica from each perspective, how and why the valuing may occur, applicable metrics and possible outcomes, both present and

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  • Understanding New Zealand's Antarctic Tourism Policy

    Clarke, L J (2005)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In 2003, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade released the New Zealand Policy Statement on Tourism and Other Non-Governmental Activities in Antarctica. (Appendix 1 ). Commentary by Helen Clark states that this occurred in response to a review of New Zealand's interests, and that the new policy reflects not only enduring interests, but accounts for emerging priorities both nationally and internationally (Clark, cited Conte, 2004, p220). The Director of Heritage Expeditions, the only New Zealand owned and operated tourism business to Antarctica, suggested that the policy will significantly alter the goalposts for New Zealand tourism operators in the Antarctic, and will have a negative impact on New Zealand tourism in the long term (Russ, 2004). Public policy analysis focuses on what governments do and why they do it. It is an important tool in trying to unravel why policies are adopted, how they work, and to evaluate their merit or worth (Buhrs & Bartlett, p3, 1993). This review will cursorily trace the development of New Zealand's strategic objectives in Antarctica over the past 20 years, with a particular focus on Antarctic tourism. It will seek to understand the drivers behind the development of New Zealand's policy on tourism in Antarctica. A previous Graduate Certificate in Antarctic Studies literature review pointed to the paradox between the "tension in the values of stakeholders, often economic, and that of environmental stewardship, which marks the discourse on the future of New Zealand Antarctic Tourism management" (Wouters, year unknown, p1 ). This investigation raises an even more significant issue - it uncovers the risk that Antarctic tourism may present to the Antarctic Treaty System and consequently, to regional stability. This threat to New Zealand security appears to have been the key driver in the development of the New Zealand Policy Statement on Antarctic Tourism and Non-Governmental Activities in Antarctica.

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  • Antarctica: Phantom of the Past or Canary in the Cage?

    Pearn, Tim; Gill-Fox, Deborah; Gemmell, Michael; Hoar, Jenifer (2000)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    "A bridge to our future and a window on our past." This was a phrase used by President Clinton to describe Antarctica when he spoke at the International Antarctic Centre recently. It sums up the view that, in essence, Antarctica holds a key to our greater understanding of the Earth's dynamics, and that the past and the future of the continent, and the earth, are intrinsically linked. The "Phantom of the past" and the 'Canary in the cage" are thus both useful metaphors for describing the significance of Antarctica in the global context. Phantom Of the past: The "Phantom of the Past" metaphor refers to Antarctica as a library of information about the evolution Of our planet. The 'books' are covered in dust and we have only read a few pages of the numerous volumes, but they contain a wealth of information, most of which we have yet to fully comprehend. For example, the phantom presents us with information gathered from such research as the Cape Roberts project and deep ice core drilling, which reveal past climatic events from which to gauge current and possible future trends. According to Tim Naish, of the Imstitute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences: "We have moved from a phase of scientific exploration to one of realisation that much of what we are learning about Antarctica and the Southern Ocean has major implications for understanding the past and future of our planet" (Naish, 1999). "A bridge to our future and a window on our past." This was a phrase used by President Clinton to describe Antarctica when he spoke at the International Antarctic Centre recently. It sums up the view that, in essence, Antarctica holds a key to our greater understanding of the Earth's dynamics, and that the past and the future of the continent, and the earth, are intrinsically linked. The "Phantom of the past" and the 'Canary in the cage" are thus both useful metaphors for describing the significance of Antarctica in the global context. Phantom Of the past: The "Phantom of the Past" metaphor refers to Antarctica as a library of information about the evolution Of our planet. The 'books' are covered in dust and we have only read a few pages of the numerous volumes, but they contain a wealth of information, most of which we have yet to fully comprehend. For example, the phantom presents us with information gathered from such research as the Cape Roberts project and deep ice core drilling, which reveal past climatic events from which to gauge current and possible future trends. According to Tim Naish, of the Imstitute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences: "We have moved from a phase of scientific exploration to one of realisation that much of what we are learning about Antarctica and the Southern Ocean has major implications for understanding the past and future of our planet" (Naish, 1999).

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  • The Energy Cost of Antarctic Construction

    Beetham, Tessa (2005)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This report describes a preliminary investigation into the energy requirements for construction in the Antarctic. A case study of a current Antarctic construction project, the construction of a warm store at Scott Base, is employed in order to investigate this. The gross energy requirement (GER) for the construction of the building was found to be 43.9 GJ/m2 . This is comprised of the embodied energy of the construction materials, energy used in materials transportation, energy consumed by humans and the direct energy requirements of on-site construction. The GER for the warm store represents 114 years of operating energy at 690 GJ per annum. The energy required for the transportation of building materials made up 78.9% of the GER. This is therefore the main area of focus for the minimisation of the GER for future Antarctic construction. This can be reduced through careful attention to the specification of light weight materials. Currently the energy efficiency of buildings is thought to be increased through the minimisation of operational energy costs. The energy consumed in processing, manufacture, transport and construction is not considered in this equation. In both the Antarctic and worldwide there is a necessity for the adoption of life cycle energy in preference to operational energy as the measure of building energy efficiency.

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  • Statistical analysis of soil data from the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Lilburne, Linda (2005)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Pedological data from over a decade of field trips to the McMurdo Dry valleys has been collated into a dataset. This data includes site observations (location, topographical position, estimated glacial history and soil age), morphological observations (full pit profile description), soil taxonomic classification, surface observations (weathering characteristics of boulders), chemical measurements of the major anions (Cl, S04, N04) and cations (Ma, Mg, Ca, K), electrical conductivity and pH. An exploratory statistical analysis was performed on this dataset to determine which analyses were appropriate given the format of the dataset, and its quality and quantity. Box plots were used to study the variability of variables according to different groupings. Multivariate analyses including a factor analysis, discriminant analysis, cluster analysis and machine learning algorithms were all applied. Geostatistical analyses investigated the spatial dependence of some of the observations. Most of the variability analyses indicated little differences in the ranges of soil properties between groups (weather stage, eco-climatic zone, taxonomic class, geological age). Where there were differences some trends were obvious and others were unexpected. The multivariate analyses did separate the pits and observations into groups that seem reasonably sensible. Little spatial dependence was found. It is concluded that the Bockheim dataset is sufficiently comprehensive for statistical analyses. The next stage in this work requires pedological input to refine those analyses that either have results of interest or have the potential to provide information of interest.

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  • A Review of Specially Protected Areas in Antarctica with Particular Reference to Antarctic Specially Managed Areas

    Cameron, Anna (2005)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The mechanisms for the protection of the Antarctic environment have evolved and progressed throughout the past century. Typically, the evolutionary path of these conservation measures have developed and reflected the change in the mentality of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties. It is possible to identify three distinct eras of protected area management within Antarctica. Firstly, the exploration era and the associated seal harvesting. This era formulated, and can be acknowledged for the protection of specific species. The Agreed Measures identified the adverse effects that humans were having on the Antarctic environment and consequently established the concept of habitat protection and the notion of Antarctic Specially Protected Areas. The Protocol advanced the notion of protected areas and produced a regime that rationalised this concept. The Protocol enforces the usage of Management Plans and consequently has produced a system that is regionally focused. Annex V of the Protocol deals with Specially Protected Areas. Article 4 of this Annex is specific to Antarctic Specially Managed Areas. Currently there are four ASMAs within the Antarctic environment. These consist of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Cape Denison, Admiralty Bay and Deception Island. These ASMAs are and can be considered a framework for the potential future designations. However, within the ASMA system and the Protocol regime there are still areas that need attention. Many of the issues that are present today have been common themes throughout the history of protected areas in Antarctica and in time and with experience, these issues will potentially be solved.

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  • 10 Year Analysis of Environmental Footprint Photo Monitoring at Scott Base, Antarctica

    Jackson, Nicola (2005)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Since 1994 Antarctica New Zealand has conducted fixed point photo monitoring at Scott Base as a part of their overall monitoring programme. This has been carried out in an attempt to monitor anthropogenic change within the environment and specifically to help determine whether the footprint of activities at Scott Base has been changing. This study is an analysis of these monitoring photos, which has shown that in general the footprint has not changed since 1994. It has been shown that characteristics and the intensity of the footprint have altered with time, such as through the development of new buildings and a general tidying up of the base. The study has also highlighted some of the limits of current photo monitoring, which have meant that in some cases less than 1,4 of a photo has been used in the analysis due to photographers using different photographing techniques.

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  • Tropospheric ozone depletion events and air mass origin at Arrival Heights (Antarctica)

    Riedel, Katja (2005)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Surface ozone (03) measurements made between 1997 and 2003 at Arrival Heights, Antarctica (77.8°S, 166.7°E), show sudden decreases in 0 3 mixing ratios during Antarctic springtime. These low 0 3 events are often correlated with elevated concentrations of bromine oxide (BrO). The air mass origin during these 0 3 depletion events was investigated by calculating 5-day back trajectories. Trajectory analysis revealed that air masses had either contact with sea-ice, which was correlated with enhanced BrO columns, or were transported across the Antarctic continent, which led to 0 3 depletion events without elevated BrO concentrations. In 1997-1998 less frequent high BrO events were observed at Arrival Heights probably due to increased sea ice coverage in the Ross Sea during these El Nino years.

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  • Humans and Antarctica: A Model for the World?

    Falconer, Tamsin; Foster, Tui; Mackereth, Graham (2000)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Humans and Antarctica: A model for the world? In what ways has the relationship between humans and Antarctica been exemplary. Should the example be copied? This report examines the key features Of the relationships between humans and Antarctica over time, and their distinctiveness. The report firstly outlines our approach to the topic and then gives some background information on the Antarctic Treaty. The Antarctic Treaty is outlined in some detail as it provides the backdrop for most Of the key relationships happening in Antarctica at present. This is followed by a description and analysis Of the key relationships between humans and Antarctica, both within the Treaty system, and without. The report concludes with a view Of Antarctica as a place Of inspiration, which the authors believe to be the key distinctive Of Antarctic-human relationships. For the purposes Of this report 'Antarctica' follows the Antarctic Treaty definition of 'the sea, land, and ice south of 600 South'. The Sub-antarctic islands have largely been excluded as they are generally not included in Antarctic governance. 'Humans' are considered in terms Of alliances Of states, states, commercial organisations, non-government organisations, the individual and the global public; the various combinations that humans create amongst themselves. 'Model' is considered to be an 'exarnple or demonstration applicable to other circumstances'. 'The rest Of the world' is considered as people, lands, and political systems outside Antarctica or the current system Of governance. The key relationships between humans and Antarctica are analysed under several headings; sovereignty, science; peace; heritage; exploitation; environmentalism; exclusivity, credibility and inspiration. Antarctica seems to play an active role, rather than a passive inanimate role, in these relationships. It is a unique place that provides enlightenment and inspiration for individuals and the world. Humans and Antarctica: A model for the world? In what ways has the relationship between humans and Antarctica been exemplary. Should the example be copied? This report examines the key features Of the relationships between humans and Antarctica over time, and their distinctiveness. The report firstly outlines our approach to the topic and then gives some background information on the Antarctic Treaty. The Antarctic Treaty is outlined in some detail as it provides the backdrop for most Of the key relationships happening in Antarctica at present. This is followed by a description and analysis Of the key relationships between humans and Antarctica, both within the Treaty system, and without. The report concludes with a view Of Antarctica as a place Of inspiration, which the authors believe to be the key distinctive Of Antarctic-human relationships. For the purposes Of this report 'Antarctica' follows the Antarctic Treaty definition of 'the sea, land, and ice south of 600 South'. The Sub-antarctic islands have largely been excluded as they are generally not included in Antarctic governance. 'Humans' are considered in terms Of alliances Of states, states, commercial organisations, non-government organisations, the individual and the global public; the various combinations that humans create amongst themselves. 'Model' is considered to be an 'exarnple or demonstration applicable to other circumstances'. 'The rest Of the world' is considered as people, lands, and political systems outside Antarctica or the current system Of governance. The key relationships between humans and Antarctica are analysed under several headings; sovereignty, science; peace; heritage; exploitation; environmentalism; exclusivity, credibility and inspiration. Antarctica seems to play an active role, rather than a passive inanimate role, in these relationships. It is a unique place that provides enlightenment and inspiration for individuals and the world.

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  • Human Impact on the Antarctic Environment: Minimising the Risk to the Unique Environment of Sub-glacial Lakes

    Newman, Jana; Henshaw, Jenny; Seo, Jessica; Hyde, Peter; Turvey, Richard (2002)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Representatives, Recalling Article II of the Antarctic Treaty and Recommendations VIII-13, X-7, XII-3 and XIV-3; Recognizing the knowledge of the tectonic, geochemical, climatic, glacial and biological evolution of the Antarctic region that can be obtained from exploration of sub-glacial lakes; Bearing in mind the potential irreparable risk to the unique environment of these lakes should biological or other contaminants be introduced through or as an unintended result of such exploration; Conscious of the need for wider international and interdisciplinary discussion and adequate prior research, preparation and planning of such exploration to ensure the best possible scientific results and to minimise any associated risks to the sub-glacial environment; Conscious also that planning such exploration will, in most cases, require preparation of a Comprehensive Environmental Impact Evaluation as provided for in Recommendation XIV-2 Recommend to their Governments as follows: 1 . That a moratorium be declared on any attempt at direct intrusion into sub-glacial lakes 2. That during the moratorium, they promote further research into: understanding sub-glacial lakes systems, technologies for researching the lakes without intrusion, intrusion methods which minimise real and potential risks of contamination, and investigation of alternative sites which provide information about sub-glacial lake systems and methods for their exploration 3. That during the moratorium, they encourage public education and debate on the issue The Representatives, Recalling Article II of the Antarctic Treaty and Recommendations VIII-13, X-7, XII-3 and XIV-3; Recognizing the knowledge of the tectonic, geochemical, climatic, glacial and biological evolution of the Antarctic region that can be obtained from exploration of sub-glacial lakes; Bearing in mind the potential irreparable risk to the unique environment of these lakes should biological or other contaminants be introduced through or as an unintended result of such exploration; Conscious of the need for wider international and interdisciplinary discussion and adequate prior research, preparation and planning of such exploration to ensure the best possible scientific results and to minimise any associated risks to the sub-glacial environment; Conscious also that planning such exploration will, in most cases, require preparation of a Comprehensive Environmental Impact Evaluation as provided for in Recommendation XIV-2 Recommend to their Governments as follows: 1 . That a moratorium be declared on any attempt at direct intrusion into sub-glacial lakes 2. That during the moratorium, they promote further research into: understanding sub-glacial lakes systems, technologies for researching the lakes without intrusion, intrusion methods which minimise real and potential risks of contamination, and investigation of alternative sites which provide information about sub-glacial lake systems and methods for their exploration 3. That during the moratorium, they encourage public education and debate on the issue

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  • Feasibility Study: Adventure Semester in Antarctica, The University of Hong Kong

    Simon, Hing Yeung Lo (2005)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The purpose of this study is to develop a logical and rational discussion on the feasibility assessment of organizing a multidisciplinary educational programme in Antarctica for the University of Hong Kong (HKU). The suggested programme will be a holistic approach of education which consists of both academic elements of Antarctica as well as adventurous elements aiming at personal and social developments. The programme will also make a strong emphasis on the leadership development through a personal interaction with the challenging conditions in this remote continent. This study consists of two parts: First part is a brief overview of the programme with clear explanation on the format of the programme and the key elements and activities that will be carried out during the trip. A suggestion on the schedule and the learning activities of the programme before, during and after the programme will also be listed. Second part of this paper is a feasibility assessment of the programme using the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis approach. This assessment will be based on the situation of HKU and the current education reform proposed by the Hong Kong Education Department. The current situation of the Hong Kong economy will also be considered as a crucial component of our discussion. It is hope that this assessment will be use as a reference for the future development of the Adventure Education Programme (AEP) of the Institute of Human Performance (IHP) of HKU. It may also be considered as a preliminary investigation on the possibility of putting our leadership education programmes on a higher profile in conjunction to the Education Reform of the Tertiary Education in Hong Kong.

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  • Antarctica – A Strategic Asset?

    Weinstein, Phil; Boniface, Nick; Bishop, Joanne; Noble, Nicola; Bichard, Valerie (1999)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    It's 1999 and as we rapidly head towuds the new millennium the management of global issues require the pro-active participation of all members of the intemational community. Growing strains on the quality of water, soil and air, loss of biodiversity, depletion of fish stocks, current patterns of production consumption and global climate change, all raise questions about the continued capacity of the Earth's natural resource base to feed and sustain a growing and increasingly urbanised population. It's now clear also clear that not only environmental, but also social, cultural and political sustainability of development efforts are essential for security and well-being of people functioning in this complex, interdependent global system now emerging. Globalisation is marked clearly by the integration of trade; finance and information that is creating a single global market and culture. The rapid advancements in science and technology has also contributed enormously to the realisation of the global village. This process of globalisation is currently challenging the Antarctic Treaty System. With this, many questions are being raised as to whether the ATS is capable of weathering these changes to emerge as a significant contributor to a unified global identity. The vision for the future is a sustainable earth. The race is against time and Antarctica holds the key for the doorway into the next millennium. In this presentation you have an opportunity to reflect on the complex perception of value as we explore four assets that may contribute to the strategic value of Antarctica in the 21" century and beyond. These assets include: It's 1999 and as we rapidly head towuds the new millennium the management of global issues require the pro-active participation of all members of the intemational community. Growing strains on the quality of water, soil and air, loss of biodiversity, depletion of fish stocks, current patterns of production consumption and global climate change, all raise questions about the continued capacity of the Earth's natural resource base to feed and sustain a growing and increasingly urbanised population. It's now clear also clear that not only environmental, but also social, cultural and political sustainability of development efforts are essential for security and well-being of people functioning in this complex, interdependent global system now emerging. Globalisation is marked clearly by the integration of trade; finance and information that is creating a single global market and culture. The rapid advancements in science and technology has also contributed enormously to the realisation of the global village. This process of globalisation is currently challenging the Antarctic Treaty System. With this, many questions are being raised as to whether the ATS is capable of weathering these changes to emerge as a significant contributor to a unified global identity. The vision for the future is a sustainable earth. The race is against time and Antarctica holds the key for the doorway into the next millennium. In this presentation you have an opportunity to reflect on the complex perception of value as we explore four assets that may contribute to the strategic value of Antarctica in the 21" century and beyond. These assets include:

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