88,600 results

  • Wind flow and sediment transport through foredune notches during oblique-onshore incident winds

    Simons-Smith, Tom (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Coastal managers have often promoted the stabilisation of coastal dunes to protect coastal lands and infrastructure. In fact, some coasts might be better protected by encouraging the development of broader, active dune systems allowing coastal sands to be shifted inland, away from the impact of storm waves and sea level rise. In recent years notching has been examined as a method that might be used to re-establish dune dynamics for ecological restoration. This thesis examines the viability of notching as a strategy to achieve foredune ‘roll back’ (broadening). The thesis addresses four research questions: (i) What influence does notch morphology have on beach-backdune sand flux? (ii) In what incident wind conditions does significant onshore sand flux occur, and how much sediment might accumulate inland of the notches as a result of these winds? (iii) What are the barriers to aeolian sand transport through the notches? (iv) What effect does backdune topography and wind flow have on patterns of sand deposition inland of the notches? The ability of notches to encourage downwind sand deposition and facilitate landward movement of the foredune was assessed by manipulating plant cover and foredune morphology at St. Kilda Beach, Dunedin, New Zealand. Three notches, each with different morphology and orientation, were excavated in the St. Kilda foredune in April 2016. Patterns of wind flow, sand transport and deposition were examined for a period of nine months (April 2016 - January 2017). Wind flow evolution was examined from beach to notch to backdune. Steering, acceleration and deceleration of wind flow were recorded in each of the notches during a range of incident wind conditions, from alongshore to onshore (primarily, oblique-onshore). Simultaneous estimates of sand transport were obtained using self-orienting swing traps and Wenglor particle counters during incident wind speeds of 5 ms-1 to 20 ms-1. Patterns of depositional lobe development inland of each of the notches were monitored using RTK-GPS surveys, UAV imagery, photographs and ground-based measurements. The total amounts of sand shifted through each notch were quantified using RTK-GPS, while estimates of sand flux and measurements of wind flow allowed depositional development to be modelled. Notch morphology was found to influence rates of sand transport. Estimates of sand flux suggest that the rates of transport were two times higher in Notch B than Notch C (research question 1). The steepest notch, Notch B experienced the most frequent flow acceleration (relative to the beach) during the widest range of incident wind conditions. Notch B, which was better aligned with (oriented towards) the prevailing highly oblique winds at St. Kilda, experienced the most effective steering, with limited flow deceleration occurring even when the incident wind direction was oblique to the long axis of the notch (> 40° oblique). The steep lateral walls of Notch C (~80°) seemed to increase the complexity of flow within the notch, while the more gently sloping lateral walls of Notch B (~35°) may have allowed air flow to more readily escape the notch, providing for decreased air pressure and sustained aeolian sand transport in the notch. Significant onshore sand flux was recorded in all the notches when the incident wind direction was ~40° oblique to the long axis of notches and the incident wind speed was > 10 ms-1 (research question 2). When the incident wind direction was highly oblique to the notches (> 40°), deceleration occurred in all the notches irrespective of wind speed. Between 20 and 30 cubic metres of sediment accumulated inland of each of the three notches during the study period (derived from RTK-GPS surveys), with 57% (Notch B) and 29% (Notch C) of this sediment (derived from modelling) being shifted through the notches by the south-westerly winds examined in this thesis. The primary barriers to aeolian sand transport were incident wind speed and direction (research question 3). Winds that were highly oblique (> 40° oblique to notches) to alongshore decelerated through the notches, and these winds only rarely contributed to significant onshore sand flux and then only in Notch B. When the incident wind speed was < 7.5 ms-1 acceleration rarely occurred in the notches. Moisture conditions, associated with precipitation during and preceding sand transport events and tidal conditions (which relate to wind fetch) were only addressed briefly in this thesis. However, their influence on rates of sand transport were negligible, given the incident wind speed was > 10 ms-1. Backdune topography and wind conditions influenced the patterns of sand deposition inland of each of the notches (research question 4). Each depositional lobe was skewed to the east (alongshore). Most sand deposition occurred on the lee slope of the foredune. This pattern of deposition resulted from flow deceleration as wind exited the notches and encountered highly modified backdune flow conditions. The backdune winds were typically of low wind speed and often oriented alongshore as a result of topographic steering along John Wilson Drive. Sand deposition across, and landward of the swale only occurred when the incident wind speed was > 10 ms-1 and when the wind direction was aligned approximately with the orientation of the notches. Notches constructed in an otherwise stable foredune can act as conduits for wind flow and sand transport, encouraging beach-backdune sand transport. Excavating notches in a stable foredune is a viable strategy for enhancing coastal protection, allowing significant amounts of sand to be added to an otherwise stable foredune This addition of sand allowed the foredune to ‘roll back’ (broaden). The steep, ramp-like Notch B which is oriented towards the prevailing winds (at St. Kilda) was the most effective notch at encouraging onshore sand flux. By maintaining the steep gradient of the foredune this notch experienced frequent landward flow acceleration and high rates of sand flux during a wide range of incident wind conditions. Similarly, its orientation was important in enabling highly oblique winds to become aligned with the notch. Locally, this study has contributed to an understanding of how the St. Kilda foredune might be managed, in order to prolong its role in protecting the South Dunedin area.  

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  • Mechanisms of the contribution of vasopressin to the development of hypertension

    Korpal, Aaron Kumar (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Plasma vasopressin levels are paradoxically elevated in some hypertensive patients. Vasopressin is secreted from the posterior pituitary gland by magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) located in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei of the hypothalamus in response to action potential discharge. Vasopressin acts at vasopressin 1 (V1) receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells to cause potent vasoconstriction, and vasopressin 2 (V2) receptors in the kidneys to promote antidiuresis. We have previously shown that vasopressin MNC activity is increased early in the development of hypertension in transgenic Cyp1a1-Ren2 rats. Angiotensin II-dependent hypertension is induced in these rats by dietary administration of indole-3-carbinol (I3C), to activate a knocked-in mouse Ren-2 renin gene. To investigate the contribution of vasopressin to hypertension, tail-cuff plethysmography was used to show that mean systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in V1 receptor antagonist-treated rats on day seven of hypertension compared to non-hypertensive controls. To investigate intrinsic mechanisms of increased vasopressin MNC activity in hypertension, extracellular single-unit recordings of SON vasopressin MNCs were made from urethane-anaesthetized rats. Vasopressin MNC firing rate was significantly higher in hypertensive Cyp1a1-Ren2 rats on day seven of I3C-treatment (I3C-7) compared to non-hypertensive controls. Stimulation of the baroreflex inhibited 6/6 vasopressin MNCs in Ord-7 rats but only 3/8 vasopressin MNCs in I3C-7 rats, demonstrating that baroreflex-inhibition of vasopressin MNCs is blunted in hypertension. Baroreflex-inhibition of vasopressin MNCs is mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic inputs and so bicuculline (BIC), an antagonist of ionotropic GABAA receptors, was dialysed over the SON. BIC significantly lowered vasopressin MNC firing rate in I3C-7 rats compared to non-hypertensive controls, showing the response of vasopressin MNCs to GABA shifts towards excitation in hypertension. Because a similar change in vasopressin MNCs in salt-loaded rats is underpinned by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signalling, immunohistochemical analysis was used to stain for BDNF in MNCs and fibres within magnocellular hypothalamic nuclei but showed that BDNF expression in these structures was similar in hypertensive rats (I3C-7) and non-hypertensive controls. To determine whether microglial activation or breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) contribute to the development of hypertension, immunohistochemical analysis of Iba1 (a microglial marker) and TfR (a protein constituent the BBB) expression in the PVN and SON was carried out. Microglia exhibited a relatively ramified morphology, and the immunostained area for Iba1 was similar between I3C-7 rats and controls in both nuclei, indicating that microglial activation does not occur during the development of hypertension and, therefore, is unlikely to contribute to increased vasopressin MNC activity. The mean number and staining intensity of microvessels with TfR was similar between I3C-7 rats and controls in these nuclei, indicating that the BBB remains intact in magnocellular hypothalamic nuclei during the development of hypertension and so is unlikely to present a route for blood-borne factors to increase vasopressin MNC activity. To determine whether microglial activation, or breakdown of the BBB occur later in the development of hypertension, analyses of Iba1 and TfR were repeated on day twenty-eight (I3C-28), when severe hypertension was established. Microglia exhibited a relatively ramified morphology, and the immunostained area for Iba1 was similar between I3C-28 rats and controls in both nuclei, indicating that microglial activation does not occur in the magnocellular hypothalamic nuclei and is therefore unlikely to contribute to established hypertension in Cyp1a1-Ren2 rats. The number of TfR-labelled microvessels in the PVN and SON was significantly lower in I3C-28 rats compared to controls, suggesting that the BBB is disrupted within magnocellular hypothalamic nuclei in chronic severe hypertension. In conclusion, vasopressin is recruited early in the development hypertension in Cyp1a1-Ren2 rats to exacerbate hypertension. This is a result of increased vasopressin MNC activity, which is (at least partially) due to blunting of baroreflex-inhibition by an excitatory shift in the response of vasopressin MNCs to GABA. Microglial activation and BBB breakdown are unlikely to cause increased vasopressin MNC activity, as they are unchanged at the time vasopressin MNC activity is increased. Nevertheless, BBB patency is compromised in chronic severe hypertension, indicating that this mechanism could contribute to the maintenance of established hypertension in Cyp1a1-Ren2 rats.

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  • He Wahine, He Whenua I Ngaro Ai? Maori Women, Maori Marriage Customs and the Native Land Court, 1865-1909.

    Walter, Inano (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    The aim of this study is to investigate and identify the effects the Native Land Court and native land legislation had on customary Māori marriage practices from 1865 to 1909. While researchers have produced a variety of important understandings of the court’s role in promoting land loss in Māori society, Māori women’s involvement in the court and its effects upon them is just beginning to be examined. This thesis makes a contribution to Māori women’s history by accounting for the role the Native Land Court and associated land legislation played in reshaping customary Māori marriage practices in nineteenth and early twentieth century New Zealand. Even though native land legislation was one of the key mechanisms by which the state governed Māori land as well as marriage, this connection is rarely examined within the same frame. The Native Land Court is a forum where land and marriage did interact. Focusing on a case study of Ngāti Kahungunu, I situate prominent Māori women in the Native Land Court, and use their experiences to further understandings of how Māori marriage, which is often examined in a pre-European context, was shaped by land title investigations and succession cases. This study was conducted utilising statutes, colonial newspapers and the Napier Minute Books. In the first chapter, this thesis uses ethnographic material to describe and interpret marriage customs prior to European contact, its draws upon missionary understandings of customary marriage upon arrival to Aotearoa, and also traces how colonial law managed marriage prior to the Native Land Court 1865. This provides vital contextual information for the later chapters. The next chapter discusses native land and marriage laws between 1865 and 1890 and how they affected customary Māori marriage practices. Chapter Three examines three prominent Māori women involved in well-known legal cases. The final chapter discusses Māori women’s political organising and traces their attempts to protect and retain land during the 1890s. The thesis ends with a discussion of the Native Land Act 1909, a significant consolidating act. Focusing on the overarching structures of the law and its effects on customary Māori marriage allows this study to consider the broader effects it had on Māori society. What emerges from the study is how whakapapa and kinship structures underpin and inform Māori marriage, and how Māori forms of celebration continued to be practiced into the early twentieth century. Nonetheless, a main driver of change lay in assimilation policies that directed native land legislation towards individualisation of title, which undermined Māori women’s access to own and manage land.

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  • The Influence of Technology on the Land Surveying Profession

    Brian, Coutts (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Land surveying has grown from a technical occupation into a profession. This study traces the rise of professions and the criteria that defines the requirements for an occupation to be granted such status. It then recognises the origins and importance of accurate measurement in antiquity before following the developments in land surveying that changed the occupation in late medieval England from that of an estate manager or overseer to one of an expert in land measurement. The research identifies this period as a paradigm shift, the first, making the following period the 2nd paradigm in land surveying. There follows a comparison between the present institutional arrangements for surveying and the criteria established for the status of a profession. It concludes that land surveying in its current form meets the requirements of a profession. Following a discussion on the nature of modern surveying, consideration is given to the changes that have taken place in the last 60 years. The challenges faced as a result of technological change, through first the electronic age and then the digital age, are identified. The question of whether these challenges and their resultant developments have fundamentally changed the profession, heralding a 3rd paradigm, is then addressed. The views of land surveying academics, practitioners, senior government employees and staff of professional institutions in the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia are addressed through exploring their views, by in-person interviews, of what sits at the core of land surveying today. Specifically they are asked to address the changes that have taken place by considering what has been abandoned as obsolete in degree programmes and in practice, and what has taken its place. It is concluded that land surveying remains a profession with unique expertise in the management of all aspects of measurement data, its gathering, its analysis, its presentation and its storage. No new paradigm is identified. Using methodology based in grounded theory, the research identified related issues for the profession. The first was the belief that land surveying, as a profession, had a poor public image and was identified with only the field aspects of the profession. It was apparent that the poor public image was linked to a poor self-image by surveyors themselves. Attempts to change that image by the adoption of a new term, geomatics, in the late 20th century has not delivered the anticipated improvements, and dissatisfaction with the term was identified in all of the jurisdictions visited. In the meantime it was apparent that the term “geospatial’ was gaining popular use and was replacing, by stealth, references to geomatics.

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  • The Economics of Processed Food: an Experiment using Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    Hamill, Daniel (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Over the last 40 years worldwide obesity rates have doubled and diabetes rates have quadrupled. Obesity is estimated to be killing at least 2.8 million adults per year and rising (European Association for the study of Obesity, n.d.; World Health Organisation, n.d.). With the current estimated yearly additional cost per obese person of $1723 USD, comprising medical, productivity, transport and human capital costs, it presents a huge public policy issue of how to reduce that cost and increase consumer health (Tsai, Williamson & Glick, 2011). A key factor in the nutritional quality of food, and often non-directly observable characteristic of food is the effect on blood glucose. High blood glucose is correlated with obesity, cardiovascular disease and diabetes, with different meals eliciting different glycaemic responses based on nutritional content and processing technique implemented (e.g. canning) (Jenkins et al, 1981; Food and Agriculturev1 Organization for the United Nations, n.d.). The purpose of this empirical study is to investigate the blood glucose effects and demand stimulating nature of processed food in free feeding conditions. Producers are incentivised to invest in sophisticated product design to stimulate appetite while reducing the costs of production, with the benefit increasing with producer size (Smith, 2011; Smith and Tasnádi, 2014)). The hypothesis driving this study is that due to the nature of processed food products being produced on a global scale processed food producers are more likely to employ appetite stimulating technologies than producers on a smaller scale. Glucostatic theory states that when blood glucose levels fall consumers will experience hunger, stimulating demand (Oxford Index, n.d.). The data used in this study were collected from 12 individuals who wore a continuous glucose monitor system (CGM), the Dexcom G4, over a 7 - 14 day period. Photographic food diaries were collected along with exercise logs during the study period. Postprandial blood glucose response curves were estimated using fixed effect models, controlling for nutritional information and other explanatory variables. Addiction-like dynamic parameters were also estimated. Meals produced at higher levels of economies of scale were found to have a stronger effect on blood glucose even when controlling for nutritional content (including all variables in the nutritional information panel) and meal size. Meals produced at lower and medium levels of economies of scale were not statistically significantly different from one another. This suggests the nutritional informational panel may not have the required information for consumers to infer the likely effects of particular products on blood glucose. To test more directly for addictive properties, meal-specific addiction indices were generated from the CGM time series for two hours following each meal. The addiction indices fall into two categories: dose (i.e., various measures of the magnitude of the post-prandial blood glucose shock) and rate of absorption (i.e., the slope of the response curve, measured at various times). We similarly find that both of these measures are significantly higher for globally-branded fast foods, and that this result is robust to controlling for meal size and nutrient content. The results highlight asymmetric informational issues between producers and consumers in the food industry with respect to postprandial blood glucose. Given the scale of the ongoing obesity epidemic, improvements to existing food labelling requirements could yield large benefits.

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  • Adequate protection: an examination of transborder data protection standards in the European Union

    Flood, Henry (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    This paper considers the requirements of “adequate protection” of transborder data flows in the European Union.

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  • Differentiation between organic and conventionally produced milk in pasture based farming systems : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Animal Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Schwendel, Brigitte Heike

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Consumer perception of organic cow’s milk is associated with the assumption that organic milk differs from conventionally produced milk. The value associated with this difference, justifies the premium retail price. It includes the perception that organic dairy farming is kinder on the environment, animals and people; that organic milk products are produced without the use of antibiotics, added hormones, synthetic chemicals and genetic modification and may have potential benefits for human health. Controlled studies investigating the chemical differences between organic and conventionally produced milk have so far fallen short of a conclusion as to whether or not these exist. Reasons for this are many folds, caused principally by the complexity of the research problem. A main complication is that farming practices and their impacts differ depending on country, region, year and season between and within organic and conventional systems. Factors influencing milk composition (e.g. diet, breed, and stage of lactation) have been studied individually, while interactions between multiple factors have been largely ignored. Studies fail to consider that factors other than the farming system (organic versus conventional) could have caused or contributed to, the reported differences in milk composition. These omissions make it impossible to determine whether there is a system related difference between organic and conventional milk, or not. The present study investigated the chemical differences between organic and conventionally produced milk in a pasture based farming system. Milk samples have been collected on two farm sets each comprised of one organic and one conventional farm. All farms applied year-round pasture grazing. Milk samples were collected from individual animals on Farm Set 1 and throughout the milking season on both farm sets. Milk samples have been analysed for fatty acid, free oligosaccharides, major casein and whey proteins, and milk fat volatiles, as well for a limited set of milk metabolites using a non-targeted NMR method. Considering the known influence factors on milk composition and the differences observed between the farms on the farm sets in our study, we postulated that fatty acids were influenced by breed and fertilizer application. Oligosaccharides differed between farming systems, with causes presently unknown. The farm set was the dominant influence factor on protein composition, while none of the compounds identified using NMR show any trend. Thus, the major conclusions from this study were that the factors influencing milk composition are not exclusive to either farming system, and pasture feeding conventional cows will most probably remove differences previously reported in other organic and conventionally produced milk studies.

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  • Molecular epidemiological studies of Campylobacter isolated from different sources in New Zealand between 2005 and 2015 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Nohra, Antoine

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Campylobacteriosis is one of the most important food-borne diseases worldwide, and a significant health burden in New Zealand. C. jejuni is the predominant species worldwide, accounting for approximately 90% of human cases, followed by C. coli. The first study evaluated whether the time elapsing from sampling to culture has an impact on the recovery rate of Campylobacter, and explored whether some sequence types are more likely than others to be missed due to delayed culture. The study revealed that, whereas delayed culture may affect the recovery rate of Campylobacter, there was no evidence of a bias due to specific sequence types being under detected. The second study aimed to analyse the differences in the Campylobacter viable counts and in population genetic structure between chicken drumsticks and whole carcass meat for retail sale. The results indicate that the Campylobacter population genetic structure did not differ between the two types of retail chicken meat. However, the difference in Campylobacter viable counts suggest that consumption of different chicken meat products may pose different risks of campylobacteriosis associated with an exposure to different infection doses. In the third study, we genotyped C. coli isolates collected from different sources between 2005 and 2014, to study their population structure and estimate the contribution of each source to the burden of human C. coli disease. Modelling indicated ruminants and poultry as the main sources of C. coli infection. The fourth study aimed to genotype C. jejuni isolates collected between 2005 and 2015 from different sources, to assess changes in the molecular epidemiology of C. jejuni following the food safety interventions implemented by the New Zealand poultry industry in 2007/2008. Modelling indicated that chicken meat from ‘Supplier A’ was the main source of C. jejuni human infection before the interventions; but after the interventions, ruminants became the main source of infection, followed by chicken meat from Supplier A. This thesis has made us aware of the aetiology of C. coli infections and the change in the attribution of C. jejuni infections. These findings should be used in developing further strategies to reduce the total burden of human campylobacteriosis.

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  • School leaders growing leadership from within: A framework for the development of school leaders

    Fisher, Anthony; Carlyon, Tracey (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article discusses the development of school leaders from within schools. Within this discussion, a framework is presented which identifies key features which support school leaders to achieve this. The authors propose that school leaders are required to deliberately establish and maintain positive relationships with their teachers while also developing a positive school culture. The framework demonstrates the strong influence that school leaders have on their relationships with teachers, and in turn the interconnectedness between these relationships and the school culture. It also shows how a positive school culture enables school leaders to create opportunities and support teachers to develop both personally and professionally, and grow as leaders from within their schools. Although in order to create this culture, school leaders draw on aspects from various different leadership styles, we suggest that to be successful the development of a new leadership style may be timely.

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  • Dietary supplementation with bovine-derived milk fat globule membrane lipids promotes neuromuscular development in growing rats

    Markworth, JF; Durainayagam, B; Figueiredo, VC; Liu, K; Guan, Jian; MacGibbon, AKH; Fong, BY; Fanning, AC; Rowan, A; McJarrow, P; Cameron-Smith, David (2017-01-23)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is primarily composed of polar phospho- and sphingolipids, which have established biological effects on neuroplasticity. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary MFGM supplementation on the neuromuscular system during post-natal development.Growing rats received dietary supplementation with bovine-derived MFGM mixtures consisting of complex milk lipids (CML), beta serum concentrate (BSC) or a complex milk lipid concentrate (CMLc) (which lacks MFGM proteins) from post-natal day 10 to day 70.Supplementation with MFGM mixtures enriched in polar lipids (BSC and CMLc, but not CML) increased the plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC) concentration, with no effect on plasma phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS) or sphingomyelin (SM). In contrast, muscle PC was reduced in rats receiving supplementation with both BSC and CMLc, whereas muscle PI, PE, PS and SM remained unchanged. Rats receiving BSC and CMLc (but not CML) displayed a slow-to-fast muscle fibre type profile shift (MyHCI?????????MyHCIIa) that was associated with elevated expression of genes involved in myogenic differentiation (myogenic regulatory factors) and relatively fast fibre type specialisation (Myh2 and Nfatc4). Expression of neuromuscular development genes, including nerve cell markers, components of the synaptogenic agrin-LRP4 pathway and acetylcholine receptor subunits, was also increased in muscle of rats supplemented with BSC and CMLc (but not CML).These findings demonstrate that dietary supplementation with bovine-derived MFGM mixtures enriched in polar lipids can promote neuromuscular development during post-natal growth in rats, leading to shifts in adult muscle phenotype.

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  • Considerations on mTOR regulation at serine 2448: Implications for muscle metabolism studies

    Figueiredo, VC; Markworth, JF; Cameron-Smith, David (2017-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex exerts a pivotal role in protein anabolism and cell growth. Despite its importance, few studies adequately address the complexity of phosphorylation of the mTOR protein itself to enable conclusions to be drawn on the extent of kinase activation following this event. In particular, a large number of studies in the skeletal muscle biology field have measured Serine 2448 (Ser2448) phosphorylation as a proxy of mTOR kinase activity. However, the evidence to be described is that Ser2448 is not a measure of mTOR kinase activity nor is a target of AKT activity and instead has inhibitory effects on the kinase that is targeted by the downstream effector p70S6K in a negative feedback loop mechanism, which is evident when revisiting muscle research studies. It is proposed that this residue modification acts as a fine-tuning mechanism that has been gained during vertebrate evolution. In conclusion, it is recommended that Ser2448 is an inadequate measure and that preferential analysis of mTORC1 activation should focus on the downstream and effector proteins, including p70S6K and 4E-BP1, along mTOR protein partners that bind to mTOR protein to form the active complexes 1 and 2.

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  • No effect of a whey growth factor extract during resistance training on strength, body composition, or hypertrophic gene expression in resistance-trained young men

    Dale, MJ; Coates, AM; Howe, PRC; Tomkinson, GR; Haren, MT; Brown, A; Caldow, M; Cameron-Smith, David; Buckley, JD (2017-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Growth factors can be isolated from bovine milk to form a whey growth factor extract (WGFE). This study examined whether WGFE promoted activation of the AKT/mTOR pathway enabling increased lean tissue mass and strength in resistance trained men. Forty six men with >6 months of resistance training (RT) experience performed 12 weeks of RT. Participants consumed 20 g/day of whey protein and were randomised to receive either 1.6 g WGFE/day (WGFE; n = 22) or 1.6 g cellulose/day (control, CONT; n = 24). The primary outcome was leg press one-repetition maximum (LP1-RM) which was assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. At baseline and 12 weeks body composition was assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and muscle protein synthesis and gene expression were assessed (vastus lateralis biopsy) in a sub-sample (WGFE n = 10, CONT n = 10) pre- and 3 hr post-training. RT increased LP1-RM (+34.9%) and lean tissue mass (+2.3%; p < 0.05) with no difference between treatments (p > 0.48, treatment x time). Post-exercise P70s6k phosphorylation increased acutely, FOXO3a phosphorylation was unaltered. There were no differences in kinase signalling or gene expression between treatments. Compared with CONT, WGFE did not result in greater increases in lean tissue mass or strength in experienced resistance trained men.

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  • Age and sex differences in human skeletal muscle fibrosis markers and transforming growth factor-?? signaling

    Parker, L; Caldow, MK; Watts, R; Levinger, P; Cameron-Smith, David; Levinger, I (2017-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The aim of the study was to determine whether higher fibrosis markers in skeletal muscle of older adults are accompanied by increased expression of components of the canonical TGF-?? signal transduction pathway. Fourteen healthy young (21-35??years; 9 males and 5 females) and seventeen older (55-75??years; 9 males and 8 females) participants underwent vastus lateralis biopsies to determine intramuscular mRNA and protein expression of fibrogenic markers and TGF-?? signaling molecules related to TGF-??1 and myostatin.Expression of mRNA encoding the pro-fibrotic factors; axin 2, collagen III, ??-catenin and fibronectin, were all significantly higher (all p????0.05), whereas Smad3 protein phosphorylation was 48% lower (p??<??0.05) in muscle from older adults.Increased abundance of mRNA of fibrotic markers was observed in muscle from older adults and was partly accompanied by altered abundance of pro-fibrotic ligands in a sex specific manner.

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  • Linkages between changes in the 3D organization of the genome and transcription during myotube differentiation in vitro

    Doynova, MD; Markworth, JF; Cameron-Smith, David; Vickers, Mark; O'Sullivan, Justin (2017-04-05)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    BACKGROUND: The spatial organization of eukaryotic genomes facilitates and reflects the underlying nuclear processes that are occurring in the cell. As such, the spatial organization of a genome represents a window on the genome biology that enables analysis of the nuclear regulatory processes that contribute to mammalian development. METHODS: In this study, Hi-C and RNA-seq were used to capture the genome organization and transcriptome in mouse muscle progenitor cells (C2C12 myoblasts) before and after differentiation to myotubes, in the presence or absence of the cytidine analogue AraC. RESULTS: We observed significant local and global developmental changes despite high levels of correlation between the myotubes and myoblast genomes. Notably, the genes that exhibited the greatest variation in transcript levels between the different developmental stages were predominately within the euchromatic compartment. There was significant re-structuring and changes in the expression of replication-dependent histone variants within the HIST1 locus. Finally, treating terminally differentiated myotubes with AraC resulted in additional changes to the transcriptome and 3D genome organization of sets of genes that were all involved in pyroptosis. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our results provide evidence for muscle cell-specific responses to developmental and environmental stimuli mediated through a chromatin structure mechanism.

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  • Comparisons of the postprandial inflammatory and endotoxaemic responses to mixed meals in young and older individuals: A randomised trial

    Milan, Amber; Pundir, Shikha; Pileggi, CA; Markworth, James; Lewandowski, PA; Cameron-Smith, David (2017-04-02)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Postprandial inflammation and endotoxaemia are determinants of cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk which are amplified by high fat meals. We aimed to examine the determinants of postprandial inflammation and endotoxaemia in older and younger adults following a high fat mixed meal. In a randomised cross-over trial, healthy participants aged 20-25 and 60-75 years (n = 15/group) consumed a high-fat breakfast and a low-fat breakfast. Plasma taken at baseline and post-meal for 5 h was analysed for circulating endotoxin, cytokines (monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin (IL)-1??, IL-6, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-??)), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), and inflammatory gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Older subjects had lower baseline PBMC expression of Glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX-1) but greater insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) and circulating MCP-1 compared to younger subjects. After either meal, there were no age differences in plasma, chylomicron endotoxin, or plasma LBP concentrations, nor in inflammatory cytokine gene and protein expression (MCP-1, IL-1??, and TNF-??). Unlike younger participants, the older group had decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD)-2 expression after the meals. After a high-fat meal, older adults have no increased inflammatory or endotoxin response, but an altered oxidative stress gene response compared with younger adults. Healthy older adults, without apparent metabolic dysfunction, have a comparable postprandial inflammatory and endotoxaemia response to younger adults.

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  • Fish oil supplementation to rats fed high-fat diet during pregnancy prevents development of impaired insulin sensitivity in male adult offspring

    Albert, Benjamin; Vickers, Mark; Gray, C; Reynolds, Clare; Segovia, SA; Behrensdorf Derraik, Jose; Garg, ML; Cameron-Smith, David; Hofman, Paul; Cutfield, Wayne (2017-07-17)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    We examined whether maternal fish oil supplementation during pregnancy could prevent development of insulin resistance in adult male offspring of rat dams fed a high-fat diet. Time-mated Sprague-Dawley rat dams were randomised into four treatment groups: Con-Con, dams fed a control diet (fat: 15% kcal) and administered water by gavage; Con-FO, control diet with unoxidised fish oil by gavage; HF-Con, high-fat diet (fat: 45% kcal) and water by gavage; and HF-FO, high-fat diet and unoxidised fish oil by gavage. Dams were fed the allocated diet ad libitum during pregnancy and lactation, but daily gavage occurred only during pregnancy. After weaning, male offspring consumed a chow diet ad libitum until adulthood. Maternal high-fat diet led to increased food consumption, adiposity, systolic blood pressure, and triglycerides and plasma leptin in adult HF-Con offspring. HF-Con offspring also exhibited lower insulin sensitivity than Con-Con rats. Male offspring from HF-FO group were similar to HF-Con regarding food consumption and most metabolic parameters. However, insulin sensitivity in the HF-FO group was improved relative to the HF-Con offspring. Supplementation with unoxidised n-3 PUFA rich oils in the setting of a maternal obesogenic diet improved insulin sensitivity, but had no impact on body composition of adult male offspring.

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  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for cancer-related pain in children and adolescents

    Cooper, TE; Heathcote, LC; Anderson, Brian; Gr??goire, M-C; Ljungman, G; Eccleston, C (2017)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background Pain is a common feature of childhood and adolescence around the world, and for many young people, that pain is chronic. The World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for pharmacological treatments for persisting pain in children acknowledge that pain in children is a major public health concern of high significance in most parts of the world. Views on children???s pain have changed over time and relief of pain is now seen as important. In the past, pain was largely dismissed and was frequently left untreated, and it was assumed that children quickly forgot about painful experiences. We designed a suite of seven reviews in chronic non-cancer pain and cancer pain (looking at antidepressants, antiepileptic drugs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids, and paracetamol as priority areas) to review the evidence for children???s pain using pharmacological interventions. As one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity for children and adolescents in the world today, childhood cancer (and its associated pain) is a major health concern. Specific mortality and morbidity data relating to children are not currently identified. All childhood cancer rates are on the rise; for example, in the USA approximately 10,380 children aged under 15 years were expected to be diagnosed with cancer by the end of 2016. However, with survival rates also increasing, over 80% of paediatric cancer patients are expected to survive for five years or more, thus identifying the need to address pain management in this population. Cancer pain in infants, children, and adolescents is primarily nociceptive pain with negative long term effects. Cancer-related pain is generally caused directly by the tumour itself such as compressing on the nerve or inflammation of the organs. Cancer-related pain generally occurs as a result of perioperative procedures, nerve damage caused by radiation or chemotherapy treatments, or mucositis. However, this review focused on pain caused directly by the tumour itself such as nerve infiltration, external nerve compression, and other inflammatory events. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used to treat pain, reduce fever, and for their anti-inflammatory properties. They are commonly used within paediatric pain management. NSAIDs are currently licensed for use in western countries, however not approved for infants aged under three months. Primary adverse effects include gastrointestinal issues and possible renal impairment with long term use. Other adverse effects in children include diarrhoea, headache, nausea, constipation, rash, dizziness, and abdominal pain. Objectives To assess the analgesic efficacy, and adverse events, of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) used to treat cancer-related pain in children and adolescents aged from birth and 17 years, in any setting. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) via the Cochrane Register of StudiesOnline,MEDLINE via Ovid, and Embase via Ovid from inception to 21 February 2017. We also searched the reference lists of retrieved studies and reviews, and searched online clinical trial registries. Selection criteria Randomised, double-blind trials of any dose, and any route, treating cancer-related pain in children and adolescents, comparing NSAIDs with placebo or an active comparator. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed studies for eligibility. We planned to use dichotomous data to calculate risk ratio and number needed to treat for one additional event, using standard methods. We assessed GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) and planned to create a ???Summary of findings??? table. Main results No studies were eligible for inclusion in this review (very low quality evidence). We downgraded the quality of evidence by three levels due to the lack of data reported for any outcome. Authors??? conclusions There is no evidence from randomised controlled trials that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reduce cancer-related pain in children and adolescents. This means that no reliance or conclusions can be made about efficacy or harm in the use of NSAIDs to treat chronic cancer-related pain in children and adolescents.

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  • 2015 revised Utstein-style recommended guidelines for uniform reporting of data from drowning-related resuscitation: An ILCOR advisory statement.

    Idris, AH; Bierens, JJLM; Perkins, GD; Wenzel, V; Nadkarni, V; Morley, P; Warner, DS; Topjian, A; Venema, AM; Branche, CM; Szpilman, D; Morizot-Leite, L; Nitta, M; L??fgren, B; Webber, Jonathon; Gr??sner, J-T; Beerman, SB; Youn, CS; Jost, U; Quan, L; Dezfulian, C; Handley, AJ; Hazinski, MF (2017-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Utstein-style guidelines use an established consensus process, endorsed by the international resuscitation community, to facilitate and structure resuscitation research and publication. The first "Guidelines for Uniform Reporting of Data From Drowning" were published over a decade ago. During the intervening years, resuscitation science has advanced considerably, thus making revision of the guidelines timely. In particular, measurement of cardiopulmonary resuscitation elements and neurological outcomes reporting have advanced substantially. The purpose of this report is to provide updated guidelines for reporting data from studies of resuscitation from drowning.An international group with scientific expertise in the fields of drowning research, resuscitation research, emergency medical services, public health, and development of guidelines met in Potsdam, Germany, to determine the data that should be reported in scientific articles on the subject of resuscitation from drowning. At the Utstein-style meeting, participants discussed data elements in detail, defined the data, determined data priority, and decided how data should be reported, including scoring methods and category details.The template for reporting data from drowning research was revised extensively, with new emphasis on measurement of quality of resuscitation, neurological outcomes, and deletion of data that have proved to be less relevant or difficult to capture.The report describes the consensus process, rationale for selecting data elements to be reported, definitions and priority of data, and scoring methods. These guidelines are intended to improve the clarity of scientific communication and the comparability of scientific investigations.

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  • Developing leading indicators to monitor the safety conditions of construction projects

    Guo, BHW; Yiu, Tak Wing (2016)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper presents a conceptual framework for developing leading safety indicators for the construction industry. The framework clarifies the nature of the indicators in terms of definition, purpose, and attributes. A pragmatic method for systematically identifying a set of leading indicators for construction projects is proposed. The method consists of four steps: conceptualization, operationalization, indicator generation, validation, and revision, and emphasizes two functions of leading indicators: informative and decision aiding. First, leading indicators must be able to provide information about the state of construction safety. Second, they must be able to help decision makers take remedial actions. These two functions should promote double-loop learning, reflecting any existing safety model and facilitating the construction of a new one through ongoing validation. A hypothetical example is provided to illustrate the entire development process. The conceptual framework, together with the development method, provides the construction industry with both theoretical and methodological guidance on developing leading indicators that can better serve the purpose of proactive safety management.

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  • A timeless motto for dispute resolution: ???Prevention is better than cure???

    Yiu, Tak Wing (2016)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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