89,490 results

  • Comparison of collagenase activity in eosinophil and neutrophil fractions from rat peritoneal exudates

    Bassett, EG; Baker, JR; Baker, Paul; Myers, DB (1976-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The collagenase activity has been compared in extracts of eosinophils and of neutrophils from peritoneal exudates in two groups of rats, one of which had been treated to augment the numbers of eosinophils and the other the numbers of neutrophils. The proportion of granulocytes to other cells in each preparation was increased by differential centrifugation over a continuous gradient. Collagenase was extracted from the fractions in which granulocytes were concentrated and the activity assayed by the radioactive fibril method. There was at least as much collagenase in the eosinophil-enriched extracts as in the neutrophil-enriched extracts. It is postulated that eosinophil collagenase may have a function in the remodelling of newly-synthesised collagen during the post-inflammatory phase of healing, since eosinophil leucocytes appear in significant numbers within the connective tissue during this phase. This suggests a different role for eosinophil collagenase than that for neutrophil collagenase, since neutrophils are present only in the early stages of inflammation, when collagen is being degraded.

    View record details
  • Diversity, social cohesion and the curriculum: A study of a Muslim girls??? secondary school in New Zealand

    Lomax, D; Rata, Elizabeth (2016)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The paper argues that the integration of faith-based schools into New Zealand's secular democratic society is compromised by the localisation of the country's national curriculum. The argument is illustrated by a small study undertaken at a Muslim girls' secondary school. Significant dilemmas were encountered by the school as it sought to align its curriculum to the liberal principles and values in the national curriculum. New Zealand, as a modern, pluralist society built on liberal principles and values, has a long tradition of integrating diverse groups in order to create a cohesive society with the education system serving as the main site for integration. The post-1990s' shift to the localisation of that system changed the nature of the integration process leading to the possibility of permanent segregation for some groups. We identify the localised character of New Zealand education through its community-responsive curriculum, rather than the existence of diverse groups themselves, as a contributor to segregation with negative consequences for the country's social cohesion.

    View record details
  • ???Authentic leadership: Experiences from a Pasifika early childhood education program in teacher education

    Leaupepe, Manutai (2017-05)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper presents ideas that are associated with authentic leadership. In addition, it is concerned with how aspects of authentic leadership have influenced the direction of the author in a Pasifika early childhood teacher education specialisation program. The concept of the ???third space??? is introduced and employed to demonstrate the ways in which relationships and communication with those involved in the Pasifika program are enacted. Given Pacific cultures, languages and spirituality are at the core of the Pasifika early childhood specialisation program, the need to develop and sustain structures, processes and conditions for continued sustainability and retention become pertinent issues of concern.

    View record details
  • Navigating leadership in Pasifika early childhood education: Traversing the tides of change

    Matapo, Jacoba (2017-05)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The lack of leadership research in Pasifika early childhood education requires attention, as policies for improved outcomes targeting Pasifika learners remain an interest for Governing bodies. One such target includes the increased participation of Pasifika children enrolled in early childhood services (Ministry of Education, 2014). Current literature draws attention to strengthening culturally responsive practices, particularly in the critique of curriculum and pedagogy. However, the gaps in research to support sustainable leadership in our Pasifika early childhood settings continue to widen and includes a lack of research that investigates the impact of leadership upon teacher pedagogy. The need for further research within Pasifika early childhood settings is essential to understand how leadership influences and engages Pasifika children within culturally relevant pedagogy. This article will discuss the importance of cultural values, family and community contribution to sustaining a collective approach to education, which in turn resonates with Pasifika ways of knowing, Pasifika theology, ontology and epistemology. Leadership in the spirit of the collective fosters difference and offers potentialities in the learning and collective constructions of knowledge in leadership.

    View record details
  • A Durkheimian approach to knowledge and democracy

    Rata, Elizabeth (2017)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Ethnic revival

    Rata, Elizabeth (2017)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Professionals' perceptions of the quality of the transnational higher education in Sri Lanka

    Wickramasinghe, AKD; Hope, John (2015)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper discusses the professionals' perceptions of the quality of the transnational higher education in Sri Lanka. The main research questions focus on the priorities for quality in relation to the foreign degree awarding institutes of Sri Lanka and to what extent that the foreign degree awarding institutes of Sri Lanka implement and maintain quality in their institutes. Three different stakeholder groups, namely, lecturers and the senior managers of the foreign degree awarding institutes and the officials of the government organizations related to higher education were included in the sample. This study employed a vertical case study and the data were collected using a questionnaire survey. The findings revealed how quality can be understood differently by various stakeholder groups and the consequences of these various understanding to the quality of these institutes. Furthermore, the difficulties that these institutes face when implementing and maintaining quality were identified and a bank of solutions were suggested to these stakeholder groups by analyzing the data. It was evident from the results that the foreign degree awarding institutes of Sri Lanka face many issues related to quality due to lack of supervision from the government and their respective foreign providers. Since there is very limited research in this area, this paper may serve as a guide to quality of the transnational higher education of Sri Lanka.

    View record details
  • Systemic Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in sheep : a thesis presented in the fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Veterinary Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Smith

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Publications removed from thesis due to copyright reasons: Smith, S. L., West, D. M., Wilson, P. R., de Lisle, G. W., Collett, M. G., Heuer, C., & Chambers, J. P. (2011). Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in skeletal muscle and blood of ewes from a sheep farm in New Zealand. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 59(5), 240-243. doi:10.1080/00480169.2011.596257. Smith, S. L., West, D. M., Wilson, P. R., de Lisle, G. W., Collett, M. G., Heuer, C., & Chambers, J. P. (2013). The prevalence of disseminated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in tissues of healthy ewes from a New Zealand farm with Johne's disease present. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 61(1), 41-44. doi:10.1080/00480169.2012.704627. Smith, S. L., Wilson, P. R., Collett, M. G., Heuer, C., West, D. M., Stevenson, M., & Chambers, J. P. (2014). Liver biopsy histopathology for diagnosis of Johne's disease in sheep. Veterinary Pathology, 51(5), 915-918. doi:10.1177/0300985813516644. Smith, S. L., Singh, P., Harding, D., Lun, D., & Chambers, J. P. (2016). Thalidomide pharmacokinetics in sheep. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 64(4), 238-242. doi: 10.1080/00480169.2015.1130663

    View record details
  • The corner : clients that inspire us

    Epston, David (2017-07-11T00:10:27Z)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    Following a comment of Peggy Sax that some clients “bring out the best in us,” I proposed in 2011 that, furthermore, some clients do more than that, they in fact inspire us. I am sure I am not the only one to think so and decided to write up with Sam, then aged 20, and his mother, Jess, from the letters that summarized our meetings and several other meetings to confirm and review the conclusions we all reached at that time. This follows “Unsuffering,” co- authored by Julie King and David Epston, which appeared in Vol. 30, no. 1, 2011, pp. 84–96. Surely I am not the only one who has had this experience. I would certainly welcome stories with or about those who have inspired you.

    View record details
  • Ethics and auditing: setting the bar too low

    Hooper, Keith; Wang, Jenny (2017-07-11T00:10:26Z)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    Purpose - from a philosophical and empirical perspective this paper seeks to show how the big audit firms have managed to set the bar low so that they offer only opinions on whether financial statements meet accounting standards. It is argued that while the concepts of virtue ethics have now largely disappeared, ethical legitimacy has moved beyond consequential ethics to a form of social Darwinism. It is a Social Darwinism that is legalistic and technical as evidenced by the audit firms’ widespread use of the Bannerman clause attached to their opinions. Design - to illustrate the shift of ethical positions, the paper is informed illustrations of a failure to discharge a duty of care to the public. Findings – the shift in underlying social values contributes to what the Economist Journal describes as a steady decline in professional ethics. This arguable conclusion is supported by various illustrations and cites the shift in combinations of cognitive, moral and pragmatic legitimacy as drivers employed by accounting firms. Research Limitations – the paper uses secondary and documentary data and is informed by conceptual analysis which necessarily in the realm of ethics may be contentious. Originality – the paper seeks to link the changing social values with changes in legitimisation and to show shifts in accounting practices like the recent practice of issuing disclaimers.

    View record details
  • Efeitos da expansão territorial do programa habitacional brasileiro Minha Casa, Minha Vida: o caso da Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre, Brasil.

    Melchiors, L. C.; Wagner, Cesar (2017-07-11T00:10:10Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    O presente trabalho tem por objetivo discutir a produção do espaço urbano a partir dos projetos de moradia social desenvolvidos pelo Programa Minha Casa, Minha Vida (PMCMV), tendo como objeto de estudo e análise a distribuição territorial desses empreendimentos junto a Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre (RMPA), Brasil. Lançado em 2009, e com significativo aporte de recursos públicos, o PMCMV é atualmente o principal instrumento da política habitacional federal voltado à provisão de moradias no país. Destina-se a reduzir o déficit habitacional a partir da produção de cerca de 3.000.000 de novas moradias em todo o país, atendendo à famílias com renda aproximada entre 0 e 10 salários mínimos. O Programa foi também uma das principais ações do governo frente à crise econômica internacional de 2008, tendo como objetivo o aumento de investimentos no setor da construção civil, através da criação de empregos e o direcionamento do setor imobiliário para o atendimento da demanda habitacional de baixa renda, fatia de mercado que o setor privado anteriormente não contemplava. Os dados apresentados foram coletados junto à Caixa Econômica Federal (principal órgão financiador do PMCMV) e se referem às unidades contratadas entre os anos 2009 - 2013 na Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre (RMPA), distribuídas nas três faixas de renda atendidas pelo Programa. Os empreendimentos foram georeferenciados e analisados em relação a sua localização na mancha urbana da Região. Visto que se trata de um programa que delega ao setor privado o papel principal de produtor e promotor da moradia social, o PMCMV tende a se posicionar não como um elemento transformador da lógica tradicional de mercado, o que acredita-se ser o papel primordial de uma política habitacional deste porte, mas como mais um promotor da tendência de exclusão sócio espacial e da periferização da população menos favorecida. This paper aims to discuss the production of urban space as a result of the social housing schemes developed by the Brazilian State Programme Minha Casa, Minha Vida (PMCMV), having as the object of study and analysis the territorial distribution of these developments along the Metropolitan Region of Porto Alegre (RMPA), Brazil. Launched in 2009, with a significant contribution of public resources, the PMCMV is currently the main instrument of federal housing policy geared to the provision of housing nationwide. It aims to reduce the housing deficit with the production of about 3.000,000 new homes across the country, attending families with an approximately income between 0 and 10 minimum wages. The Programme was also one of the main responses from the government to the international economic crisis of 2008, aiming to increase investment in the construction sector, through the creation of jobs, and steering the Real Estate industry to meet the housing needs of low income sectors, a share of the market that the private sector previously did not contemplated. The data presented were collected from Caixa Economica Federal (main funding body of PMCMV) and refers to units contracted between the years 2009-2013 in the Metropolitan Region of Porto Alegre, distributed in the three income groups served by the program. The projects were geo referenced and analysed in relation to their specific location throughout the Region. Since this is a program that delegates to the private sector the primary role of producer and promoter of social housing, the PMCMV tends to position itself not as a transforming agency of the traditional market logic - which is believed to be one of the primary role of housing national policies of this size - but as another promoter of trends of socio-spatial exclusion and peripheralization of the underprivileged population.

    View record details
  • Development of a mathematical model for 'Hayward' kiwifruit softening in the supply chain : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Food Technology at Massey University, New Zealand

    Zhao, Junyu Matthew

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Fruit loss is a major concern to the kiwifruit industry as it incurs a high cost to monitor and remove over soft or rotten fruit to meet export standards. Kiwifruit is exposed to various temperature scenarios due to different packhouse cooling practices, and temperature control is difficult to maintain throughout the supply chain. Fruit pallet temperatures are wirelessly monitored in the supply chain. This time temperature data provides valuable rich information which could be used to predict kiwifruit quality. In the laboratory, green ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit were exposed to industry coolchain scenarios to investigate their influence on fruit firmness in subsequent storage. Cooling rate and storage temperature were identified to affect fruit firmness and chilling injury development significantly, where accelerated softening and increased chilling injury development was observed in late storage (> 100 d) when fruit were cooled directly to 0 °C. However, when fast cooled fruit were stored at 2 °C instead of 0 °C, low incidence of chilling injury was observed. The influence of cooling rate and storage temperature on kiwifruit quality suggests that industry should focus on the management practices adopted by packhouses in order to maintain acceptable quality after long term storage. A proportion of the firmness data results were used to develop a mechanistic style mathematical model of kiwifruit softening. Kiwifruit softening was mathematically described based on the correlation with starch degradation, breakdown of cell wall structure, and a description of the incidence of chilling injury development during storage. The model inputs consist of solely commonly collected at-harvest attributes: firmness, dry matter and soluble solids content and time-temperature data. Applying at-harvest attributes as model inputs enabled a capability to predict different softening curves as influenced by fruit maturity, and grower line differences. The developed model demonstrated promising softening prediction with mean absolute errors (MAE) between 0.8 to 2.1 N when fruit were exposed to fluctuating temperatures and cooling profiles. A logistic model was used to estimate the proportion of chilling injured fruit. Based on the given time temperature information, the logistic model was able to predict the proportion of chilling injured fruit reasonably well (R2 = 0.735). This chilling injury prediction was subsequently used to adjust the softening prediction during the late storage period (>100 d). Model validation was performed using the remaining data, identifying a lack of fit in both the rapid (MAE of 20.8 N) and gradual (MAE of 8.0 N) softening phase. The lack of fit in the rapid softening phase is proposed to be explained by the presence of an initial lag phase in softening which the developed model is unable to predict. The magnitude of firmness associated with starch content and cell wall integrity heavily influenced the lack of fit in the gradual softening phase. Fixing the initial amount of firmness associated to cell wall integrity to be constant for all maturities and grower lines improved the softening prediction. Overall, this thesis contributes to the challenge of predictively modelling kiwifruit quality in the supply chain. However, there are still many opportunities for improvement including introducing the influence of: variation within the same batch; fruit maturity on chilling injury development; ethylene in the environment; pre-harvest management practices and extending the model to have more focus on high temperature conditions such as those experienced in the marketplace. Conducting studies on: the effect of curing on kiwifruit; using non-destructive techniques to provide information to help define model parameters for prediction; effect of high temperature exposure on kiwifruit softening are possible opportunities that may contribute to enable better prediction of kiwifruit quality in the supply chain in the future.

    View record details
  • A statistical analysis of metamorphopsia in 7106 amsler grids

    Wiecek, E; Lashkari, K; Dakin, Steven; Bex, P (2015-02)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Binocular therapy for childhood amblyopia improves vision without breaking interocular suppression

    Bossi, M; Tailor, VK; Anderson, EJ; Bex, PJ; Greenwood, JA; Dahlmann-Noor, A; Dakin, Steven (2017-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Purpose: Amblyopia is a common developmental visual impairment characterized by a substantial difference in acuity between the two eyes. Current monocular treatments, which promote use of the affected eye by occluding or blurring the fellow eye, improve acuity, but are hindered by poor compliance. Recently developed binocular treatments can produce rapid gains in visual function, thought to be as a result of reduced interocular suppression. We set out to develop an effective home-based binocular treatment system for amblyopia that would engage high levels of compliance but that would also allow us to assess the role of suppression in children's response to binocular treatment. Methods: Balanced binocular viewing therapy (BBV) involves daily viewing of dichoptic movies (with "visibility" matched across the two eyes) and gameplay (to monitor compliance and suppression). Twenty-two children (3-11 years) with anisometropic (n = 7; group 1) and strabismic or combined mechanism amblyopia (group 2; n = 6 and 9, respectively) completed the study. Groups 1 and 2 were treated for a maximum of 8 or 24 weeks, respectively. Results: The treatment elicited high levels of compliance (on average, 89.4% ?? 24.2% of daily dose in 68.23% ?? 12.2% of days on treatment) and led to a mean improvement in acuity of 0.27 logMAR (SD 0.22) for the amblyopic eye. Importantly, acuity gains were not correlated with a reduction in suppression. Conclusions: BBV is a binocular treatment for amblyopia that can be self-administered at home (with remote monitoring), producing rapid and substantial benefits that cannot be solely mediated by a reduction in interocular suppression.

    View record details
  • Orientation-crowding within contours

    Glen, JC; Dakin, Steven (2013-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    We examined how crowding (the breakdown of object recognition in the periphery caused by interference from "clutter") depends on the global arrangement of target and distracting flanker elements. Specifically we probed orientation discrimination using a near-vertical target Gabor flanked by two vertical distractor Gabors (one above and one below the target). By applying variable (opposite-sign) horizontal offsets to the positions of the two flankers we arranged the elements so that on some trials they formed contours with the target and on others they did not. While the presence of flankers generally elevated orientation discrimination thresholds for the target we observe maximal crowding not when flanker and targets were co-aligned but when a small spatial offset was applied to flanker location, so that contours formed between flanker and targets only when the target orientation was cued. We also report that observers' orientation judgments are biased, with target orientation appearing either attracted or repulsed by the global/contour orientation. A second experiment reveals that the sign of this effect is dependent both on observer and on eccentricity. In general, the magnitude of repulsion is reduced with eccentricity but whether this becomes attraction (of element orientation to contour orientation) is dependent on observer.We note however that across observers and eccentricities, the magnitude of repulsion correlates positively with the amount of release from crowding observed with co-aligned targets and flankers, supporting the notion of fluctuating bias as the basis for elevated crowding within contours.

    View record details
  • Reduced crowding and poor contour detection in schizophrenia are consistent with weak surround inhibition

    Robol, V; Tibber, MS; Anderson, EJ; Bobin, T; Carlin, P; Shergill, SS; Dakin, Steven (2013-04-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background Detection of visual contours (strings of small oriented elements) is markedly poor in schizophrenia. This has previously been attributed to an inability to group local information across space into a global percept. Here, we show that this failure actually originates from a combination of poor encoding of local orientation and abnormal processing of visual context. Methods We measured the ability of observers with schizophrenia to localise contours embedded in backgrounds of differently oriented elements (either randomly oriented, near-parallel or near-perpendicular to the contour). In addition, we measured patients??? ability to process local orientation information (i.e., report the orientation of an individual element) for both isolated and crowded elements (i.e., presented with nearby distractors). Results While patients are poor at detecting contours amongst randomly oriented elements, they are proportionally less disrupted (compared to unaffected controls) when contour and surrounding elements have similar orientations (near-parallel condition). In addition, patients are poor at reporting the orientation of an individual element but, again, are less prone to interference from nearby distractors, a phenomenon known as visual crowding. Conclusions We suggest that patients??? poor performance at contour perception arises not as a consequence of an ???integration deficit??? but from a combination of reduced sensitivity to local orientation and abnormalities in contextual processing. We propose that this is a consequence of abnormal gain control, a phenomenon that has been implicated in orientation-selectivity as well as surround suppression.

    View record details
  • Spatial-frequency dependent binocular imbalance in amblyopia

    Kwon, M; Wiecek, E; Dakin, Steven; Bex, PJ (2015-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    While amblyopia involves both binocular imbalance and deficits in processing high spatial frequency information, little is known about the spatial-frequency dependence of binocular imbalance. Here we examined binocular imbalance as a function of spatial frequency in amblyopia using a novel computer-based method. Binocular imbalance at four spatial frequencies was measured with a novel dichoptic letter chart in individuals with amblyopia, or normal vision. Our dichoptic letter chart was composed of band-pass filtered letters arranged in a layout similar to the ETDRS acuity chart. A different chart was presented to each eye of the observer via stereo-shutter glasses. The relative contrast of the corresponding letter in each eye was adjusted by a computer staircase to determine a binocular Balance Point at which the observer reports the letter presented to either eye with equal probability. Amblyopes showed pronounced binocular imbalance across all spatial frequencies, with greater imbalance at high compared to low spatial frequencies (an average increase of 19%, p < 0.01). Good test-retest reliability of the method was demonstrated by the Bland-Altman plot. Our findings suggest that spatial-frequency dependent binocular imbalance may be useful for diagnosing amblyopia and as an outcome measure for recovery of binocular vision following therapy.

    View record details
  • The role of crowding in contextual influences on contour integration

    Robol, V; Casco, C; Dakin, Steven (2012-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Dakin and Baruch (2009) investigated how context influences contour integration, specifically reporting that nearperpendicular surrounding-elements reduced the exposure-duration observers required to localize and determine the shape of contours (compared to performance with randomly oriented surrounds) while near-parallel surrounds increased this time. Here, we ask if this effect might be a manifestation of visual crowding (the disruptive influence of ''visual clutter'' on object recognition). We first report that the effect generalizes to simple contour-localization (without explicit shape-discrimination) and influences tolerance to orientation jitter in the same way it affects threshold exposure-duration. We next directly examined the role of crowding by quantifying observers' local uncertainty (about the orientation of the elements that comprised our contours), showing that this largely accounts for the effects of context on global contour integration. These findings support the idea that context influences contour integration at a predominantly local stage of processing and that the local effects of crowding eventually influence downstream stages in the cortical processing of visual form.

    View record details
  • Enhanced integration of motion information in children with autism

    Manning, C; Tibber, MS; Charman, T; Dakin, Steven; Pellicano, E (2015-05-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    To judge the overall direction of a shoal of fish or a crowd of people, observers must integrate motion signals across space and time. The limits on our ability to pool motion have largely been established using the motion coherence paradigm, in which observers report the direction of coherently moving dots amid randomly moving noise dots. Poor performance by autistic individuals on this task has widely been interpreted as evidence of disrupted integrative processes. Critically, however, motion coherence thresholds are not necessarily limited only by pooling. They could also be limited by imprecision in estimating the direction of individual elements or by difficulties segregating signal from noise. Here, 33 children with autism 6-13 years of age and 33 age- and ability-matched typical children performed a more robust task reporting mean dot direction both in the presence and the absence of directional variability alongside a standard motion coherence task. Children with autism were just as sensitive to directional differences as typical children when all elements moved in the same direction (no variability). However, remarkably, children with autism were more sensitive to the average direction in the presence of directional variability, providing the first evidence of enhanced motion integration in autism. Despite this improved averaging ability, children with autism performed comparably to typical children in the motion coherence task, suggesting that their motion coherence thresholds may be limited by reduced segregation of signal from noise. Although potentially advantageous under some conditions, increased integration may lead to feelings of "sensory overload" in children with autism.

    View record details
  • Local responses to land grabbing and displacement in rural Cambodia

    Neef, Andreas; Touch, S (2016)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Cambodia is endowed with relatively abundant natural resources. The Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) holds about 75-80 per cent of the country???s territory under the status of ???state land??? (USAID 2011). The 2001 Land Law allows the RGC to reclassify ???state public land??? into ???state private land??? as a precondition to allocate concessions for various purposes. An increasing share of state private land has been allocated as economic land concessions (ELCs) to Cambodian business tycoons, political elites and foreign investors since the mid-2000s, mostly for agro-industrial plantations and ??? more recently ??? tourism developments. As a consequence, land disputes have shown an increasing trend from the 2000s onwards. The Cambodian League for the Promotion and Defense of Human Rights recorded a total of 1,162 land conflicts ??? each involving at least five households ??? in the 10 years from 2004 to 2013 (C Oldenburg, personal communication). Most of the cases occurred in areas with strong economic growth, were about agricultural land and involved powerful foreign investors, domestic political and economic elites and local authorities. According to data collated by the Cambodian Human Rights and Development Association (ADHOC), more than 770,000 Cambodians ??? equal to almost 6 per cent of the population ??? have been affected by land grabs and resulting conflicts over natural resources (ADHOC 2014). Military and police forces have played an increasingly prominent role in land disputes and land evictions, siding with company owners and national, provincial and district authorities (Neef et al. 2013).

    View record details