82,930 results

  • Cultivating Climate Consciousness: Agritourism Providers’ Perspectives of Farms, Food and Place

    Cavaliere, Christina T. (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The aim of this PhD research is to explore climate change perspectives of agritourism providers in New Jersey (NJ) located in the United States (US). Research objectives include the assessment of agritourism providers’ narratives around the status of farms, food and the constructions of place as related to climate change. The forces driving climate change are a complex mix of biophysical, cultural and socio-economic factors. This human induced climate challenge is caused by increases in emissions from fossil fuels resulting from economic and population growth. Farms and food production both contribute to and at the same time are impacted by climate change. As opposed to industrial agriculture, the examination of local agriculture as a source of sustenance, resilience and reconnection to place is significant as human population increases. Agritourism is considered as any business conducted by a farmer for the enjoyment or education of the public, to promote the products of the farm and to generate additional income. The intrinsic, transformative and socio-cultural components of agritourism hold value that is yet to be fully understood by increasingly urbanized, globalised and time-space-compressed societies. This examination of agritourism providers’ narratives concerning climate change is particularly relevant to NJ as it is the most densely populated geo-political boundary in the US. Using a qualitative inquiry approach, this research utilizes social constructionism and is understood as a collective generation and transmission of meaning. The empirical material was collected via a series of 36 semi-structured, open-ended interviews that lasted an average of two hours each and were conducted over a five-month period. Interwoven participant and researcher reflectivity regarding place consciousness and connection to landscapes through food was critical to the co-constructed narratives. In addition, the research method of co-constructed photography was employed in order to more deeply facilitate embodied narratives. Furthermore, publicly documented material was collected from 52 newspaper articles and 11 documentaries related to the research themes and were utilised for additional and comparative information. Content analysis of the empirical data resulted in the identification of six primary themes that include: consumption, production, time, alternate ways of knowing, nature-based experiences and knowledge networks. There are two main theoretical elements underpinning this research. These elements are directly related to the economic and population drivers of the climate challenge and were utilised to explore the human relationship to these issues. First, the economic concept of degrowth as related to climate change is presented along with the New Economics Framework (NEF). The second theoretical component is related to agritourism and place consciousness. Farms and resulting foodscapes can serve to develop connections and holistic understandings that embed individuals within the social and natural world. A Multidisciplinary Framework for Place Conscious Education (MFPCE) was applied to deconstruct themes derived from the empirical data relating to place consciousness. The research findings indicated that there is an increasing concern related to climate change implications for agritourism providers. At the same time, there is strong evidence that the participants are not equipped with information to begin employing mitigation or adaptation strategies. Agritourism providers involved with organic practices were more concerned and informed about climate change than those involved in conventional agriculture. The status of farms was identified as a biocultural conservation issue due to population pressure and land-use challenges resulting in the impending total build-out of the state. The presence of specific social movements that address the climate challenge were identified as part of sustainability focused agritourism sites. Participants also discussed related activities that included Community Supported Agricultural (CSA) schemes, relocalisation of food consumption through a food-labelling programme, farming apprenticeships and the development of localised speciality foods including aquaculture. Participants understood these social movements and related activities as approaches to engaging with new economics for transitions to post-carbon livelihoods. The multi-theoretical roles of temporality and temporal relationships were identified and contributed as new indicators to the NEF and the MFPCE frameworks. In summary, participant narratives involving farms, food and place were explored as a way to further understand more nuanced meanings of the human relationship to climate change. This research furthers qualitative agritourism research from an interpretivist perspective and within a region that is understudied. Through the amalgamation of literature, empirical findings and the contribution of new framework indicators, this research explores aspects of cultivating new economic and place-based climate consciousness within the agritourism context.

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  • Ideologies of Nature and Sustainability: A critical discourse analysis

    Tulloch, Lynley (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    In exploring ideologies of nature, sustainability and EE, I have had several goals in mind. Firstly, I want to trace the continuities and disruptions in Western ideologies of nature, and in particular, to locate them within the material context of the historical trajectory of the capitalist mode of production (CMP). That is, the ideologies of nature explored in this thesis are treated as integral to the historical and dialectical unfolding of the CMP. Many historical ideas on nature, particularly those since the Enlightenment, have become incorporated in dominant forms of social thought that are integral to Western capitalist development. In the present era of neoliberal-led global capitalism, these same fundamental ideologies are expressed in neoliberal forms within policy contexts, which are explored in the latter part of this thesis. Initially, I explore these ideologies of nature using Foucault’s genealogical strategy. This exploration is detailed in the first two articles in this thesis. These articles provide a foundational platform to analyse how the neoliberal project has harnessed dominant, common-sense ideologies of nature (for example, nature as benevolent and all-giving; nature as an ecosystem) and articulated them with capitalist ideologies (nature as resource, commodity or service for humankind). Through this discursive struggle for neoliberal ascendency, basic capitalist ideologies of nature have been reasserted and brought to the foreground. In this respect, I hope to capture the essential and invariant ideological core of the capitalist view of nature; how its form changes over time and space and, in particular, to examine its mid-range expression in this neoliberal era. Secondly, this thesis aims to document and analyse these ideologies of nature in terms of their humanist, androcentric and anthropocentric orientation. It is argued that these are also integral to the core and essential form of the capitalist view of nature. This is significant to my critique, in the latter half of this thesis, of EE, EfS) or EfSD policy. As Michael Bonnett (2007) has argued, official environmental education policy globally largely ignores the question of nature. In short, it has become invisible as dominant capitalist ideologies of nature seek to redefine it in instrumental terms as ‘resource’ or ‘ecosystem service’. Accordingly, I demonstrate that ideologies are not clearly demarcated and contained within labelled categories but are rather divergent and interlaced with a range of presuppositions. It is in uncovering underpinning premises about our relation as humans to nature within discursive positionings that is central to the analysis of environmental education. The meaning of ‘nature’, our underlying attitude and our relationship to it is thus of critical significance to this thesis. Thirdly, this thesis explores how these ideologies manifest within the political struggles of our times. I intend to demonstrate in this thesis, that neoliberal ideologies of nature operating within specific policy settings are constitutive of a particular form of the capitalist worldview concerning human-nature relations.

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  • Integration of Science, Mathematics and Technology

    Mathew Thomas, Tiju (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This research focused on studying the integration of science, mathematics and technology in a technological design context. The daily classroom practices of a teacher and 19 of his students (aged 15-16) in a technology class were analysed with a focus on the knowledge and skills used while designing individualised projects (street luge gravity-powered vehicle) with a view to identifying the integration of cross-disciplinary knowledge. This research is aligned with the elements of both interpretive and critical theory paradigms. The focus of the interpretive paradigm rests on how students construct meaning from their personal experiences and their world view. Critical theory is used to create a platform for integration by understanding the current practices and phenomena in a technology classroom to develop strategies that could be implemented in other classrooms to create an integrative learning environment.

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  • Ventriloquism as early literacy practice: making meaning in pretend play

    Bateman, Amanda (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article discusses how children in New Zealand make meaning in their spontaneous pretend play from kindergarten (four years old) through to their first year of primary school (five years old). The findings discussed here are taken from a wider project investigating children’s storytelling where 12 child participants were video recorded during their everyday storytelling experiences over a three-year period. This article reveals how children’s engagement in pretend play often involves playing out an impromptu storyline where ventriloquism is used to talk objects into life through paralinguistic features such as gesture, gaze and voice prosody. These findings suggest that through the act of ventriloquism in pretend play children learn to engage in complex meaning making activities in playful ways, orally formulating characters and building coherent and systematic storylines that can be identified as early literacy practices.

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  • Healthy Pacific Grandparents: A Participatory Action Research Project Exploring Ageing Well Amongst Pacific People in New Zealand

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    The New Zealand older adult population (aged 65+ years) is growing at a faster rate than the younger population, with many of those in the later years living much longer. The proportion of older Pacific people is forecast to reach 4.1% of the country’s total population within the next two decades, highlighting the importance of research focused on ageing Pacific populations. This article sets out the research protocol and methods for the Pacific Islands Families: Healthy Pacific Grandparents’ Study, which aims to investigate older Pacific people’s viewpoints on ageing to identify specific cultural values, perspectives and understandings as the Pacific population in New Zealand ages. The study will recruit and utilize participants from a grandparent cohort that is nested within the families of the longitudinal Pacific Islands Families Study. This study uses a Participatory Action Research approach to position the participants in a leadership role where they are co-researchers involved in both the research and the implementation of recommendations. Utilizing a transformative research process will bring older Pacific people together to define for themselves their needs and their experiences, identify any areas of shortcoming, and support the implementation of solutions through strategic and informed actions.

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  • Do We Teach the Right Thing? A Comparison of Global Software Engineering Education and Practice

    Beecham, S; Clear, T; Noll, J

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    Global Software Engineering (GSE) is a reality for even the smallest companies, so software engineering students need to learn how to work in a globally distributed development context. Many approaches to teaching GSE have been described in the literature. Since the majority of software development is done by engineers working in small or medium sized enterprises (SMEs) we now ask: Are today's students being trained to work effectively in small distributed companies?We surveyed three GSE SMEs to identify which of 70 Global Teaming Model (GTM) practices were problematic and important to this sample. We then mapped recommendations for GSE educators to those pinpointed GTM practices. Finally, we analysed the level to which these needed GTM practices were addressed by the GSE-Education (GSE-Ed) literature, and who performed these practices. Nine GTM practices were found important and relevant to all three SMEs. Seven of these were addressed by GSE-Ed recommendations, and two were seen to be lacking. A rich set of 63 unique GSE-Ed recommendations were found to support the seven GTM practices, but our analysis unearthed a surprising complexity of roles and responsibilities undertaken by the instructor in GSE-Ed courses. As a result student and client involvement in coordination and collaboration activities tended to be weakened or non-existent. In order to ensure graduates are prepared for the reality, practitioners of SMEs need to take on a more active role in the education process. Also, students need to be given more responsibility so they can learn the broader professional and management skills required when developing software in multi-site SME teams.

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  • Meeting Employers Expectations of DevOps Roles: Can Dispositions Be Taught?

    Clear, T

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    An abstract is not available.

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  • Women's leadership in traditional villages in Samoa: The cultural, social, and religious challenges

    Finau, Silia Pa'usisi (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Samoan legends and myths document that matriarchal leadership existed prior to colonisation and Christianity. This was evident in the administration of Queen Salamasina, the first official tafa’ifā (holder of four paramount chiefly titles) in the history of the country. However, the era of matriarchs began to erode and was completely worn away with the introduction of male leadership, firstly, and most severely, by Christian missionaries in 1830, and later by colonial powers after World War 2. Leadership positions in families, churches, local government, national government, and most cultural, religious, and modern organisations have been predominantly held by males. Aspiring women leaders strive to gain leadership positions, but are faced with a variety of restrictions. Therefore, a search for gender equality in participation and representation in traditional village judiciaries (local government) warrants this study. This study focussed on exploring the challenges that impede Samoan women from leadership positions in local government (pulega o nu’u). This qualitative study employed multiple methods for data collection consisting of interviews, observations, and document analysis. Interviews and observations were facilitated by the talanoa research framework, an indigenous research method effective for indigenous people conversing in their own vernacular, in this case, in the Samoan language. The data collected from interviews and observations was analysed by thematic analysis where major themes were constructed from consistent patterns emerging from coding, recoding, and interpreting data. Participants were selected through a purposeful sampling technique to yield in-depth information for the study. The study found that barriers limiting women’s opportunities for leadership positions in traditional villages in Samoa are based on cultural values, religious beliefs, and social assumptions. Cultural values are most influential in people’s perception of a leader, as male leadership is entrenched as the true cultural norm. Religious beliefs that emphasise the importance of the father as the leader and the head of the family reinforce cultural restrictions on women accessing leadership positions. Social assumptions that associate women’s work with household tasks further curb women’s leadership aspirations. The participants in this study believed their rights to leadership were disrupted by the structure of the local government, as leadership for them has been restricted to the confinement of the women’s committees. Women cannot participate fully in village councils (fono a le nu’u) because they neither hold matai titles nor recognised by male leaders. In addition to not gaining full participation in village councils, women without matai titles were excluded from standing for parliament. This study sets the platform to generate further dialogue about the exclusion of women from positions of authority in local government, as well as addressing general gender inequality issues. This study also makes a valuable contribution to feminist thinking, promotes the field of women’s leadership, and makes an important contribution to the Pacific cultural leadership, specifically.

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  • Does Mindfulness Reduce Perceptions of False Self?

    Deverick, Zoe (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Mindfulness, as measured by the Five Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), has been proposed to consist of five component facets. These facets capture the ability to observe present moment experience, to describe that experience using words, to adopt a non-reactive and non-judgemental stance to experience, and to act with awareness. Authenticity is a distinct but related construct, and refers to the perception that one’s outward behaviours are in accord with one’s inner thoughts, feelings, and beliefs. Levels of both mindfulness and of authenticity have been found to correlate positively with positive psychological outcomes, such as subjective wellbeing, and to correlate negatively with negative psychological outcomes, such as anxiety and depression. This thesis considered the construct of false self, as measured by the Perceptions of False Self scale (PoFS), to be antithetical to authenticity. In other words, false self refers to the experience of that one’s behaviour is not in accordance with one’s inner thoughts, feelings, or beliefs, leading to the unpleasant experience of inauthenticity or ‘phoniness’. A negative relationship between mindfulness and false self was expected to be found. Ratings on the FFMQ and the PoFS were examined in a population of university undergraduates, both concurrently and longitudinally at four months. Hypotheses for this study were as follows: (H1) mindfulness and false self would negatively correlate, (H2) mindfulness scores would predict a decrease in false self over time, and (H3), in line with prior research, the FFMQ facet of Observing would exhibit a weaker relationship with false self compared to the other FFMQ facets. This study also proposed one research question (RQ1), which sought to determine whether the relationship between mindfulness and false self would be curvilinear such that the negative relationship would be stronger at low levels of mindfulness than at high levels. Correlation matrixes and simultaneous inclusion hierarchical regressions were conducted to investigate H1, H2, and H3, and quadratic and cubic terms were entered into regression analyses to investigate RQ1. H1 and H2 were supported in that FFMQ scores were found to negatively predicted PoFS scores, both concurrently and over time. At the same time, PoFS scores also negatively predicted FFMQ scores over time. However, the predictive effect of mindfulness on false self was stronger than the reverse direction. H3 was supported, in that Observing tended to exhibit a weaker relationship with false self-perceptions compared to the other FFMQ facets. In answer to RQ1, no quadratic and cubic terms reached significance after correcting for the effect of multiple variables, suggesting that the relationship between false self and mindfulness can best be described as linear. The discovery of a longitudinal relationship between mindfulness and false self is a unique finding. This has important implications for the provision of mindfulness as an intervention to prevent the development of known negative psychological outcomes that result from experiences of false self.

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  • The Art of Social Connection: Exploring Former Refugee and Host Society Integration via a Collaborative, Participatory Painting Project in Wellington City

    Kale, Amber (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In light of the global humanitarian crisis, a climate of fear has arisen around refugees which is often exacerbated by the media perpetuating misinformation and negative stereotypes. Such misrepresentation is problematic as a skewed perspective of refugees, compounded with ethnic and cultural barriers to belonging, is leading to discriminatory practices in New Zealand. Thus, there exists an incongruence between New Zealand’s non-discriminatory equal citizenship rights in law; and refugee and ethnic discrimination and marginalisation in processes of social integration. To begin to bridge this incongruence, this research explores how theories of social connection may be practically applied to enable more equitable social outcomes. A scholar activist orientation was employed, informed by a participatory action research epistemology. These philosophical foundations influenced a qualitative multi-method methodology consisting of painting workshops, semi-structured interviews, participant observation, and public feedback. Within the workshops, former refugee and host society participants explored how concepts of home, belonging, and visibility within public space are imagined, normalised, and contested within everyday practices of inclusion and exclusion in Wellington. These themes were significant in enhancing understanding of participants’ unique experiences of displacement and place-attachment, and theorising how host societies might extend a more sincere welcome to newcomers. Applying a sociospatial relational framework to centralise participant interactions, I analysed how processes of social connection can begin to deconstruct negative refugee stereotypes, challenge normative conceptualisations of belonging, and enhance former refugees’ access to citizenship rights. As New Zealand prepares to raise the annual refugee quota, such democratic explorations and representations of place are crucial in informing a multicultural social policy framework to guide equitable integration praxis and critical political debate.

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  • Spatial and Temporal Modelling of Hoki Distribution using Gaussian Markov Random Fields

    Morris, Lindsay (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In order to carry out assessment of marine stock levels, an accurate estimate of the current year's population abundance must be formulated. Standardized catch per unit of effort (CPUE) values are, in theory, proportional to population abundance. However, this only holds if the species catchability is constant over time. In almost all cases it is not, due to the existence of spatial and temporal variation. In this thesis, we fit various models to test different combinations and structures of spatial and temporal autocorrelation within hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae) CPUE. A Bayesian approach was taken, and the spatial and temporal components were modelled using Gaussian Markov random fields. The data was collected from summer research trawl surveys carried out by the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) and the Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI). It allowed us to model spatial distribution using both areal and point reference approaches. To fit the models, we used the software Stan (Gelman et al., 2015) which implements Hamiltonian Monte Carlo. Model comparison was carried out using the Watanabe-Akaike information criterion (WAIC, (Watanabe, 2010)). We found that trawl year was the most important factor to explain variation in research survey hoki CPUE. Furthermore, the areal approach provided better indices of abundance than the point reference approach.

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  • Improving knowledge transfer: A realist evaluation of the implementation of knowledge transfer pathways by a health research funder

    Middleton, Lesley Anne (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Organisations whose mission is to fund health research are increasingly concerned with ensuring that the research they fund is used productively. The resulting interest in the concept of “knowledge transfer” has involved introducing policies to prompt researchers to think about their role, not just as knowledge producers, but as translators of research findings. In New Zealand, researchers can be asked, in their application for funds, to provide an account of what will happen to their research results. They are then judged on the quality of that account. However, little is known about how effectively this type of policy influences researchers to do more to make connections with those who use their findings. Using the explanatory power of the realist evaluative approach, this thesis examines the implementation of new instructions by the Health Research Council of New Zealand (HRC) for providing knowledge transfer pathways in research applications. A focus of the research is on how these instructions change (or do not change) the mind-set of researchers. Key informant interviews were held, and the scholarly and grey literature examined, to develop an initial theory on how researchers would be influenced by such instructions. Individual interviews were then held with researchers, seeking their reflections on what they had originally written in a specific knowledge transfer pathway and how this then matched up with what actually happened; these interviews were then used to refine the initial theory. Finally, an on-line survey was conducted with those who sat on the HRC’s research assessing committees in the 2014/15 funding round in order to refine the theory further. The final theory identified six mechanisms, which under different contexts, explain how the HRC’s knowledge transfer policy works (or does not work) to prompt researchers to reason differently. A continuum of reasoning in the form of a dimmer switch was used to explain circumstances where researchers may become more mindful of what is involved in knowledge transfer, but were not likely to markedly change their behaviours. Based on the assumption that the HRC wants to be more active in encouraging researchers to undertake activities other than producing research results, two recommendations are made: (1) knowledge transfer policies should support self-reflexivity by different groups of researchers rather than creating more hoops within the research application process, and (2) the processes by which knowledge transfer sections are judged needs to be strengthened if researchers are going to be confident that this is a “serious” part of the application process.

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  • Accommodation Providers’ Responses to Climate Change in Kyoto, Japan

    Takashima, Yoko (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Rising global concerns over climate change are one of today’s major challenges to the tourism sector and its subsectors, such as the accommodation industry. Given the limited progress in understanding climate change in the Asian tourism context, this study explores the responses of Japan’s accommodation providers in the Kyoto Prefecture to climate change adaptation and mitigation. The Kyoto Prefecture is regarded as an appropriate study location because of the association of the city with climate change governance and the city’s own initiatives with respect to improving environmental quality. The study assesses four different types of accommodation which include hotels, ryokan (traditional Japanese-style inns), lodges, and love hotels. A content analysis of accommodation websites and other units of analysis including blogs and corporate social responsibility (CSR) reports were employed to achieve the goals of this study. A total of 1,150 accommodation providers’ websites was analysed and the study found that a very small number of accommodation providers mentioned their green practices. Instead, more specific attributes of climate change responses were stated prominently on accommodation websites. The results reveal lack of disclosure of their environmental information in relation to measures to response to climate change.

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  • Resin and resin canals in families and clones of Pinus radiata (D. Don)

    Govina, James Kudjo (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Resin and resin canals are seen as defects in softwoods. The occurrence of these defects in appearance-grade radiata pine timbers causes devaluation. Living trees use resins and the resin canal networks as a defensive mechanism against pest and diseases by sealing wounds. This study determined the variation in resin quantity and resin canal features (density, percentage canal area, and canal size) between 2 year-old radiata pines grown from different genetic material. Out of an experiment for NZ radiata pine seed and clonal commercial deployment populations, 10 clones and 20 families were selected for the study. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was used to estimate resin quantity whereas microscopy was used to assess resin canal features. Wood samples were heated to help gather resin at the cross-section followed by the collection of absorbance spectra with an NIR fibre optic probe. Wood sections (~20 μm thick) were imaged with a 2400 dpi flatbed scanner in polarised light. ImageJ software was used to analyse the images and to determine the resin canal features. Data were analysed with the R statistical software. Resin quantity obtained by NIR varied significantly (p < 0.01) between clones and families with average values of 2.71 and 3.68 (AU) respectively. Average canal density was 0.69 canal/mm2 for clones and 1.53 canal/mm2 for families (p < 0.01). Average percentage canal area was 1.13% for clones and 1.53% for families (p < 0.01). In both families and clones, resin canals were of homogenous size of approximately 0.02 mm2. There were weak genetic correlations between resin quantity and other canal features (r = 0.07 with canal density, r = 0.10 with percentage canal area). Resin canal frequency was strongly correlated with percentage canal area (r = 0.94). Variability between clones and families was present for all variables and summarised by the coefficient of variation (CV). Resin quantity had a CV of 61% and 51% for clones and families respectively. Resin canal features had CVs ranging between 10% and 31% across the families and clones. Resin quantity determined by NIR across the families and clones had 4% heritability, whereas the resin canal features had ~ 30%. The low heritability found for resin quantity could be due to the indirect NIR assessment. The resin features correlated favourably with modulus of elasticity and longitudinal shrinkage. The lesser the resin features the stiffer the wood and the lesser longitudinal shrinkage. Basic density and volumetric shrinkage had no correlation with resin features. These results suggest that, presently, radiata pine growers can identify genetic material that is more suited for high-value appearance-grade timber as well as maintaining improved wood properties (stiffness, density, growth, and form) in the markets.

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  • Long term effects of benzylpiperazine and possible amelioration by environmental enrichment

    Dixon, Ellen (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Adolescents have a proclivity for risk taking and novelty seeking which can lead to BZP use and this can be damaging to the maturing brain. BZP is commonly consumed within party pills alongside TFMPP for its amphetamine like qualities and has the potential to be addictive. Therefore, it is important to study long term effects of BZP of which anxiety has been previously shown. The aim of this study was to investigate long term effects of BZP on anxiety and memory and to determine if attenuation by environmental enrichment is possible (because enrichment has demonstrated this with other drugs). 120 PVG/c rats of equal sex were housed in either enriched or standard caging and exposed to either saline, 10mg/kg or 20mg/kg BZP PND 41. They were then tested in a Y maze, elevated plus maze, light dark box and open field after PND 60 and PND 100 with two days in between each test. The results of this study showed BZP may affect memory but not after PND 100, anxiety may also be present depending on the apparatus used and sex of the animal, however results were conflicting. Lastly enrichment showed some memory enhancing capabilities and anxiolytic properties which further varied across apparatus. In conclusion BZP may decrease memory and increase anxiety over time but due to conflicting results needs further investigation. Similarly, although enrichment improved memory performance and decreased anxiety for some measures it also showed opposite reactions in others therefore further investigation is also needed of enrichment.

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  • Establishing Failure Indicators for Conventional On-site Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Prince, Preston Junior (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Conventional On-site Wastewater Treatment Systems (COWTS) are systems used for the treatment of domestic wastewater. These systems comprise of a septic tank that provides primary and secondary treatment in which solids are settled and broken down by biological processes, and a soil absorption trench or field that provides advance treatment for the discharge of effluent, mainly through filtration and adsorption. These systems are used primarily in regions where there is no reticulated wastewater disposal; however, significant increases in population, and poor design and management of these facilities have led to a large number of failing systems throughout the world. Owing to the constituents present in wastewaters and discharged effluent, failure of these systems is a public and environmental concern, as they have the potential to contaminate both surface water and groundwater resources, primarily through the release of pathogenic microorganism and nutrients. This thesis identifies modes of failure for COWTS and establishes indicators that can signal irregularities in their performance before complete failure occurs. It also demonstrates how some parameters can intensify failure. Design, technical, management and compliance are presented as the four categories of failure modes, and these are further divided into several sub–categories. The ratio of occupancy size, to septic tank volume, and the frequency of use contribute significantly to a system failure during the primary stages of treatment, while poor siting, user inexperience and soil properties within the drainage area largely contribute to failure during the secondary treatment stage. Parameters such as the proximity to a school, surface waterways and nearby dwellings are used to show how failures can be intensified. A methodology in the form of a monitoring model has proven to be very useful in increasing user awareness of a system’s performance, and can aid in preventing complete failure. Success with this methodology came by combining the failure indicators and intensifying parameters to generate a numerical risk score. This score is compared with examples of the likely occurrences of failures at that particular score. Darfield Township on the South Island of New Zealand is used as the case-study area to demonstrate how the monitoring methodology developed can be applied.

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  • Accumulation of trace elements in sediment and biota in the Wouri Estuary, Douala, Cameroon.

    Gemuh, Hosea Aghogah (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Wouri Estuary on Cameroon’s Atlantic Coast is located adjacent to the Douala metropolitan area. Three rivers (Wouri, Dibamba, and Mungo) discharge into the Wouri Estuary. Seventy percent of the industries (soap, brewery, food processing, salt, cement, petroleum and pharmaceutical) in Cameroon are found in the City of Douala. These industries discharge their waste into the estuary. Urban and agricultural runoff are also discharged into the estuary. The urban population of the City of Douala consume shrimp and fish from the estuary daily. This thesis investigated the concentrations of trace element (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) in sediment and biota (bonga, catfish and shrimp) in the Wouri Estuary and assessed the human health risk associated with the consumption of fish and shrimp sourced from the estuary by households in the Douala’s Akwa and Makepe Missoke neighbourhoods. A questionnaire based survey was used to collect data on the consumption rates of fish and shrimp in the Douala’s Akwa and Makepe Missoke neighbourhoods. The results of the survey showed that more than 60% of households in both neighbourhoods consumed fish and shrimp sourced from the Wouri Estuary. Average consumption rates ranged from 39-387g for dried shrimp and fish, and 455-2083.3g for fresh shrimp and fish. None of the sediment samples collected from the Wouri Estuary had trace element concentrations that exceeded the ANZECC Interim Sediment Quality Guideline High. However, concentrations of Cr, Cu and Ni exceeded the ANZECC Interim Sediment Quality Guideline Low at some sites. The trace elements most enriched in sediment from the Wouri Estuary were Cd, Cu and Pb. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn were generally higher in liver than in gills and muscle of bonga and catfish. None of the trace element concentrations in biota exceeded guidelines for human health. Although trace element concentrations were low, the risk assessment conducted for the Douala’s Akwa and Makepe Missoke neighbourhoods indicated that As and Pb from dried fish bought from the market are of concern for fish consumers.

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  • Effect of open student models on self-assessment, problem selection and learning

    Ahmadi, Mohammad (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Student modeler, as the central component of Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs), has been formed to assist in systems’ decision making for students’ learning. The ITS can adapt its pedagogical actions to provide personalized learning feedback by analyzing students’ knowledge represented in the student modeler. It is well-known that viewing individual Open Student Models (OSMs) can help students to reflect on their own learning progress and enhance their meta-cognitive skills, such as self-assessment and problem selection. It is also shown that better meta-cognitive skills lead to better learning outcomes. By knowing their strengths and weaknesses in the corresponding domain through inspecting the OSM, students can develop a more effective and efficient way of learning. On one hand, the OSM can provide detailed information about the student state of knowledge. On the other hand, it is important for any instructional method to effectively and efficiently utilize the limited human working memory which directly impacts the design of OSM. It is shown that the performance of instructional systems can drop because of the under load or overload of the learner’s cognitive capacity. Our aim here is to study the effect of the type and amount of information presented to student in their OSM on their learning outcome, self-assessment skills and their problem selection skills as well as the motivation to utilize these meta-cognitive skills. We picked a problem-solving environment called EER-Tutor, which is a web-enhanced ITS that supports university students in learning conceptual database modelling using the Enhanced Entity-Relationship model (EER), as our test bed for our study. We designed a new strategy for presenting information about the student’s progress via OSM and problem selection page, and we evaluated the impact of this new presentation on student’s learning and meta-cognitive skills by running a classroom experiment.

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  • MPHS future discussion - a snapshot of MPHS : 2001 and 2013 census and stories and dialogues from MPHS

    Bridgman, Geoffrey (2017-05-10T05:40:15Z)

    Unclassified
    Unitec

    PART 1: Comparison between the 2001 and 2013 Census data ;Population and culture ; Smoking, partners, home ownership ; Religion and qualifications ; Individual income ; Employment and occupation ; Hours of work, travel, volunteering ; Household data size income, rents, vehicle ownership ; The private dwelling ; Conclusion. PART 2: MPHS stories and dialogues Stories: Mae's story : how the Hub opened up a world of possibility Dialogues: The Gangs Neighbours Buses Trains Time The Hub Police, Community Patrols, Wardens

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  • Critical Chain Project Management - an abductive view.

    Mabin, V.; Mirzaei, Maryam (2017-05-10T05:39:27Z)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM) has been a controversial topic with extreme opinions on its merits. While there are many reports of dramatic improvements in many project contexts, there have also been claims that it does not apply to all projects. This paper sets out to articulate where and why CCPM is applicable by carefully examining its assumptions and reconstructing its underpinning model of reality. Such examination required an in-depth analysis of both the theoretical assumptions of CCPM and the empirical reality of projects. This research used an abductive process adopting an iterative learning loop between theory and practice. Theoretical data was drawn from analysis of a comprehensive database comprising 600 scholarly publications on CCPM. Empirical data was obtained from a total of 10 projects from a diverse range of industries using semi-structured interviews and project documents. CCPM literature describes a project’s goal as predefined output with fixed value. Not all projects conformed to this characteristic and some projects were found to be constrained by various aspects of scope formulation. The CCPM solution also requires agreed priorities for the project and elimination of deterministic start dates. These imply unity of purpose and a global definition of efficiency. CCPM portrays project work as a baton passing sequentially between project actors. While this was observable in some projects, in others a dedicated team shared carrying the baton throughout the project. When a project is executed by a non-dedicated team, the constraint is the longest chain of dependent activities. However, in a dedicated team, the system ‘is’ the team and therefore its weakest link is the most constrained resource. CCPM literature also implies a high level of urgency which was not observed in all case projects. These characteristics can guide practitioners both in choosing and/or tailoring CCPM for their particular projects.

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