7,145 results for 1900

  • A comparison between the early colonisations of New Zealand and America

    Burrows, James Thomas (1935)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In attempting this comparison between the early colonisation of America and New Zealand, only certain outstanding features have been taken, and these of necessity have been treated in a general fashion. Two courses were open in the treatment of material. On the one hand, all the activities of the Thirteen American Colonies and of New Zealand could have been given in detail – a procedure which hardly lent itself to such a work as this. On the other hand, facts of American and New Zealand history as supplied by prominent historians could have been accepted, and nothing but a bare comparison made, all else being taken for granted. I have aimed at steering a middle course, and have tried to give just sufficient detail to supply a background for comparisons between the two countries.

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  • The individual child : study of the development of social services in education in relation to the first Labour government's educational policy

    Goodyear, Rosemary Katherine (1987)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    The subject of this study is the effect which the policy of the individual child, as expressed by the Labour Government in 1939, had on the development of social services in education. This development was examined chiefly from 1935-1948, but the requirements of the study meant that the inclusion of material from outside this time period was necessary. Social services have been interpreted to mean those services which developed to cater for the emotional and physical well being of a child. The emphasis of this study is on the services which developed in the context of the primary and secondary school systems : health services in schools, Vocational guidance and careers advisory service, the Visiting Teachers service, and lastly the Psychological service. Since the Child Welfare Division of the Department of Education comes outside this definition, it is not specifically included in this study. A variety of primary sources form the basis of this work. The Appendices to the Journal of the House of Representatives proved a valuable source, and gave the basic facts of the development of social services in education. The substance of my essay was largely derived from the Education and Health Department files at National Archives in Wellington. Examination of these files was time consuming due to the large volume of material which had to be sifted through. This effort was amply rewarded by the insights gained into the inner workings of the services, the problems, personalities, and developments. Letters from the public included in these files also gave an account of how the community viewed these changes. Some of the material in Chapter IV was based on an oral history exercise on the development of the Visiting Teachers Service in Otago, which I researched in 1986. I placed great importance on my interview with Dr C.E. Beeby, and on his article in the Listener because he was Director of Education at the time. His contribution to the development of social services in education was decisive. Allowance had to be made for a natural bias, but he gave an insight into the changes in education, and contributed a sense of the personalities of the time. Some secondary sources were very useful in checking information. Education Today and Tomorrow provided a clear statement of the Labour Government's policy on education. Ralph Winterbourn's Guidance Services in New Zealand Education was a good reference book, since he was another important personality in education during this period. The development of the policy of the 'individual child' was extremely important since it set the theoretical basis in education until the present day. In 1986 Dr C.E. Beeby wrote "For me, the most important discovery in education over this century has been the discovery by the school system of the individual child".

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  • Aerodynamics of two-dimensional sail wings

    Bundock, Michael Stephen (1980)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The purpose of this work is to obtain the exact solution for the profile and characteristics of a two-dimensional sail, immersed in an inviscid incompressible fluid. An experimental investigation was also performed and results are compared with theoretical predictions. The sail was assumed to be an infinitely flexible, non-porous membrane of zero thickness, fixed at the leading and trailing edges, and stretched under a constant tension T in the sail surface. An aerofoil model was considered where the airflow remains smoothly attached over the entire profile. All known previous studies have also used the inviscid fluid approximation, but made the further assumptions of small angle of attack and negligible profile slopes. These assumptions enable the use of thin aerofoil theory predictions for pressure distribution and linearisation of the sail equation. In contrast this investigation obtains the exact solution. An iterative numerical method is devised whereby an initial estimate is made for the profile using thin aerofoil theory. The pressure distribution is then determined using Theodorsen's method and the profile recalculated using the full sail equation, so that tension and pressure forces are balanced. The cycle of redetermining the pressure distribution and profile is repeated until a convergent solution is obtained. Results are shown for the profile, lift coefficient and centre of pressure, for various angles of attack and states of tension. For sails with non-negligible camber, values of lift coefficient and centre of pressure are found to differ significantly from those predicted by the linear approximations. Previous researchers have established the existence of a critical tension state where the tension force is unable to contain the pressure forces acting on the sail, and predicted that the value of this state (KTc) was independent of angle of attack. However this study indicates that KTc increases with increasing angle of attack. Centre of pressure calculations, for various angles of attack and states of tension, indicate that two-dimensional sails may possess either static longitudinal stability or instability, depending on the tension state. Experimental results for the profile, KTc, lift coefficient and centre of pressure are compared with theory, and areas of agreement and disagreement discussed. Experimental values for the drag coefficient and the lift to drag ratio were obtained and are discussed in detail.

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  • Geology of the western Mamaku Plateau and variations in the Mamaku ignimbrite

    Fransen, Pieter J.B. (1982)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Pleistocene ignimbrites in the western Mamaku Plateau east of Putaruru consist of the following successively younger formations: (?) Ongatiti Ignimbrite, Ahuroa Ignimbrite, Whakamaru Ignimbrite, Waihou Ignimbrite (new), Waimakariri Ignimbrite (new), Mamaku Ignimbrite. They can be distinguished on the basis of their compositional-, welding-, textural-, and field characteristics. The ignimbrites are separated by unconformities, and intercalated fluvial sedimentary deposits. The three most important units are the Whakamaru, Waimakariri and Mamaku Ignimbrites, which are well exposed and widespread. The Mamaku Ignimbrite covers a surface area of nearly 4300 km² on the Mamaku Plateau. Corresponding vertical changes in lithology, petrography and physical properties near the Rotorua Caldera define two flow members: a lower Sheet 1, and an upper Sheet 2, each of which is about 60 m thick. The ignimbrite constitutes a simple cooling unit which indicates that Sheet 2 was emplaced shortly after Sheet 1. Only one sheet (? Sheet 1) is evident in the western Mamaku Plateau. Welding zonation near-to-source is characterised by a gradual change from a basal glassy lenticulite zone to a nonwelded top. Smith's (1960b) zonal classification ranks the ignimbrite as being partially welded. This condition suggests that total thickness is not necessarily a major factor in the degree of welding of ignimbrites. The phenocryst assemblage of plagioclase, quartz, pyroxene, opaques, hornblende and biotite, is set in a devitrified fine ash matrix, which is an ubiquitous feature of the ignimbrite. Higher modal phenocryst content at the base of each sheet is attributed to compaction. Overall the phenocrysts are uniformly distributed and there is little vertical variation. Seven bulk chemical analyses reveal only minor vertical variations in composition. The near uniform chemical and mineralogical trends suggest nondifferentiation of the source magma. Texturally the Mamaku Ignimbrite is a poorly sorted lapilli ash. The grading of fragments like that shown in "the standard ignimbrite flow unit" is absent. However, the presence of a zone of aligned pumice fragments indicates that laminar flow operated during the later stages of deposition. Two major inferred faults in the western Mamaku Plateau define a western horst, a central graben, and an eastern horst. The eastern horst is postulated to be the southern extension of the axial median horst in the Hauraki Depression and of the Hauraki Rift. Repeated and extended intervals of erosion followed the emplacement of the ignimbrites. Detritus from the eroding sheets was removed by rivers flowing into the Hauraki Depression. Construction of the Mamaku Plateau has largely taken place since the eruption of the Whakamaru Ignimbrite, c.300,000 years ago, and terminated with the eruption of the Mamaku Ignimbrite, c.l40,000 years ago. Excavation of the long deep valleys in the plateau occurred mainly in the latter 42,000 years.

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  • Whaikoorero: a study of formal Maori speech

    Mahuta, Robert Te Kotahi (1974)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Whaikoorero is regarded as the traditionally valued mode of communication. It is the language of the marae, the language of the chiefs and elders, and the only acceptable form of public statement in the Maori world. At the same time it is an artistic form, difficult to master, and demanding long years of practice and experience. It is true, as I have pointed out, that one can read and listen to the myths and traditions of the Maori in books, on tapes, and through radio broadcasts. Yet it is the public rendering, the synthesising of myth and tradition, the living and the dead, and the interweaving of topical matters with the beliefs and values of the society, which hold the greatest interest for the Maori. For in whaikoorero history is relived, man reaffirmed, and status gained. The dead are recalled to participate with the living in social gatherings where tradition is orally transmitted, reaffirmed and relived. These then are some of the reasons why whaikoorero persists as a literary form and as a social feature within contemporary Maori society.

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  • SunOS Minix: a tool for use in Operating System Laboratories

    Ashton, Paul; Ayers, Daniel; Smith, Peter (1993)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Laboratory work is an essential part of the learning experience in many areas of Computer Science, and this is particularly true in the area of operating systems. To support laboratory work in operating systems, we have created SunOS Minix, a version of the Minix operating system that runs as a process under Sun Unix (SunOS). To date, projects for two advanced classes on operating systems have involved extensive work with the SunOS Minix source code. Also, we are in the process of developing a novel graphical monitoring and control interface that will make SunOS Minix a powerful tool for use in introductory operating system laboratories.

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  • A Case Study in Specifying and Testing Architectural Features

    Krishnan, Padmanabhan (1993)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper studies the speci cation and testing of two main architectural features. We consider restricted forms of instruction pipelining and parallel memory models present in the SPARC speci cation. The feasibility of using an automatic tool, the concurrency work bench, has been demonstrated.

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  • A Generator of Pseudo-Random Self-Similar Sequences Based on SRA

    Jeong, H. D. J.; McNickle, D.; Pawlikowski, K. (1998)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    It is generally accepted that self-similar (or fractal) processes may provide better models for teletraffic in modern computer networks than Poisson processes. If this is not taken into account, it can lead to inaccurate conclusions about performance of computer networks. Thus, an important requirement for conducting simulation studies of telecommunication networks is the ability to generate long synthetic stochastic self-similar sequences. A generator of pseudo-random self-similar sequences, based on the SRA method [5], is implemented and analysed in this report. Properties of this generator were experimentally studied in the sense of its statistical accuracy and the time required to produce sequences of a given (long) length. This generator shows acceptable level of accuracy of the output data (in the sense of relative accuracy of the Hurst parameter) and is fast. The theoretical algorithmic complexity is O(n) [20].

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  • Towards Computer-Supported Collaborative Software Engineering

    Cook, Carl (1993)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Software engineering is a fundamentally collaborative activity, yet most tools that support software engineers are designed only for single users. There are many foreseen benefits in using tools that support real time collaboration between software engineers, such as avoiding conflicting concurrent changes to source files and determining the impact of program changes immediately. Unfortunately, it is difficult to develop non-trivial tools that support real time Collaborative Software Engineering (CSE). Accordingly, the few CSE tools that do exist have restricted capabilities. Given the availability of powerful desktop workstations and recent advances in distributed computing technology, it is now possible to approach the challenges of CSE from a new perspective. The research goal in this thesis is to investigate mechanisms for supporting real time CSE, and to determine the potential gains for developers from the use of CSE tools. An infrastructure, Caise, is presented which supports the rapid development of real time CSE tools that were previously unobtainable, based on patterns of collaboration evident within software engineering. In this thesis, I discuss important design aspects of CSE tools, including the identification of candidate patterns of collaboration. I describe the Caise approach to supporting small teams of collaborating software engineers. This is by way of a shared semantic model of software, protocol for tool communication, and Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW) facilities. I then introduce new types of synchronous semantic model-based tools that support various patterns of CSE. Finally, I present empirical and heuristic evaluations of typical development scenarios. Given the Caise infrastructure, it is envisaged that new aspects of collaborative work within software engineering can be explored, allowing the perceived benefits of CSE to be fully realised.

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  • Perception of fairness in performance appraisals : a two sample study

    Erceg, John Nikola (1989)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The purpose of this study was to determine what is perceived as fair in performance appraisals by two samples of workers; those in charge of personnel (superiors) and those without such responsibilities (subordinates). 87 Government Department employees from different departments responded to an open ended questionnaire in which they described the determinants of particularly fair or unfair performance appraisals. By Q - sort analysis, the responses were categorised into 15 distinct determinants of fairness in performance evaluations from which an importance weighting questionnaire was constructed. Another 280 subjects from government departments completed the questionnaire: 109 superiors and 171 subordinates. Ratings of the perceived importance of each determinant were factor analysed for the entire sample, yielding 5 factors: 'thoroughness of appraisal for each individual', 'contact with appraiser I appraiser feedback', 'consequences of appraisal due to input', 'qualification of assessor', and 'sources of bias'. One factor 'Contact with the appraiser I appraisal feedback' found a significant difference between the two samples. The other four factors were perceived and rated the same over both samples. Also the recognition of both procedural and distributive factors was achieved by both superiors and subordinates. Results are discussed in terms of theory on organisational justice and existing research.

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  • MLSE Receiver for the Dispersive Rayleigh Fading Channel

    Leon, Wing Seng; Taylor, Desmond P. (1997)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    A maximum likelihood sequence estimator for the dispersive Rayleigh fading channel is developed. Following [1, 2], the MLSE uses a Kalman based channel estimator to acquire the channel parameters necessary to formulate the maximum likelihood metric. However, unlike the MLSE receiver presented in [1, 2], the proposed receiver uses the f-power series channel model [3, 4] to formulate the ML metric and the state space representation of the channel and the received samples. For channels with small delay spreads, this approach is advantageous because only a small number of parameters are required to be estimated by the Kalman channel estimator. Simulation results are presented for various channel parameters.

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  • DPSK Receiver with Implicit Diversity Gain for the Linearly Frequency-Selective Rayleigh Fading Channel

    Leon, Wing Seng; Taylor, Desmond P. (1999)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper presents a simple DPSK receiver for the frequency-selective fading channel. The channel is modelled as an f-power series truncated to the first two terms [1,2]. Two time invariant receiver filters are used to remove the channel induced ISI and to separate the two implicit diversity branches. The received samples from each branch are then differentially decoded and combined. Analytical and simulation results for binary DPSK show that this receiver outperforms the conventional receiver using matched filtering and a product demodulator.

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  • Equalization of Linearly Frequency-Selective Fading Channels

    Leon, W. S.; Mengali, U.; Taylor, D. P. (1997)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    A simple technique for removing intersymbol interference (ISI) introduced by "linearly frequency-selective" fading channels is presented. The technique involves the optimization of the overall impulse response of the transmit and receive filters and effectively reduces the channel to one which is flat fading. Computer simulation results show that this equalization method works for channels with small delays.

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  • On Differentially Demodulated CPFSK

    Griffin, Anthony; Taylor, Desmond P. (1996)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper develops a differential encoder for differentially demodulated continuous phase frequency shift keying (CPFSK). CPFSK schemes with modulation index , where and are relatively prime positive integers, can be represented by a decomposed model consisting of a continuous phase encoder (CPE) and a memoryless modulator (MM). The differential encoder is shown to fit well with the CPE and form a decomposed model of differentially encoded CPFSK (DCPFSK). A basic receiver structure for differentially demodulating DCPFSK is presented along with simulation results. An exact formula for the minimum squared Euclidean distance (MSED) of differentially demodulated DCPFSK is also given.

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  • An Adaptive Receiver for the Time- and Frequency-Selective Fading Channel

    Leon, W. S.; Taylor, D. P. (1997)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    An adaptive receiver is presented in this paper for the reception of linearly modulated signals transmitted over a time- and frequency-selective fading channel. The channel is modelled as a truncated power series [1] which represents the dispersive fading channel as a sum of three elementary flat-fading channels. The proposed receiver consists of a sequence estimator with a parallel channel estimator. The channel estimator recovers the instantaneous fading processes associated with each elementary channel and filters them to generate one-step predictions of each fading process. Some implementation difficulties and solutions are also discussed. Computer simulations using quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) and channels with moderate delay spreads and fade rates have been used to evaluate the performance of the receiver. The results show that our technique has potential in channels with delay spread of about 20%, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) greater than 15dB, and applications requiring bit-error rates (BER's) less than 10-2.

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  • A Complete Optical Music Recognition System: Looking to the future

    Bainbridge, David (1994)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Reading music is something a child can learn, and once understood, it becomes such a natural process that it is no longer a conscious efforE If we were to dissect this •natural process,' we might hypothesise that reading music is demmposed into tux:) parts: the visual recognition of graphical shapes; and the application of our musical knowledge to derive its meaning A computer paradigm that models this structure would be a v:sxon system connected to a knowledge base Imagine an Optical Music Recognition (ONIR) system where the user describes the simple graphical shapes found in music using a customised drawing package, and expresses the musical knowledge necessary to correctly interpret these simple graphical shapes, using a specially designed musical language Such a system would capture the essence of reading music, forming a versatile foundation Music is rich in its diversity of notatiom instruments include specialised markings in a score, for example bowing information for a violinist, and in extreme situations a score is presented using a substantially different notation style, for example guitar tablature Moreover, music notation is evolving, so even if were possible to completely capture all the primitive shapes used in music today, the set uould eventually become incomplete Such attributes emphasize the dynamic nature of the problem domain of OMR The describes] system meets such demands by allowing the user to specify 'what makes up music' Consequently the system is itself dynamie Let us now consider the proposed system in more detail, by studying the roles of the customised drawing package and specially designed musical language in turn Reading music is something a child can learn, and once understood, it becomes such a natural process that it is no longer a conscious efforE If we were to dissect this •natural process,' we might hypothesise that reading music is demmposed into tux:) parts: the visual recognition of graphical shapes; and the application of our musical knowledge to derive its meaning A computer paradigm that models this structure would be a v:sxon system connected to a knowledge base Imagine an Optical Music Recognition (ONIR) system where the user describes the simple graphical shapes found in music using a customised drawing package, and expresses the musical knowledge necessary to correctly interpret these simple graphical shapes, using a specially designed musical language Such a system would capture the essence of reading music, forming a versatile foundation Music is rich in its diversity of notatiom instruments include specialised markings in a score, for example bowing information for a violinist, and in extreme situations a score is presented using a substantially different notation style, for example guitar tablature Moreover, music notation is evolving, so even if were possible to completely capture all the primitive shapes used in music today, the set uould eventually become incomplete Such attributes emphasize the dynamic nature of the problem domain of OMR The describes] system meets such demands by allowing the user to specify 'what makes up music' Consequently the system is itself dynamie Let us now consider the proposed system in more detail, by studying the roles of the customised drawing package and specially designed musical language in turn

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  • Akaroa2: Exploiting Network Computing by Distributing Stochastic Simulation

    Ewing, G.; Pawlikowski, K.; McNickle, D. (1998)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In this paper we discuss an application of network computing in the area of stochastic simulation. We focus on main programming issues associated with designing of the latest version of AKAROA2, a simulation package in which network computing is applied in a practical and user-friendly way. This implemention is based on Multiple Replications In Parallel (MRIP) scenario of distributed simulation, in which multiple computers of a network operate as concurrent simulation engines generating statistically equivalent simulation output data, and submitting them to global data analysers responsible for analysis of the final results and for stopping the simulation. The MRIP scenario can achieve speedup equal to the number of processors used. Keywords: distributed computing, distributed simulation, stochastic simulation

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  • A Comparative Study of Generators of Synthetic Self-Similar Teletraffic

    Jeong, H.-D. J.; McNickle, D.; Pawlikowski, K. (1998)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    It is generally accepted that self-similar (or fractal) processes may provide better models for teletraffic in modern telecommunication networks than Poisson processes. If this is not taken into account, it can lead to inaccurate conclusions about performance of telecommunication networks. Thus, an important requirement for conducting simulation studies of telecommunication networks is the ability to generate long synthetic stochastic self-similar sequences. Three generators of pseudo-random self-similar sequences, based on the FFT [19], RMD [12] and SRA method [5], [10], are compared and analysed in this paper. Properties of these generators were experimentally studied in the sense of their statistical accuracy and times required to produce sequences of a given (long) length. While all three generators show similar levels of accuracy of the output data (in the sense of relative accuracy of the Hurst parameter), the RMD- and SRA-based generators appear to be much faster than the generator based on FFT. Our results also show that a robust method for comparative studies of self-similarity in pseudo-random sequences is needed.

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  • Visualisation Techniques for Collaborative GIS Browsers

    Churcher, Neville; Prachuabmoh, Parames; Churcher, Clare (1997)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Visual information overload is a serious problem for users of geographical information systems (GIS), or other applications with complex displays, where the requirements of access to both local detail and wider context conflict. This problem is compounded for users of real-time groupware applications by the need to maintain awareness information about other users and their actions. In this paper, we describe our use of fisheye views to assist with visual information overload management in GROUPARC, a lightweight real-time groupware application for browsing and annotating GIS data.

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  • An Interaction Network Monitor For Amoeba

    Ashton, Paul (1995)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The interaction network has been proposed as a way of representing interactive processing in a distributed system, and an interaction network monitor for SunOS was developed in earlier work. This paper describes development of an interaction network monitor for Amoeba, the first interaction network monitor for a distributed operating system. Case studies are used to show some of the types of information the monitor can capture, and to show that the monitor is a valuable tool for monitoring complex modern systems.

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