67,932 results for 2000

  • The New Zealand Legal Services Mapping Project: Finding Free and Low-Cost Legal Services Pilot Report

    Stewart, Kayla; Toy-Cronin, Bridgette (2018-05)

    Report
    University of Otago

    Most lawyers charge on an hourly basis and the average charge-out rate in 2016 was $292.70 (excluding GST and disbursements). This puts private lawyers out of reach for many New Zealanders whose median weekly earnings in 2017 were $959. If you found yourself involved in a civil legal dispute, but did not have enough to pay for a lawyer, could you get free or low-cost legal assistance? Piloting a method known as “mapping”, the report is an inventory of legal services in Auckland and Otago (the pilot regions), allowing identification of gaps in service provision. The report also discusses the results of an audit of registered civil legal aid providers to identify whether they were offering civil legal aid services, and if so, how much of their workload involved providing these services. The report discusses the legal aid eligibility criteria, currently set at $23,326.00 p.a. for an individual with no dependents. It also discusses the fact that only natural persons qualify for legal aid, so people running a small incorporated business will not be able to access legal aid for business disputes. For those eligible for legal aid, the report identifies further challenges to accessing legal aid: 1. Being deterred from taking up legal aid assistance because it is granted as a loan with the imposition of a user charge, interim repayments, interest, and sometimes a security taken over assets. 2. Finding a lawyer who will take their case. The number of registered civil legal aid lawyers is known to have decreased by 54 per cent between 2011 and 2016 and there are currently 150 registered providers in Auckland and 20 in Otago. The audit suggests that approximately one third of these registered lawyers are not currently providing services to civil legal aid clients. The number of available legal aid lawyers is therefore very limited. 3. Finding a local and/or specialist legal aid lawyer. Legal aid lawyers are not evenly distributed geographically, so people out of central city locations may find it difficult to access a lawyer. There is a very small pool of legal aid lawyers who can provide assistance in specialised civil areas, for example intellectual property, the example used in the report. For those who are ineligible for legal aid or cannot overcome the other barriers to accessing legal aid, there are a limited number of community organisations providing legal information, education, and advice. These organisations are constrained by limited resources and rarely provide representation. Some organisations set income-tested eligibility criteria. While these criteria are less restrictive than those of legal aid, there will be a significant group who earn above the threshold amounts but who still cannot afford ongoing representation by a lawyer. Due to the limited number of free or low costs services in New Zealand, a national database of services would most helpfully be combined with a user-friendly hub for self-help legal information resources. It would be helpful to have further detail about what private legal service providers are offering to low or middle-income clients who cannot afford full private fees, including: 1. Why some legal aid providers are no longer offering civil legal aid services or are only doing so on a very limited basis; 2. The scope, availability, and accessibility of pro bono legal services, which several lawyers mentioned as being a source of free or low-cost legal services; 3. The type of fee arrangements or discount arrangements that lawyers are offering and for which categories of clients. These questions will be explored in the next phase of this study.

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  • Love Does Not Seek Its Own: Augustine, Economic Division, and the Formation of a Common Life

    Ryan, Jonathan David (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis arises out of contemporary concerns regarding the nature and formation of the church amidst economic inequality. What does it mean to be the church amidst an economically divided society? And how does God seek to form such a church? Looking to Augustine of Hippo for guidance, I argue that the movement from private self-interest toward common love of God and neighbour is fundamental to the church’s formation and identity amidst contemporary contexts of economic inequality. In particular, I demonstrate the centrality of this theme in Augustine’s Sermons and his monastic instruction (principally the Rule), illustrating how it shapes his pastoral guidance on matters pertinent to economic division, including use of material resources, and attitudes toward rich and poor. In the Rule, Augustine directs the monastic community toward the love that “does not seek its own (1 Cor 13:5)” (Reg. 3: 5.2). This phrase succinctly expresses the nature of the love that Augustine tries to nurture among those in his care, whether in the monastery or the wider Christian community. Although I focus especially on the Sermons, Augustine’s monastic instruction plays an important role in this thesis, for it clearly expresses Augustine’s vision of a common life, and includes practical instruction on matters of wealth and poverty within the community. By reading the Sermons alongside this monastic instruction, I advance our understanding of how Augustine’s vision of a common life is reflected in his pastoral guidance to the wider congregation, thus making a constructive contribution to existing scholarship. In conclusion, reflecting on Augustine’s teaching, I consider the significance of this formational movement from private self-interest toward common love of God and neighbour for the contemporary church, and identify characteristics of the common life that the church can anticipate and hope for as members come to share in this transforming work.

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  • Indonesia-PNG Border Security

    Norotouw, Pascal (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The field of international relations and security studies is among the most dynamic and challenging aspects of politics. Relationship between states depend on various factors such as politics, economic cooperation and socio-cultural partnerships. Despite the growing interdependency between states through the means of bilateral, multilateral or regionalism, security issues have remained to play a vital role in determining their level of cooperation and coexistence. This qualitative research entitled: Indonesia-PNG Border security, underlines Indonesia and PNG’s foreign policy while addressing the impacts of Papuan separatism on the 750km border. The relationship of Indonesia and PNG has remained cordial and robust over the years, however the existence of the Papuan conflict has often threatened to destabilize mutual understandings between the parties. The findings specify that the issue of Papuan separatism is one the sensitive and complicated political and cultural problems of the modern era. The sensitivity that lies behind the Papuan separatism issue has often caused difficulties to Indonesia and PNG policy makers. Border policies are designed to obtain the state objectives; however, cultural aspects have always benefited the third party (OPM) in their existence along the border. Subsequently, the Papuan autonomy has allowed for the acknowledgment of Papuan’s cultural rights. Moreover, the Papuan separatism has managed to gain support from many external parties. The growing participation of external parties have triggered internal security concern. This study indicates that the Papuan separatism issue will remain to influence Indonesia-PNG border security in the years to come. The designing of border policies should focus and encourage more on building trust as means of overcoming misunderstanding. More cooperation between all relative authorities such as the CIQS is vital to maintain a good and favorable a relationship.

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  • Seasonal and spatial patterns in nitrogen cycling and food web interactions in Lake Taupō New Zealand

    Stewart, Simon Donald (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Lakes with high water quality and low productivity, commonly referred to as ‘oligotrophic’, are often viewed as relatively pristine and highly aesthetic ecosystems, but may still require management of nutrient inputs and fisheries. The ecosystem processes that determine functions in oligotrophic lakes are often distinct from those in eutrophic lakes, which are traditionally more actively managed. This is particularly true for nitrogen cycling which, in oligotrophic lakes, is closely coupled with food web dynamics. Strong nitrogen cycling-food web coupling in oligotrophic systems is partly related to greater significance of consumer nutrient recycling. Given that processes affecting nutrient cycles and food web dynamics can be actively managed (e.g., through catchment nutrient load regulation and fisheries management, respectively), understanding the interactions between these two processes is key to management of oligotrophic lakes globally. This thesis examines interactions between nitrogen cycling and food web dynamics in oligotrophic Lake Taupō. Lake Taupō is a large (616 km² in area), deep (92 m mean depth), warm monomictic lake in the North Island of New Zealand. It shares many of the characteristics typical of large, deep oligotrophic lakes globally and can be viewed as a model system to examine nutrient cycling-food web interactions. Since 2008, nitrogen loads to the lake have been restricted by local government regulation with the objective to maintain high standards of water quality. Lake Taupō is the only example globally of exclusively N management for water quality purposes. Abundance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss: Salmonidae), the top predator in the Taupō system, is managed through a regulated recreational fishery. Coincident with a period of declining water quality between 1995 and 2005, the trout in Lake Taupō underwent a drastic decline in abundance and individual size. However, connection between the changes in water quality and trout abundance has never been examined. Globally, there have been few empirical studies, and little research generally, to examine interactions of food web dynamics and nutrient availability, despite growing awareness of the impact of these interactions on primary production. One component of this study synthesises literature and case studies of lakes to present a contemporary understanding of food web ecology and N-cycling processes. The synthesis indicates that consumer nutrient recycling effects on lake productivity are likely to be seasonally specific and act to supplement demand by primary producers, especially during periods when other nutrient supply processes (e.g., hypolimnetic upwelling) are suppressed. Consumer nutrient recycling itself is regulated by food web structure, with smaller organisms contributing disproportionately to recycling locally and large mobile organisms acting as nutrient dispersal vectors across boundaries (e.g., the thermocline). Tightly coupled nutrient cycling-food web interactions have the potential to provide ecosystem resilience to global environmental change drivers such as climate change. In this thesis I build on findings from the literature synthesis and use three methods to investigate nitrogen cycling food web interactions in Lake Taupō. First, δ¹⁵N and δ¹³C stable isotope analyses are used to quantify intra-annual patterns in, and drivers of, food web dynamics. The focus is on littoral-pelagic diet coupling by mobile consumers in response to variation in pelagic resource availability. Second, spatially resolved samples (littoral and pelagic surface waters, metalimnetic and hypolimnetic waters) taken at seasonal intervals over one year are used to contribute information towards consumer nutrient recycling. Stable isotope analyses of δ¹⁵N-POM (particulate organic matter), δ¹⁵N-NH₄⁺, δ¹⁵N-NO₃⁻ and δ¹⁸O-NO₃⁻; ¹⁵N are used to indicate how consumer nutrient recycling contributes to nitrogen availability. Third, food web dynamics and consumer nutrient recycling are used as inputs to a nitrogen mass-balance model for pelagic surface waters. This model explicitly considers littoral-pelagic exchange using a coupled three-dimensional hydrodynamic model to resolve advection and mixing. Littoral-derived nitrogen fluxes to the pelagic surface waters and nitrogen fluxes from hypolimnetic to pelagic surface waters were estimated from the three-dimensional hydrodynamic model and nitrogen concentrations of the respective layers. Output from the hydrodynamic model was used in combination with other nitrogen influxes to the pelagic surface waters (e.g., hypolimnetic upwelling, littoral exchange, catchment loading, atmospheric deposition and N-fixation) in a mass balance model quantifying the role of recycling fluxes in sustaining phytoplankton nitrogen uptake. Collectively, these research chapters demonstrated that there is close coupling of nitrogen cycling and the food web in Lake Taupō and that this coupling is strongly seasonally forced. Pelagic nutrient availability was strongly influenced by phytoplankton biomass. Highest nutrient availability was associated with winter mixing and the period of highest phytoplankton biomass. These conditions resulted in an increased reliance on pelagic trophic resources across all trophic levels with little evidence from stable isotope analyses for substantial nutrient recycling during this period. During summer stratification, however, surface water nutrient concentrations and pelagic phytoplankton abundance reached an annual minimum. Correspondingly, zooplankton abundance decreased while trout and smelt consumed more littoral resources. Strong littoral-pelagic dietary coupling was demonstrated by smelt and trout. This finding is contrary to previous assumptions that the Lake Taupō food web is predominantly supported by pelagic production but aligns with current theories that postulate that food web interactions are dynamic and adaptive to environmental conditions. Surface water POM, NH₄⁺ and NO₃⁻ all became increasingly δ¹⁵N-depleted over the period of summer stratification, indicated increased reliance on consumer nutrient recycling. Depleted δ¹⁵N-NO₃⁻ was associated with enriched δ¹⁸O-NO₃⁻, indicative of high heterotrophic biomass relative to primary producers. Strong correlations between δ¹⁵N-NH₄⁺ excreted by zooplankton and δ¹⁵N-NH₄⁺ in water taken from the deep chlorophyll maximum suggest particularly strong coupling of primary production and consumer nutrient recycling at this depth. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that seasonal alternation of bottom-up and top-down processes control nitrogen cycling and food web interactions in Lake Taupō. The pelagic surface water nitrogen mass balance model, inclusive of physical transport using the three-dimensional hydrodynamic model, quantified the seasonal contributions of consumer nitrogen recycling to pelagic primary production. Nitrogen fluxes from littoral to pelagic waters originating from consumer transport were greater than those arising from physical transport during early and mid-summer stratified periods. Physical transport of littoral-derived-N into pelagic surface waters was greatest during autumn, prior to destratification and were minimum during mid-stratification. In situ recycling accounted for between 75 and 95% of phytoplankton nitrogen demand throughout the year. Nitrogen recycling rates were found to be greatest during winter mixing when phytoplankton biomass was highest. A positive linear relationship between surface water δ¹⁵N-NO₃⁻ and modelled recycling rates suggests that phytoplankton nitrogen excretion, which is not ¹⁵N-depleted, drives much of the seasonal variation in nitrogen recycling and that consumer nutrient recycling provides a relatively constant nitrogen supply throughout the year. Given that nitrogen recycling rates were positively related to phytoplankton biomass, nitrogen recycling may act as a positive feedback, amplifying the growth response of phytoplankton to external nutrient supplies. The base level of consumer nutrient recycling, on the other hand, may provide resilience to strong seasonal fluctuations in nitrogen supply associated with other sources. This study demonstrates strong bi-directional interactions between nitrogen cycling and food web dynamics in Lake Taupō. These findings can be used to understand the reciprocating effects of observed long-term changes in nutrient concentrations and trout abundance in Lake Taupō. The observed inter-decadal variations observed in top-predator abundance could have substantial impacts on nitrogen availability for phytoplankton in the pelagic zone through changes in food web structure and consumer nutrient recycling. In oligotrophic lakes such as Taupō, management should be adopted to consider the interactions between food web dynamics and nutrient cycling. One potential action includes adapting trout harvest based on winter pelagic primary productivity data as a measure of resource availability. A second potential action is adapting trout harvest to regulate smelt populations, thus altering the degree of littoral-derived nutrient translocation during the stratified period. This thesis supports the growing recognition that ecosystem-level management of lakes will increasingly be required to counter multiple interacting ecosystem stressors (e.g., climate change, invasive species, fishery exploitation and cultural eutrophication). Informed management using these approaches will be critical for maintaining resilient oligotrophic lakes.

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  • Effect of Providing New Owners of Rehomed Greyhounds with Written Information about Preventing Canine Separation Anxiety

    Thomas, Julia Beatrix (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Separation anxiety or separation-related behaviour (SA/SRB) reflects a substantial welfare problem for dogs and causes concern for owners, which can lead to dogs being relinquished or returned to rehoming organisations. I aimed to determine whether providing new adopters of ex-racing greyhounds with information designed to reduce the risk of SA/SRB would reduce the occurrence of SA/SRB reported by owners at multiple time points; and to investigate factors associated with SA/SRB in newly rehomed greyhounds. Subjects were greyhounds rehomed through New Zealand Greyhounds as Pets during a 1-year period (n = 297). Owners were assigned, within 2 days of adoption, alternately to a control group, who received an email welcoming them to the greyhound community, or a treatment group, who received an email including a SA/SRB handout with preventative advice. Links to an online questionnaire regarding SA/SRB, and other factors suggested in the literature to be associated with SA/SRB, were sent to adopters 1-, 3-, and 6-months post-adoption. Emailing owners preventative information about SA/SRB had no significant impact on the proportion of greyhounds reported to exhibit SA/SRB in their new homes. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of owner-reported SA/SRB at 1, 3, or 6 months (20%, 18%, 17%). The prevalence of SA/SRB overall was less than usually reported for rehomed shelter dogs, and for pet dogs generally. SA/SRB was associated with an increased risk of the greyhound being returned to GAP. There was no significant difference between treatment and control groups regarding owner behaviour in relation to the advice, and generally more than half of all owners acted in a manner consistent with the recommendations. Owners were most likely to practice low-key greetings, and low-key departures, but only low-key departures appeared to be protective against SA/SRB. Factors associated with the occurrence of SA/SRB changed substantially between the 1-month, and 3- and 6-month time points. Differences in the predictive models produced for the 1-, 3-, and 6-month data, and the lack of any effect of the preventative treatment, is likely associated with the multifactorial nature of SA/SRB. Further investigation of the particular aspects of advice that are protective for SA/SRB is warranted.

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  • Men's experiences of parenting successfully with a serious mental illness (SMI)

    Ashe, Jonathon Paul (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Many of the men in Aotearoa/New Zealand with Serious Mental Illness (SMI) are fathers, who like others maintain intimate, loving relationships and live healthy and fulfilling lives. This research seeks to understand what enables this group of fathers to sustain their relationships and parenting responsibilities, through times of illness and stress. The study interviewed twelve New Zealand European men aged between 34-68 who were coping well with their illnesses and parenting responsibilities. Findings revealed that fathering was perceived as a positive element of individual identity that contributed to overall well-being, motivating these men to overcome their adversities. Communication was considered key in the maintenance of relationships. Fathers shared the responsibilities of providing and child-rearing with their co-parents and routinely participated in the household chores, demonstrating the practices of a truly ‘involved father’. Recovery was viewed along a continuum, and self- managed care was considered pivotal in the maintenance of well-being. Support consisted predominately of small kin networks, of which partners and or parents/in-law were the principal supporters. General Practitioners provided the primary point of mental health contact. For those who engaged with specialist mental health services, the needs of their children and or families were not incorporated into their care. In conclusion, these men and their families are focused on living good, meaningful, and engaged lives irrespective of, or perhaps because of SMI. At the centre of their success appears to be an interrelated process of shared responsibilities, effective communication, and organised routines with a significant degree of reciprocity evident across their relationships. In conjunction with this, individually these fathers demonstrate an absolute sense of personal responsibility for the maintenance of their overall well-being.

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  • Extended Kalman Filter SLAM Implementation for a Differential Robot with LiDAR

    Abdel Qader, Hisham Fawzi Fayez (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    SLAM is an approach deployed in robotics to develop autonomous mobile robots. These robots have been deployed in numerous fields such as manufacturing, aerospace navigation, and other areas deemed dangerous to humans. SLAM techniques have made these robots to operate without necessarily having the prior maps, a shortcoming of the current robots which require prior maps. Several SLAM approaches exist, but EKF has been seen to possess all the useful features of convergence and consistency. Via SLAM, concurrency between localisation and mapping has been made possible. An EKF SLAM algorithm has been presented in this thesis, which was implemented in a two-wheeled mobile robot. The robot autonomously navigated in a structured indoor environment, while simultaneously building a map and localising itself within that map. A 360 degrees LiDAR was used to measure the range and bearing of the surroundings and an ultrasound sensor was used to avoid the obstacles. Furthermore, the algorithm was implemented using Python 3.

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  • Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy applied to pasture, titanium, and bioplastics

    Jull, Harrisson Balabat (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Precision agriculture is a farming practice that makes production more efficient. Farmers are able to treat infield variability optimising efficiency, growth, and yield by tailoring the time, rate, and type of fertilizer that is applied. This reduces costs, waste, and environmental side effects such as runoff and leaching caused by overfertilization. Precision agriculture technology measures the nutritional status of crops to inform what, and where, nutrients are needed. The sensors need to be precise, discriminative, and work in real time to ensure that optimal windows for nutrition are not missed. These sensor systems provide aerial imaging, and crop, or soil, colour index maps. A technology that has proven effective on some agricultural specimens is laserinduced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS is an optical emission technique that utilizes a high-powered pulsed laser to create a plasma on the sample surface. As the plasma cools, photons are emitted at distinct wavelengths corresponding to the elemental composition in the plasma, which should represent the sample. This thesis investigates using LIBS as a sensor for precision agriculture. Multiple chemometric methods have been used on the pasture spectra to build calibration models. There are large deviations between spectra belonging to a single sample. This is due to surface inhomogeneity, particle size, lens-to-sample distance, temperature fluctuations between plasmas, and other causes. Temperature corrections were investigated using Boltzmann plots, Saha-Boltzmann plots, and intensity ratios. With limited success in mitigating the variations in pasture spectra, LIBS was used to investigate non-aqueous systems. The ability to selectively sinter the surface of injection moulded titanium was examined. Titanium metal injection moulding allows the creation of complex metal parts that are lightweight, biocompatible, and costs less than machining. Multiple LIBS pulses produced sintering in the ablation crater of injection moulded titanium by sufficiently heating the titanium particles so that fusion occurred. The spectra from LIBS can be used to monitor the extent to which the surface is sintered by measuring the reduction in carbon emissions. An autofocus system, based on the triangulation method, was used to minimise variations caused by lens-to-sample distance (LTSD). With the success of sintering titanium, LIBS was used to investigate non-aqueous organic systems. Employing LIBS to discriminate bioplastics from regular plastics was explored in recycle waste streams. If bioplastics are present in the recovery process of regular plastics the resulting product contains impurities. This study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of incorporating bioplastics in the curbside pickup of recyclables in New Zealand. The common recyclables are plastics, glass, tin cans, and aluminium cans. The setup was designed to emulate a one-shot LIBS detection system in a recycling plant. Models were created using k nearest neighbours and soft independent modelling class analogy from the spectra. 100 % discrimination between bioplastics and regular plastics was achieved. An autofocus system, combining dual lasers, was used to overcome the occlusions produced by sample geometry.

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  • Conducting Polymer Implant for On-demand Ocular Drug Delivery

    Yasin, Muhammad Naveed (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Introduction: Implants have become an attractive treatment option for chronic posterior eye conditions. However, a patient???s disease state and any concurrent side-effects may require a dose adjustment which is not possible with currently marketed implants. Stimuli-responsive implants present an opportunity to tailor the release of the active. They may be composed of conducting polymers (CP) such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), a robust CP with good biocompatibility and reproducible electroactivity. This thesis investigated the fabrication of a PEDOT-based system suitable for implantation to provide stimuli-responsive ocular drug delivery. Methods: PEDOT films (non-porous and porous) were fabricated via vapour phase polymerisation (VPP) and characterised for their surface morphology, electrochemical behaviour and biocompatibility. Dexamethasone phosphate (dexP) was loaded after polymerisation as a dopant via active and passive ion-exchange. DexP release was determined in the absence and presence of an electrical stimulus. Dexamethasone base (dex) was also physically entrapped into the pores of porous PEDOT and a sealing layer was polymerized on top. PEDOT-coated cellulose membranes, replicating the PEDOT sealing layer, were also fabricated and characterised for their drug permeability using Franz-cells. Finally, a prototype implant for in-vitro evaluation was fabricated by 3D printing the casing and placing drug loaded VPP PEDOT films inside. Results and Discussion: Porous PEDOT prepared by VPP exhibited a highly porous morphology and a three-fold higher electrochemically active surface area (as determined by cyclic voltammetry) compared to non-porous PEDOT prepared by VPP. Release medium extracts from non-porous and porous PEDOT films displayed no significant cytotoxicity. The amount of dexP loading achieved via active ion-exchange was almost three-fold higher compared to passive ion-exchange. The effect of redox state over dexP release was determined where a pulse stimulus released maximum amounts of drug. A faster rate of dexP release was observed for porous compared to non-porous films. Dex was physically entrapped into the pores to increase drug loading; however, it leaked through the PEDOT sealing layer within 1 h. PEDOT-coated cellulose membranes confirmed the high permeability of these sealing layers. Therefore, the assembled prototype implant contained only dexP loaded films and exhibited a burst in drug release during in-vitro stimulation aligning well with previous dexP release where a similar burst in drug release was observed upon the application of in-vitro stimulus. Conclusion: A PEDOT-based system suitable for implantation was fabricated exhibiting a stimuli-responsive burst in drug release. However, drug loading and retention need to be further improved such as by physical entrapment and effective sealing to achieve long-term on-demand drug delivery.

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  • Tissue Oxygenation and Wound Healing in Vascular Surgery

    Chiang, Nathaniel (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Are there simple adjuncts that can be applied in patients with peripheral vascular disease that could enhance wound healing and tissue oxygenation? Two large-scale clinical studies were conducted with the aims of targeting two stages of care, namely (i) perioperative treatments to enhance peripheral oxygenation by influencing oxygen delivery via chemical and thermal vasodilation (high-dose oxygen, a prostacyclin analogue, and extended active warming) during bypass surgery to the lower limbs, and (ii) topical negative therapy (TNP) dressings for high-risk foot wounds, such as following debridement or minor amputations in the diabetic foot. These therapies have been shown to be of benefit in other clinical settings, such as abdominal surgery and to treat abdominal wounds. How these adjuncts would help in patients with vascular disease is unknown. Mechanisms underlying the potential effects of these treatments on wound healing were assessed biochemically by quantifying hydroxyproline (a surrogate marker of collagen), growth factors, cytokines, and their respective mRNAs. Healing rates were determined by changes in wound volume over time using an innovative stereophotographic device (FastScan???). Tissue oxygenation was measured using hyperspectral technology (OxyVu???). The reliability and feasibility of using these devices was tested in clinical studies. Measurements obtained using these innovative instruments yielded excellent inter-operator and intra-operator reliability and correlated well with other methods of measurement, thus showing promise for assessment of tissue oxygenation and wound healing in clinical settings. No benefits were demonstrated in 71 patients with regard to surgical wound healing or tissue oxygenation in bypass surgery by perioperative adjunctive treatment. OxyVu identified increased tissue oxygenation in the foot in the acute phase following bypass surgery, validating its clinical use. In acute foot wounds treated with TNP, there was no significant difference in wound volume reduction at 2 weeks when compared with traditional dressings (44.2% for TNP versus 20.9% for the control; p=0.15). However, there was a trend towards an enhanced healing rate, and maximum wound depth was significantly less than that achieved using traditional dressings (36.0% for TNP versus 17.6% for the control; p=0.03). Given that no differences were found in hydroxyproline levels, growth factors, or tissue oxygenation, the benefits of TNP might involve more than merely enhanced production of granulation tissue, possibly involving mechanical (macrostrain) effects.

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  • The effect of general anaesthesia on the mammalian circadian clock and its clinical implications and potential treatment

    Ludin, Nicola (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Patients frequently sleep poorly following an operation. This may be due, in part, to the effect of general anaesthesia on the circadian clock. The aim of this thesis was to understand the effect of general anaesthesia on the mammalian circadian clock and sleep, the relevance of this to the post-operative patient, and how these effects may be modified by intra-operative light administration. Previous data from our group???s work on the honey bee revealed that the general anaesthetic isoflurane causes phase delays of the circadian clock as a result of a shift in the expression of core circadian clock genes (cryptochrome and period). In addition, concurrent administration of light during anaesthesia in honey bees resulted in a reduction of the general anaesthesia-induced phase shift. In order to determine whether isoflurane causes robust and reproducible phase shifts in mammals, and whether these effects result from isoflurane acting directly on the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), I developed a system to enable the examination of the effect of isoflurane on PER2::LUC mouse SCNs. PER2::LUC SCN tissue was cultured over eight days (n=36) and exposed to a six hour 2% isoflurane anaesthetic (or air control) after four cycles. Phase shifts and period changes were analysed using the peak expression time (acrophase) on each of the days following anaesthesia or control, compared to the days prior. Administration of a six hour isoflurane anaesthetic to SCNs between circadian times eight and 16 (CT8-CT16) resulted in an average phase delay of -6.99 hours (1.34 SEM) compared to controls at similar CTs that showed an average phase delay of only -1.33 hours (2.77 SEM, p=0.01). Neither isoflurane nor air administered at other CTs elicited significant phase shifts. The results from the SCNs and from the previous work on honey bees paved the way for a clinical trial in which I examined the efficacy of light administration in reducing anaesthesiainduced post-operative sleep and circadian disruption. I investigated this in a non-confounded patient population, kidney donors, who are hospitalised and undergo anaesthesia and surgery that they do not medically require. The work described in this thesis details the interim analysis of 20 patients (total study sample size=40) of whom 10 received phase shifting light and 10 placebo light during the operation. If humans were to respond like bees, then intra-operative bright light administration could represent a treatment strategy for combatting post-operative sleep and circadian misalignment. Actigraphy was recorded for seven pre-operative and seven post-operative days, and circadian markers (core body temperature and the urinary metabolite of melatonin, 6-sulphatoxymelatonin) were recorded for three pre-operative and three post-operative days. Subjective measures were also recorded throughout the study. Participants enrolled into the study were randomised to receive either placebo light or bright light intra-operatively. Operations occurred in the morning, the same subjective time at which anaesthesia elicited the largest phase shifts in SCNs and honey bees. All patients, irrespective of treatment group, showed disrupted sleep and circadian variables following hospitalisation, anaesthesia and surgery, with increased total sleep time and variability, and less stability. Non-parametric circadian rhythm analyses of actigraphic data showed higher interdaily stability (IS) post-operatively in those that received intra-operative bright light compared to those that received placebo light (p=0.08). Furthermore, the control group showed an average phase delay in core body temperature rhythms of -4.18 hours (1.74 SEM) compared to patients in the bright light treatment group who showed an average phase delay of -1.16 hours (0.62 SEM, p=0.07). Results from the interim analysis of the clinical trial indicate a trend towards intra-operative bright light improving sleep and circadian variables post-operatively. Having a general anaesthetic is essential for most major operations. The studies presented in this thesis show that general anaesthesia affects the mammalian (mouse) circadian clock and human circadian rhythms and sleep. In mice this occurs in a time-dependent manner which has not previously been recognised. Moreover, bright light administered intra-operatively may potentially reduce circadian and sleep disruption in the post-operative period.

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  • Evaluating the impact of different PV control strategies on distribution network operation

    Mishra, A.; Farzinfar, M.; Bahadornejad, Momen; Nair, N. K. C. (2018-05-05T14:30:09Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    For managing carbon emission, micro-generation with different capabilities are being actively explored for grid integration. Such small scale generation connected to low and medium voltage conventional network that are not designed to accommodate distributed generation pose various issues like voltage rise during off peak hours. The aim of this paper is to evaluate different inverter control strategies under different conditions created by pseudo-random events through simulation on a test network. PQ control mode, voltage control mode and voltage droop control mode are compared in terms of node voltage, line losses and impact on fault. Several aspects like load, PV penetration and inverter properties are varied to capture parameters like node voltages and line losses for evaluating impact of PV control modes on the network. The representative network which has been extracted from New Zealand grid data and all assessments are carried out using simulated in DIgSILENT power factory. The main emphasis of this paper is around development of index which can quantify the effect of PV control mode on network parameters.

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  • Performance of variations of the dynamic elastance model in lung mechanics

    Laufer B; Docherty PD; Knörzer A; Chiew YS; Langdon R; Moller K; Chase JG (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    © 2016 Elsevier Ltd Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is associated with high mortality and it is a major clinical problem. A common therapy for ARDS patients is mechanical ventilation (MV). However, poorly applied MV can be potentially fatal and optimal MV settings are patient specific. Thus, choosing a good positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP)-level compromise is a clinical challenge. Physiological modeling of the lung is one way to support the selection of the optimal settings for mechanical ventilation. This research makes the reasonably well-supported assumption that optimal PEEP is in the region of minimal elastance of the lung-tissue. The first order model of pulmonary mechanics (FOM) was modified in two differing ways in order to determine the patient-specific pressure range that coincides with minimal elastance. The extensions to the FOM (multiplicative elastance correction and additive volume correction parameters) are compared and evaluated. The addition of the correction parameters ultimately improved the consistency of the modeled elastance across PEEP levels for most patients tested. The results for minimal elastance were in very similar ranges for both approaches. Although this consistency offers a partial validation of the robustness of the approaches, discernment of the optimal approach cannot be determined. Further validation across differing patient states and experimental inputs must be undertaken to determine which method is more representative of true patient physiology.

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  • Impacts of DRGs on distribution network protection

    Bahadornejad, Momen; Calvert, Rhett; Carson, Nicholas; Dinh, Minh; Farzinfar, M.; Joish, Jagadeesha; Mishra, Ankur; Nair, Nirmal; Vegdani, Moonis; Zhang, Jake (2018-05-05T14:30:07Z)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    Introduction Outline New Zealand Distribution Network Protection Practices Survey Highlights Section 1- Utility General Information (4) Section 2- Considerations (3) Section 3- System Data (14) Section 4- Phase Protection (4) Section 5- Ground Protection (8) Section 6- Reclosing (9) Section 7- System Faults (7) Section 8- Cold Load Pickup (6) Section 9- System Operation (31) Section 10- Single Wire Earth Return (SWER) (5) Section 11- Distributed Renewable Generation Survey Highlights Issues of Active Distribution Network Protection Short Circuit Analysis DRG Behaviour in Short Circuit Analysis PV/Inverter Behaviour under Fault Condition Impacts of PV on LV Protection Impacts of PV on Home Zone Fault Contribution of PV Impacts of DRG on MV Zone International Approaches Utility Active LV Network Protection Assessment (CS2.3.4) Vector Representative Feeders Solution to MV Protection Issues Vector’s PV Trials Testing NZ ICT Practices

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  • Standards based household load control prototype

    Mollah, K. U. Z.; Bahadornejad, M.; Nair, N. K. C. (2018-05-05T14:30:10Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    In this paper a platform is developed to facilitate the control of household loads using communication protocols relevant to home automation and substation automation systems. Protection IEDs that support IEC 61850 standard based protocol, universal secondary test gear for relays and a protocol converter are used to realize the protection/automation aspects for substation automation. The retrofitting of the latest relay IEDs with the existing control center software has also been demonstrated. In the home automation space, the available commercial Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and IEDs are used to develop the platform. The automation load control scheme is programmed based on IEC 61131 standards using structural language and is implemented through EtherCAT protocol. The PLC uses the IEC 61850 server to communicate and gather raw data form the power measurement terminal. The developed platform establishes different aspects of automation and standard based communication system identified the Smart Grid framework. This prototype integrates two different vendors’ intelligent electronic devices and implements a smart load shedding algorithm which controls load in real time. This research supported financially by the New Zealand Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (MBIE) GREEN Grid project funding (2012-18). K. Mollah (kmol006@aucklanduni.ac.nz), M.Bahadornejad (m.bahadornejad@auckland.ac.nz), and N. –K.C. Nair (Email: n.nair@auckland.ac.nz) are with the Power Systems Group of Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering at University of Auckland, New Zealand.

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  • Client value in procured construction services: New Zealand participants' perspectives

    Aliakbarlou, Sadegh; Wilkinson, S.; Costello, S. B.; Rotimi, J. O. B. (2018-05-03T14:30:05Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    MOTIVATION: Due to the lack of a practical evaluation method to assist clients with measuring value in construction services when hiring service providers, there is greater emphasis on price rather than clients’ values. Hence, this study was undertaken as a response to the above need. The research expects to deliver information needed to drive favourable outcomes through better understanding of clients’ values about contractor and consultant services in the New Zealand construction industry. KNOWLEDGE GAP: Understanding of clients’ values is identified in New Zealand as one of the important knowledge gaps and key research questions that empirical research projects should focus on. The current research addresses the lack of non-price criteria and their measurement criteria based on clients’ values in the New Zealand construction industry. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: The research aims to provide an overview of opinions of New Zealand construction industry participants regarding clients’ values on procured services. The first objective is to evaluate the current level of understanding of clients’ values in New Zealand construction industry. The second objective is to determine limitations of considering clients’ values in procured services evaluation. RESEARCH METHOD: Open ended interview questions were used to conduct semi-structured interviews with key construction project decision makers such as clients, consultants, and contactor organizations in New Zealand. The questions were sent to the interviewees via e-mail, before the interview. The qualitative collected data received was analyzed by means of content analysis. PRELIMINARY OR ANTICIPATED FINDING: The research provided an overview of opinions of individual practitioners regarding clients’ values on purchased services. RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE: The investigation identified several areas where practice could be improved for service provider assessments. The research contributes to knowledge in the area of organisational decision making and consequently the psychology of making judgements.

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  • How does the option of video assessment impact on student choice and grades?

    Schofield, L.; Baker, K.; Vo, D.; Pham, Truman; Lindsay, L; Han, B. (2017-12-22T13:30:22Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    As digital fluency is becoming an educational priority, contemporary educators are increasingly looking at innovative means of assessment to replace or supplement more traditional approaches such as written essays or tests. Learner-generated, video-based assessment allows students to express themselves in different ways, brings the real world into assessment activities, and provides an opportunity to develop new digital and communication skills. Since 2014, The Mind Lab by Unitec has provided teachers and educators in New Zealand with a different model of professional development. Teachers and educators are able to study part time and complete a Postgraduate Certificate in Applied Practice – Digital and Collaborative Learning at a range of locations across New Zealand. Candidates can elect to work on assignments independently or collaboratively in small groups. In the first two courses candidates complete four assessments, two for each course. Assessment types for these courses include both video presentations and essays. Following anecdotal feedback from candidates about the two different assessment media, it was decided to examine what impact, if any, the medium used for assessment had on candidates’ grades. Although research indicates that video assessment is beneficial, there is minimal research into the impact of choice of media on students’ assessment outcomes. Of the four initial assessments, the first is a video, the second, an essay, and for each of the two subsequent assessments students may choose to submit either a video or an essay. We sought to investigate whether the students’ choice of medium impacted on their grades, and whether previous grades influenced the medium that students chose for subsequent assessment. We collected data from assessments of about 680 students over three consecutive intakes of the programme over a period of twelve months (November 2015 to October 2016). The findings indicate that the students’ choice of medium did not impact their grades. The choice of medium for the initial assessments also does not have a significant impact on the outcomes of subsequent assessments. The key finding is that students were not disadvantaged as a result of submitting video assessments. This may assist others in supporting and designing innovative means of assessment suitable for their students.

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  • Towards quantitative prediction of infrared vibrational spectra for complex chemical systems

    Crittenden DL (2013)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • The Forgotten Islands: Monitoring Tourist Numbers and Managing Tourism Impacts on New Zealand’s Subantarctic Islands

    Stewart E; Espiner S; Liggett D; Taylor Z (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    Situated to the south of New Zealand in the Southern Ocean are the New Zealand Subantarctic Islands, comprising the Auckland, Campbell, Antipodes, Snares and Bounty Islands. Sometimes referred to as the ‘Forgotten Islands’, these island groups are among the most remote and hostile within New Zealand waters. Yet, as they harbour some of the country’s most unique biodiversity and contain some of the world’s least modified landforms, they were recognized in 1998 with the designation of World Heritage Area status. It is not surprising therefore that the Islands have long appealed to visitors wishing to explore and understand the Islands’ rich natural and cultural environments. Typically, fare-paying tourists arrive by sea in small- to medium-sized expedition-style cruise vessels, although in recent years, the number of small vessels, such as yachts and sail boats, has increased. The most recent Conservation Management Strategy (2016) proposes developing and implementing a visitor monitoring programme to determine the effects of visitors on the natural and cultural environment, as well as on the visitor experience itself. However, there is only piecemeal data published on visitor numbers (especially since the mid-1990s) upon which to base visitor monitoring, and there is only limited evidence regarding the range of possible impacts visitors may have, including direct and indirect impact on wildlife, soils, and vegetation. In order to address this gap in knowledge, this case study draws on stakeholder interviews (n = 4), and a range of secondary sources (including visitor statistics from the Department of Conservation, tour operators and other published works) to provide an overview and update on visitation to the Islands, including site-specific data, an assessment of tourist impacts, and how impacts are currently monitored and managed.

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  • Weaker when wet: The influence of water saturation on the rock-mass strength of the Permo-Triassic sandstones at the Soultz-sous-Forêts geothermal site (France)

    Heap MJ; Villeneuve MC; Kushnir A; Baud P; Reuschlé T (2017)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    The presence of aqueous fluids within the void space of rock—a combination of pores and cracks—is known to influence their short-term mechanical behaviour. Therefore, laboratory deformation experiments performed on dry samples, the standard method to assess the strength of reservoir rock, may overestimate intact rock strength and rock mass strength asssessments provided by the generalised Hoek-Brown failure criterion. We present here a systematic experimental study on the influence of water saturation on the strength of the Permo-Triassic sediments sampled from exploration well EPS-1 at the Soultz-sous-Forêts geothermal site (France). Future work will involve upscaling these strengths, using the generalised Hoek-Brown failure criterion, to provide "wet" and "dry" rock mass strengths of the Buntsandstein.

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