5,604 results for Auckland University of Technology

  • Liminal Migrant : An Exploration of Immigrant Identity Issues Through Digital Photography and Digital Media

    Darvishzadeh Zolpirani, Korosh

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    No abstract.

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  • The Current Status of the Balanced Scorecard As a Performance Measurement and a Strategic Management Tool in NZ Local Government Organisations

    Taulapapa, Ma'amora

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    In the early 1980s, a general dissatisfaction developed with traditional accountingbased performance measurement in the New Zealand public sector. The not-forprofit nature of public sector organisations had led to a perceived lack of transparency and accountability in their managerial styles. A change in management philosophy in the 1980s due to pressures from stakeholders, for example the government, and competition as well as rising costs (Local Government Forum, 1999) prompted public sector management to search for effective contemporary management tools to navigate towards public goals and expectations. The Balanced Scorecard (BSC), a performance measurement and a strategic management system, has been implemented in business organisations with success and is gaining acceptance in not-for-profit and public sector organisations. Despite potential benefits to public sector organisations, there are challenges and problems for implementers of the BSC (Griffiths, 2003). The research reported here examined NZ local government managers' experiences of implementing and using the BSC in local government organisations and their perceptions of its usefulness as a performance measurement and strategic management tool. It also sought to identify the factors that drive local government managers to undertake a BSC initiative, and the potential causes of BSC programme failure in the NZ local government context. The aim of this research was to provide an answer to the following question: "What is the current status of the use of the Balanced Scorecard as a performance measurement and a strategic management tool in local government organisations in NZ?" The research addressed the following questions: • Has the BSC been accepted as a performance measurement and/or a strategic management tool by local government organisations in NZ? • How do local government managers perceive the BSC as a management tool? • What factors are perceived to contribute to the successful implementation of the BSC? • What factors are perceived to contribute to partial and/or non implementation of the BSC? The findings indicated that the BSC is not widely used by NZ local government organisations. This is due to a variety of reasons. With regards to the research questions, the eight respondents who are current BSC users perceived the concept as; • a very useful management tool overall • a highly valid performance management tool • a highly valid strategic management tool The findings of this study suggest that the majority of NZ local government organisations are encountering problems with their BSC implementations and, at the same time, are learning as they go. Some interesting lessons for successful BSC implementation to emerge from this study include the need to ensure: • a full and participative pre-implementation decision process; • benchmarking best practice; • continuous learning and training; • adequate resources; • management support; • appropriate post-implementation review. Although this study reveals that reported BSC usage is currently low, applying these lessons may help to improve the perceived and actual usefulness of the BSC for measuring and managing the performance of NZ local government organisations.

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  • Interethnic Mothering - A Narrative Inquiry

    Davis, Lucia

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This narrative inquiry research brings to the larger field of motherhood studies particular experiences of migrant mothers, mothering in interethnic relationships. It presents a contextualized insight to interethnic mothering in New Zealand over a span of nearly 60 years. Personal experiences of sixteen immigrant mothers in New Zealand were captured through their stories and analyzed through narrative inquiry lenses, where the participants were not only the protagonists, but also the narrators of their stories. As narrators, they gave voice to significant others in their stories and filtered their mothering journey not only through action, but also through a large array of possibilities, opportunities, regrets and redemption. The research identified child-raising negotiations immigrant mothers held with the fathers of their multicultural children (fathers being New Zealanders of Maori or Caucasian descent) and with the New Zealand society at large, about culture, language, food, education and parenting milestones. The methodology used, narrative inquiry, allowed the researcher to distinguish between the temporal and spatial dimensions of the research and those of the shared stories of interethnic mothering. Personal narratives of mothering evolved in the context of master narratives of motherhood from countries of origin, where mothers were mothered, and from New Zealand, where their mothering begun, in a continuous balancing act. The time concept was enlarged to encompass the chronology of parenting interrupted by Kairos, the cyclical time of celebrations, enacted as cultural transmission tools. Emplotment and character mapping unpacked the richness of intercultural negotiations within mothers’ narratives. Interethnic parenting is becoming a reality for an increasing number of mothers in New Zealand and internationally. This research aims to inform practices of health care, education, employment, services delivered by central and local government, the business sector and Non-Governmental Organisations of the diverse reality of interethnic mothering in New Zealand.

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  • Interwoven Dress Cultures of New Zealand

    Ward, Junette

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The aim of this thesis is to analyse, design and produce a trans-seasonal daywear collection of women's contemporary fashion garments that reflect aspects of Aotearoa. Specific influence has been drawn from an investigation of wahine in relation to their acceptance and subsequent adaptation of European dress, during the transitional period of 1800-1900 in Aotearoa. Interwoven within the contextual framework, this exegesis supports the creative body of work by exploring two main aspects. Firstly there are the theoretical, historical and cultural issues surrounding the relationship of dress and social belonging together with the association of adornment and Maori identity. Secondly there is the notion of accessing and using the community as research and knowledge sources, material suppliers and as individual collaborative contributors to the project. The project sits within the paradigm of creative research and not only encompasses heuristic methodology within the studio environment, but leading up to that stage of the project, utilises resources from within the community as a framework for research enquiry. Identifying the potential for dress with a fusion of ideas and cross-cultural exchange, between Victorian European and Maori dress, a range of key design criteria relating to the inspired innovative designs has been identified. This has provided the opportunity for an eclectic mix of contemporary materials and fibres, to be used to design and create a trans-seasonal garment collection, informed by the resulting analysis of the interwoven issues explored in the exegesis.

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  • In Search of No-self: An Installation Exploring Relations Between Notions of Selfhood, Transcendentalism and Sublimity

    Maher, Julian

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This thesis examines two major arenas of enquiry. Firstly it explores the notions of selfhood, via a critique of Modernity’s subject. This is considered through the frameworks of both deconstruction and Buddhism’s anatta theory of no self. Through installation practice, theories of the sublime and transcendentalism have been activated in order to provide the viewer (who becomes an interactive participant) the possibility of experiencing no-self.’ ‘No-self’ is a philosophy and state of being from the Buddhism’s anatta theory, but I do not espouse here such a purity of no-self being in terms of only this theory. Rather, the project merges western post-structuralism’s deconstruction with anatta, as there are many coincidental moments that translate well in terms of the installation’s aims. This project interconnects three inter-related levels of research: 1. A critique of ‘Modernity’s Subject’ via particular post-structuralist thinkers, with respect to the notions of selfhood. 2. A comparison between the embodied self, as defined by post-structuralism as ‘non-entity’, and the Buddhist’s anatta theory of no-self 3. An investigation into an installation practice of the sublime, situated through sensual stimulus. This allows the “viewer” to experience both sublime and transcendental states.

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  • Crossing: An Investigation Into the Visual Space Between Catholicism and Medicine, Informed by Theories of the Gaze(S)

    Langdon, Katrina

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Crossing is an investigation, by means of practical art and theoretical research, into the space where Roman Catholicism (in particular Eastern European Mariolatry) and modern medicine share common ground. It explores the blurring of boundaries and uncertainty that occurs in the overlap between medicine and religion, in which a fascination with the wound and its associated sufferings become the central focus. This investigation draws on a long history of involvement with Catholic Mariolatry, and pays particular attention to the Stations of the Cross, which have strong implications in terms of ‘the wound’ and notions of suffering. It is an exploration involving theories of ‘the gaze’, drawing from material often viewed in the light of abjection; with the life of a child being the location for these paradigms. This is a journey and an experimentation process carried out by means of practical art, and largely involving the painting process. It draws on a long history of religious and anatomical/medical imagery; reinterpreting these images in view of current art practices, psychological studies, scientific observations and personal experience. This research project has been carried out by means of practical art, comprising 80% of the final work, with an accompanying exegesis of 20%

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  • An Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System in a New Zealand Community Hospice Setting

    Sprague, Emma

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Palliative patients experience substantial and distressing symptoms that impact on their quality of life. To date, a ‘gold standard’ measure is it yet to be identified for symptom assessment in palliative care. The Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) is the most commonly used measure to assess symptoms within palliative care throughout the world. Various studies have investigated the reliability and validity of the ESAS. However, these studies have revealed inconsistent validity and have predominately focused the measures use in populations with cancer only diagnoses. The cases of all patients admitted to a community hospice setting in New Zealand over the six month period December 2015-May 2016, were reviewed for this study (n=229). As part of the usual admitting process, the registered nurse conducts several health related assessment measures; including the ESAS and a performance status measure, the ECOG. The scores of the ESAS and the ECOG were anonymised and collated for data analysis. The psychometric properties of the 12-item, numeric rating scale version of the ESAS were evaluated using descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, and Rasch analysis. Exploratory factor analysis found three factors. One: drowsiness, tiredness, appetite, wellbeing, and complexity, two: anxiety, depression, and shortness of breath, three: constipation, nausea, insomnia, and pain. Rasch analysis confirmed that the ESAS is a unidimensional scale. Uniform rescoring of the ESAS indicated that the validity of item scoring could be improved by collapsing scoring options from 11 options to four options. The ESAS is shown to have some evidence of validity and reliability for assessing symptoms within the present research setting of New Zealand, community palliative care. However, the present study identified inconsistent factor structures. Therefore, several areas of key focus for future research has been identified to further validate the use of the ESAS within the New Zealand community palliative care setting.

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  • Yi-jing Within Time: The Implication of Yi-jing Into Moving Image Medium

    Lu, Zhaohui

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Yi-Jing [意境] is a signifi cant classic Chinese art concept that might be broadly understood as a certain conceptual and perceptual communication between artists and viewers. It was originally derived from Chinese poetry and was then adapted by a range of classical art forms such as Chinese painting and calligraphy. This project sets out to explore the notion of Yi-Jing within time and movement with its primary focus on video editing and digital manipulation. The research is intended to offer an alternative perspective to the appreciation of moving image. The project uses contemporary moving image mediums to reveal the uniqueness inherent within Chinese aesthetic values and to strengthen their accessibility to a western audience. It is hoped that the project might potentially open up a contemporary universal context for Yi-Jing and its application through the advancement of contemporary technology.

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  • Analysis of Data Collected From Right and Left Limbs: Accounting for Dependence and Improving Statistical Efficiency in Musculoskeletal Research

    Stewart, S; Pearson, J; Rome, K; Dalbeth, N; Vandal, A

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Objectives Statistical techniques currently used in musculoskeletal research often inefficiently account for paired-limb measurements or the relationship between measurements taken from multiple regions within limbs. This study compared three commonly used analysis methods with a mixed-models approach that appropriately accounted for the association between limbs, regions, and trials and that utilised all information available from repeated trials. Method Four analysis were applied to an existing data set containing plantar pressure data, which was collected for seven masked regions on right and left feet, over three trials, across three participant groups. Methods 1–3 averaged data over trials and analysed right foot data (Method 1), data from a randomly selected foot (Method 2), and averaged right and left foot data (Method 3). Method 4 used all available data in a mixed-effects regression that accounted for repeated measures taken for each foot, foot region and trial. Confidence interval widths for the mean differences between groups for each foot region were used as a criterion for comparison of statistical efficiency. Results Mean differences in pressure between groups were similar across methods for each foot region, while the confidence interval widths were consistently smaller for Method 4. Method 4 also revealed significant between-group differences that were not detected by Methods 1–3. Conclusion A mixed effects linear model approach generates improved efficiency and power by producing more precise estimates compared to alternative approaches that discard information in the process of accounting for paired-limb measurements. This approach is recommended in generating more clinically sound and statistically efficient research outputs.

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  • Te Waka Kuaka, Rasch Analysis of a Cultural Assessment Tool in Traumatic Brain Injury in Māori

    Elder, H; Czuba, K; Kersten, P; Caracuel, A; McPherson, K

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Background: The aim was to examine the validity of a new measure, Te Waka Kuaka, in assessing the cultural needs of Māori with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: Māori from around Aotearoa, New Zealand were recruited. 319 people with a history of TBI, their whānau (extended family members), friends, work associates, and interested community members participated. All completed the 46-item measure. Rasch analysis of the data was undertaken. Results: All four subscales; Wā (time), Wāhi (place), Tangata (people) and Wairua practices (activities that strengthen spiritual connection) were unidimensional. Ten items were deleted because they did not fit the model, due to statistically significant disordered thresholds, non-uniform differential item functioning (DIF) and local dependence. Five items were re-scored in the fourth subscale resulting in ordered thresholds. Conclusions: Rasch analysis facilitated a robust validation process of Te Waka Kuaka.

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  • An Examination of International Employees' Use of Native Language in Service Encounters in the Hospitality Industry

    Chen, Tingting

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    In the modern globalised context, it is commonplace in the hospitality industry for international employees to serve customers in their native language when they share the same ethnicity. Many studies have been conducted to explore the use of native language between employees and customers, but most of these studies have investigated customers’ attitudes from the perspective of customer service. Thus, how service employees perceive serving customers with the same ethnicity using their native language is still under-researched in the hospitality industry. This study addresses this gap by examining service employees’ perceptions of native language use in intercultural service encounters. By employing semi-structured interviews as the research method, this study interviewed international hospitality employees from five-star hotels in Auckland. All the employees spoke English as second language and had experiences of speaking their native language in customer service. The findings of this study reveal that international hospitality employees have the willingness and awareness to accommodate customers of shared ethnicity with their native language. While in specific service encounters, the shared ethnicity has the potential to constrain employees’ adoption of their native language use when serving customers from the same country. Main factors contributing to the avoidance of native language include ambiguous positions, lack of respect, extra workload, and excessive intimacy from customers. In consideration of the scarcity of research into employees’ attitudes towards the adoption of native language in customer service, this study is the first attempt to investigate native language use in intercultural service encounters from the perspective of service employees in the hospitality context. Results of this study contribute to the literature on intercultural service encounters and work stress regarding international employees’ native language use. Also, for hotel practitioners, findings of this study may offer them valuable managerial implications in establishing applicable and effective language policy concerning native language use in intercultural service encounters.

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  • Measuring Gambling Reinforcers, Over Consumption and Fallacies: The Psychometric Properties and Predictive Validity of the Jonsson-Abbott Scale

    Jonsson, J; Abbott, MW; Sjőberg, A; Carlbring, P

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Traditionally, gambling and problem gambling research relies on cross-sectional and retrospective designs. This has compromised identification of temporal relationships and causal inference. To overcome these problems a new questionnaire, the Jonsson-Abbott Scale (JAS), was developed and used in a large, prospective, general population study, The Swedish Longitudinal Gambling Study (Swelogs). The JAS has 11 items and seeks to identify early indicators, examine relationships between indicators and assess their capacity to predict future problem progression. The aims of the study were to examine psychometric properties of the JAS (internal consistency and dimensionality) and predictive validity with respect to increased gambling risk and problem gambling onset. The results are based on repeated interviews with 3818 participants. The response rate from the initial baseline wave was 74%. The original sample consisted of a random, stratified selection from the Swedish population register aged between 16 and 84. The results indicate an acceptable fit of a three-factor solution in a confirmatory factor analysis with ‘Over consumption,’ ‘Gambling fallacies,’ and ‘Reinforcers’ as factors. Reinforcers, Over consumption and Gambling fallacies were significant predictors of gambling risk potential and Gambling fallacies and Over consumption were significant predictors of problem gambling onset (incident cases) at 12 month follow up. When controlled for risk potential measured at baseline, the predictor Over consumption was not significant for gambling risk potential at follow up. For incident cases, Gambling fallacies and Over consumption remained significant when controlled for risk potential. Implications of the results for the development of problem gambling, early detection, prevention, and future research are discussed.

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  • Sound/Site: Sound as Articulation of Form and Event

    Morrison, Sam

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This project is a performance based exploration of the interaction between site and sound. It has aimed to use a focus on sound production as a catalyst for opening up alternate ways of reading, mapping and experiencing the physical environment. Within this research, sound is perceived as a sonic representation of form, mass, volume and event - an articulation of space, material and their activation. Through a series of installations/ events this project has looked to exploit resonances inherent within chosen sites, as well as introduce sound to otherwise inert environments in order to communicate the potentials of sound and materials. Another key focus has been upon the dynamics between artist/ work and audience, experimenting with ways in which to explore these roles.

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  • A Hermeneutic Literature Review Exploring the Intersection of Video Gaming and Psychotherapy

    Munro, Fraser

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The majority of literature on video gaming in relation to psychological therapies revolves around video game addiction (Kuss, 2015), violence (jagodzinski, 2006), prosocial behaviour (Passmore & Holder, 2014), gender (Todd, 2012), and the incorporation into mental health care (Ceranoglu, 2010). However, video game play can also be viewed from a psychotherapeutic perspective as a transitional space (Winnicott, 1953) that is utilised to mediate internal and external reality. Internal representations of important people, and events from the client’s life may be expressed through their video game characters (avatars) appearance and in game actions (Mittlböck, 2015). Through the process of a hermeneutic literature review the intersection between psychotherapy and video game play was further explored. From this a number of themes emerged, such as: the impulse to critique and contradict, the avatar as a subversion of the death drive, imagination as a way of transcending the gap between the virtual and non-virtual, the collective as a counter to the curating of minds, the reality of collective dreaming, the perverse as the authentic expression of the personality and the mask as an escape from the oppression of everyday life.

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  • The Efficacy of Written Corrective Feedback on Second Language Development: The Impact of Feedback Type, Revision Type, Learning Motivation and Strategies

    Li, Su

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Written CF is a common practice in L2 teaching despite the theoretical controversies about its contribution to L2 development (Truscott, 1996; Bitchener & Ferris, 2012). Empirical research into this issue has been dominated by quasi-experiments in the cognitive framework. By inferring L2 development from the accurate development in the written output, these quasi-experiments have generated somewhat inconclusive results. Framed in the perspectives of both the cognitive theories and the Dynamic Systems Theory, this project examined the L2 learning potential of written CF (enhanced by revision) when accurate development was not achieved. It also examined the possible moderating effects of revision type and L2 motivation. The possible causes of the different extents to which the students benefited from written CF was explored in two follow-up case studies. To accommodate the difference in research aims (i.e. descriptive vs. exploratory), a mixed-method approach was adopted: a quasi-experiment was followed by a multi-case study. Examining the efficacy of two written CF types (i.e. direct feedback and metalinguisitic explanation) on the development of the English passive voice in comparison with writing practice, the quasi-experiment was conducted among 87 vocational college students in China. It involved three writing tasks, one revision task (feedback groups only), and an L2 motivation questionnaire survey. The results showed that, compared with writing practice, written CF did not significantly contribute to the accurate development of the target feature. However, compared with writing practice, written CF significantly contributed to the partial development of this feature. Moreover, one L2 motivational variable, Ideal L2 self, significantly moderated the effect of one written CF type, direct feedback. To explore the possible causes of the different extents to which the students benefited from written CF, the follow-up multi-case study focused on two students who had participated in the quasi-experiment and differed significantly in the accurate development of the target feature. Data were collected via three writing tasks, one revision task and two stimulated recall interviews with each participant. The analyses of stimulated recall and texts revealed a link between strategy use in the cognitive processing of written CF and the retention of written CF over time. Hence, this project revealed that, in the EFL context in China, written CF may contribute to L2 development even when accurate development is not achieved. Moreover, the efficacy of written CF can be influenced by L2 motivation and strategy use in the cognitive processing of written CF. Therefore, it is suggested that written CF can be a useful tool in the EFL teaching in China, and learner differences, such as L2 motivation and learning strategies, need to be considered while providing written CF in this context. Replicative research is suggested in other L1 contexts to test the generalizability of the present findings.

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  • Employees’ Experience of Workplace Bullying: A Study of Chinese Workers in the New Zealand Hospitality Industry

    Gong, Ping

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The issue of workplace bullying has been studied in different countries and industries; however, researches into workplace bullying in the New Zealand hospitality industry are limited. This small exploratory study identified sources, impacts, and influential factors of workplace bullying, and the coping strategies of those subjected to workplace bullying, particularly focusing on Chinese workers in the New Zealand hospitality industry. The research was conducted using a qualitative approach. Eight Chinese workers from New Zealand hospitality businesses completed semi-structured interviews, and data were analysed used thematic coding. The research findings show three major sources of workplace bullying in New Zealand hospitality workplaces: superiors, senior colleagues and guests. Perpetrators’ bullying behaviours were verbal abuse, ostracising behaviour, sexual harassment, unfair workload and false accusations/blame, and such bullying contributes to Chinese workers’ negative emotions and work performance. The five influential factors including weak organisational support, English language difficulties, introverted and timid personalities, lack of work-related experience and skills, and Chinese cultural behaviours were identified as contributing to the bullying of Chinese workers in New Zealand hospitality workplaces. Chinese workers in this study coped with bullying using avoidance and rejection, talking to peers and seeking help from organisations. Additionally, Chinese cultural values were found to contribute to workers’ timid personalities, further orienting their avoidance and tolerance behaviour towards workplace bullying, and traditional high-power distance in Chinese workplaces also led to bullying. The findings of this study contribute to research into workplace bullying in New Zealand by allocating a particular focus on Chinese workers in the New Zealand hospitality industry. The research results offer valuable insights into understanding Chinese workers’ experiences of workplace bullying in New Zealand hospitality workplaces, and the discussion provides practical information to New Zealand hospitality organisations to help them develop anti-bullying policy and strategies.

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  • Comparative Content Analysis of Online and Professional Reviews for Full-service Restaurants in Auckland

    Zhang, Ziye

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This study applies content analysis to investigate online and published restaurant reviews of full-service restaurants in Auckland. By interpreting the underlying meanings and identifying key words of each review, the evaluation criteria adopted by two kinds of reviewers are revealed. The findings of this study show that, while the quality of food and service are always the primary measures for online and professional restaurant reviewers, there are several differences between these two types of reviews. Cost draws attention from both online and professional reviewers, but only online reviews involve strong personal judgments about price fairness. As for themes that only appear in one type of review, only online reviewers talk about their dining companions, while only professional reviewers provide specialised information that is not accessible to the public about the chef, owner and operational circumstances of the restaurant. The criteria adopted by online and professional reviewers are compared and the differences explored from the perspective of the association between social differentiation and reviewers’ and audiences’ writing and reading habits. Furthermore, this study makes recommendations for restaurant practitioners about maintaining their restaurants’ online reputation, and enriches the literature that employs user-generated content as a new data source.

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  • Lessons Learned Through Collaborating to Present Research Findings to the Wider Community’

    Scott, K; Fadyl, J; Wrapson, J; Stewart, L; Short, E; Theadom, A

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    No abstract.

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  • Teacher Provision of Opportunities for Learners to Develop Language Knowledge and Cultural Knowledge

    Conway, C; Richards, H; Harvey, S; Roskvist, A

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    This paper examines a language teacher education professional development programme in New Zealand that draws on the 2007 New Zealand Curriculum. At the heart of the Learning Languages area in the curriculum is communicative competence, with the understanding that communication involves language knowledge and cultural knowledge. The New Zealand Ministry of Education expects that schools will be able to offer all Years 7–10 students the opportunity to learn an additional language in order for them to participate effectively in multicultural settings, both in New Zealand and internationally. To deliver this, language teachers and generalist teachers are being encouraged to undertake professional development. This paper reports on a research evaluation of a Ministry-sponsored language teacher professional development programme. The findings reveal success in increasing teacher understanding of how to develop learners’ language knowledge, because this part of the programme was underpinned by a deep principled knowledge base, and teachers had opportunities to acquire knowledge and participate in a language teaching community. However, teacher understanding of how to increase learners’ cultural knowledge was less successful, because of a lack of a principled knowledge base of intercultural language teaching. We argue that effective professional development programmes need both to be based on deep principled knowledge and to offer learning that involves acquisition and participation.

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  • Punctual Activity Classification Within Constrained Sporting Domains Using Reservoir Computing

    Hunt, Douglas

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This research uses Design Science to create a software artefact that employs recurrent neural networks in the form of Reservoir Computing models such as Liquid State Machines and Echo State Networks to classify rare punctual activity in a sports context. This research represents part of a broader plan to use wearable inertial and other sensors to assist in classifying and coaching human movement. The research is conducted in three main stages with progress reported via five published papers. The initial stage demonstrates that one form of Reservoir Computing, Liquid State Machines, are capable of classifying "classes" based on synthetic spatio-temporal data. The second stage demonstrates that both Liquid State Machines and Echo State Networks are capable of classifying selected, realistic, punctual human activity normally encountered within equestrian sport. This second stage uses data captured from a wrist mounted inertial sensor used with realistic but scripted activities in laboratory conditions. The third stage utilises data captured from twenty equestrian sports-people undertaking unscripted riding activities in the real world and demonstrates that rare, punctual activity can be successfully classified using an Echo State Network. The real-world data used in the third stage is also captured from a wrist mounted inertial sensor. The punctual activity classified during the third stage of this research represents less than 0.005% of the data captured and so can be said to be "rare". The main contribution of this research is to demonstrate that it is possible to build a reliable classifier based on spatio-temporal data from punctual human activity using recurrent neural networks in the form of Reservoir Computing models. Reservoir Computing models have been successfully used as classifiers in other areas including speech recognition but have not previously been used to classify human activity. This research concludes that Reservoir Computing models represent a useful adjunct to human activity classifiers but this research does not set out to "prove" that they are necessarily the best or only way of classifying punctual human activities. A secondary contribution of this research is to extend the differentiation of punctual human activities from durative activities with a cyclic component such as running or rowing and to argue that most prior human activity classification research has focussed on durative activities with much less research focus on short, non-cyclic, punctual activities. While the classifier artefact developed within this research is intended for use within a sporting context it has other uses beyond this context.

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