4,996 results for Lincoln University, All rights reserved

  • Seed potato physiological age and crop establishment

    Salgado de Oliveira, Juliano; Moot, Derrick J.; Brown, H. E.

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    Seed potato physiological age progressively advances with time (chronological age), but is also influenced by temperature during storage. In this work, different combinations of constant temperatures (2, 8 and 20°C) were applied to 'Bondi' and 'Fraser' seed potatoes at different times during the storage period. By the end of storage, potatoes differed in the temperature sum they had been exposed to or the timing and duration of warmer periods. The range of accumulated temperature was 180 to 3,600 °Cd. Any sprouts produced during storage were removed before being planted at 20°C at one month intervals from 4-10 months after storage. In most cases delaying planting (chronologically older seed) resulted in earlier emergence and an increase in the number of stems emerged. Increased storage temperature from 2-8°C (thermally older seed) had no effect. Prolonged storage of seed potatoes at 20°C gave a significant reduction in the fraction of plants that emerged and produced a decline in the number, growth and stage of development of the stems emerged, but only when the seed potato had accumulated over 3,060 °Cd for both cultivars. It seems that using expensive cool storage in winter in Canterbury, with cool winter ambient temperatures, is unnecessary for crop establishment and by inference subsequent crop production.

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  • Sport and technology: An actor-network theory perspective

    Kerr, Roslyn

    Book
    Lincoln University

    How do new technologies come to be used in sport? This is the question that Sport and technology aims to answer, moving beyond the idea of functionality to explore the many other important factors that athletes and sporting bodies consider throughout the process of technology adoption. Sport and technology offers theoretical insights relevant to students and scholars of sport and sociology. It will also be fascinating reading for anyone interested in elite sporting practice in the twenty-first century.

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  • Is domatia production in Coprosma rotundifolia (Rubiaceae) induced by mites or foliar pathogens?

    O'Connell, Dean; Monks, A.; Dickinson, K. J. M.; Lee, W. G.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Plant–invertebrate mutualisms involve the production of food and/or shelter by plants to co-opt invertebrate groups in order to either prevent herbivore or pathogen damage or facilitate seed dispersal. Plant structures and the provision of food are relatively expensive, and a reactive plant response to attack may reduce those costs provided the fitness benefit of the mutualism is maintained. We investigated whether foliar domatia in the New Zealand shrub Coprosma rotundifolia (Rubiaceae) were an induced mutualism, whose density is dependent on the abundance of foliar mites and/or foliar fungi, or a defence that is always present irrespective of local conditions, i.e. a constitutive mutualism. Beneficial mites inhabit the domatia (mite houses), feeding on leaf fungi and small herbivorous arthropods from the leaf surface. We attempted to manipulate mite and fungal densities to test (1) whether the density of foliar mites on shrubs stimulated increased domatia production and the domatia opening size of new leaves, and (2) whether the density of foliar fungi on old leaves influenced domatia production in new leaves. Under experimental treatments (with or without miticide and different levels of foliar fungal detritus) C. rotundifolia shrubs showed no significant differences in the mean relative change in domatia production in new season’s leaves compared with old leaves. We propose that domatia on C. rotundifolia are potentially part of a defence that is always present irrespective of local conditions, i.e. a constitutive mutualism, as plants produce many domatia, apparently in excess of requirements. A constitutive mutualism suggests that plants have a consistent fitness advantage by maintaining these structures every year, presumably because of constant pressure from foliar invertebrate herbivores and pathogens.

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  • The birds and the bees: Identification of bird and invertebrate fauna providing ecosystem services following restoration plantings at the Lincoln University Dairy Farm

    Curtis, K.; Bowie, Michael H.; Ross, James G.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    This study monitored the birds and invertebrates in the native corner plantings, native corridors, and the pasture at Lincoln University Demonstration Dairy and compared their diversity and abundance in three habitat types. A baseline study was previously completed in 2008/2009 and had assessed the presence of birds in the pasture just after the native planting. In late November and early December 2016 five-minute bird counts were completed in 20 pasture sites and the four native corner plantings. A range of entomological monitoring techniques were used in each site including pan traps, pitfall traps, wooden discs, and leaf litter extraction. A total of 22 bird species were found, 11 native and 11 exotic species. There were three more bird species observed in 2016 compared to the 2008 study. A total of 74 invertebrate species were found. Native plantings had the highest abundance and richness of invertebrates followed by the corridors, then the pasture. A range of ecosystem services are provided by the birds and invertebrates that include predation and pollination. The plantings also provide shelter for stock, greater on-farm native plant diversity and enhance aesthetic appeal.

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  • A change for good: Advocating for better support of international students

    Streat, Daryl

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    This article is the first in a two-part series. The first focuses on some issues facing ESOL (English for Speakers of Other Languages) support for international students in English-speaking countries, such as New Zealand. This includes a focus on the TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) practitioners who are tasked with providing this support. The second part will aim to offer some solutions for institutions that wish to move towards a more inclusive model of support that overcomes the language-as-barrier mentality and begins to provide ESOL support which is more inclusive and effective. Part I highlights the lack of support for international students (at the secondary and tertiary level) within New Zealand. Current models have enabled New Zealand institutions to reap the economic benefits of international students, while in some cases failing to provide sufficient ESOL or academic support for these students. In addition, this model has fostered working conditions for TESOL practitioners which are marginalised and under-resourced. Given that existing professional bodies claim to advocate for students and staff alike, it is proposed that a shift in leadership within the ESOL sector is required.

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  • Optimal monitoring and statistical modelling methods for feral cats and other mammalian predators in a pastoral landscape

    Nichols, Margaret

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Introduction. Mammalian predators have a global impact on biodiversity. Mammalian predator species often occur at low abundance and require efficient and non-invasive monitoring techniques, alongside reliable statistical modelling methods, to explain the probability of detection, presence and, when possible, abundance. Camera traps are a dynamic technology currently used around the world to monitor a wide range of species in a variety of ecological research programmes However, as camera traps continue to change and improve, there is a need for more standardisation for both camera settings and deployment methods, depending on the objective of the study. Aims. The aims of this study were to: 1) determine the optimal orientation for camera traps to detect mammalian pest species; 2) determine the optimal statistical method for modelling changes in a feral cat population pre-and post-predator control operation; 3) assess the effectiveness of a Bayesian abundance estimator at providing abundance estimates for a population of hedgehogs pre- and post-predator control; and 4) deploy camera traps on a wide scale to determine the baseline relative abundance and detection rate for feral cats prior to a predator control operation. Materials and methods. 1) I deployed 20 pairs of camera traps (one horizontal and one vertical) for 21 days across a pastoral landscape in Hawke’s Bay, North Island, New Zealand, and compared numbers of detections for target species (feral cats) and mustelids (M. furo, M. erminea, and M. nivalis); 2) I deployed 40 horizontally-oriented cameras on pre-determined grid sites across two pastoral properties in Hawke’s Bay, for two consecutive periods of 21 days, to monitor feral cats pre- and post-predator control. I compared four statistical modelling methods for gauging the success of the control operation: index manipulation method (IMI), capture-mark-recapture (CMR), a generalised linear mixed model method (GLMM), and the spatial presence-absence model (SPA). The IMI method was used as a benchmark method for comparison as used in previous studies; 3) I used the same camera trap data from the previous/an earlier?? chapter to estimate hedgehog abundance pre- and post-control, using the SPA model; and 4) I deployed 68 horizontally-oriented cameras on a wide scale (26,000 ha) across two pastoral areas of coastal Hawke’s Bay (The Cape to City restoration project) for 21 days, to monitor feral cats prior to a predator control operation. I compared the GLMM method from the previous study with an abundance-induced heterogeneity model (RN) for estimating the proportion of cameras detecting cats per site and the relative abundance at each site. I also used the RN model to compare the effect of habitat type (forest, forest margin, mixed, and open) on the abundance and proportion of detections. Results. 1) Horizontal cameras produced a significantly greater number of photos overall (P < 0.001) and more independent encounters with the target species (P = 0.03). Orientation did not influence the number of false triggers (P = 0.53); 2) The IMI and SPA models gave similar, accurate estimates showing a decrease in cat abundance (90% and 88%, respectively) post-predator removal. The GLMM method showed a significant decrease in camera detection rates post-control (90%). The CMR models were unable to give accurate abundance estimates due to the low sample size of reliably identifiable cats; 3) The SPA model produced more precise estimates for a population of hedgehogs (due to a higher number of multiple detections than feral cats) and successfully showed a reduction in abundance post-predator control; 4) Strategically placed cameras had much higher detection rates than previous studies with the GLMM method estimating 5.2% (95 % C.I 2.3-7.9) for Site 1, and 4.3% (2.6-10.3) for Site 2. The RN model estimated detection rates of 5.5% (95% CI 4.1-6.9) for Site 1, and 4.5% (3.1-5.9) for Site 2. The RN model also indicated variation in the relative abundance based on habitat type with significantly higher detection rates in forests and along forest margins compared with mixed scrub and open farmland. Discussion and conclusions. Horizontally-oriented cameras performed well at detecting feral cats and mustelids. While the GLMM method and the SPA model gave accurate results in comparison to the IMI method, they lacked precision. CMR models have had success with large, well marked felids;, however, they do not perform well with a small sample size of identifiable cat images (very few clearly marked individuals). Although requiring two separate measures (pre-monitoring, manipulation, then post-monitoring), the IMI method was simple to calculate using a variance equation and appeared to be accurate. This may be a valuable method for implementation by wildlife managers in the future. The SPA model performed well (more precision) for hedgehogs, for which there were more multiple detections per camera station. This model requires large amounts of data and is more appropriately suited for a species that occurs at higher densities than feral cats. However, a further examination of the size of hedgehog home ranges and the possibility that they simply saturated the detection network with high numbers, must be done to ensure that the model’s requirement for spatially-correlated detection units has been satisfied. Both the GLMM and RN model showed no substantial differences in cat detections for either site prior to a predator control operation. The RN model was able to incorporate heterogeneity at the individual camera station level; thus, it provided more precise estimates at the overall site level.

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  • Relationships between dry matter yield and height of rotationally grazed dryland lucerne

    Mills, Annamaria; Smith, Malcolm C.; Moot, Derrick J.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Between 2009/2010 and 2014/2015 a total of 711 destructive paired samples of total dry matter yield (kg DM/ha) and lucerne height were taken from a grazed dryland lucerne monoculture experiment at Ashley Dene, Canterbury, New Zealand. These were used to develop relationships suitable for on-farm estimates of lucerne. For pre-graze yields, the variation accounted for increased from 59%, based on lucerne height alone, to 84% for the 14 Year/Season combinations. For postgrazing residual DM yields, inclusion of Year as a factor increased the R2 from 0.39 to 0.65. Pre-graze data were also grouped into spring, summer and autumn. These relationships accounted for 54-60% of the observed variation in dryland lucerne. In spring the multiplier was ~95 kg DM/cm and this dropped to ~75 kg DM/cm for heights measured in the summer. In autumn the multiplier was ~55 kg DM/cm. Lack of stability in the relationships over time could reflect environmental conditions and changes in stand density which height measurements alone cannot account for.

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  • The Canterbury Royal Commission : Impacts on the property market

    Nahkies, Peter B.

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    The earthquake swarm that has struck Canterbury, New Zealand from September 2010 has led to widespread destruction and loss of life in the city of Christchurch. In response to this the New Zealand government convened a Royal Commission under the Commissions of Inquiry Act 1908. The terms of reference for this enquiry were wide ranging, and included inquiry into legal and best-practice requirements for earthquake-prone buildings and associated risk management strategies. The Commission produced a final report on earthquake-prone buildings and recommendations which was made public on the 7th December 2012. Also on the 7th of December 2012 the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (MBIE) released a Consultation Document that includes many of the recommendations put forward by the Royal Commission. This paper examines the evidence presented to the Royal Commission and reviews their recommendations and those of MBIE in relation to the management of earthquake-prone buildings. An analysis of the likely impacts of the recommendations and proposals on both the property market and society in general is also undertaken.

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  • The Harcourts Building : A 'seismic' shift?

    Nahkies, Peter B.

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to identify through the application of Actor Network Theory (ANT) the issues and impediments to the implementation of mandatory seismic retrofitting policies proposed by the New Zealand Government. In particular the tension between the heritage protection objectives contained in the Resource Management Act 1991 and the earthquake mitigation measures contained in the Building Act 2004 are examined. Design/methodology/approach - The paper uses a case study approach based on the Harcourts Building in Wellington New Zealand and the case law relating to attempts to demolish this particular building. Use is made of ANT as a 'lens' to identify and study the controversies around mandatory seismic retrofitting of heritage buildings. The concept of translation is used to draw network diagrams.

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  • Mandatory seismic retrofitting : A case study of the land use impacts on a small provincial town

    Nahkies, Peter B.

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    As a result of the Christchurch Earthquake that occurred on 22nd February 2011 and the resultant loss of life and widespread damage, a Royal Commission of Enquiry was convened in April 2011. The Royal Commission recommended a number of significant changes to the regulation of earthquake prone building in New Zealand. Earthquake prone buildings are buildings that are deemed to be of insufficient strength to perform adequately in a moderate earthquake. In response to the Royal Commission recommendations the New Zealand Government carried out a consultative process before announcing proposed changes to the building regulations in August 2013. One of the most significant changes is the imposition of mandatory strengthening requirements for earthquake prone buildings on a national basis. This will have a significant impact on the urban fabric of most New Zealand towns and cities. The type of traditional cost benefit study carried out to date fails to measure these impacts and this paper proposes an alternative methodology based on the analysis of land use data and rating valuations. This methodology was developed and applied to a small provincial town in the form of a case study. The results of this case study and the methodology used are discussed in this paper.

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  • Seismic retrofitting : Testing feasibility

    Nahkies, Peter B.

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    As a result of the findings and recommendations of the Royal Commission of Inquiry into the Canterbury Earthquake Swarm of 2010-2011 the New Zealand Government has introduced new legislation that will require the mandatory strengthening of all earthquake-prone buildings in New Zealand. An earthquake prone building is currently defined as a building that is less than one third the seismic strength of a new building. If an owner does not wish to strengthen their buildings then they must demolish them. Seismic retrofitting of buildings is a form of property development and as such, the decision to retrofit or not should be based on a robust and soundly conducted feasibility study. Feasibility studies on seismic retrofitting can be particularly challenging for a number of reasons thus making it difficult for owners to make informed and sound decisions relating to their earthquake prone buildings. This paper considers the concept and process of feasibility analysis as applied to earthquake prone buildings and discusses the current challenges posed by such feasibility studies. A number of recommendations are made in an attempt to help develop a best practice model for decision making relating to earthquake prone buildings."

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  • Interactions between isolates of the fungus Beauveria bassiana and Zea mays

    McKinnon, Aimee

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Entomopathogenic fungi from the genus Beauveria play an important role in controlling insect populations and have been utilised widely for the biological control of insect pests. Only relatively recently has research focused more on the ecology of these fungi. Various studies have reported that Beauveria bassiana have the ability to become endophytic and may colonise a broad range of plant hosts, while still maintaining pathogenicity to insects. However, the nature of these interactions within plant tissues and the mechanism for colonisation still require elucidation. The aim of this project was to address some of the fundamental questions relating to endophytic colonisation and host interaction in planta. Three putative endophytic isolates of Beauveria were subsequently investigated for interactions with a single Zea mays (maize) cultivar Pioneer 34H31. The overall hypothesis was that isolates of B. bassiana differ in their ability to colonise a single maize cultivar, as evidenced by differential effects to the plant microbiome (in the rhizosphere roots/soil), as well as plant growth and immune response following inoculation. In order to test this hypothesis, endophytic isolates had to be first obtained. Consequently, a nested PCR protocol was developed based on the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (ef1α) gene that was designed to find and amplify isolates in planta from the genus Beauveria. The nested protocol was also designed to enable species differentiation by sequence analysis and quantification of fungal biomass in planta. A prior review of the literature pertaining to Beauveria endophyte detection methodology for PCR indicated the need to optimise plant surface sterilisation for reliable detection of Beauveria in plant tissues. However, elimination of Beauveria inocula and/or DNA from the plant surfaces proved difficult. The focus of the project therefore shifted more to the plant host response to all plant-associated Beauveria. This was achieved by (1) testing the plant growth response to three different B. bassiana putativeendophytic isolates (BG11, FRh2 and J18) versus the growth-promoting Trichoderma atroviride iii isolate LU132, all of which were introduced artificially through a wound made to the emerging maize seedlings to avoid the confounding effects of surface inoculation, (2) by assessing the impact of the three B. bassiana isolates applied topically to roots of maize on the rhizosphere soil community structure and function and (3) by investigating differences in gene expression in maize roots in the response to the topical application of two different B. bassiana isolates (BG11 and J18), relative to a no-inoculum control using an RNA microarray transcriptome analysis. Results of the growth experiment showed predominantly neutral or negative effects to plant growth in terms of biomass, although plants exhibited root architecture changes as a result of one B. bassiana isolate (FRh2), and a higher chlorophyll content for another isolate (J18) when measured with a SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter, providing initial evidence for phenotypic differences between the selected study isolates. However, variation between the three B. bassiana isolates was less evident in the ecological study of the rhizosphere of maize. Neither the microbial community structure nor function was significantly affected by the presence of the isolates. However, retention of the inocula in the rhizosphere over 30 days after inoculation (DAI) was positively affected by a simulated herbivory treatment made to the maize foliage at 23 DAI, as was the general microbial community composition. The transcriptome analysis indicated putative differential gene expression in maize roots as a result of colonisation by the two B. bassiana isolates, suggesting that they may differ in their ability to colonise and/or effect the plant host immune response. Isolate J18-treated plants upregulated genes encoding for antioxidant glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) relative to BG11-treated plants, presumably to counteract excesses of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In contrast, BG11-treated plants upregulated a larger suite of genes involved in plant defence including ethylene responsive transcription factors, auxin responsive and dehydration responsive genes. Overall, this research suggests that the relationship between Beauveria and the plant host is modulated by the plant host, but may sometimes also be isolate-dependent.

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  • A social entrepreneurial effort to ameliorate food insecurity: Obstacles and opportunities discovered

    Manna, Valerie A.; Grout, Rachel; Charters, Stuart

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    This paper describes the first level of a social entrepreneurial effort to enable supermarkets to donate surplus goods to food banks via an online Donations Management System (DMS). Interviews were conducted with seven supermarkets to explore their current practices. Results suggest that the established practices of supermarkets are sufficient in waste management and donation management and, as such, a DMS is not appropriate for that target. By highlighting an approach that was not viable, results informed a further study of food banks to explore their needs, resulting in an opportunity to provide coordination services for inter-food bank supply being identified. The key conclusion of this current study is that food banks are in a better position to find innovative ways to manage their supply by working within their horizontal rather than their vertical network.

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  • Environmental management systems in New Zealand wineries: Is SWNZ the answer?

    De Silva, Tracy-Anne; Forbes, Sharon L.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    In recent years, various formal environmental management systems (EMS) have been developed and promoted by national and regional wine industry associations worldwide. Specifically, New Zealand Winegrowers, the national industry association, has encouraged wineries and grapegrowers to implement a formal industry-specific EMS. They’ve developed and named Sustainable Winegrowing New Zealand (SWNZ). This paper explores the implementation of the SWNZ programme along with other formal EMS in New Zealand wineries. Insights are provided about specific aspects of implementation including the benefits of implementation, changes to environmental practices, disadvantages associated with implementation and areas where environmental improvement is still needed. The paper then concludes with the practical implications of the study.

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  • Forces shaping working capital management practices: A preliminary study

    Darun, Mohd R.; Roudaki, Jamal; Radford, Joseph J.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    This exploratory study is an attempt to identify forces that influence working capital management practices. Focus groups and unstructured interviews were conducted to identify factors influencing decision making process in working capital particularly in complex organizational settings. The qualitative data analysis showed that organizational context played an important role in working capital management practices. Finally, this study develops a number of propositions and future research directions are suggested.

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  • Equity financing and debt-based financing: Evidence from Islamic microfinance institutions in Indonesia

    Fianto, Bayu; Gan, Christopher; Hu, Baiding; Roudaki, Jamal

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    This paper investigates the impact of Islamic microfinance on rural households' welfare in Indonesia. Using a survey questionnaire, this study explores two group of financing in Islamic microfinance, equity and debt-based financing. A two-year panel dataset and a double difference-in-difference approach are used to examine the impact of the two Islamic microfinance groups on rural household in Indonesia. The study also evaluates shari'a compliance based on the national shari'a board of Indonesia. The study results indicate that both financing groups exhibit a positive and significant impact on rural households' income, but equity financing performed better than debt-based financing. Moreover, the shari'a compliance evaluation indicates that clients received financing that is comparable with the national shari'a board of Indonesia.

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  • China’s domestic business environment and its impact on trade in services: an empirical analysis

    Li, Xuedong

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    China’s trade in services has increased rapidly since 2005 (Wu, 2015). The expanded trade in services has contributed to the performance of China’s overall trade, and enhanced China’s status in the international trade arena (Tang, Zhang, & Findlay, 2013). The importance of the trade in services in China’s economic development has been recognized and emphasised in China’s Twelfth Five-Year Plan (2011-2015) (Chen & Whalley, 2014). The Chinese government aims to continue to increase the share of its services sector to GDP to 55 percent in 2020 (Gardels, 2016). China’s integration into the world services market will not only impact on China’s own economic development, but also have influence on the global economy. Although China’s trade in services has expanded substantially, China’s services sector and trade in services has received less attention when compared to the expansion of China’s manufacturing sector and its merchandise trade (Wu, 2015). A review of literature shows that the published empirical studies on China’s trade in services are sparse. To date, there is no published empirical research on analysing the relationship between the indicators of the domestic business environment and China’s trade in services, specifically, China’s services exports and imports. This current research identifies a set of testable national level indicators of the domestic business environment in a Chinese context, and empirically investigates the effects of these indicators of the domestic business environment on China’s trade in service. The identified five testable indicators are foreign direct investment (FDI), tertiary education, the employment in the services sector, inflation, and the Internet diffusion. This research employs structural equation modelling to examine the relationships between the selected five indicators of the domestic business environment on China’s trade in services (especially, on China’s service exports and service imports). The empirical results of this research reveal that FDI is the most significant indicator that impacts on the development of both China’s services exports and services imports. In addition, Internet diffusion has the least impact on China’s service exports, while, employment in the service sector has the least impact on China’s services imports. The current research makes both a theoretical and practical contribution to future research. This research contributes to the economic literature on the trade in services as it is the first empirical research that identifies and examines the national level indicators of the Chinese domestic environment on its trade in services. The multiple regression modelling and the identified set of testable national level of indicators of the domestic business environment can be applied to the future research for different countries and regions. Further, the empirical findings in this research provide an improved understanding of the important linkage between China’s domestic business environment and its trade in services.

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  • Land use changes and potential impacts on environmental outcomes in Lam Dong province

    Nguyen, Lan

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Lam Dong is a province in the Central Highlands of Vietnam which has high biodiversity values. However, rapid socio-economic growth is causing environmental degradation. This research is directed at understanding the key driving factors behind individual choices about land use and the subsequent effects these may have on environmental degradation. Understanding individual motivations helps identify potential policy interventions and predict degradation with different policies. The research used a spatially explicit agent-based modelling approach (SeABM) to integrate spatial and non-spatial parameters in land use decisions. To determine the non-spatial parameters for the model, a questionnaire was used to collect demographic information from households. Spatial parameters were collected through data collection processes from different sources. Based on the model that was developed, a number of simulations were done to evaluate the effect of different policy options compared to a base-line simulation. The effects were based on changes to four key measures – land use changes, soil erosion, carbon dioxide sequestration and landscape fragmentation. The scenarios evaluated were reducing population growth rate, improving households’ income, supporting low income households, promoting a perennial cashew crop, promoting acacia hybrid and promoting payment for forest environmental services. The baseline assumed that the population will grow at a rate of 2.7% per year as a normal rate. The number of mouths to feed in each household and the labours will also increase due to population growth. The cash balance of households may be deficit and lead to changes in their land uses to compensate for any loss. The land use changes will follow the historical trend described by several land use change modules results of analysing time-series satellite images. Simulation outcomes with scenarios such as population growth, income growth and financial support did not deviate from the baseline scenario (the business as usual scenario). Moreover, they all potentially caused negative impact on the quality of the environment by increasing the amount of soil erosion, reducing the capacity to store more carbon dioxide in vegetative cover, and increasing the landscape fragmentation after 10 years. Promoting perennial crops such as cashew in simulation had a positive effect on local livelihood. However, it still degraded environmental quality. Because this crop is usually planted at higher elevations with large spacing on steeper slopes, increased soil erosion results. Promoting acacia hybrid had a positive impact on livelihood and a lower negative influence on environmental outcomes. Acacia hybrid can be considered a good option as it is planted with higher density and has a higher growth rate compared to cashew, which helps reduce soil erosion on the ground and increase carbon sequestration. Providing payment for environmental services had a positive impact on environmental quality. The pressure on natural resources would be less if households had sustainable sources of income which encouraged them to protect and cultivate forest in the long term. Based on the results of this research, several policy options would be suggested to harmonise both socio-economic growth and environmental quality. Land use conversion should be sustainably maximised if the current land use is not profitable for households. Long-term investment and long rotation for plantations at high elevation should be encouraged to reduce soil erosion and the restriction on rice land on flat areas needs to be flexible. Controlling the birth rate and improving education are also remedies to reduce the number of people depending heavily on agricultural activity and utilising forest products. Increasing incentive for forest protection and improving legal responsibility for violation in forest protection are highly recommended to encourage households to protect forest and sustainably benefit from it. The results show that SeABM framework is capable of identifying land use dynamics in the future with different policy options. It has the potential to be used as a tool by policy makers in land use planning to explore new development alternatives. However, there are many gaps that can be improved upon with this research to have better modelling which captures the reality of land use decision-making behaviour.

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  • Processors and farmers: Working together to improve outcomes

    Westbrooke, Victoria; Greer, Glen

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    The productivity of New Zealand’s sheep and beef farmers has increased over the past decade. However, on-farm productivity needs to lift further for New Zealand’s red meat to continue to be competitive in world markets. The Extension Design Project investigated how farmers and processing companies could work together to lift on-farm outcome, by identifying issues and providing support for on-farm practice change. This analysis draws on farmer survey data, semi-structured interviews with coordinators and rural professionals and project documentation. By the end of the second year 75 farmers were participating with the majority (87%) reporting on farm practice change as a result of the interventions. Critical success factors were threefold. First, farmers’ input in identifying issues to address and developing management strategies. Second, processing company coordinators through their interaction with farmers and creation of an open atmosphere in their peer-working group. Third, access to high quality experts; project funded equipment and expertise and the ability to examine issues in a supportive group environment. The coordinators were a vital link between the farmers and processor, but faced a challenge in that they were juggling the project role with their existing job, they also required support due to their lack of extension experience.

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  • Otago Regional Council's reponse to lake snow: A planners evaluation.

    Dwyer, Stephanie Kay

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Invasive species are a threat to the economy, environment and community, therefore it is essential that there is an effective framework in place for biosecurity management in New Zealand, to ensure that planners within local authorities are able to competently respond to invasive species within their region. The main aim of this research was to identify potential ‘implementation gaps’ that influence the overall effectiveness of the biosecurity framework within the New Zealand context. Otago Regional Council’s approach to lake snow (algae) will be used as case study. The Biosecurity Act (BSA) 1993 is an overarching statute responsible for restating rules and policies for exclusion, eradication and management of unwanted organisms. Under the BSA every local authority has the power to determine whether pests are unwanted organisms, and provide further surveillance of pests, and any action required to manage and control unwanted pest in the region. This research argues that how an unwanted organism is framed can strongly influence how regional council’s respond to an unwanted organism. Non-government organisations and freshwater scientists have framed lake snow as a biological risk at the earlier stages of detection, whereas Otago Regional Council was reluctant to frame lake snow as a biological incursion due to the lack of scientific evidence. Otago Regional Council’s slow response allowed lake snow to rapidly spread through Lake Wanaka and, neighbouring lakes such as Lake Hawea and Wakatipu becoming unmanageable nuisance for communities, anglers, and recreationist. There is high uncertainty surrounding invasive pests in New Zealand, therefore, it is difficult to detect invasive pests and determine the effects that they may pose to the overall health of water users and water quality. To improve the overall effectiveness of regional planning under the Biosecurity Act 1993, it is recommended to increase the coordination and collaboration between government and non-governmental organisations, create precautionary invasive pests fund, , establish guidelines on identification pest, acknowledgement of uncertainties and risk of biological invasions, and lastly, develop an international database on invasive species, where knowledge is shared. Further research on monitoring and identification technology, and understanding freshwater ecological natural systems is advised. The recommendations and future research are essential to improving the in implementation of a biosecurity framework within regional planning in New Zealand.

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