9,214 results for Massey University

  • Disorders of learning and achievement : an IPA exploration of the lived experience of diagnosis and the role of growth and fixed mindsets : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Duncan, Chloe Hannah Jane

    Thesis
    Massey University

    People with disorders of learning and achievement such as Specific Learning Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder experience consequences that extend to many areas of life. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of being diagnosed with such a disorder, and investigate what role growth and fixed mindsets play in that experience, aiming to identify factors that had been positively contributory. Interviews from four participants living in small-town New Zealand were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Diagnosis was viewed as beneficial for the access it granted to intervention, and detrimental for its capacity to elicit stigma, and become such a dominant presence as to inhibit individuality. Identity development centred around diagnosis and the ways participants either accepted or pushed against ‘labels.’ Negative consequences included withdrawal from learning environments and negative peer influence which was particularly salient during adolescence. Developmental stage affected the way symptoms were experienced and the success of interventions which needed to be implemented early and targeted appropriately to be maximally successful. Participants viewed their difficulties as fixed and immovable but employed growth mindsets in the development of strategies and perseverance to work around their difficulties, taking responsibility and control of their learning as they matured. Maturity also brought conceptualisation of the self as different but capable/worthy and in some cases, better for the challenge learning difficulties had contributed to their lives. They believed support people (e.g. educators) could be most helpful when they adopted growth mindsets toward learning, appreciating individuality and flexibility, tailoring their teaching and support to the individual needs of their students.

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  • Using students' participation data to understand their impact on students' course outcomes : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the MPhil degree at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand, Master of Philosophy degree in Information Technology

    Esnaashari, Shadi

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Many students with diverse needs are enrolled in university courses. Not all these students are able to be successful in completing their courses. Faculty members are keen to identify these students who have the risk of failing their courses early enough to help them by providing timely feedback so that students can meet the requirements of their courses. There are many studies using educational data mining algorithms which aim to identify at risk students by predicting students’ course outcomes, for example, from their forum activities, content requests, and time spent online. This study addresses this issue by clustering the students’ course outcomes using students’ class participation data which can be obtained from various online education technological solutions. Using data mining in educational systems as an analytical tool offers researchers new opportunities to trace students’ digital footprints in various course related activities and analyse students’ traced data to help the students in their learning processes and teachers in their educational practices. In this study the focus is not only on finding at risk students but also in using data for improving learning process and supporting personalized learning. In‐class participation data was collected through audience participation tools, the out‐of‐class participation data was collected from Stream and combined with the qualitative and quantitative data from questionnaires. The participation data were collected from 5 different courses in the mainstream university programs. Our first aim was to understand the perception of students regarding the effect of participation and using the audience participation tools in class and their effects on students’ learning processes. Moreover, we would like to identify to what extents their perceptions match with their final course outcomes. Therefore, the tool has been used in different mainstream courses from different departments. The results of our study show that students who participated more and thought that the tool helped them to learn, engaged and increased their interest in the course more, and eventually achieved highest scores. This finding supports the view that inclass participation is critical to learning and academic success.

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  • The impact of political connections on Chinese listed firms : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Finance at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Chen, XiaoQi

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis investigates the impact of a new type of “princeling” political connection on Chinese listed companies. Three specific issues are examined through three interconnected essays: characteristics of “princeling” politically connected firms (PCFs) with respect to accounting numbers in financial statements and corporate governance; the expropriation on earnings by PCFs; and the impact of political connections on stock returns. Firstly, to examine the characteristics of PCFs, this thesis systematically examines the differences between PCFs and their matching firms with respect to financial statement accounts and corporate governance during the period from 1992 to 2011. This thesis finds that PCFs have significantly greater profitability and market valuation, but they have significantly lower net investments and net fixed assets compared to non-connected firms. Moreover, board directors are on average older and have higher educational levels in PCFs, relative to non-connected firms. Surprisingly, PCFs exhibits larger percentage of directors with academic backgrounds. Secondly, an investigation is made on the link between political connections and value expropriation. This thesis finds PCFs stockpile disproportionately larger retained earnings but pay lower cash dividends, compared to unconnected firms. This thesis further finds such behaviour in PCFs is not due to either investment or precautionary motives. These results immediately give rise to the question of what happens to the retained earnings. By examining the components of retained earnings, this thesis identifies a new form of tunnelling in the form of a discrepancy in the accounting for changes in retained earnings, newly defined as “grey usage”. Specifically, PCFs have higher average grey usages on retained earnings than matching firms, by CNY 4.68 million. The findings provide important information for investors that PCFs may potentially increase the risk of expropriation through grey usages. The final examination investigates the market response to the “princelings” political connection. This thesis compares the cumulative abnormal stock returns between PCFs and unconnected firms. Three benchmarks are applied: cumulative market adjusted abnormal returns (CMAARs); cumulative risk adjusted abnormal returns (CRAARs); and cumulative abnormal returns adjusted from the Fama-French three factors model (CFAARs). No matter which benchmark is used, firms connected to PCFs show higher cumulative abnormal stock returns than matching firms. Also, this study finds that PCFs outperform matching firms in the Conglomerates and Industrials sectors, but not in others. This result could be due to the predominance of firms in the Conglomerates and Industrial sectors in the connected firm samples.

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  • Considerations of feed demand and supply for the evolution and expansion of beef cattle farming in Sabah, East Malaysia : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Agronomy, Massey University, Institute of Agriculture and Environment, College of Sciences, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Gobilik, Januarius

    Thesis
    Massey University

    To develop a plan for the expansion and evolution of the beef industry in Sabah, it was decided to apply relevant farming information and technology from New Zealand pastoral systems. Based on expert recommendation in New Zealand, metabolic energy budgeting (MEB) was chosen as the vehicle for technology transfer, rather than a direct translocation of elements of farm practice between these two countries of vastly different climate. In Phase 1 of the study, farm system evolution in New Zealand over the last two and half decades was evaluated by modelling past systems from historic records for the author to gain experience of New Zealand pastoral systems and to develop MEB spreadsheet tools to identify principles of system improvement; and in Phase 2, the tools developed in New Zealand were applied for evaluation of opportunities for farm system improvement in Sabah. In Phase 1, an evaluation was carried out of cumulative changes on New Zealand lower North Island sheep and beef cattle farms from 1980–81/1985–86 to 2010–2011. Herbage harvested on the farms studied, as determined by MEB, was 7.43 t DM ha–1 yr–1 in 1980–81 and only 5.76 t DM ha–1 yr–1 in 2010– 11. Also herbage supply (based on GROW model calculations using weather data) had decreased from 9.64 t DM ha–1 yr–1 to 8.70 t DM ha–1 yr–1 (partly due to an apparent climate change effect). However, with the evolution of farm system configurations over the past quarter century focusing on efficiency gain, the feed conversion efficiency (based on national data) improved from 25 kg feed consumed per kg lamb weaned in 1980–81/1985–86 to 19 kg feed consumed per kg lamb weaned in 2010/2011 and the corresponding increases in meat production from 1980–81/1985–86 to 2010/2011 were a rise from 137 kg to 147 kg total beef and lamb carcass per ha per year. Two major drivers of the higher meat production were an increase in lambing percentage, and an increase in weight of lambs and bulls at sale. In Phase 2, a first study in Sabah using the MEB tools developed in New Zealand involved three cut-and-carry feedlots (Brahman, Bali and Droughtmaster cattle), and utilised 5,981 monthly liveweight records of 485 cattle farmed in this system for the period 2008–2013. A second study in Sabah involved five grazing units (Brahman cow-calf, Bali cow-calf, Droughtmaster cow-calf, and Heifer and Brahman bull Units), and included 30,166 monthly liveweight records for 1353 cattle farmed in this system during the same period. A third study involved three oil-palm-integrated cattle (OPIC) farms (two in 9 yr old plantations and one in a 12 yr old plantation) and 600–700 cattle farmed in this system in 2013 and 2014. In this study, animal growth rates were assumed based on records from the nearest government farm with animals of similar breed. For the three systems, herbage-cutting experiments were carried out in August–October 2014 to estimate herbage growth and nutritive value (metabolisable energy and protein contents), and soil samples collected to describe the soil nutrient content. In the cut-and-carry feedlot and grazing cattle farming systems, the herbage harvested, as indicated by the modelling in these systems, was lower (3.74–7.16 t DM ha–1 yr–1 herbage eaten) than the potential yield of the herbage extrapolated from the cutting experiments (6.9–21.3 t DM ha–1 yr–1). In the OPIC farming system, the modelled herbage harvested in 9 yr old plantations was 2.0–2.4 t DM ha–1 yr–1 and that of 12 yr old plantation was 1.4–1.7 t DM ha–1 yr–1. These values are higher than values for potential herbage supply (0.4–0.8 t DM ha–1 yr–1) reported in literature for plantations of similar ages. In all three systems, herbage nutritive value was low (7.0–8.9 MJ ME kg DM–1; 9%–14% CP), calving percentage was low (33%–47%); soil was acidic and soil nutrient content was low; while invasion of non-sown species (native grass) was high. The best average feed conversion efficiencies (FCE) for these systems were 21.3 kg DM kg LWG–1 (cut-and-carry feedlot), 40.2 kg DM kg LWG–1 (grazing), and 32.2 kg DM kg LWG–1 (OPIC). FCE was found to improve with application of N fertiliser and was not necessarily high when feed consumption was intensified (or at high system feed demand). A key statistic defining the stock-configuration in an efficient system for the cut-and-carry feedlot cattle farming system was 994 kg animal LWT ha–1, or a comparative stocking rate (CSR) of 96 kg animal liveweight per tonne feed consumed. For the grazing cattle farming system, the observed optimum was 506 kg animal LWT ha–1, or a CSR of 94 kg LWT t DM–1. The identification of an optimal CSR for the OPIC farming system was limited (by the data supplied by the farms), but the available data indicated that for 9OP1 the CSR was 89 kg LWT t DM–1, or approximately 231 kg animal LWT ha–1. From the series of studies in Sabah, it is concluded that the future focus of the beef industry to expand and improve the productivity should be first to adjust the farm system configuration especially the stocking rate for optimal FCE under the present forage supply regime (and for that purpose a-CSR type of statistics would be useful to determine the appropriate stocking rate), and only then, to develop a pasture husbandry and fertiliser recommendations aimed at improving herbage dry matter harvested towards a target of 14–20 t DM ha–1 yr–1, with ME of 9–10 MJ kg DM–1, and CP of 14%–16% at harvesting or grazing. The herbage production target for the OPIC farming system, however, cannot be determined until the time trajectory of the decreasing system herbage productivity with decreasing oil palm age is fully understood. The use of supplement in the three systems is optional, but if it is used, it should be targeted tactically to reduce liveweight loss and enhance cow reproductive performance.

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  • Identification and functional characterization of adhesins involved in attachment of methanogens to rumen protozoa : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Microbiology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Ng, Filomena

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Symbiotic interactions are frequently observed amongst members of the complex microbial community inhabiting the fermentative forestomach (rumen) of ruminant animals. In this ecosystem, hydrogen (H2)-using methanogens can be found as ecto- and endo-symbionts of H2-producing protozoa, and this interaction contributes to ruminant methane emissions. Rumen symbionts must have the ability to attach to protozoal hosts, presumably via protozoa-binding cell surface proteins, however the identity and specificity of these proteins are not known. A protein of the methanogenic archaeon Methanobrevibacter ruminantium M1 that binds to rumen protozoa was identified using phage display technology. A large shot-gun phage display library was constructed from M1 DNA, and affinity screened by biopanning using rumen protozoa as bait. After two rounds of biopanning, a recombinant clone encoding part of a previously annotated putative adhesin, Mru_1499, was identified as a protozoa-binding protein. The protozoal binding region of the affinity selected protein was mapped, and a “reverse panning” procedure was developed to identify protozoal species that bind to the affinity selected protein. Next, the protozoa-associated methanogen and bacterial communities were characterized, and several taxa of archaea and bacteria were found to be over-represented in the protozoa-associated community relative to their abundance in the rumen contents. Adhesins from this protozoa-associated community were identified by affinity screening of a community-scale phage display library using rumen protozoa as bait, combined with high-throughput single molecule amplicon sequencing. The comparison between pre- and post-panning sequence datasets showed seven highly enriched candidate adhesin-encoding ORFs after affinity-panning of the library on protozoa as bait. In conclusion, several adhesins mediating interactions between methanogenic archaea, bacteria and protozoa were identified using phage display at both single-organism and metagenome scales. Further assays are required to verify the function of these candidate adhesins as “molecular bridges” in interactions involving rumen protozoa. This is the first report for characterization of the protozoa-associated symbiont community by next generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene.

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  • Upper secondary school dropout : lessons from central Java province, Indonesia : a dissertation presented in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Economics at Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

    Setyadharma, Andryan

    Thesis
    Massey University

    One of the biggest challenges in educational reform is dealing with the problem of school dropout. It is not merely due to poor grades or bad behaviour or human capital considerations; often it is a more complex problem. Dropout must be considered as a process of events rather than only a single event, which interacts with social contexts and environmental situations. It undeniably requires a comprehensive understanding of the factors and processes surrounding the dropout decision. Indonesia still faces a high dropout rate, especially at upper secondary school level. Compared with other school levels, dropout rates are higher than in primary school and in lower secondary school. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to examine the effects of potential determinants on the likelihood of an individual to complete or drop out of upper secondary school in Central Java Province. This study mostly uses economic theories to explain the dropout phenomenon and human capital theory is used as the main theory to explain the importance of investment in upper secondary education for a better life in the future. In this study, the most suitable research approaches in the Indonesian context are explored and employed. Primary data have been collected, enabling more in-depth and systematic analysis of the issue. There are two types of research methods used in this study, i.e., quantitative and qualitative analyses. The quantitative analysis is the centre of this study. 439 former upper secondary school students and 878 parents/guardians participated in the quantitative study. Logit is the preferred regression technique used in the quantitative analysis because of its advantages compared to other methods. This study also conducts probit and Ordinary Least Square regressions as part of the robustness analysis. There are 39 explanatory variables and four interaction terms. To the best of my knowledge, the interaction between female variables and three variables (sibling rank, home location, and non-working mother) used in this study have never been used in previous studies and this is one of the original contributions of this study to the body of knowledge. In addition, the empirical model is estimated separately for female students and for male students. This is because little previous research has been carried out that investigates whether the factors affecting students to drop out vary by gender. Some important results from the quantitative analysis show that being a female, older age at first entry, having a home location in a rural area, having low secondary school national examination grades, changing schools, larger family size, having siblings who dropped out and studying in urban schools are associated with higher odds of dropping out. This study indicates that the lowest socioeconomic status variable, as a proxy of poverty, also contributes to students dropping out. It is also shown that government assistance for poor students significantly reduces the odds of dropping out in all models. The main findings from interaction effects indicate that female students with higher sibling rank are less likely to drop out in comparison to male students with higher sibling rank. This study also suggests that female students who stay in rural areas are less likely to drop out than male students who stay in rural areas. The gender-only regression results reveal significant differences in the odds of dropping out compared to the main sample regressions. Some explanatory variables only have strong impacts on females‘ decisions to drop out, such as repeating a grade, low academic achievement at previous level of schooling, deviant behaviours and bullied by peers and/or teachers. They all increase the odds of females dropping out. There are also some strong and statistically significant explanatory variables that influence males‘ decisions to drop out. Male students‘ good perception of education reduces their odds of dropping out. It is also shown that mothers who are not working and are physically present in the house reduce the odds of their sons dropping out. Qualitative analysis is used to supplement the quantitative analysis. The purpose of the qualitative analysis is to understand why students drop out of school in Central Java Province. The qualitative findings are used to provide context and explanations for the quantitative findings. In-depth interviews were conducted by using open-ended questions. There were 16 dropouts, three males and 13 females that participated in the interviews. Parents of dropouts were also interviewed. There are some important findings from the qualitative analysis. It was shown that the final decision to drop out was made by the students, not their parents. This study also shows that parents have a good perception of education and always support their children to get a higher education regardless of their financial conditions. However, parents‘ support is not enough since the main problem is that parents cannot force their child to stay in school or go back to school. Based on the evidence from the qualitative analysis, it is concluded that dropout prevention programs, not curative programs, are likely to be the best strategy to reduce dropout. Based on our findings, existing policies are discussed and new policies are proposed to reduce the number of dropouts. In general, there are two main strategies: (1) Dropout Prevention Programs; and (2) Return to School Programs. An early warning system derived from the findings is suggested as the ideal practice to identify potential dropouts.

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  • The Canterbury tales : an insider's lessons and reflections from the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence to inform better public communication models : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in English and Media Studies at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    McBride, Sara Kelly

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This research evaluates the public earthquake preparedness communication before the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (2010-present) and examines communication learnings to create recommendations for improvements in implementation for these campaigns in future. The research comes from an “insider” perspective from someone who worked on these campaigns in Canterbury before the earthquakes. In this research I use this insider lens to analyse the Q-Files booklets, developed by the Public Education Public Information group (PEPI) and coordinated by the Canterbury Civil Defence Emergency Management (CDEM) Group, both groups in which I worked professionally before the earthquakes. These booklets aimed to communicate the geological hazards and risks in Canterbury to persuade publics to prepare. For my analysis, I developed a “best practice matrix”, derived from the most relevant literature, to determine how closely these booklets aligned to best-practice academic research. I also used readability tests and word counts to triangulate the data. I interpreted that the Q-Files were overly long, jargon-laden text filled with little positive outcome expectancy messages, and would have failed to persuade most people that earthquakes were a real threat in Canterbury. Paradoxically, it is likely these booklets created fatalism in publics who read them. While the overall intention was positive, to scientifically explain geological risks to encourage the public to prepare for these events, my analysis identified that the implementation could have been greatly improved. After summarising my findings, I shared these insights with my community of practice and found that many of my former colleagues shared with me their frustrations, concerns and disappointments with not only the Q-Files but the overall management of public preparedness communication within Canterbury. Finally, I reflect on what it means to have been part of the development of a failed risk communication campaign. I interpret that scientism was the fundamental belief system inspiring the PEPI group in Canterbury to create the Q-Files. I argue that the PEPI group created echo-chamber-like effects, supporting and reflecting their own belief systems in their public communication. The group’s self-containment led to the creation of documents filled with jargon, gobbledygook and scientificism. Based on my findings, I highlight areas for improvement in strategic approaches for more successful campaigns in future as well as potential research pathways.

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  • Pre-implantation maternal uterine effects on embryo growth and development : an investigation using models of maternal constraint in sheep : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Animal Science, Massey University, Turitea, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Fermin, Lisanne Monique

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Prenatal development and growth are critical to survival of the fetus and neonate. Recent evidence suggests that a critical period for determining growth is the pre-implantation period of pregnancy during which differentiation, organogenesis and development of the embryo occur and the embryo is considerably vulnerable to uterine environmental factors. The objectives of the present study were to examine the effects of restrictive uterine environments on embryo development using two sheep models of maternal constraint: litter size and dam size, and to identify embryonic and maternally-driven mechanisms that regulate development of the peri-implantation sheep embryo. Morphometric analysis (embryo length, width and heart bulge width) of the embryos in peri-implantation single and twin embryos was inconclusive; as was the transcriptomics analysis of whole embryos using RNA-seq to examine differential gene expression that may be responsible for differential regulation of growth. In a dam size model, large-breed Suffolk embryos gestated in small-breed Cheviot ewes (constrained environment) were smaller than Suffolk embryos gestated in Suffolk ewes (control) at day 19 of pregnancy, confirming previous findings that maternal constraint is evident in early pregnancy when limitations of space are not of consequence. Progesterone administered in the post-ovulatory period, day 0 to 6, alleviates this apparent constraint such that Suffolk embryos gestated in Cheviot ewes that received progesterone are larger than those gestated in Cheviot ewes that did not. Further, differential gene expression analysis of maternal uterine tissues showed that at day 6 and day 19 endometrial genes that encode for histotroph secretion and uterine receptivity are altered by post-ovulatory progesterone administration. Timing of administration of progesterone is critical not only to embryo growth but also to embryo survival. There were lower pregnancy rates in the ewes that received progesterone from day 0 than those that received progesterone from day 2. The results of this thesis indicate that progesterone exerts its effects by regulation of genes that encode for uterine structural and secretory activity to advance the uterus. This likely forces the asynchronous embryo to accelerate its growth in order to adapt to its environment. These findings contribute to the knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms controlling early embryo growth and present a platform within the livestock industry and human reproductive technology practice to manipulate embryo growth to improve survival of offspring.

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  • Fine scale population structure through space and time : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Zoology, Massey University, New Zealand

    Daly, Elizabeth Emma

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Terrestrial snails, with their diversity of interspecific forms, have provided biologists with fantastic material to study the evolution of ecotypes and the process of speciation. Snails have the advantage of shells that preserve well and exhibit trait variation readily perceived by taxonomists. Endemic to New Zealand is the genus of giant carnivorous Powelliphanta snails and three species of giant herbivorous Placostylus. Both genera display a range of phenotypic variation of shells within comparatively small geographic distances. The diversity within these snails has become a matter of high conservation interest, as many lineages occupy small or highly fragmented ranges that render them vulnerable to ongoing habitat loss, and predation by exotic pests. Combining mitochondrial sequence data and genotypes of microsatellite loci I documented the genetic structure within a species complex (Powelliphanta Kawatiri). Improved understanding of the distribution of this complex and the level of genetic diversity provided a picture of a naturally fragmented lineage, restricted to a particular ecological zone. To investigate the evolution of Placostylus ambagiosus its mitochondrial genome and that of its sister species P. hongii were assembled and annotated. Gene order was consistent between the two Placostylus species although it varies slightly within the wider Sigmurethra suborder due to minor tRNA rearrangements. To distinguish the shell shape of spatially distinct populations of Placostylus ambagiosus two-­‐ dimensional geometric morphometric methods were used. This tool was used to study shell shape evolution through time. Stasis was found to be the most common evolutionary mode, however shell size followed a different model, in one population, an observation which would not be expected if gene flow was preventing local divergence. Investigation into the genetic structure of Placostylus ambagiousus (using RADseq) revealed a single admixed population illustrating gene flow had occurred between populations in the recent past. The formation and maintenance of locally adapted populations (ecotypes) within Placostylus ambagiosus does not seem to be prevented by gene flow within species.

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  • Understanding corporate governance, strategic management and firm performance : as evidenced from the boardroom : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Management at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Crow, Peter Ross

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Researchers with an interest in corporate performance have increasingly shifted their attention over recent decades from the study of the chief executive to the board of directors. A large body of knowledge has now been published, including correlations between variables of interest, theories, conceptual models and rich descriptions of normative practice. However, substantive evidence to explain how boards actually exert influence over firm performance from the boardroom is yet to appear. That the board’s ability to exert such influence has not been adequately described—let alone explained in any detail—is a significant knowledge gap in the literature, one to which this research seeks to contribute. The aim of this research is to investigate corporate governance, strategic management and firm performance from the perspective of the boardroom. A longitudinal multiple-case study approach was used. Primary data was collected from direct observations of the boards of two large highgrowth companies in New Zealand. Secondary data sources included interviews with the chairmen and chief executives, and board and company documents. An iterative approach to analysis was utilised from which a deep understanding of board involvement in strategic management was developed. The analysis revealed insights leading to the development of two models—a collaborative form of board–management interaction, and a mechanism-based model of the governance–performance relationship. The research makes contributions to governance research by extending specific early and largely normative contributions. The board’s active engagement in strategic management (especially strategy development, strategic decision-making and monitoring of strategy implementation) appears to be significant. This is achieved via the harmonious activation of five underlying attributes. While no explicit or predictable relationship between board interventions and subsequent firm performance was discovered, the findings provide insight into the contingent nature of the board’s ability to exert influence from and beyond the boardroom.

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  • Te pūtaiao o tokoriro : taxonomy and diversity of New Zealand cave wētā (Orthoptera; Rhaphidophoridae) : a thesis presented in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Zoology at Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

    Fitness, Josephine

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Species are the fundamental unit for ecology and evolution. Taxonomy, the naming of species, grabbles with the problem of accurately representing these fundamental units. In this research I targeted a group of understudied and undervalued insects that are common throughout New Zealand. This work focuses on Rhaphidophoridae, a family of Orthoptera found globally, but the diversity in New Zealand is poorly understood and poorly described. I have been the first to use high specimen numbers in order to establish within and between species differences of New Zealand cave wētā. I have established the importance of multiple taxonomic methods. At no stage was the aim to fully resolve all issues, but rather to identify morphological characters that are useful in distinguishing species, and integrating mtDNA sequence data to test species hypotheses. I focused first on cave wētā specimens that came from a biodiversity studied but had not been identified to genus or species. I was able to identify characters that could distinguish between the taxa present in this sample and developed a method that could be transferred to other locations. Two key findings were that multiple cave wētā species co-exist across a range of habitats and that variation in abundance was species dependent. Of importance was my finding that juveniles cannot be distinguish and placed with their correct adult form due to changes in both subgenital plate shape and apical spines. From three regions in North Island New Zealand I was able to distinguish and identify fourteen putative cave wētā species. mtDNA sequence data were use to test putative species clusters identified by morphology and allowed me to confidently pair male and female specimens. Combinations of apical leg spines and subgenital plate shape could consistently diagnose most taxa. Many of the species are new to science. Therefore I described three new species in the genus Neonetus. I reviewed our current knowledge of the endemic genera Pleioplectron, Weta and Miotopus and based on evidence from mtDNA sequences and large samples I was able to clarify current species and describe one new Miotopus species. As with many insect species, male terminalia are the key to distinguishing among species, and species within the same genus have similar female subgenital plates.

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  • "You can't leave your life to chance" : transitioning from offending in emerging adults : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Chong, May-Lee A

    Thesis
    Massey University

    There is currently limited very research about how emerging adult’s transition out of crime. This study interviewed nine emerging adults who successfully transitioned out of crime by the age of 25. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and transcribed verbatim. The data was analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Participants described their experience of transition as a build-up of distress combined with reasons to stop, shifts in perceptions around offending and their identity, a challenging process that they felt fortunate to have accomplished, a noticeable improvement in their lives and ongoing temptation or thoughts about offending. The results suggested three main findings; that the process of desistance is similar in emerging adults and adult populations, that there could be a universal mechanism of change underlying all behaviour, and that control theories may better explain desistance behaviour than dominant models of behaviour change such as the transtheoretical model of change.

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  • A framework to evaluate the impact of ICT usage on collaborative product development performance in manufacturing firms : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering at Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand

    Silva, C W Chathurani

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Manufacturers are increasingly adopting collaborative product development (CPD) to achieve competitive advantage through joint synergies. Information and communication technology (ICT) is the major enabler of communication, collaboration, product designing, development, knowledge and information management, project management, and market research activities involved in CPD. Most ICT implementations incur a significant cost for firms, thus a deeper understanding of the impact of ICT usage on CPD performance would be immensely useful for managing ICT resources effectively in innovation programmes. However, existing evidence for the direct relationships between ICT usage and performance dimensions are counterintuitive (negative or insignificant). Not considering the different aspects of ICT usage was identified as a key reason for the lack of strong empirical evidence. Furthermore, the impact of ICT usage on collaboration-based product development performance and indirect impact through this collaboration performance on new product performance, as well as moderating effects of project characteristics on the direct and indirect ICT impact have largely been ignored in the literature. Therefore, drawing on relational resource-based view and organizational information processing theory, this study develops and utilizes a model including multidimensional ICT usage and CPD performance measurements, and possible moderating project characteristics, for better evaluating the impact of ICT usage on CPD performance. Initially, product development professionals from manufacturing firms and knowledgeable managers from ICT vendor firms were interviewed for a preliminary qualitative evaluation of the suggested model with industry perspectives. In addition, a quantitative investigation of secondary data obtained from the PDMA’s (Product Development and Management Association) 2012 comparative performance assessment study was conducted prior to the main survey in order to assess the significance of the proposed model with a different source of data. In the final main quantitative study, data collected from 244 CPD projects via an online global survey were used to test the research hypotheses. The study contributes to the current body of knowledge by revealing a positive direct impact of ICT usage on new product performance in terms of quality, commercial success, and time performance, and collaboration performance, which also in turn increases new product performance. In addition, moderating effects of project characteristics (complexity and uncertainty) on these associations have been explored. The study implies that manufacturers need to value not only the direct project benefits of ICT use, but also the collaboration-related outcomes that significantly increase the likelihood of achieving higher performance in their present and future CPD projects. Adequate attention must be paid to individual ICT usage dimensions as well. Particularly, other than frequency of ICT use, manufacturing firms need to improve the utilization of available features and functionalities of the tools (intensity) and the ICT proficiency of R&D staff, to gain the desired results in CPD projects.

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  • The gender dimensions of environmental change : an exploration of the experiences and perceptions of rural men and women in Zimbabwe : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Shumba, Dorcas Stellah Tsitsi

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Processes of environmental change have taken place for centuries both as a result of natural variability and anthropogenic forces. As a concept however, environmental change continues to be used narrowly to refer to environmental changes which are biophysical in nature, and mostly those with global precedence. In recent times incidences of environmental change have become more complex as new patterns of change are threatening the livelihoods of those living in developing countries, undoing many development gains. As such, there is an increasing desire to understand the implications of environmental changes, particularly for those whose livelihoods are natural resource dependent, many of whom live in rural areas, and many of whom are poor. Despite this growing interest, rural people and especially the rural poor are little seen or heard; their environmental change experiences are thus misunderstood, and solutions proposed do not take into consideration the local context or experiences. There remains also a normative perspective which positions women as automatically vulnerable to environmental change, specifically vis-à-vis men. In doing so women’s experiences of environmental change are homogenised and men’s experiences are rendered invisible. Drawing on the case of Zimbabwe this study critically considers the experiences and perceptions of rural men and women to environmental change so as to ascertain gendered impacts and differential vulnerabilities. To capture fully the subjective lived experience of both men and women to environmental change, this study lends itself to qualitative research. Thus research methods such as semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions and gender analysis are central to the methodology. In terms of findings, this study argues against looking at environmental change as a technocratic subject accessible only from a global frame and accessed only by a technocratic few, proposing that the people experiencing environmental change at a local level should determine the environmental changes of communal concern. This study also highlights the importance of understanding the vulnerabilities of rural men and women within a well-conceived notion of context, taking into account rural disadvantage resulting from colonialism, and the current Zimbabwean crisis.

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  • The Commodity Price and Exchange Rate Dynamics

    Zou, L; Zheng, B; Li, X

    Journal article
    Massey University

    false

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  • Improving the Writing of Engineering Students through Portfolios

    Milke, M; Upton, C; Koorey, G; O'Sullivan, A; Comer, KV

    Journal article
    Massey University

    false

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  • A cross-cultural study of country and bank selection by Asian international students : a New Zealand perspective : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Business and Administration at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Chin, Arthur In Sing

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Internationalisation of education and increasing wealth among a growing middle class population in North Asia are two reasons for a growing number of students travelling overseas for their tertiary education. New Zealand is a popular destination-of-choice, where income derived from international education exceeds NZ$2bn annually. Ownership of a New Zealand bank account is a mandatory requirement for international students. This thesis assumes there is a service gap in banks’ value proposition to international tertiary students as a result of differences in retail patronage expectations. Bank selection is the domain focus of this research, which examines the questions of “when do students consider bank selection questions when travelling overseas for their tertiary education?” and “what are the influencing factors behind bank selection?”. The research demographic comprised students from South Korea, India, and the Greater China countries of China, Taiwan and Hong Kong. Prior research on bank selection is examined. Overall, the review identified limited research on the consumer segment, and on Asian international students in particular. Consequently, there is an identifiable gap between academic research and bank practice. A qualitative approach using focus groups helped identify topics and vocabulary appropriate to the research. Findings from the focus group discussions led to the development of an online questionnaire which was eventually completed by 582 international tertiary students currently studying in New Zealand. While findings showed that the majority of international students are satisfied with their main bank relationships, services offered by New Zealand banks do not fully address what international students want from their banking relationship. Further, convenience, low service fees and the adoption of mobile banking applications are three factors that appeal to the research demographic, and findings also call for banking officers to be familiar with Asian cultural nuances, where cultural familiarity has precedence over Asian language proficiency. The implications for university international student recruiters and bank marketers include familiarity with when international students decide to travel overseas for their tertiary education and the influencing reasons why they choose to study in New Zealand; when and how Asian international students identify bank relationships in New Zealand; and, recognising the critical success factors to developing deep and meaningful relationships with the Asian international tertiary student segment.

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  • Examining Facebook practice : the case of New Zealand provincial rugby : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters in Sport and Exercise at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Cole, Jason

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Social media have become a defining feature of 21st century communications. Conceived in 2004 Facebook has risen from relative obscurity to become the most visited website in the world. While social media use has grown exponentially, so too has its influence. Sport organisations were quick to capitalise on Facebook’s popularity particularly with the introduction of brand pages in 2010. The trend is no different particularly in New Zealand Rugby’s (NZR) National Provincial Championship (NPC). However recent research indicates a lack of understanding and consistency in evaluating effectiveness within the context of Facebook. Scholars have further acknowledged a need to move beyond simple metrics as measures of performance. Using a mixed method approach this case study of four NPC rugby teams investigated the understanding of effective Facebook practice. Thematic analysis of qualitative questionnaires completed by each page’s main administrator explored their understanding of effective Facebook practice. The researcher also utilised an auto-ethnographic journal to document his own experience of managing one of the participating brand pages. Page performance was also investigated through analysis of Facebook insights data to establish how it may be more accurately interpreted to inform best practice. Results reveal that administrators perceive lack of control, maintaining credibility, guaranteeing reach and resource allocation to be the most prominent challenges faced by these brand pages. Such issues provide further tensions when attempting to justify social media use and effectiveness within sport organisations. Furthermore, teams are faced with commercial obligations to post sponsor content that may negatively impact user engagement. In addition, findings suggest that contrary to popular belief, greater total network sizes do not guarantee greater reach and engagement. It is proposed that teams consider proportional measures of performance when seeking to measure Facebook performance. Holistically the research sets a platform that can be used in future studies to tangibly connect Facebook effectiveness to organisational strategy and objectives.

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  • 1942, the Pacific War, and the defence of New Zealand : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Defence and Strategic Studies at Massey University, New Zealand

    Wilkins, Peter C

    Thesis
    Massey University

    During 1941-1942 New Zealand expended vast amounts of capital and labour building in-depth defences against the perceived invasion threat from Japan that today is often regarded, especially by academic historians, as non-existent. This thesis looks closely at the background of such a Japanese threat and the subsequent realities. It examines the failures of the existing, indeed traditional political alliance with the British ‘family of nations’ and its associated myths against the Realpolitik of New Zealand’s enforced absorption into the new American power block. The origins of today’s opinions are teased out to examine their realities and the drivers of the New Zealand government’s actions at the time are reviewed. These actions along with the experience, perceptions and, above all, the circumstantial knowledge that formed the opinions drove the decisions to act are established. The conclusion of this thesis is the threat to New Zealand of being raided, isolated, even possibly invaded, was geopolitically and militarily real at the time. The margins by which any of these possibilities were avoided were narrow.

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  • Analysis of simple sequence repeat (SSR) structure and sequence within Epichloë endophyte genomes reveals impacts on gene structure and insights into ancestral hybridisation events

    Eaton, CJ; Clayton, W; Dupont, PY; Gillanders, T; Cameron, N; Saikia, S; Scott, DB

    Journal article
    Massey University

    false

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