9,796 results for Massey University

  • So let it fall : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Creative Writing, Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Greeks, Stevie Renee

    Thesis
    Massey University

    What are you? This Master of Creative writing thesis seeks to explore this question and other questions it leads to. The thesis consists of a collection of linked autobiographical stories that explore identity, “So Let it Fall” (80%), and an accompanying exegesis, “What Are You?” (20%). Through the writing of “So Let it Fall” I tell the story of my own experiences as a multi-­‐ethnic woman growing up in New Zealand with mixed Māori, Chinese and Pākehā heritage. I explore this mixed identity throughout my project through evoking contrasts and contradictions within my own personal experiences. Specifically, I tell a story of living between two parents, and I focus on the separations that developed within my life and my identity as a result of living between two cultural upbringings. When evoking different identities in “So Let it Fall,” I wrote in scene to highlight formative moments in my life as well as scenes that illustrate important characteristics in each of my parents that have been formative of my own identity. In the creative work as a whole I delve into the different roles that I have moved through as I grew up, and by doing so discover who I am. The accompanying exegesis “What Are You?” places “So Let it Fall” in context by exploring the driving questions behind this project and explicating the creative process involved. The purpose of this exegesis is to illuminate the ideas and research that went into the production of “So Let it Fall.” This is done first by outlining why I chose the the form of autobiography, then examining a range of recent autobiographical writing in New Zealand and the various perspectives these works offer. Specifically, I discuss how the nonfiction writing of Witi Ihimaera, Manying Ip, Alice Te Punga-­‐Somerville, Tina Makereti, Tze Ming Mok, Ashleigh Young and Tracey Slaughter have informed my work. The intent of this combined creative and critical project is to find value in personal experiences and to create a wider pool of experiences within creative nonfiction writing in New Zealand. This thesis is not constructed to represent or speak for any ethnic groups or identities. This is formation of an identity through autobiographical writing that is my own.

    View record details
  • Development and trial of a methodology for the quantification and evaluation of home composting in Palmerston North, New Zealand : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Environmental Management (without major) at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Mensah, Sabina

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Home composting and commercial composting can be regarded as part of the Municipal Solid Waste Management system. Currently, in Palmerston North and more broadly in New Zealand, home composting plays an important, but an unquantified role in waste diversion. In Palmerston North, the quantity of organic waste diverted from landfill via home composting is not captured in the City’s official ‘waste assessment’ or recorded in the ‘waste management and minimisation plan’. Additionally, there appears to be little local social and technical data on why, who, when, what and how well home composting is practised. The aim of this study was to develop and implement a methodology for a mixed-method quantitative-qualitative study for the quantification and evaluation of home composting practices in Palmerston North. The development process for the research methodology drew upon an international literature review of scientific research, a range of municipal best practice guidelines for home composting and referenced elements of the New Zealand composting standard. The data collection for this study involved a combined telephone and door-to-door survey of 300 households (that is, approximately 1% of occupied dwellings, randomly selected from across all 15 suburbs in the City). To support the physical data collection, a novel home composting evaluation tool was also developed and trialled for empirical and quality assurance evaluation. The overall participation rate recorded in the present study (64%) was high and both data collection methods proved to be viable, yielding positive results. 36% of the households who participated in the present study were home composters which could mean that about 10,761 households in the occupied dwellings of the City practise home composting. At the time of the survey, it appears that nearly 4005 tonnes of organic waste was being treated via home composting processes. The results also indicated positive quality assurance of the home composting process and the resulting compost in the City. Whilst most of the study participants have a positive experience towards home composting, nuisance insects, rodents and odour problems were reported as issues. In terms of motivation around current and future home composting practices, a range of support options appears to be available for Councils to encourage and enhance this positive environmental practice.

    View record details
  • 'On the path, off the trail' : the relational work of nurses in outreach health : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the degree of Masters of Philosophy in Nursing at Massey University, Wellington, Aotearoa New Zealand

    Martin, Garrick

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This research study draws on the practice reflections of nurses working with people who are homeless and experiencing mental health problems to explore engagement as a core nursing practice in this setting. Therapeutic relationships and engagement are at the heart of nursing practice, and this is especially so in mental health nursing. Homeless and hard-­‐ to-­‐reach clients are an underserved population for mental health services. This research seeks to ‘make visible’ the ways in which mental health nurses uniquely and successfully engage with people experiencing homelessness and marginalisation, which in turn contributes to improved health and social outcomes for those people. Eight New Zealand registered nurses were interviewed and critical thematic analysis used to interpret the resulting data. The research findings were that nurses practicing in this specific homeless health context value relationships as a core nursing intervention. The work of engagement was described as uncertain. The research participants echoed the nursing theory and literature that argues nurses’ relational work is often unseen and undervalued within health systems. Relational work is described as a defining concept for mental health nursing yet the lack of visibility of this skilled work adds to nurses’ experience of uncertainty. The recommendations suggest ways to render visible and hold central the nursing work of engagement.

    View record details
  • The computational investigation of a dinuclear manganese complex with Jahn-Teller compression and elongation : MSc thesis, Chemistry, Institute of Fundamental Sciences, Massey University

    Buchanan, Jenna K

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Complexes that possess both Jahn-Teller compression and elongation effects at metal centres within the same molecule are extremely rare with only 11 examples known in the literature. Only two of these examples exist as discrete compounds. Jahn-Teller distortions influence metal-ligand bond lengths as well as the energy levels of the eg and t2g orbitals on the metal centre. The orientation of the Jahn-Teller axes have also been found to be an influential parameter in determining the exchange interactions in MnIII dimers. X-ray crystallographic analysis of a di-manganese coordination compound serendipitously synthesised by Willoughby suggested that the complex possessed both Jahn-Teller compression and elongation. Willoughby’s complex was synthesised in a very low yield and analysis of the crystals obtained by X-ray diffraction gave a structural determination of only moderate quality. In this research project, the complex was computationally modelled in order to investigate the Jahn-Teller distortions and the coupling between the manganese centres. The bond lengths, molecular orbitals and spin density plot were explored in order to investigate these properties. The computational results gave strong evidence that Jahn-Teller compression and elongation were present in the di-manganese complex. The modelled ferromagnetic complex was found to be lower in energy than the modelled antiferromagnetic complex. Attempts were also made to re-synthesise the di-manganese complex in suitable quantity for complete structural and magnetic characterisation. Several different routes were trialled but after exhaustive attempts it was not possible to repeat the synthesis of the dinuclear complex.

    View record details
  • Systemic Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in sheep : a thesis presented in the fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Veterinary Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Smith

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Publications removed from thesis due to copyright reasons: Smith, S. L., West, D. M., Wilson, P. R., de Lisle, G. W., Collett, M. G., Heuer, C., & Chambers, J. P. (2011). Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in skeletal muscle and blood of ewes from a sheep farm in New Zealand. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 59(5), 240-243. doi:10.1080/00480169.2011.596257. Smith, S. L., West, D. M., Wilson, P. R., de Lisle, G. W., Collett, M. G., Heuer, C., & Chambers, J. P. (2013). The prevalence of disseminated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in tissues of healthy ewes from a New Zealand farm with Johne's disease present. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 61(1), 41-44. doi:10.1080/00480169.2012.704627. Smith, S. L., Wilson, P. R., Collett, M. G., Heuer, C., West, D. M., Stevenson, M., & Chambers, J. P. (2014). Liver biopsy histopathology for diagnosis of Johne's disease in sheep. Veterinary Pathology, 51(5), 915-918. doi:10.1177/0300985813516644. Smith, S. L., Singh, P., Harding, D., Lun, D., & Chambers, J. P. (2016). Thalidomide pharmacokinetics in sheep. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 64(4), 238-242. doi: 10.1080/00480169.2015.1130663

    View record details
  • Development of a mathematical model for 'Hayward' kiwifruit softening in the supply chain : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Food Technology at Massey University, New Zealand

    Zhao, Junyu Matthew

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Fruit loss is a major concern to the kiwifruit industry as it incurs a high cost to monitor and remove over soft or rotten fruit to meet export standards. Kiwifruit is exposed to various temperature scenarios due to different packhouse cooling practices, and temperature control is difficult to maintain throughout the supply chain. Fruit pallet temperatures are wirelessly monitored in the supply chain. This time temperature data provides valuable rich information which could be used to predict kiwifruit quality. In the laboratory, green ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit were exposed to industry coolchain scenarios to investigate their influence on fruit firmness in subsequent storage. Cooling rate and storage temperature were identified to affect fruit firmness and chilling injury development significantly, where accelerated softening and increased chilling injury development was observed in late storage (> 100 d) when fruit were cooled directly to 0 °C. However, when fast cooled fruit were stored at 2 °C instead of 0 °C, low incidence of chilling injury was observed. The influence of cooling rate and storage temperature on kiwifruit quality suggests that industry should focus on the management practices adopted by packhouses in order to maintain acceptable quality after long term storage. A proportion of the firmness data results were used to develop a mechanistic style mathematical model of kiwifruit softening. Kiwifruit softening was mathematically described based on the correlation with starch degradation, breakdown of cell wall structure, and a description of the incidence of chilling injury development during storage. The model inputs consist of solely commonly collected at-harvest attributes: firmness, dry matter and soluble solids content and time-temperature data. Applying at-harvest attributes as model inputs enabled a capability to predict different softening curves as influenced by fruit maturity, and grower line differences. The developed model demonstrated promising softening prediction with mean absolute errors (MAE) between 0.8 to 2.1 N when fruit were exposed to fluctuating temperatures and cooling profiles. A logistic model was used to estimate the proportion of chilling injured fruit. Based on the given time temperature information, the logistic model was able to predict the proportion of chilling injured fruit reasonably well (R2 = 0.735). This chilling injury prediction was subsequently used to adjust the softening prediction during the late storage period (>100 d). Model validation was performed using the remaining data, identifying a lack of fit in both the rapid (MAE of 20.8 N) and gradual (MAE of 8.0 N) softening phase. The lack of fit in the rapid softening phase is proposed to be explained by the presence of an initial lag phase in softening which the developed model is unable to predict. The magnitude of firmness associated with starch content and cell wall integrity heavily influenced the lack of fit in the gradual softening phase. Fixing the initial amount of firmness associated to cell wall integrity to be constant for all maturities and grower lines improved the softening prediction. Overall, this thesis contributes to the challenge of predictively modelling kiwifruit quality in the supply chain. However, there are still many opportunities for improvement including introducing the influence of: variation within the same batch; fruit maturity on chilling injury development; ethylene in the environment; pre-harvest management practices and extending the model to have more focus on high temperature conditions such as those experienced in the marketplace. Conducting studies on: the effect of curing on kiwifruit; using non-destructive techniques to provide information to help define model parameters for prediction; effect of high temperature exposure on kiwifruit softening are possible opportunities that may contribute to enable better prediction of kiwifruit quality in the supply chain in the future.

    View record details
  • Curiosity and self-concept of school adjustment : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Education at Massey University

    Doyle, Michael Dennis

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This study, as a piece of descriptive research, is an extension of a similar one done by Maw and Maw (1970) concerning the relationship between curiosity and the self-concept. Whereas they hypothesised that children high in curiosity are also those who have successfully interacted with their environments, the general hypothesis for this study was that children who have positive self-concepts of themselves in the school environment will also be ones who exhibit curiosity in that situation. This hypothesis was formulated as a consequence of the writer's adherence to a theory of active intelligence, and view of self-concept as a highly task-specific construct. Measures of curiosity, global self-concept, and self-concept of school adjustment were taken. In general terms curiosity was defined as a preferred cognitive strategy which is utilized to cope with challenging stimuli and manifested in the way in which the individual is predisposed to achieve and resolve conceptual conflicts. Global self-concept was defined as an individual's perception of his innate capacity to cope effectively with his environment. Similarly self-concept of school adjustment was defined as a student's perception of his innate capacity to cope effectively in the specific environment of the classroom. Each of these three variables was operationally defined in terms of the instruments used to measure them. Where possible, the same instruments as used by Maw and Maw in their study were used in this research. No new instruments were constructed for this study. Measures of curiosity were taken from Maw and Maw: (1) Teacher's Rating Scale of Curiosity, (2) Self-appraisal of curiosity, (3) The Which to Discuss Test. Measures of global self-concept were obtained from the following instruments: (1) Parts of the California Test of Personality (C.T.P.), (2) Parts of the Children's Personality Questionnaire (C.P.Q.). A measure of self-concept of school adjustment was obtained from subjects recorded responses to factor 2 E : School Relations, of the California Test of Personality (C.T.P.) and from the tester's recorded observation on the Bristol Social Adjustment Scale: factor U (Unforthcomingess). P.A.T. results for reading comprehension and maths were taken from school records. The subjects were 20 children from the senior room of a local two-teacher school. There were ten boys and ten girls. It is felt that they are representative of New Zealand rural children. Administration and scoring of the tests was done by the writer, who at the time of testing was also the children's teacher. The results of the study did not support the general hypothesis, and only partly supported Maw and Maw's (1970) findings. However, some relationship between the variables curiosity, self-concept and self-concept of school adjustment was shown to exist. Also a highly significant relationship was recorded between curiosity and school achievement. A lack of significant relationship recorded between the teacher's rating of curiosity and the C.T.P. measure of Total Personal Adjustment was taken to suggest that either the tests in fact measure different things than curiosity and personal adjustment or, that there was error in administration or scoring of at least one of the tests. Both of these factors, as measured on the same tests, correlated significantly in the Maw and Maw study. Unfortunately the lack of correlation mentioned above also affected the recorded relationship between the teacher's rating and the school adjustment measure from the C.T.P. One implication of these results is that curiosity as a task-specific concept is merely one aspect of cognition. The possibility of marker bias was discussed, but if this can be discounted then the significant correlations which existed between curiosity, school adjustment and school performance can all be taken as evidence that curiosity is in fact connected with intelligence. Consequently, it would seem that better school adjustment is more readily found in higher achievers.

    View record details
  • Design and development of a hybrid flexible manufacturing system : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology at Massey University

    Jolly, Matthew J

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Volumes 1 and 2 merged.

    View record details
  • Electromagnetic propagation through non-dissipative and dissipative barriers : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Physics at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Shalav, Avi

    Thesis
    Massey University

    COMPUTER DISK UNREADABLE.

    View record details
  • Design and development of a competitive wire splicing system for the automotive wire harness industry : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Master of Technology in Manufacturing and Industrial Technology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Potharaju, Venkata Subbarao

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The work presented in this thesis is aimed at developing a very comprehensive system of manufacturing wire splices for automobile wire harnesses. Ultrasonic welding is increasingly being used in various industrial applications. Lack of a scientific data-base of its properties when applied to wire splicing is a major reason for lack of proper usage by the wiring harness industry and its subsequent acceptance by the end user. This thesis presents various experiments conducted to develop tensile strengths and electrical resistances of various types of ultrasonically welded wire splices. Crimping technology was evaluated for its mechanical strengths and electrical properties by conducting various experiments to make it possible for the industry to compare it with other alternative splicing technologies. The results are then compared with ultrasonic welding. The next stage of this thesis discusses the economic feasibility of ultrasonic wire splicing. In order to find the number of ultrasonic welding machines required to meet a particular level of demand, which is a prerequisite for establishing the economic feasibility, a virtual model of the process and the manufacturing cell has been prepared and this model was used to study the dynamics of demand and the number of required machines. Simulation in manufacturing-problem-solving is being used very widely by researchers. Proper understanding and visualisation of the future of the factory and understanding and answering various questions related to the adoption of new technology, is another major reason why companies shy away from adopting ultrasonic welding systems. An advanced simulation tool namely QUEST was used to model the wire splice manufacturing cell of Alcatel and simulation studies were conducted to foresee how the production dynamics would be if ultrasonic welding machines were incorporated in place of crimping machines and various what if scenarios were developed and some vital production related questions were answered. Material handling is a major bottleneck in any wiring harness manufacturing environment. Some conceptual designs are presented on automating the task of feeding wires to ultrasonic welding machines and transferring the wire assemblies from welding stations to different work stations, currently being done manually. A wire palletising system was designed to improve the productivity. This thesis concludes that ultrasonic welding could be very effectively used for wire splicing and could be safely used in the manufacture of wiring harnesses for the automobile industry.

    View record details
  • Dental fluorosis caused by volcanic degassing in West Ambrym, Vanuatu : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Earth Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Crimp, Rachel Janice

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Fluorosis, both dental and skeletal, is a disease afflicting millions of people worldwide and is caused primarily by the ingestion of fluoride-rich drinking water. Usually, this is groundwater that has leached fluoride from underlying rock deposits. In West Ambrym. Vanuatu, however, the indigenous people live in close proximity to a degassing volcano and harvest rainwater for their potable water needs. The current project investigated two hypotheses; firstly, that dental fluorosis existed in West Ambrym and secondly, that it was caused by the ingestion of rainwater contaminated by the degassing volcanic plume. A dental survey was undertaken of children ayed 6 to 18 years using the Dean's Index of Fluorosis. A total of 835 children participated; 253 of whom came from the target area of West Ambrym. For comparative analysis and a more regional perspective, the remaining 582 surveyed were from other nearby locations. Drinking water, non-drinking water and food samples were collected for fluoride analyses. Dental fluorosis prevalence was found to be 96% in West Ambrym, 85% in Malakula, 71% in North Ambrym, 61% in Southeast Ambrym, 36% in Tongoa, 43% in an 'incidental islands' group, and 100% on Tanna. Drinking water samples from West Ambrym ranged from 0.7 to 9.5 ppm F (average 4.2 ppm F). Groundwater sources ranged from 1.8 to 2.8 ppm F (average 2.2 ppm F). Of the 158 drinking water samples, 99% were over the World Health Organisation recommended concentration of 1.0 ppm F. It was found that pH was not a suitable proxy for fluoride concentration. That painted and/or rusted corrugated iron roofing may play a role in lowering fluoride concentration of stored rainwater was a tentative finding. Coconut juice was a rich source of fluoride. Food samples ranged from <6 ppm F to over 100 ppm F. The current research has shown that the semi-continuously degassing of Ambrym volcano is introducing significant levels of fluoride into the drinking water of the local Ni-vanuatu. This geo-meteorological process has resulted in the development of widespread dental fluorosis in West Ambrym. The pathway of fluoride-enriched rainwater identified in this study has not previously been recognised in the aetiology of fluorosis. Defluoridation, or accessing an alternative water source, accompanied by modified rainwater harvesting practices, are means by which the prevalence of the disease can be markedly reduced.

    View record details
  • Comprehensive investigation of mechanical properties of fused deposition modelling : a dissertation presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Ferreira, Arno

    Conference item
    Massey University

    Fused depositing modelling (FDM) is a layer wise manufacturing method whereby parts are printed from the bottom up through the extrusion and deposition of a filament onto a print base. Various test methods exist for the determination of part mechanical properties. These include tensile, flexural, and impact testing and are conducted using a variety of standards including those of ASTM and ISO. Many researchers have investigated the effects of factors such as road width, raster orientation, layer height, and air gap on the mechanical properties of FDM parts. However, there are many unexplored factors that also impact on the properties of printed parts. For example, the printers used in characterisation studies are mostly commercially available or consumer market printers which allow only limited control over the print parameters and print with a limited set of materials. Similarly, the life of the printer can also affect the print quality but this has not been studied before. Control over machines could be achieved by purchasing additional print profiles from the manufacturers or by open-sourcing legacy hardware through retrofitment with new electronics and software. The latter option is more economically viable as there are a large number of decommissioned legacy machines that have superior hardware cheaply/freely available. A retrofitted commercial 3D printer would allow control over print parameters and printing with materials outside the ones sold by the manufacturers. This can open new avenues to study the properties of the printed parts. In this work, a Stratasys Vantage X 3D printer has been retrofitted and made open-source through a combination of hardware, software, and firmware modifications. These modifications result in complete control by the user over all print variables along with the ability to use any feedstock including custom made feed stocks and ones that are locked by the manufacturer. The printing accuracy of the machine is evaluated by optical imaging of the printed samples and destructive testing in accordance with the ASTM D638 standard. . To study the effect of the machine’s life on the properties, a longitudinal study is designed in which two groups of parts (with 0° and 90° orientations) are printed at two different times during the course of this research. The temporal spacing between the parts is eighteen months. The parts are designed according to ASTM D638 standard and printed on identical printers using the same parameters on both occasions. The parts are subjected to tensile testing for the mechanical characterization while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used for the examination of the sample’s fracture and topographical surfaces. A difference is discovered between the Young’s moduli of old and new groups. The orthotropic nature of FDM parts becomes prevalent in the strain responses of samples with 0° samples experiencing the largest strain. Distinct differences exist between the diffusion levels of the chronological sample groups, with the original batch exhibiting greater diffusion resulting in almost indistinguishable layers and higher tensile strengths. Individual layers are easily observed in the newer sample groups. Topographical analysis of samples shows up to 0.1mm difference between the road widths with the older samples roads being the narrowest. Results from this research show that the age of the printer affects the mechanical properties of the parts with the older parts exhibiting greater strength compared to their new counterparts even though both were printer under identical conditions. Therefore, a significant difference exists between temporally spaced FDM parts. To conclude, this research has successfully retrofitted an old FDM system which is capable of printing various materials through a choice of user parameters. The longitudinal study conducted to study the effect of the machine age on the printed parts purports that as the printing machines get older their print quality deteriorates and this factor should be considered by designers when designing parts for functional purposes.

    View record details
  • The Christchurch green belt-- reality or just a name? : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Resource Planning, Massey University

    Chesterman, Rhys

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The Green belt concept grew out of the English Garden City movement of the nineteenth century. Although the thoughts and theory were widespread throughout the first half of the twentieth century, it was not until 1959 that green belt policy became legislative reality. The initial result was the London Green Belt: other green belts around major cities followed The predominant objective of the green belt at that time was to restrict urban sprawl, and the concept was initially well supported by citizens, planners and the Biitish government. The British government attaches great importance to green belts, which have been an essential element of planning policy for some four decades. The purposes of green belt policy and the related development control policies set out in 1955 remain valid today with remarkably little alteration. This sophisticated and comprehensive approach provided a model that many other cities around the world have since followed. Christchurch for example inherited its planning legacy from the British experience. Although first defined in 1954 as a 'non-settlement area', (meaning the same thing) it was not until the 1980's that the term 'green belt' was formally used in New Zealand statutory planning documents Since then (particularly in the later 1990's) there has been speculation that the green belt philosophy has begun to fade The green belt containment policy was designed to thwart urban spread but has instead led to piecemeal development. Essentially, this has led to a rethink of the green belt. There is some speculation that the codification of green belt policy that originated in 1955 in London is not applicable to the city of Christchurch. Furthermore, new legislation by the way of the Resource Management Act has altered the philosophies of land-use planning and encouraged a new way of thinking. This new thinking is based on sustainable management objectives and has been responsible for much of the green belt's recent decline. No longer can a single land-use tool restrict development in such a large area without considering other potential uses, while simultaneously juggling it with the sustainable management principle. Accordingly it has raised questions as to whether the Christchurch green belt concept is worth keeping, and if not, what other means are available to help continue to promote the green belt objectives that were first introduced many decades ago.

    View record details
  • The effects of traumatic brain injury on complex figure test performance : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Bowie, Jonathan M. H

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) have performed below norms on the Complex Figure Test (CFT) and this has been attributed to lack of organization (Binder, 1982). The present study compared 105 TBI subjects with 59 Controls in terms of accuracy and organization to examine whether lower TBI subject organization was associated with subsequent lower accuracy. Results showed that TBI subjects scored lower accuracy than controls on copy, recall and delay trials but did not score lower for organization (as measured by Hamby, Wilkins & Barry, 1993). Both groups were consistent in organizational approach across the three CFT trials, and copy organization scores of both groups were positively correlated with accuracy scores on recall and delay trials. This suggests that TBI subjects do have a problem with the CFT, but it cannot be linked to copy organization on the basis of evidence from the present study. The unexpected results were attributed to methodological problems involving the population samples and the organization measure.

    View record details
  • Decentralization, identity construction, and conflict : education under Aceh's special autonomy : a dissertation presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Development Studies, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Fitriah, Amaliah

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This study contributes to the existing literature on decentralization by exploring the relationship between decentralization, identity construction and conflict in the context of decentralization reform in Indonesia. Using the concept of bottom-up autonomy as its theoretical lens, this study explores the impact of political decentralization on the autonomy of Aceh and examines the notion that autonomy can contribute to peaceful management of intra-state conflict. The study involves research into education stakeholders in the two districts of Aceh and uses the qualitative methods of pairwise ranking, semi-structured interviews, observation, and document analysis. More specifically, the impact of decentralization on the autonomy of Aceh is investigated through perceived changes in three areas of education: the curriculum, the structure, and the financing of education. The results demonstrate that the autonomy agreed between Aceh and the Indonesian government has contributed to extensive bottom-up autonomy for Aceh by accommodating the distinct identity of the Acehnese and by providing a political framework for local empowerment. Through providing frameworks for the accommodation of local identity and for local empowerment, the form of bottom-up autonomy resulting from political decentralization has offered negotiated avenues for managing intra-state conflict peacefully. These frameworks have hopefully created common ground for both parties to sustain peace. However, this study also revealed that there is potential for internal discontent within Aceh society as a result of perceived unequal access to resources. This study does not, therefore, emphatically conclude that political decentralization necessarily reduces conflict. Instead, this research suggests that political decentralization which results in extensive bottom-up autonomy may be a tool for promoting a more peaceful management of conflict between regions and the central state than would otherwise be possible.

    View record details
  • Characterisation & process control of pumping systems in the dairy industry : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Technology at Massey University

    Dorsey, Mark Richard

    Thesis
    Massey University

    CD held with Reference copy

    View record details
  • Effect of transglutaminase on milk proteins : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Technology at Massey University, New Zealand

    Trejo Araya, Ximenita Isabelle

    Thesis
    Massey University

    In this study transglutaminase was used to achieve ε-γ-(glutamyl) lysine cross-linking of milk proteins, in Trim™ and Full Fat milks, the same milks with a variety of added protein concentrates, and finally in yogurt and Petite Suisse acid gel systems. The effects of a preheat treatment, enzyme incubation temperature, enzyme inactivation after the enzyme incubation period and homogenization on the cross-linking of the three major casein and two whey proteins were also studied. The degree of cross-linking was established by the use of SDS PAGE gel electrophoresis. The results indicated that cross-linking of the major casein and whey proteins was maximized if the milk was preheated for 10 minutes at 90°C and then cooled before addition of the transglutaminase. However, the preheat treatment was not always advantageous in Trim™ milk systems, but was essential for Full Fat milk systems. Maximal cross-linking of milk proteins occurred if the enzyme/milk system was incubated at 37°C for two hours rather than at 55°C for the same period. The extent of cross-linking increased in an almost linear fashion with increasing transglutainase concentration in most milk systems, with maximal cross-linking occurring when the enzyme concentration was 100 U/mL. Studies on one milk system showed that whey loss and gel strength deteriorated if more than 100 U/mL of enzyme was used. The study demonstrated that homogenization was an essential step for protein cross-linking if the system contained any fat. Casein and whey protein transglutaminase mediated cross-linking was maximized in Full Fat milk systems if the milk was homogenized before transglutaminase was added. Maximal cross-linking, particularly of whey proteins, occurred in Full Fat milk systems if the milk was preheated for 10 minutes at 90°C, cooled to 60°C and then homogenized at 50/150, cooled further to 37°C and then incubated with 100 U/mL of enzyme for two hours. Addition of sodium caseinate or milk protein isolate to Trim™ and Full Fat milk systems was shown to significantly improve protein cross-linkage by up to 50% for β-casein and whey protein respectively. Transglutaminase addition to milk systems containing the previously mentioned protein concentrates further enhanced cross-linking compared to the non-enzyme controls, particularly when the enzyme concentration was 100 U/mL Addition of transglutaminase to acid milk gels dramatically improved the whey holding and gel properties of the products, particularly when the enzyme concentration was 100 U/mL. The reduction in whey loss was proportional to transglutaminase concentration up to 100 U/mL. A 100% reduction in whey syneresis and a 10g F improvement in gel strength improvement were obtained when 0.5 % sodium caseinate and 100 U/mL of transglutaminase were added to a gel milk system compared to a control sample with no enzyme. The physical properties of the milk acid gels were further improved if the transglutaminase in the acid gel systems was not inactivated prior to the addition of the enzyme. The addition of milk protein concentrates such as sodium caseinate and total milk proteinate were shown to have dramatic effects on the whey holding and gel properties of acid gels. Moreover, the properties showed little reduction over a two week storage period compared to yogurt with no added protein. The addition of transglutaminase at a concentration of 100 U/mL further enhanced the above physical characteristics of the acid milk gels. Variations in cross-linking within systems containing either sodium caseinate, milk protein concentrate and milk protein isolate were observed. These variations need to be examined in further work. The addition of NaCNTMP further enhanced the gel and whey-holding properties compared to systems containing either sodium caseinate or total milk proteinate. The final study was conducted on Petite Suisse, a high fat acid milk gel, and here the addition of transglutaminase at 100 U/mL dramatically improved the gel strength of the system by 500% compared to the control. Finally, this research confirmed that transglutaminase effectively cross-linked milk proteins, and in particular β- and κ-casein and β-lactuglobulin. Transglutaminase addition to milk and acid milk systems clearly improved some of the physical properties of the systems. However, much work is needed before it could be recommended for use by industry. The effect of adding transglutaminase to acid milk gels and milk systems should be evaluated by consumer panels to ensure that the sensory properties of these systems have in no way been compromised. Furthermore the economic costs of adding transglutaminase should be determined to ensure that the process would not be uneconomic. If the above evaluations prove to be beneficial then the process could be investigated and further studies carried out to see whether improvements could result by addition of transglutaminase to such milk products as yogurts, desserts, cheese etc, and to create new products with different textural and water holding characteristics. Further work is needed on a scientific front to assess the effects of transglutainase and added proteins on the structure of milk gels and the precise mechanism of filament formation in these gels. Some questions were also raised concerning the exact mechanism that was responsible for removal of monomeric forms of whey protein in the various milk systems evaluated in this study, and these should be determined by further research work.

    View record details
  • The effect of pre-information on clinical inference and nursing actions : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    McIntosh, Muriel Joan

    Thesis
    Massey University

    A study to examine the effects of pre-information (what a nurse learns about a patient before they meet) on clinical inference and nursing actions, in a simulated nurse-patient situation. It was hypothesised that the nature of the pre-information will influence the way the patient is perceived, and the resulting nursing actions. The research was conducted in an obstetrical setting. There were 55 subjects within three groups. Two groups comprised student midwives, and the third group was of second year comprehensive nursing students near the completion of clinical experience in maternal and child health nursing. A five minute videotape sequence of a role-played post-natal patient was made for use in the research. All subjects were given the same initial pre-information, viewed the videotape and gave written descriptions of what they saw on the videotape and their response (as the nurse in the situation). This data provided a base-line for each subject. Subjects were then given additional pre-information concerning the patient's physical condition, her baby's condition, or formed part of the control group (receiving no additional pre-information). The procedure was repeated. These responses were then compared with the base-line for each subject. Responses were coded by means of content analysis. Group data was analysed using a multivariate one way analysis of variance graphical display. The results indicated support of the hypothesis that the nature of the pre-information does influence the way in which a nurse perceives a patient, and resulting nursing actions. Implications of these findings for nursing are discussed.

    View record details
  • Effect of homogenisation on milk fouling in a tubular heat exchanger : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment for the requirements for the degree of Master of Food Engineering, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Martinez-Sanchez, Monica

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Fouling of equipment surfaces in milk processing has been a costly problem for many years. In spite of an increasing body of knowledge of the fouling mechanism, the problem is not fully understood yet. Recent investigations suggest that the role of fat in whole milk fouling seems to be very important. The state and form of the fat globules, processing conditions as well as the orientation of heating surfaces may affect the fouling mechanism. Homogenisation of milk is known to cause disruption of fat globules and prevent creaming. The present work aimed to investigate the effect of homogenisation on the rate of fouling, composition and structure of fouling layers. Homogenised and un-homogenised milk were used as test fluids. Milk was heated from 4°C to 60°C in a plate heat exchanger then to 70°C and 80°C in a double pipe heat exchanger consisted of a horizontal and a vertical tube. The fouling rate in the double pipe heat exchanger was calculated and expressed as the rate of increase of the overall resistance to heat transfer, normalised using the initial heat transfer coefficient at the beginning of the run. Composition analysis of fouling layers was carried out using standard methods of moisture, ash, fat and protein tests. Resistance to deformation analysis was performed using texture tests; coverage measurement was determined by digital image analysis. Within the experimental conditions used in this work, the effect of homogenisation on the fouling rate could not be ascertained conclusively because of large variations in the values obtained but it had a significant effect in the composition of fouling layers. In all experimental runs, the amount of fat in the fouling layer was higher for un-homogenised milk compared to homogenised milk. In fact, the fat contents of fouling layers were found to be very high (between 30%-60% on a dry weight basis), which agrees with observations of other researches in New Zealand. The coverage and thickness of fouling layers were more influenced by the orientation of heated surfaces than by homogenisation. The strength of fouling layers is affected by their thickness, which decreases with increasing milk temperature.

    View record details
  • Characterisation of a putative dothistromin biosynthetic cluster : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Molecular Biology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Laarakkers, Seth

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The fungus Dothistroma pini is a key pathogen in New Zealand (and international) softwood plantations, most notably P. radiata. The mycotoxin dothistromin produced by this saprophytic fungus is believed to play a major role in its pathogenesis. Dothistromin shares functional groups and pathway intermediates with those of sterigmatocystin and aflatoxin, secondary metabolites of Aspergillus sp. As the sterigmatocystin and aflatoxin biosynthetic pathways are characterised this provided us with a model pathway and potential probes for the isolation of dothistromin genes. The verl gene is critical to the completion of aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus sp. as its disruption prevented the synthesis of aflatoxin. Assuming similar enzymes act in the dothistromin biosynthetic pathway a probe for ver1 was obtained and used to probe a D. pini genomic library. This led to the isolation of two lambda clones named λCGV1 and λCGV2 (Gillman 1996). A second library screen was completed using an aflatoxin polyketide synthase (PKS) probe and led to the isolation of the lambda clone λBMKSA (Morgan 1997). The λCGV1 clone has been studied in detail and shown to contain a gene similar to aflatoxin ver1 (named dkr1) and other potential dothistromin biosynthetic genes (Monahan 1998). This study looks in greater detail at the lambda clones λCGV2 and λBMKSA and determines whether they contain putative dothistromin biosynthetic genes and are part of the anticipated gene cluster. In this project the lambda clone λCGV2 was partially characterised which revealed that the other potential ver gene showed a greater similarity to the melanin biosynthetic gene phn than to the aflatoxin gene ver-1. This implied that the clone was unlikely to contain dothistromin biosynthetic genes so no further sequence was generated. However, a partial restriction map was constructed. The other lambda clone, λBMKSA was then further characterised. Double stranded sequence of the putative pks gene region was completed. The remainder of the lambda clone was subcloned and exploratory sequence revealed a gene with high similarity to stcW. The next stage was to determine how the three lambda clones were related. This was approached by probing genomic Southern blots with the ends of the lambda clones to determine the presence of commonly hybridised fragments. The presence of common fragments suggests that the three clones are very close together in the genome, although the evidence which links λCGV2 and λBMKSA is stronger than the evidence that links λCGV2 and λCGV1. This is the first evidence that the three lambda clones isolated using aflatoxin probes are close together in the genome of D. pini. The genes present on these lambda clones show a high degree of similarity to their aflatoxin counterparts and could potentially contain a dothistriomin biosynthetic cluster.

    View record details