10,170 results for Massey University

  • Identification and functional analysis of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae effector-triggered immunity in Nicotiana spp. and Arabidopsis thaliana : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Plant Science at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Choi, Sera

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) is the causal agent of bacterial canker in commercially important cultivars of kiwifruit (Actinidia delicosa and A. chinensis) worldwide, including New Zealand. Like many gram-negative pathogens, Psa is expected to utilise type III effectors to promote virulence in host plants. In order to better understand Psa effector-triggered immunity and susceptibility, we aimed to investigate multiple molecular characteristics of Psa type III effectors and their recognition mechanisms in model plants, Nicotiana spp. and Arabidopsis thaliana. Nicotiana tabacum and N. benthamiana are widely-used model plants for Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression (agroinfiltration) of effectors for functional characterization. Firstly, we screened multiple characteristics of effectors from two Psa strains, Psa NZ V13 and Psa NZ LV5. The former is a strongly virulent and the latter is a weakly virulent strain in kiwifruit. By using agroinfiltration in Nicotiana spp. to express individual effector proteins, we observed diverse subcellular localisation for Psa effectors. Additionally, we identified multiple Psa effectors that can trigger HR-like cell death (HCD) in both N. tabacum and N. benthamiana. Using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), we identified that some Psa effector-triggered HCD requires the immunity regulator SGT1, suggesting that the Psa effector-triggered HCD could be a result of immunity activation. We focused on one Psa NZ V13 effector, HopZ5, which belongs to the YopJ-like acetyltransferase family. HopZ5 triggers hypersensitive response (HR) in Arabidopsis accession, Ct-1. Another Arabidopsis accession, Col-0, does not develop an HR but shows immunity in response to HopZ5. The gene that confers HopZ5-triggered HR in Ct-1 was identified as SOBER1 (SUPPRESSOR OF AVRBST-ELICITED RESISTANCE 1) by using recombinant inbred lines derived from two parental accessions, Ct-1 and Col-0. SOBER1 is a known suppressor of Xanthomonas effector AvrBsT-triggered immunity. Interestingly, AvrBsT also belongs to YopJ family. Uniquely, SOBER1 specifically suppressed HCD triggered by several YopJ-like acetyltransferase effectors in N. benthamiana, including HopZ5 and HopZ3 from Psa. This suggests a common mechanism shared between a subset of YopJ-like acetyltransferase effectors is suppressed by SOBER1. Finally, we identified one Arabidopsis accession, Ga-0, which carries a truncated SOBER1 variant but does not develop an HR upon HopZ5 delivery. Using bulked- segregant analysis of an F2 population derived from a cross between Ct-1 and Ga-0, we mapped the locus conferring HopZ5-recognition in Ct-1 to the upper arm of Chromosome 3.

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  • A case study of mental health communication programme delivery during mass violence in southern Thailand, 2004-2014 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Communication at Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

    Buaniaw, Aruneewan

    Thesis
    Massey University

    In response to long-term mass violence in southern Thailand, the Thai government set up the 12th Mental Health Centre (the key site of this study) in 2004 for mental health healing and rehabilitation, and to provide various mental health programmes for affected groups. This case study examines how those programmes were planned, implemented, and evaluated between 2004 and 2014. The successes and challenges of mental health communication programme delivery in such a situation were also identified. The development of Centre 12’s programme reflects different but interrelated policy shifts: the reactive programme (2004–2005); the targeted groups policy (2005–2010); the general age-group targets (2011–2014); and the emerging phase of severe and complicated cases (2014 on). Key findings showed four stages in Centre 12’s programme framework: planning, media/message development, implementation, and evaluation. Within these phases, Centre 12 largely focused on media/message development, reflecting the nature of the public relations work force in Thailand and concern with religion differences. Print materials were verified by experts and media were produced with cultural sensitivity. Religious-based booklets were deemed noteworthy because of the participatory process in media production, testing, and refinement. Interpersonal and group communications were the main delivery channels. Additionally, training programmes for deliverer groups such as public health practitioners, community leaders, religious leaders, teachers, and radio DJs were crucial because these groups were trusted by local people and could reduce suspicion. Programme evaluation was a significant challenge, shown in Centre 12’s difficulties measuring programme outcomes, impacts, and knowledge utilisation. The Centre 12 case also contains some lessons in delivery in a mass violence situation: mental health communication programmes should focus on community-based approaches and coordinate with community partners, informal, flexible styles of partnership are most suitable for uncertain situations, and programme deliverers need to be concerned with cultural sensitivities. Last, leadership is an important factor for disaster management; however, organisations should set a system of recovery rather than rely on an individual leader. This case study considers wider implications for the government, campaign planners, communication and health communication scholars and practitioners, and those facing similar circumstances in the current unstable geopolitical environment.

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  • Nurse practitioners in rural primary health care in New Zealand : an institutional ethnography : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing, Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Adams, Sue

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Nurse practitioners are an effective and appropriate health workforce for delivering health services to underserved and rural populations. Since 2001, New Zealand has been registering nurse practitioners through a robust educational, regulatory, and legislative framework, and from 2014, all nurse practitioners are authorised prescribers. However, the numbers of nurse practitioners working in rural primary health care have been slow to materialise. Despite an ageing demographic, the increasing prevalence of long term conditions, ongoing health inequalities, and a declining rural medical workforce, there remains a persistence to pursue the general practitioner-led model of care. The purpose of this study was to critically examine the work required to establish nurse practitioner services in rural primary health care in New Zealand. Institutional ethnography, developed by Dorothy Smith, provided the overall approach to the inquiry. The activities and experiences of people in local settings are textually organised by the institutional ruling relations. This inquiry explored the work and experiences that nurses undertook on their journey to become nurse practitioners and deliver services in rural primary health care, and how these were institutionally shaped and coordinated. Interviews were initially conducted with nurse practitioners and nurse practitioner candidates as the primary informants. The interviews were analysed using a mapping technique to identify text-based work processes and show connections, tensions, and contradictions with authoritative or ruling texts. Further data was collected through secondary informant interviews and the tracing and identification of texts. The findings revealed that there were multiple texts and discourses being enacted locally, which facilitated or hampered their work to become nurse practitioners. The ongoing institutional domination of medicine retained general practitioner-led primary care, despite policy and nursing professional texts that promoted social justice. Service fragmentation and frequent changes in policy, structure, and management of organisations at local and national level, resulted in further challenges and work processes by the nurse practitioners to maintain and implement services. Together with the lack of a cohesive national policy and implementation framework for nurse practitioners, the opportunity for nurse practitioners to meet the health needs of the rural population of New Zealand continues to be discounted.

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  • Shape on shape on shape

    Hope, Amelia

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This practice based design research questions the inf luence of body ideals and body categorisation methods on women’s body shape, individual dress expression and wellbeing. Historical and current body type categorisation methods are conventions prevalent within the fashion industry. This research project questions whether these conventions of categorising women’s bodies into simplified shapes and assumed fit and aesthetic preferences is problematic and even redundant in terms of women’s wellbeing in light of changing attitudes towards dress, body ideals and gender. New understandings of wellbeing and identity, self-awareness and body confidence for the individual impacts fashion expression now and in the future. It is highly relevant for designers to understand body shape and the importance of fit preferences in all respects, both physical and psychological throughout the design process. For this practice based research project two experimental design pieces are created that consider the diversity of women’s body shapes and self-ref lection of dress. In addition to relevant literature, this research includes design analysis of inf luential designers who explore the boundaries of the body and garment. My own investigation analyses responses from a small group of ten diverse women to gain insight to the relevance of defined body types and their own perceptions and choices of garment shape and design for personal fit satisfaction. This project informs a reiterative and integrative design process of mindful ref lection, drawing, draping, cutting and construction to create new volume, shapes and silhouette to ref lect the subjective perceptions of body and dress. This innovative design practice looks to new ways of design and pattern development processes to create new expressions of apparel outside of expected norms. This research challenges preconceived ideas about body ideals and dress, in an attempt to open minds to the diversity and uniqueness of body shape and external projection of self.

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  • Molecular dynamics simulations of protein-membrane interactions focusing on PI3Kα and its oncogenic mutants : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Computational Biochemistry at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Irvine, William A

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The interactions between proteins and membranes are key to many aspects of biological function. Molecular dynamics simulations can provide insight into both atomic-level structural details and energetics of protein-membrane interactions. This thesis describes the development of a physiologically accurate brain lipid bilayer, and its use in molecular dynamics simulations to characterise how proteins that are important drug targets interact with the cell membrane. A method for rapidly identifying the orientation of a protein that interacts most favourably with a membrane was also developed and tested. The first chapter provides an introduction to molecular dynamics and its role in the context of this research. The second chapter details the development of a cellular membrane with a physiologically representative brain lipid composition. This was done through the testing of simple systems prior to the construction of two more complex lipid bilayers comprising phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylinositide 4,5 bisphosphate (PIP2), sphingomyelin, and cholesterol. The third chapter implements the brain lipid bilayer in the development of a rotational interaction energy screening method designed to predict the most favourable orientation of a protein with respect to the cellular membrane. The functionality of the method was validated through application to two membrane proteins commonly implicated in cancer: the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), and the p110α-p85α phosphatidyl-inositol kinase (PI3Kα) complex. The fourth chapter corresponds to the main focus of this research, the behaviour of wild type PI3Kα and two of its oncogenic mutants (E545K and H1047R) with regards to membrane and substrate interaction. It was primarily found that H1047R’s increased membrane affinity allowed it to sample a catalytically competent orientation independently of Ras, unlike the wild type. Furthermore, it was also found that the position of the C terminal tail with regards to the substrate binding pocket was crucial in the achievement of a catalytically competent position against the cellular membrane. The fifth and final chapter describes a cytochrome P450 system embedded in a cellular membrane. It was primarily found that the properties of its ingress and egress tunnels depended on the presence or absence of a substrate in the active site.

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  • Cyberbullying at work : exploring understandings and experiences : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Human Resource Management at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    D'Souza, Natalia Judeline

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Despite growing evidence that workplace cyberbullying exerts a significant toll on employees and organisations, conceptualisation issues linger, impeding efforts toward prevention and intervention. Indeed, researchers continue to frame cyberbullying as an electronic extension of traditional bullying – overlooking the intricacies and potentially more damaging nature of this phenomenon, due to various cyber-specific features – or disregard conceptualisation altogether. Therefore, the main aim of this research was to explore how workplace cyberbullying is understood and experienced in New Zealand, with a focus on nursing. A three-study qualitative, interview-based research design was employed, with findings from each stage informing the subsequent research progress. Study one explored subject matter experts’ perspectives on workplace cyberbullying. In addition to suggesting a differentiation of cyberbullying from traditional bullying as a construct, findings also revealed professional-based distinctions around approaches to measurement and management, emphasising the subjectivity and contextual nature of cyberbullying. In line with these findings, studies two and three adopted a context-specific approach in exploring nurses’ understandings and experiences of workplace cyberbullying, respectively. The focus on nursing was intended to address a substantial knowledge gap: although this profession experiences higher-than-average rates of traditional bullying, to date, there had been no efforts to investigate how workplace cyberbullying manifested and was experienced within this group. Findings from study two suggested that although academics and nurses generally conceptualised workplace cyberbullying as being a distinct phenomenon, nurses tended to emphasise target perceptions of victimisation over features such as repetition and intent. Based on this understanding, a purpose-specific definition was formulated for study three to explore nurse experiences of workplace cyberbullying. Accordingly, it emerged that not only did most targets experience co-occurring forms of bullying, but in some cases, cyberbullying was perceived as more distressing with a potentially wider scope of harm. Further, findings from study three uncovered the risk of nurses experiencing cyberbullying from external sources such as students, patients, and patient relatives. Unfortunately, several work-related and industryspecific factors frequently presented barriers to reporting and successful resolution. Beyond these contributions to our knowledge on workplace cyberbullying, a multi-factor socioecological model is also posited as a framework guiding future research, as well as prevention and intervention efforts.

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  • He hua rānei tō te kapa haka : kapa haka as a retention tool for Māori students in mainstream secondary schools : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy (Humanities and Sciences) at Massey University, Turitea, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Kerehoma, Leanne

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Kapa Haka provides leadership opportunities and promotes awareness to the intrinsic link to culture, Māori identity, and whanaungatanga. This research attempts to identify factors within Kapa haka, which contribute to Māori students successfully participating, achieving and staying longer in school, and to highlight the benefits and value of Kapa haka for a young focus group of participants who currently reside in the Manawatū region. The focus group consists of six Māori female participants who graduated from a mainstream school, who participated and engaged in Kapa haka, who also chose to continue their schooling in post-compulsory senior secondary school years, (year11-13) and of those participants, five attended a mainstream secondary school in the Manawatū (Palmerston North) region and one other from Te Tairāwhiti (East Coast), specifically Tūranga (Gisborne). Essentially, this study demonstrates how Kapa haka and aspects within Kapa haka could be utilised as a tool to retain Māori students in secondary school and more importantly, how it contributes to their academic success whilst at the same time producing confident, outgoing and humble individuals who are doing well in their lives and, contributing to Te Ao Māori.

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  • Innovative behaviours and personality traits in captive kea (Nestor notabilis) as a model for the emergence of kea strike in wild populations : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Conservation Biology, at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Fancy, Jessica Sarah

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The personality traits of seven captive kea (Nestor notabilis) were investigated in terms of neophobia, problem solving ability, and innovation. The first objective was to compare the personalities of the birds and assess these in relation to demographic factors including age and sex, as well as looking at the effect of isolated versus group housing. Kea are known to require high standards of enrichment and sociality, so this information can be used to determine the effect their captive housing may have on important wild traits. The second objective was to observe whether particular personalities or demographic factors made a kea more innovative, or in this case more likely to attack a sheep. Kea strike is a phenomenon whereby kea attack sheep, which often die as a result. This conflict has led to approximately 100,000 kea being shot by farmers in retaliation, and as a consequence there has been a dramatic decline in the wild kea population. In order to assess each individual’s relative neophobia or neophilia, novel objects were presented to the kea and their reactions observed. Problem solving ability was measured by using a Multi-Access Box, which required the birds to use one of four different access routes to retrieve a food reward. To observe levels of innovation and the likelihood of kea strike emerging, a mechanical sheep analogue was used. This was made to resemble a sheep, and contained a food reward for the kea to find. The juveniles in this study were much more neophilic and adept at problem solving than the adults, and this is thought to be because juveniles are still learning about their environment and these traits are therefore highly beneficial to them. Only one juvenile successfully completed the sheep analogue task, and she was the most neophilic and adept at problem solving. This suggests that highly neophilic and explorative kea are more likely to develop innovative behaviours such as kea strike. Understanding the drivers behind kea strike is important if tools are to be developed to minimise the conflict in the future.

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  • A formal framework for data flow diagrams with control extensions : a dissertation presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Computer Science at Massey University

    France, Robert Bertrand

    Thesis
    Massey University

    In this thesis a formal foundation for data flow diagrams (DFDs) with control extensions is developed. The DFD is the primary specification tool of the Structured Analysis (SA) approach to requirements analysis and specification. In recent times, a number of extensions to DFDs, which enhance their use in the specification of behaviour of complex applications (i.e. applications with concurrent or real-time aspects), have been proposed. Such extensions tend to concentrate on increasing the descriptive power of DFDs, while paying less attention to providing the extended DFDs with a formal foundation. Such a foundation would facilitate the generation of formal specifications from DFDs, which could then be used to rigorously validate the DFDs and the behavioural properties they capture, and could also be used as the basis of formal verification activities where subsequent specifications are verified against the formal specifications generated from DFDs. Also, the simple, graphical nature of DFDs, supported by a formal foundation, facilitates their use in formal development strategies. Their use in this respect achieves a level of understandability not usually associated with formal specification tools. The formal foundation introduced in this thesis consists of two parts: the Picture Level (PL) and the Specification Level (SL). The PL is an algebraic specification characterizing the syntactic aspects of DFDs. The specification is associated with an operational semantics which provides an effective means for investigating the syntactic properties of DFDs with the PL. The SL consists of tools and techniques for describing control aspects of applications, and for formally specifying the data, functional, and control aspects of the control-extended DFDs. The control-extended DFDs are called Extended DFDs (ExtDFDs). An ExtDFD depicts the types of interactions that can take place between DFD components, as well as the events that affect the mode of operation of the application it models. A formal specification, called the Behavioural Specification (BS), is generated from an ExtDFD and supporting specifications characterizing the data objects and primitive processing components of the ExtDFD. The role of the BS in formal validation and verification activities is discussed in this thesis.

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  • The Maori perspective of the news : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Business Studies in Communication Management at Massey University

    TeAwa, Joanna Ngani

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The Maori perspective of the news has been identified by Fox (1998,1992,1993) and Walker (1994), but the dynamics of the presentation and construction of the Maori perspective of the news had not been well defined. This research attempted to define and distinguish the differences between the news produced by Mana News from the news produced by mainstream organisations. In particular the selection of what issues and events became news and how they became news was examined, as well as a study of the end product heard by the listeners. Two methodologies were employed; participant observation and content analysis. Participant observation explored the decision-making process in the manufacture of news. This methodology gives the research an "insider" nature. The participant observation identified the news values used in the selection of news and contrasted these values applied in Mana News to those identified by Galtung and Ruge (1965) and Masterton (1994). The inter-play between the journalists and sources was also explored. Content analysis methodology complements the participant observation methodology. Essentially content analysis is a research that focuses on the finished product, and examines what is published or broadcasted after the complex inter-play of relationships between the source and journalist which influences news creation. The content analysis examined numerous theories that may help identify the difference in the construction and presentation between the Maori perspective and the traditional mainstream perspective of the news. Journalism development identified by Loo (1994) was explored, as was the dialectical story model, the tone and nature of the stories and the diversity of sources. Overall the results identified some fundamental differences in the application of news values, the utilisation of sources, the types of sources used, and the nature and tone of stories. The findings also have revealed a journalistic genre that appears to be a more appropriate way of categorising the writing style used in Mana News, as opposed to the traditional 'hard' and 'soft' news categories which characterises conventional journalistic writing. The research moved beyond saying that there is a difference between Mana News and mainstream news media and identified how it is different. Finally, considering this defined difference in perspectives, the socio-political and legislative implications and the commitment broadcasters have to race relations was explored. Change to New Zealand broadcasting policy and legislation was recommended.

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  • Maturation and ripening of Doyenne du Comice pears : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science in Horticultural Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Cabrera Bologna, Carlos Danilo

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Characterisation of fruit quality attributes before and at harvest, during coolstorage and during ripening was made using standard and new, non-destructive devices during both the 1996 and 1997 seasons. Fruit firmness was linearly related to time when measured either by 'Kiwifirm' or penetrometer before harvest. Destructive techniques, the penetrometer and the texture analyser, were used to measure firmness and compared with non-destructive devices, the Kiwifirm and the softness meter. It is suggested that expressing rates of softening will be much more straightforward using a device such as the Kiwifirm. This device and the softness meter provided firmness data for pears that were too soft to measure by penetrometer. The effects of harvest date (1,11 and 21 March, 1996) and three crop loads on fruit maturity after a period of 6 weeks in coolstorage were investigated. Fruit size increased considerably during the 20 days before harvest, suggesting that periodical harvests need to be made in order to pick optimum size fruit each time. Maturity at harvest influenced the quality of 'Comice' stored at 0°C in air. Fruit from different harvests behaved differently in terms of softening behaviour and colour changes after 6 weeks in coolstorage. Crop load did not affect fruit quality attributes assessed after coolstorage. The characterisation of the nature and degree of within-tree and between tree fruit variability in harvest maturity and final ripening behaviour of 'Doyenne du Comice' pear was assessed by measuring firmness and colour. These attributes were measured non-destructively on fruit from different positions on the trees, and subsequently measured at harvest and during ripening at 20°C after 7 weeks in coolstorage at 0°C in air. Fruit behaved differently in terms of softening behaviour and colour changes depending on their position on the tree. Fruit maturity was delayed when fruit came from shaded areas, fruit from inner locations were greener than fruit from the outside and top positions. Selective picking and the association of harvest and ripening data may be important in making predictions that could reduce variability in fruit quality in the market place.

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  • Opportunities and barriers to, and benefits and impacts from, papakāinga owned energy systems : a case study of Parihaka : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Environmental Management at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Quinn, Jonathan Paul

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The development of an onsite renewable energy system is seen as key to developing the community of Parihaka and sustaining the expected population increase. This research has assessed the potential options for such a system and the potential opportunities, barriers, impacts and benefits that could come as a result. It was evident from the very first community consultation that one of the most important aspects of this system would be the ownership model, with hui and workshop attendees strongly favouring a community-owned system and this was further emphasised in survey responses. Interestingly, however, the interviews told a different story with a concern over a lack of social cohesion and an imbalance of work ethic leading to a preference for a joint ownership model. For the most part, the data collection phase verified much of the literature review in that Parihaka community views reflected research to date. Examples include high levels of project support when community involvement and consultation throughout the planning phase is present, expected local employment gains and a preference for at least a joint community ownership stake in the project. However, while the survey and interview respondents felt that social barriers would pose the greatest issues the literature review noted that institutional barriers could very well pose much greater difficulties. Visual impact on the landscape from wind turbines is a major source of opposition and residents and people living in the vicinity have the right to disapprove of the aesthetics of a wind turbine. Similar opposition to the use of other RE resources can greatly impede on successful implementation levels. However, the perceived negative impacts of these RE technologies must be assessed with consideration to the fossil fuel equivalents in order to get a clearer picture. Further research opportunities exist for assessing the next stages of the planning phase, with specific regards to papakāinga land, including the preparation of a resource consent application and the legalities and considerations that must be addressed in order to increase the chances of success. Research into the specifics of the desired ownership model is also recommended, in addition to considering the ongoing community commitments needed to maintain the system.

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  • Development of low cost inkjet 3D printing for the automotive industry : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for a degree of Master of Engineering in Mechatronics, Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Dixon, Blair

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The aim of this project is to develop a low cost, powder based 3D printer that utilises inkjet printing technology. The 3D printer uses a standard drop-on-demand inkjet print head to deposit a binder onto the powder bed one layer at a time to build the desired object. Existing commercial 3D printers that use inkjet technology are large and expensive. They do not allow much control to adjust printing parameters, meaning it is difficult to conduct research with different materials and binders. Due to these factors it is not viable to use one for research purposes. The automotive industry uses 3D printing technology heavily throughout the prototyping process, some manufacturers have even started using the technology to produce functional parts for production vehicles. Ford Motor Company helped develop 3D printing technology and brought it to the automotive industry while multiple university’s in America were researching the technology. Based off an open source design, the printer developed in this project has been customised to allow full control over printing parameters. The body of the printer is laser cut from acrylic. All mechanical components are off the shelf items wherever possible to keep costs down and allow the print area to be easily scaled. Binder is deposited with an HP C6602A print head which is filled with regular black printer ink. The ink is deposited onto a bed of 3D Systems VisiJet PXL Core powder. Custom made parts manufactured in house allow for the print head to be easily changed to whatever is needed. The print head used is refillable and can therefore be filled with custom binders. With the 3D printer developed in house, all aspects can easily be adjusted. Having full control over printing parameters will allow research to be conducted to develop new 3D printable powders and binders, or to improve the printing quality of existing powders and binders. The 3D printer has also been developed so that it is easy to adapt to other features to increase its capabilities. With the addition of a UV light source, UV curable binders could be researched; or with the addition of a laser, powder sintering could be researched.

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  • A retrospective and cross-sectional study to evaluate the effect of dietary acculturation on the dietary calcium intake among Filipino women who recently immigrated to New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Human Nutrition at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Monzales, Rosario Pillar

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Filipinos in New Zealand have steadily grown in number over recent decades, and the majority undergo a dietary acculturation process, or the dietary adaptation of individuals in their host country. In the Philippines, the nutrient with the highest inadequacy in the diet is calcium, primarily contributed by fish and indigenous vegetables that are not readily available in New Zealand. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of dietary acculturation on the calcium intake of Filipino women recently immigrated to New Zealand and to explore the primary factors affecting their bone mineral status. Sixty-two (62) healthy pre-menopausal Filipino women (20–45 years old) were recruited. Current and previous dietary calcium intake, serum 25(OH)D (nmol/L) (n=61), physical activity data via an accelerometer, and bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were measured. Gross lean mass was calculated (total mass – [whole body total bone content + total fat mass]). Variables considered to be associated with bone mineral status were applied to a multiple regression analysis using the enter method. The median calcium intake for New Zealand [418 (260, 620) mg d-1] after immigration was significantly lower than the intake in the Philippines [506 (358, 823) mg d-1], Z= -2.41, p=0.02, medium effect size r=0.22. The significant predictor of bone mineral status among Filipino women was gross lean mass, whereas current and previous dietary calcium intake, physical activity and serum 25(OH)D were not found to be significant. However, a high prevalence (69%) of serum 25(OH)D <50nmol/L (mild–moderate deficiency) was detected. These findings illustrate the potential detrimental consequences of dietary acculturation on the essential nutrient intake of immigrants, but also provide an opportunity to correct previous dietary inadequacies by exposure to corresponding nutrient-dense foods from the host country.

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  • James Joyce, Chamber music : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in English at Massey University

    Ward, Robert John

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis originated in dissatisfaction with William York Tindall's treatment of Chamber Music, in his 1954 edition of the poems. When I began my research on the topic, I found that, not only in interpretation, but in technical matters of dating, arrangement and textual data, and in biographical matters such as Joyce's attitude to the poems, there was ample scope for a new edition. Hence the structure of this thesis. The Introductory Essay is divided into ten numbered sections, but they group themselves into four broad categories: composition and publishing history; the criticism; the evidence of biography; and my own interpretation. I decided to include the individual analyses of each poem (the Notes on the Poems) because Chamber Music criticism has been characterised by glib generalisations and lack of close, specific investigation of all of the thirty-six poems. Tindall's "Notes to the Poems" did not fill this gap. Throughout this thesis, I have made much use of a few books, frequent references to which have necessitated some form of abbreviation, in the text and in the Notes to the Text. References to "Tindall" signify Tindall's edition of Chamber Music (New York, 1954). Where other books or articles by Tindall are noted, full titles are given. The Letters of James Joyce, one volume edited by Gilbert in 1957, the other two edited by Ellmann in 1966, are referred to by volume number (Letters, I; Letters, II; Letters, III). Ellmann's biography James Joyce (New York, 1959) is described as "Ellmann"; Gorman's James Joyce (New York, 1948) as "Gorman." "Dublin Diary" refers to George Harris Healey (ed.), The Dublin Diary of Stanislaus Joyce (London, 1962). The other two works written by Stanislaus Joyce and quoted herein are noted by their titles, Recollections (New York, 1950), and My Brother's Keeper (London, 1958). "Slocum and Cahoon" refers to John J. Slocum and Herbert Cahoon, A Bibliography of James Joyce 1882-1941 (London, 1953). [From Preface]

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  • The Liberal Government's purchase and settlement of the Langdale Estate, Wairarapa (1900-1921) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University

    Kinnell, Donald

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Langdale Station is a 40-minute drive east from Masterton. This Wairarapa sheep, beef and grain farm is the remnant of a large estate owned by an English family until 1901. It was a four-hour coach trip from Masterton in those days. 1 The Langdale Settlement, Wellington, New Zealand, Wellington: T.Y. Duncan, Minister of Lands, 1901, p. 7 Modern travellers can journey down the picturesque Mangapakeha valley oblivious of the infamous swamp, and the role it played in the Liberal Government's purchase and settlement of Langdale. It seems incongruous in a colony founded on British principles of individual property rights that a government should embark on a programme of land redistribution. The Liberal Government purchased, by compulsion if necessary, large estates, and leased the subdivided land to settlers without right of freehold. Although the tenure strictures were relaxed, land-for-settlements remained in the New Zealand ethos and was later used to settle returned servicemen. Subsequent governments spent taxpayers' money settling 'productive people' on farms. 2 Economic Management: Land Use Issues, Wellington, Minister of Finance, 1984, pp. 60,67-68. Ironically, the 1980s' neo-liberal revolt ended government involvement in land settlement. [From Introduction]

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  • The mathematical modelling of caking in bulk sucrose

    Billings, Scott W

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Ever since the need for bulk transportation of sugar, there have been problems with the product caking during storage and transportation. This project was carried out in order to try and understand the mechanisms behind caking, and by mathematically modelling the system, to find the conditions needed to avoid caking, and to compare these to the observations and experiences made by those working in the industry. A thermal analysis monitor was used to determine if significant quantities of amorphous sucrose existed on the dried sugar, to support the amorphous recrystallisation caking mechanism. The level of amorphous sucrose was found to be less than 0.1%, so it was reasoned that any moisture contribution from such a small fraction, even given its tremendously hygroscopic nature would be negligible in contrast to that from the humidity caking mechanism. The water activity at which capillary condensation begins to occur significantly was then investigated and found to be 0.8. At this critical water activity, significant capillary condensation between particles occurs, forming liquid bridges between the particles and causing the bed to lump. If the lumped bed is then subjected to an environment with a lower water activity, over time the liquid bridges will begin to crystallise, creating solid bridges between the particles. These solid bridges have several times the mechanical strength of the liquid bridges and it is at this point that the bed is considered to be caked. The data from this experiment was then further used to build a relationship between the water activity of a bed, the radius of the liquid bridges formed by capillary condensation (Kelvin radius), and the resulting lumped strength of the bed. A model based on the caking of lactose was then adapted for sucrose and validated by testing conditions of heat and moisture migration through a packed bed, and the resulting effect on the strength of caking. Various model parameters were then adjusted between experimentally known values in order to obtain the best-fit possible for the experimental data. The data from the experiment and the model agreed well, however the temperature data did exhibit some scatter, possibly caused by insufficient grounding of the measuring device, making it susceptible to noise. The model was then used to build up a graph of the effect of initial water activity, cold and hot temperatures on the maximum water activity that a bed would reach at the cold surface. Using the critical water activity, this graph can be used to represent the limits at which sucrose of a certain condition can be stored and transported without the sucrose caking. This also opens paths for future research, as this will allow conditions created by the changing of process conditions such as temperatures and residence times within the driers, to be measured in terms of whether the end product will have a tendency to cake.

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  • The market milk industry in New Zealand : being a dissertation presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of M. Agr. Sc. (Dairy Tech.), Massey University College, University of New Zealand, June, 1952

    Sykes, R. C

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Milk is the most important of all foods for the human race. Throughout the ages it has been the sole food of the very young and has been part of the diet of adolescents and adults of the white races. It has been especially important to the growing and those of inferior health. Milk is a "protective" food rich in easily digestible proteins of high biological value and, in addition, contains valuable mineral and vitamin fractions essential to good nutrition. The importance of milk in the diet has been more particularly recognized in the last thirty years and special emphasis given to it by the League of Nations in an endeavour to improve the diets of the peoples of the world. New Zealand, along with other countries, has become more conscious than formerly of the value of milk during these last thirty years. Because milk can be so important in the diet of the people of all ages it should be available at all times for consumption in adequate amounts by all sections of the population, and this is the requirement of the Market Milk Industry in New Zealand. In addition, since the food value of milk is dependent upon its composition and at the same time milk, as a highly perishable commodity, may be a carrier of pathogenic bacteria it is imperative to national well-being that the milk supply be of good composition, high bacteriological quality and free from pathogenic organisms. In association with the above, price is a most important consideration; it should be high enough to permit efficient production, collection, treatment and distribution, at all periods, of adequate quantities of safe milk of good quality and at the same time low enough to enable all sections of the community to purchase milk in adequate amounts. The services given in production, collection, treatment and distribution should ensure efficiency and economy in the practices pursued and the safety of milk to the health of consumers at all stages. At the same time, however, the services given should only be those necessary for the delivery of a safe milk of good quality to consumers such that the liquid milk industry as a whole is efficient relative to the functions required of it, and outlined above. [FROM INTRODUCTION]

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  • Mechatronic simulation & exploration of a mechanical context relevant to quadrupedal neuromorphic walking employing Nervous networks for control : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Engineering, Mechatronics at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Read, Matthew

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Neuromorphic engineering is the studv and emulation of neural sensory and control structures found in the natural world. Currently a significant research focus in this field, and indeed, in engineering at large, is the research of robotic walking platforms - an ideal application for artificial neural controllers. To design such neuromorphic controllers, significant knowledge is needed of the robotic context to which they will he applied. The focus of this research is to explore the relationship between the mechanical design of a robot, and its resultant walking proficiency. A neuromorphic controller utilizing Nervous networks was constructed, and embedded into a typical & useful mechatronic context. This consists of a simple walking platform, of a type commonly used in Nervous network research. This robot was used to provide intuition and a reference point for development of a simulation for empirical testing. A physical simulation of the mechanical context was developed, allowing for the exploration of its behaviour, particularly with regard to the type of walking "caused" by the integration of an appropriate Nervous network controller. To evaluate the behavioural fitness of this context in various configurations, empirical simulations were run using the developed simulation, and heuristic results derived to develop optimized parameters for causing walking behaviours in the studied context. Further simulations were then run to evaluation the efficacy of these developed heuristics. From these simulations & explorations, the presence of an identifiable "critical point phenomenon" in the interaction between the robot's legs was demonstrated. This critical point was then used for parameter extraction; further simulation demonstrated that parameters extracted from this critical point provided near-optimal walking behaviour from the robot in a variety of leg topologies. These results provide significant knowledge and intuition for designers of quadrupedal walking platforms, particularly those driven from Nervous network derived neuromorphic controllers. Implementation of these results in such a robotic platform will provide useful new "real world" data, allowing the developed models & heuristics to be further refined.

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  • Minimising L [to the power of p] distortion for mappings between annuli : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Mathematics at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Jordens, Maarten Nicolaas

    Thesis
    Massey University

    When deforming or distorting one material object into another, for various physical reasons the final deformation is expected to minimise some sort of energy functional. Classically, the theory of quasiconformal mappings provides us with a theory of distortion, yielding some limited results concerning minimising the maximal distortion. The calculus of variations is aimed at extremising certain kinds of functionals (such as the integral of the gradient squared or of distortion over a region in the complex plane). This thesis investigates quasiconformal and related mappings between annuli. introduces some novel results, and outlines some conjectures for further research.

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