23,964 results for The University of Auckland Library, All rights reserved

  • Smart functionalized catalytic films for drinking water purification

    Ismail, Nabilah (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This thesis which is entitled ???Smart functionalized catalytic films for drinking water purification??? is a stepping stone towards overcoming this problem. This thesis evolved around designing new polymers that can be used to make membrane films which can anchor oxidation catalysts such as Fe-(TAML)s, concentrate pollutants and deliver hydrogen peroxide and base to the catalyst centres in a systematic and efficient way so that large volumes of water can be purified without having to contaminate the bulk water solution. In the first chapter green chemistry, oxidation chemistry, the use of hydrogen peroxide chemistry as an oxidant, and common contaminants found in wastewater are discussed, and in addition an overview of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts is given. In the second chapter details about the development of the special polymer that was used to form the smart catalytic films (SCFs) in this project is covered. In particular, details of how the polymer was formed, cast, cured, crosslinked and functionalized are discussed as well as the methods used to anchor the catalyst to the polymer film. Details of the mechanism by which the iron-TAML oxidation catalysts operate are presented since most of the subsequent studies involved the use of these compounds. Finally, preliminary studies of the performance of the SCFs in simple catalytic dye bleaching reactions are presented. These studies were carried out so that the most promising SCFs could be selected for further more detailed studies. In the third chapter details of the more comprehensive tests carried out on the selected SCFs is covered. Catalytic oxidation experiments were carried out using water soluble organic dyes as surrogate pollutants with the smart catalytic film used in 3 different configurations; (i) simply suspended in solution in a beaker, (ii) as part of a ???U-tube??? device that uses the catalytic film to separate the hydrogen peroxide solution from the substrate (pollutant) solution and (iii) a ???cross-flow??? device that uses the catalytic film to separate the static hydrogen peroxide solution from the flowing substrate solution. In these three configurations the effects of changes to parameters such as pH, types of catalyst, catalyst loading and turbulent flow on the performance of the SCFs were investigated. Finally, in chapter 4, the results of studies aimed at using the smart catalytic films to reduce or completely remove actual contaminants such as 17??-ethynylestradiol (EE2), Bisphenol A (BPA) and Triclosan (TCS) are presented. In these studies the catalytic films were used in the three different configurations detailed above under the semi-optimized conditions that were discussed in chapter 3. In the case of the studies with BPA and EE2, some preliminary tests of the estrogenicity of the oxidation products formed after catalytic oxidative treatment with the SCFs were carried out using a yeast estrogen assay (YES) test to confirm that with the oxidative removal of these compounds from solution there was a corresponding drop in estrogenicity characteristics.

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  • Maternal Matters: A Narrative Analysis of Mother-Daughter Family Business Dyads

    Kilkolly-Proffit, Michelle (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The literature on parent-adult child family business dyads is traditionally focused on father-child led firms. These studies are predominantly concentrated on intergenerational transfers in family firms and include both father-son dyads and a growing body of father-daughter literature (cf. Davis, 1982; Davis & Tagiuri, 1989; Dumas, 1990; Hollander & Bukowitz, 1990; Humphreys, 2013). Less visible are mother-son family business dyadic studies (cf. Kaslow, 1998). Higginson???s (2010) recent contribution examining relational factors and knowledge transfer in mother-daughter businesses and Vera and Dean???s (2005) comparative study of succession in father-daughter and mother-daughter led firms are among the very few examining the mother-daughter family business dyad. This study examines four mother-daughter family business dyads who own their firms. Each daughter is also a mother. Using the life story interviewing techniques and tools of Atkinson (1998) and McAdams (2008), and an adapted family history method (Miller, 2000), this research takes an interpretive, narrative approach to examine the key influences shaping these dyads. Firstly, this study identifies key influences and then explains how these have contributed to shaping these family business women, their families and their approaches to their business undertakings. Within-dyad and across-dyad findings across four overarching themes: the influence of family of origin, the influence of created family and motherhood, the influence of mother-daughter relationship and career, business and opportunity journey contribute to shared narratives for both generations. A ???baseline understanding??? (Gross, 1998; Shenton, 2004) informing a baseline typology was derived for the four mother-daughter family business dyads in this study. This was garnered from the shared narratives using axes of business approach: entrepreneurial or small business, income and time. The categorizations that emerged were ???The Lifestylers???, ???The Artisans,??? ???The Growth-Opportunists??? and ???The Dependents.??? This baseline typology or characterization of these four dyads provides a starting point towards further understanding of the mother-daughter phenomenon in future studies. The dearth of studies on mother-child firms indicate that a potentially rich contribution in family business discourse is being largely overlooked. Nelton (1998), Vera and Dean (2005) and Higginson (2010) have called for more research on mother-daughter family business successions. This study, examining two generations of family business women leading their own family firms, contributes to further gendered discourse on the influences shaping mother-daughter family business dyads and goes some way towards answering their call.

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  • The intercultural dimension in language classrooms in Aotearoa New Zealand: A comparative study across languages and teachers??? levels of proficiency

    Suarez Ramirez, EM (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    In the last two decades, language teaching around the world have shifted the place of culture from the periphery to the core, acknowledging that cultures shape language and how it is used. This has led to the development of intercultural language teaching. The benefits of this approach and how teachers understand and implement it are part of a growing field. However, few studies have addressed the issue of the influence of language teachers??? level of proficiency in this context. Language teachers in Aotearoa New Zealand schools are encouraged to follow an intercultural approach in their classrooms. In 2010, a report was published to provide language teachers with an intercultural communicative language teaching (iCLT) framework of principles to integrate culture into the teaching of languages (Newton, Yates, Shearn, & Nowitzki, 2010). The report focuses on the development of intercultural capacities to communicate empathetically and respectfully with people of different languages and cultures, rather than simply concentrating on language skills. This study investigated the relationships between language teachers??? conceptualisations of iCLT and their practices. Furthermore, it investigated whether teachers??? level of proficiency in the target language was related to their conceptualisations and practices. Subsequently, potential points of departure (i.e., opportunities) for language teachers??? development of interculturality in their classrooms are illustrated. These examples may also be useful beyond the context of Aotearoa New Zealand. Given that the iCLT framework (Newton et al., 2010) was influenced by intercultural theory from various contexts, this study is part of a global conversation around the implementation and development of the intercultural dimension in the language classroom. Qualitative data were gathered from semi-structured interviews, teachers??? reflections, and classroom observations of 16 language teachers of Chinese, Japanese, French, and Spanish (four of each) in Aotearoa New Zealand. Data were analysed using Newton et al.???s (2010) framework of principles as a lens for interpretation. The findings demonstrated an inconsistent relationship between conceptualisations and practices. Evidence of a principle in teachers??? conceptualisations was not a reliable indication of the principle in their practices, or vice versa. The data were also quantified to provide a visual depiction of teachers??? conceptualisations and practices, and the relative difficulty participants experienced with implementing aspects of the principles in their classrooms. As a contribution to the field of iCLT, the findings suggest that neither being a first language (L1) speaker, nor proficiency in the target language, ensured teachers??? implementation of iCLT. Across all languages and teachers??? levels of proficiency, participants generally demonstrated an implicit potential for intercultural teaching. Implicit potential is understood as unconscious, unplanned, and automatic abilities, conceptualisations and practices, attributes that were investigated to indicate teachers??? intercultural communicative competence (ICC) and iCLT. Furthermore, the target language did not appear to play a role in the development of the intercultural dimension in teachers??? classes. There was some evidence of the efficacy of teacher professional development on intercultural communicative language teaching, highlighting that professional development appeared to be most effective when interculturally targeted. Finally, another contribution of this thesis is an illustrative narrative for language teachers, constructed to summarise the complexity inherent in the iCLT principles; to demonstrate each principle???s inextricability from the others; and to facilitate their implementation.

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  • Studies Towards the Design, Synthesis and Analysis of Antifreeze Peptides and their Potential Applications

    Kong, Ho (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Polar organisms produce antifreeze proteins (AFPs) that bind ice, modifying and inhibiting the growth of large ice crystals, and thereby protecting the host from freeze damage. This phenomenon has huge potential and AFPs are ideal candidates for cryopreservation applications ranging from biomedical to food technologies. In this thesis, a biomimetic approach to control ice crystal growth is proposed, based on AFPs from polar fish and insects. In the first part of this thesis, a range of AFP analogues based on those produced by polar fish and insects were synthesized and systematically studied for their effects on ice crystal shape with and without a small-molecule enhancer. The results highlighted some important structure-activity relationships of the AFPs and illustrated the effect of length, amino acids, and intra-coil bridging mechanisms on the ice-shaping behaviour of the peptides. The effects ranged from no shape modification and no thermal hysteresis to a strong shape modification and a significant thermal hysteresis. The results were then related to a general AFP ice binding model. CD spectroscopy was undertaken to determine the conformation of the peptides in solution. In the second part of this thesis, the general principles of crystal growth modification using peptides as additives (described in Part I) were used to explore the potential application of AFPs in frozen food. AFPs were used as an antifreeze treatment for frozen food that successfully modified the growth of ice crystals within the food structure. The effects of these AFPs on the ice crystal size, drip loss, texture, volatile compounds, total phenol content, total anthocyanins content, and total antioxidant properties of frozen fruits and vegetables were investigated. The results showed a significant positive effect of AFPs in frozen food applications. Based on the results, future work to develop efficient peptides for cryopreservation applications is suggested.

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  • Investigation into the assembly of adiponectin as a target for countering obesity related diseases

    Hampe, Lutz (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Adiponectin, a collagenous hormone secreted abundantly from adipocytes, possesses potent anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. Mediated by the conserved Cys39 located in the variable region of the N-terminus, the trimeric (low molecular weight (LMW)) adiponectin subunit assembles into different higher order complexes, e.g. hexamers (middle molecular weight (MMW)) and 12-18-mers (high molecular weight (HMW)), the latter being mostly responsible for the insulin-sensitizing activity of adiponectin. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone ERp44 retains adiponectin in the early secretory compartment and tightly controls the oxidative state of Cys39 and the oligomerization of adiponectin. Biologically active, recombinant and pure adiponectin oligomers are difficult to produce hampering the analyses of the oligomerisation process. To mitigate this production problem, we engineered and synthesized a model peptide of the N-terminal domain of adiponectin. We demonstrated that the peptide could be used for probing the influence of the variable domain on the multimerization of this important circulating hormone as well as the interaction between the adiponectin and ERp44. Using cellular and in vitro assays, we showed that ERp44 specifically recognizes the LMW and MMW forms but not the HMW form. Binding assays with short peptide mimetics and the aforementioned peptide model of the N-terminal domain of adiponectin suggest that ERp44 intercepts and converts the pool of fully oxidized LMW and MMW adiponectin, but not the HMW form, into reduced trimeric precursors. In vivo, these ERp44-bound precursors in the cis-Golgi may be transported back to the ER and released to enhance the population of adiponectin intermediates with appropriate oxidative state for HMW assembly, thereby underpinning the process of ERp44 quality control. Obesity-induced ER stress causes dysregulation of ER chaperone activity in vivo including ERp44 action, resulting in a decreased level of secreted HMW, which is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Using adipocyte cells and genetically obese mice we demonstrated that designed peptide mimetics derived from ERp44 clients can restore dysregulated ERp44 activity and in turn facilitated adiponectin assembly into HMW form and promote adiponectin release from the ER. Therefore, these peptides can act as reagents to counteract impaired adiponectin multimerization caused by dysregulation in ER chaperone activity.

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  • Product- and Factor Market Contact and Competitive Aggressiveness: The Moderating Effect of Competitive Intensity

    Ljubownikow, Grigorij (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    In the quest to understand the antecedents and outcomes of firms??? competitive behaviours, theories about the consequences of interdependencies have received increasing attention. While the literature on multimarket contact has contributed valuable insights, there is still limited understanding of how different types of interdependencies influence competitive behaviour. In particular, limited research has analysed the effects of factor market interdependencies. Drawing on multimarket contact and factor market competition literature, the study argues that firms refrain from competitive behaviour when they experience multimarket contact in both product and factor markets, but that this effect is stronger in the case of product multimarket contact. Identifying boundary conditions has also become an integral part of multimarket contact literature. In this vein, competition has received particular attention, with a focus on industry and market level competition. Complementing these approaches, the study builds on ecological models of competition to analyse how idiosyncratic competitive circumstances influence the multimarket contact-competitive aggressiveness relationship. The study argues that competitive intensity limits aggressive behaviour. Furthermore, it argues that competitive intensity positively moderates the relationship between product multimarket contact and competitive aggressiveness and negatively moderates the relationship between factor multimarket contact and competitive aggressiveness. The study tests these predictions on 1,276 (8,065 firm-year observations) large bank holding companies operating from 2001-2011 in the US. The empirical results suggest that different types of interdependencies have distinct implications for competitive behaviour and that idiosyncratic competitive circumstances may contribute towards understanding the boundary conditions of the mutual forbearance hypothesis. These findings contribute to the literature on multimarket contact, competitive dynamics, factor market competition and ecological models of competition. In particular, current multimarket contact literature largely focuses on the same types of contact to analyse the effect on competitive behaviour, yet the results of this study show that different types of contact may have distinct effects. In addition, the effect of industry or market level competition has received some attention, but this study emphasises idiosyncratic competitive circumstances. Specifically, the results reported here suggest that idiosyncratic competitive circumstances play a significant role in delineating the boundaries of the mutual forbearance hypothesis.

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  • (Re) imagining critical thinking through the visual

    Garcia Lazo, Veronica (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    In this thesis I explore critical thinking through the visual as a means to confront issues of equity. This exploration is underpinned by an appraisal of the current impact of the ???visual??? on how we relate to the world and a critique of education as a site that privileges efficiency and individual success, both notions that undermine criticality. A problem with the power of the visual lies in the fact that it is often used to portray dominant views or a consumer culture in persuasive ways, thus increasing its potential to influence thinking. I argue that there is a need to embody a critical approach towards our everyday visual experiences, yet the primary emphasis on students??? ???efficient performance??? does not support them sufficiently to develop a reflective stance. I believe that visual arts education offers a vital arena for supporting students??? critical thinking through the visual by enabling them to develop a critical voice, increased awareness and potential social involvement. I contend that the reflective and disruptive potential of visual arts education is hindered by prominent discourses of efficiency. Adopting a postmodern position I interrogate how critical thinking is understood and enacted in the context of conflicting principles of performativity and equity in visual arts education in New Zealand. My position is founded in the notion that it is equally important for young people to be critical in order to participate in their communities in ways that transform society towards more equitable ends. As an artist and visual arts teacher coming from Chile, a country whose educational system continues to strive to restore ideals of equity lost during the dictatorship from 1973-1990, New Zealand???s bicultural and increasingly multicultural context appeared to offer an alternative vantage point from which to explore critical thinking. This led me to explore through visual and written means the possibilities of critical thinking in three secondary schools in Auckland, New Zealand - a girls???, a boys??? and a co-educational school - in the context of visual arts education from years 9-13. My analysis comprises examining whether discourses of efficiency and equity have influenced the orientation of critical thinking in national policies, the schools??? philosophies and art department schemes. It involves an examination of whether and how the visual arts teachers??? understandings and approaches encourage critical thinking as a transformative dimension and whether the students embody this dimension through their stories and art making. The aim of this thesis is to offer a critical discussion and problematize different points of view about critical thinking by (re) imagining these understandings through the visual.

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  • Incorporating near-surface attenuation in empirical ground motion models

    Van Houtte, Christopher (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This thesis addresses empirical ground motion modelling in the context of seismic hazard assessment. In particular, the work focuses on empirical modelling of high frequency ground motions at rock sites. The first section uses data from the Canterbury earthquake sequence to improve understanding of the physical mechanisms behind high frequency Fourier spectral amplitudes and develop robust methods of estimating the high frequency spectral decay parameter, K. The improved estimation method is then used to calculate the site attenuation parameter K0, at GeoNet rock sites across New Zealand. This analysis reveals strong variation in site attenuation between the high and low seismicity regions of New Zealand. Using the geostatistical technique of ordinary kriging, a continuous 0 map of New Zealand is developed. The second half of the thesis utilises the K0 map to derive an empirical model of the earthquake Fourier amplitude spectrum, using K0 as a site-specific predictor. The model is derived by fitting previously-recorded New Zealand ground motion data. It is found that using K0 as a predictor in the empirical model is largely unsuccessful, and the model performs better if K0 is excluded from the model. A model is instead derived without explicit specification of site attenuation effects. To complement the Fourier amplitude spectrum model, a model for the significant duration of ground motion is derived. These two models are used together in a random vibration theory analysis, to predict response spectra. In deriving the duration model, conceptual improvements are made to random vibration theory calculations in the context of engineering seismology. It is shown that the subsequent empirical model of response spectra is generally unbiased with respect to New Zealand response spectral data, for damping levels of 5% and 20%.

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  • Molecular and Functional Evidence of Alzheimer's Disease in The Eye: Experimental and Clinical Application

    Chang, Y (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: Alzheimer???s disease (AD) is a health priority, and often has delayed diagnosis. The eye has attracted interest for effective detection of AD due to distinctive visual symptoms in early stages of the disease. Recent studies have shown proteins implicated in AD may be present in the eye and can be identified through retinal imaging. We therefore hypothesise that visual disturbances in AD may be attributed to changes in the retina of the eye, and that an ocular examination including retinal imaging has the potential to become a clinical tool for early AD diagnosis. Methods: Two major components of this investigation included (1) the Octodon degus (degus) model for sporadic AD, and (2) a clinical pilot study involving human participants. Retina from degus of various ages were studied by immunohistochemistry. Clinical ocular tests, including pupillary reflex, retinal examination, cataract assessment, and intraocular pressure, were also done in degus. In a pilot study, retinal structure (optical coherence tomography) and function (visual field and electrophysiology) were assessed in young controls, elderly controls, and dementia patients. Results: AD-associated proteins were detected at high levels in the retina of adult and agedadult degus, showing neuroinflammation and cell loss, compared to younger degus. Clinical testing showed an age-related increase in cataracts and higher intraocular pressure following pupil dilation. In human participants, dementia patients had retinal thinning in the temporal and nasal quadrants of the optic disc and in the inferior hemifield of the macula, compared to elderly controls. There was also delayed latency and diminished amplitude in electrophysiological testing of the retina in one AD patient, whose disease was the most advanced. Visual field tests did not provide reliable results. Conclusion: Findings in the degus retina provided evidence that the degus is a promising model for the investigation of AD pathology in the retina. The clinical pilot study suggested that retinal examination: (1) requires minimal cognitive input; (2) is easy to perform in the clinic; (3) has potential to become a clinical diagnostic tool for AD; and (4) has provided us insight for project planning involving a larger study population.

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  • Censorship and Everyday Forms of Resistance in Chinese Cyberspace

    Cao, Xiaojie (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Have Chinese netizens been negative targets of internet censorship? Does the internet bring any democratic change to Chinese society? Questions like these have troubled me for a long time. The mainstream Chinese internet studies assert that Chinese authorities have controlled the internet well and made it serve their authoritarian domination. This stance, if not overstating the power of the control system, has underestimated the challenges facing it. Another popular observation is that the internet alone may not introduce significant change (at least, not Western-style democracy) to the existing Chinese political regime. Then, what? Approaching from a bottom-up perspective, this thesis focuses on various challenges faced by the internet control system in China: various forms of internet resistance that make control less effective or thorough. Increasing numbers of Chinese netizens utilize all kinds of weapons in their online resistant activities: technological weapons (circumvention tools and hacking activities) and symbolic weapons (including discursive, iconic, audio/video and rhetorical weapons). It further argues that various resistant activities can connect together and show a kind of symbolic power to make real socio-political change more possible. Chinese netizens have adopted a remarkably resilient online culture that avoids and manipulates state control, while celebrating a freedom of expression that is globally unique. Using two main methods of netnography and multimodal analysis, this research collects and analyzes data from social network sites, blogs, micro-blogs, and video-sharing sites, etc. acquired by participatory observation in the cyber field, as well as second-hand data (e.g., news coverage and existing studies). This thesis applies a resistance framework to explain the struggles and dynamics of the Chinese internet. On the one hand, internet resistance is unlikely to bring fundamental challenges to the political system. On the other hand, internet resistance helps to create fissures in internet governance and make it less effective, echoes other resistant forms domestically and globally, and develops new identity politics for participants. A complex and nuanced understanding of internet censorship and internet politics in China may benefit our research on similar issues in other authoritarian contexts.

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  • Why do registered nurses want to leave the organisation and profession? Understanding the causes of nursing turnover intentions to help improve the retention of registered nurses

    Moloney, Willoughby (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: The combination of an ageing population and a growing prevalence of morbidity is placing increasing pressure on an ageing nursing workforce nearing retirement. Further to this, Registered Nurses (RN) who increased their hours or returned to the profession to supplement their family income during the global financial crisis may decide to reduce their hours or leave the profession as family financial circumstances improve. Solutions that address the anticipated nursing shortage should focus on the motivations of RNs and incentives to retain them. Aim: This study seeks to provide new knowledge and understanding concerning the motivations of RNs and the determinants of nursing turnover, so as to facilitate the development of initiatives that work towards improving nursing retention. Methods: This mixed-methods study involved three distinct phases. The semi-structured interviews in the first phase were analysed using a general inductive method of enquiry to develop key themes, which informed the national structured e-survey in the second and third phase. A total of 3,500 e-surveys were distributed via the New Zealand Nurses Organisation and a link to the e-survey was advertised in the Nursing Council of New Zealand???s newsletter. Regression analysis explored the research questions and structural equation modelling was used to confirm the research hypotheses. Participants: The qualitative phase involved purposive sampling of nurse leaders and RNs working in clinical practice (n=22), as well as key stakeholders including Health Workforce New Zealand and Nursing Council of New Zealand (n=2). The quantitative phase involved RNs (n=2910) from across New Zealand. Results: Over 50 percent of RNs reported intention to leave the organisation (ITLO) and 15 percent reported intention to leave the profession (ITLP). Statistically significant factors that affected ITLO were burnout, work-life interference, job satisfaction and work engagement. Statistically significant factors that affected ITLP were career orientation, job satisfaction and work engagement. Conclusion: Results highlight the significance that burnout and work engagement play in RN motivation and strengthen the evidence around initiatives that work to reduce burnout and improve work engagement to encourage RNs to remain in the workforce longer despite their changing circumstances.

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  • Agricultural Development & Indigenous Ways-of-Knowing: M??ori & Quechuan Experiences of Participatory Development

    Whitbourne, Robert (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This research explores the promotion of Indigenous Knowledges (IKs) within participatory agricultural Development. Since the mid-1980s IKs have been promoted within participatory Development for political, technical, ethical and socio-cultural reasons. This promotion has however proved problematic, with questions regarding development assumptions, power differentials, cultural diversity and cross-cultural practice remaining open. This research has taken a novel approach to investigating these issues, centering Indigenous ontologies and methodologies, while integrating Indigenous and organizational literatures. The research findings are based on ethnographic fieldwork with two participatory agricultural Development projects in Peru and Aotearoa, with fieldwork occurring between 2008-2010. The research found that IK promotion was influenced by complex interacting factors across multiple organizational levels (macro, organizational and project practice) and domains (context, power, practice and meaning). The Aotearoa case demonstrated that as a state research institute led project, institutional and ideological elements acted to compartmentalize and misrepresent IK (m??tauranga M??ori), thereby limiting its promotion. In contrast, the Peruvian case demonstrated that by using an indigenous place-centred action framework (Indigenous Biocultural Heritage modelling (IBCH)), Quechuan conceptual and normative models could be centred, while integrating mainstream organizational and scientific approaches to Development. This approach allowed issues of context, power, meaning and practice to be addressed concurrently, providing a platform for successful IK promotion and engagement with other knowledge traditions. Overall the research demonstrated that Indigenous and organizational perspectives provide distinct and beneficial conceptualizations of IK promotion within participatory Development. This thesis argues that Indigenous-centred approaches which consider context, power, meaning and practice concurrently and at multiple organizational levels can decolonize Development biases, facilitate IK promotion and engagement between diverse knowledge traditions, and create processes and outcomes of local value. An Indigenous Centred Development Model is presented which integrates the research findings.

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  • Assessment of induced potentials on pipelines from high voltage power lines

    Aul Al Shahri, Ahmed (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Pipelines located near to high voltage power transmission are subjected to electromagnetic induction (EMI) causing an induced AC potential on the pipeline due to electromagnetic couplings (EMC). This induced potential can reach dangerous levels, resulting in potentially unsafe operating conditions for utility \ personnel and those accessible to the public at large. Furthermore, such induced potential can exacerbate pipeline corrosion and cause undesirable electromagnetic coupling on neighbouring communication networks. The impact of electromagnetic induction between the high voltage power transmission systems and the pipeline is mainly due to the electromagnetic coupling mechanisms (capacitive, inductive, and conductive) since the pipeline becomes influenced by both electric and magnetic fields; thereby causing an induced potential. This research aims to: ??? Provide better understanding of touch and step potentials causing hazardous issues due to EM couplings between high voltage transmission and the nearby located pipeline. ??? Investigate the electromagnetic coupling and induced potentials on the pipeline caused by an extra high voltage AC/DC hybrid system; and compare the influence of these emerging configuration. This thesis assesses the EMI impacts of high voltage power transmission on a nearby located pipeline with respect to three criteria: pipeline sections, soil nature /contents (soil resistivity) and location profiles of the pipeline. The possible locations of the pipeline: under/ above ground and two possible power systems operation situations: steady state and transient fault situations have been comprehensively addressed. Also, observations have been presented for different load currents, fault currents and high voltage levels systems including AC, DC and AC/DC hybrid systems. To achieve expected and consistent results, use of integrated engineering software tools designed to accurately analyse problems involving grounding, earthing, electromagnetic fields, electromagnetic coupling, and transient phenomena of electromagnetic have been applied. These softwares are: the commercially well used current distribution electromagnetic interference grounding and soil structure analysis software (CDEGS) and the alternative transient program / electromagnetic transient program (ATP/EMTP). Use of ATP/EMTP has been very sparsely used for the configuration studied in this thesis, which is an important contribution arising from this research. Findings of this research are expected to provide better understanding of the impact of EMC between high power transmission systems and the pipeline, and also investigate the safest soil nature (soil resistivity) and location profiles for locating necessary pipelines such as, water and gas pipelines since the safety and protection perspective of these pipelines needs to be seriously considered for preventing hazardous and corrosion issues which may be caused by EMC phenomena between high voltage transmission and the nearby pipeline.

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  • Online Shopping: Pearls and Pitfalls for New Zealand Consumers ??? How to Increase Consumer Protection and Build Consumer Confidence

    O'Sullivan, Patricia (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Increased consumer confidence is expected to lead to increased levels of retail online shopping which will have flow-on economic benefits. Current online shopping trends demonstrate the importance of the online retail sector to New Zealand???s economy. This thesis analyses the effectiveness of current consumer protection law for online consumers and recommends changes to better protect the interests of consumers who shop online. Increased consumer protection will improve consumer confidence in online shopping. The issues dealt with examine: contract formation; the use of ???contract on dispatch??? terms; the incorporation of terms and conditions; unfair terms regulation; and the enforcement of consumer rights in online shopping transactions. These issues relate to creating and defining the legal relationship between the online consumer and the trader and the mechanisms for obtaining consumer redress. The thesis focuses on online shopping transactions relating to the purchase of goods, rather than services. The thesis has been completed by publication. The text of the five published articles is included as chapters 3 ??? 7. The thesis begins with an outline of the policy behind consumer law and an analysis of the current inconsistencies and complexities in the definition of the term ???consumer???. Chapter 3 includes a recommendation for a simplified definition of ???consumer??? which takes account of consumer policy and covers all who need consumer protection including online shoppers, whether individuals or small businesses. In terms of contract formation, the thesis recommends an interpretation which enables the online consumer to accept the offer to sell goods, made by the trader who operates an interactive website. This analysis gives the consumer the power to accept and create contractual rights at an earlier point in the transaction than the alternate analysis which would give the trader the power to accept or reject the consumer???s offer to buy. Related to this recommendation is an analysis of ???contract on dispatch??? terms. These terms state that the contract with the online consumer is not made until the goods are dispatched by the trader. A website review shows that these terms are commonly used by online traders in the United Kingdom. The thesis argues that ???contract on dispatch??? terms are contrary to the purpose of consumer protection and that New Zealand and Australia should not require online traders to include terms which specify when the contract is made. Arguments against the validity of ???contract on dispatch??? terms are advanced and legislative reform, to reduce the impact of these terms on the online consumer???s contractual rights, is recommended. An analysis of the methods used to incorporate terms and conditions includes a review of 25 New Zealand and 25 Australian retail websites. The review shows that 60% of these websites used the browse wrap method to purport to incorporate terms and conditions. The thesis argues that the browse wrap method generally does not result in valid incorporation. It is suggested that online traders are engaging in misleading and deceptive conduct by leading consumers to believe that their terms and conditions form part of the purchase contract when in fact they have not been validly incorporated. The importance of unfair terms regulation for consumers who are bound by disadvantageous terms is highlighted and it is recommended that the recent New Zealand reform in this area be amended to allow consumers to challenge unfair terms. The current regulation only allows the Commerce Commission to challenge unfair terms. Consumers who shop online need access to justice which is cost effective and efficient. The existing methods for resolving consumer disputes in New Zealand are outlined and the effectiveness of these methods for online consumers is assessed. The thesis promotes the development of an Online Dispute Resolution (???ODR???) scheme for online consumers in New Zealand to encourage early and inexpensive settlement. It is suggested that New Zealand should model an ODR scheme on international proposals but must include access to automated negotiation tools in the ODR process and should make participation in the ODR scheme by online traders mandatory. The thesis makes recommendations which are consistent with current consumer law policy and promotes interpretations and new regulation which advance the interests of consumers who shop online.

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  • The evolution of online reviewers

    Samiei Farahani, P (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Majority of the literature on online communities and online social media focuses on individual behavior and the effect of this behaviour on businesses and society. A few studies have also examined how users consume the content available on social media platforms and the effect of the content on individuals??? behavior. However, we are yet to understand how the continuous participation of online community members influences and changes them. This effect can be studied in a community of practice in which members can frequently contribute and observe the reaction of others towards their contribution (Wenger, 1998). The primary objective of this research was to investigate the member evolution in online Communities of practice over time. To achieve this objective, we focused on the members??? behavioral changes in online community. To narrow down the research, we considered the evolution and change in online reviews in an eWOM community as a case for both online communities and communities of practice. In a multi???publication thesis, we explored the evolution of online reviewer over time in a community of practice. We used the social theory of learning (Wenger, 1998) to explore the effect of the social learning components on the contributions of frequent product reviewers. We observed that the social learning process changed reviewers and consequently the volume and valence of their reviews. We also used the theory of e???tribulized marketing (Kozinets, 1999) to study the heterogeneity of the reviewers in the continuity of their contribution. We showed that frequent reviewers learn by contributing to the eWOM community. Over time, they read and review less number of books but they books with higher quality. They become stricter in evaluating books in response to the social bias. They also lower the average of the valence of their evaluation. By an improved consumption experience (reading better books), they obtain higher standards. The higher the quality of the books, the higher the quality of reviewers??? benchmarks would be. We also showed that the interaction of strength of social ties, the level of consumption activity, and reviewer???s sidedness could explain different behaviour in leaving the platform. We showed that the consumption activity has more predictive value about reviewers??? on going contribution compared to the social tie and sidedness. We also showed that the mechanisms, policies, or badges that eWOM websites use to engage their frequent reviews and maintain their contribution are effective and decreases the decline in the contribution volume. We also showed that such engagement tools only affect the contribution volume, not the valance. Therefore, they do not affect the reviewer evaluations or judgments about the products.

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  • Global Matchmakers: Tax Challenges and Responses in the Digital Economy

    Plekhanova, Victoria (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The world as we know it has been reshaped by giant multinationals that produce and distribute digital products and services through global multisided web platforms (the ???global matchmakers???). Some of these multinationals are bigger than the economies of most countries. The global matchmakers??? business activities are organised globally, taking advantage of the globally integrated technological and economic environment. At the same time, the global matchmakers pay little (if any) corporate income tax in many of the countries that contributed to the creation of the environment from which the global matchmakers derive a significant proportion of their income. The study of Google???s business model and tax arrangements in this thesis demonstrates how this global matchmaker uses traditional ???tax avoidance??? techniques and takes advantage of shortcomings of the international tax regime and the tax legislation of many states to avoid or minimise the size of its corporate income tax burden. Tax avoidance and tax minimisation techniques disconnect income from the country that is its economic source, so eroding the corporate income tax bases of many states and resulting in an unfair division of gains related to business profits derived in the globally integrated economy. Shortcomings of the international tax regime and the national tax legislation have the same eroding effect resulting from the impossibility to establish a connection between items of income and the country that is the economic source of this income. Analysis of responses to the problem contained in the OECD and the G20???s BEPS project and the tax reforms of the UK, Australia and New Zealand, shows that the existing forms of tax cooperation have failed, while uncoordinated tax responses have not solved the problem and likely to have multiple negative consequences. The example of global matchmakers provides strong arguments for existing discussions on the necessity to change an approach to international tax cooperation and the model of international tax regime dividing gains related to business profits. The thesis contributes to this discussion by suggesting a basis for a new approach to tax cooperation and some impartial standards and principles that should be the core of the international tax regime. The thesis also provides a theoretical basis for the division of gains related to business profits generated in the globally integrated economy and a model for this division.

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  • Roadmaps for Upgrading Unupgradable Legacy Processes in Inter-Organisational Middleware Systems: Concepts, Framework, Architecture, and Implementations

    Jrad, Radhouane (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Information Systems (IS) have long become leading enablers of organisational transformation and operational improvements, extensively helping in managing and improving end-to-end business processes through use of advanced and evolving technologies. As organisations relentlessly moved towards Business-to-Business (B2B), integrating processes both internally and with partners became a heavily researched subject. One notable B2B solution is the Inter- Organisational Information System (IOIS). IOIS is a logical IS, shared amongst business partners, whereby their exchange of information and the trust it requires, are rationalised in order to allow business processes to flow as if they were within the same organisation. IOIS has been widely endorsed by businesses due to its efficiency and reliance mostly on existing infrastructure. As B2B relationships grew in size and complexity, and as the market shifted from static partnerships to dynamic relationships where associations are no longer permanent, IOIS also grew in complexity. Besides the need for agility, the increase in efficiency and security requirements engendered the proposition of Inter-Organisational Middleware System (IOMS) as a specific integration component inside IOIS. IOMS is responsible for the technical bridging between various heterogeneous systems, effectively allowing information to cross organisational frontiers. Beyond its technical contribution, IOMS has remarkably grown into proactively managing parts of business processes that flow through it, adding more efficiency through tasks like data validation, information management, and reporting. While the technical aspects of IOMS are well accepted, organisations still tend to lack acknowledgement of its importance as a core business system. This has led to failure to allocate proper resources and strategies for the management of IOMS processes, culminating in the generation of the problem of legacy processes for a relatively new concept. When these legacy processes can no longer be managed and updated using standard or vendor tools and methods, they become effectively Unupgradable. An Unupgradable Legacy Process (ULP) in IOMS is notoriously difficult to manage or reengineer, and it requires extensive and costly resources just to remain functional. The situation becomes more exasperating when multiple ULPs are entwined. The topic of ULPs in IOMS is increasingly identifiable in practice, and has been witnessed by the researcher throughout the fourteen years of involvement in over eight hundred IOIS and IOMS implementation projects. Through the numerous roles held in these projects, diverse lenses were developed to observe different facets of the ULP problem, which culminated in the realisation that the problem needs to be investigated in a structured, rigorous, academic way. However, the subject is yet to attract significant research interest, and this can be attributed not only to the recency of the IOMS domain, but also to the combined technical, practical, and business process knowledge required from the researcher. This is a classic problem of interest divergence between academics and professionals, and while bridging such a gap is a well-documented challenge, methodologies like Action Research (AR) and Design Science Research (DSR) have long been hailed as fitting for addressing such issues. Borrowing from the two approaches, the research proposes the Insider Action Design Research (IADR) methodology as an approach for practitioners to conduct research in a manner pertinent to their practical organisational problems. IADR is multi-methodological by design, and enables the creation and evaluation of relevant artefacts through actionning multiple feedback-based cycles of observation, theory building, experimentation, system design, and implementation. Using IADR to guide its course, the research aims to answer the question of how organisations can approach upgrading ULPs in their IOMS in a standardised way. The research has three overarching goals: (1) assimilate existing knowledge and address the gaps; (2) propose solutions to contain the creation of ULPs in IOMS; and (3) put forward mechanisms to address existing ULPs in IOMS. Apart from the proposition of IADR, the aim of the research is to (1) investigate and comprehend concepts around business integration and how to enable it, (2) understand, define, and delimit the domain of IOMS and its ULPs, (3) evaluate the impact of existing project management methods on process change in IOMS, (4) study what constitutes a successful change in organisational context, (5) propose an IOMS-specific framework for governing process change in IOMS, (6) design IOMS-tailored architectural pattern and architecture for managing processes and technologies, (7) propose a set of roadmaps for upgrading ULPs in IOMS, (8) implement various research artefacts in real-case scenarios, and (9) rigorously evaluate outcomes both from academic and industrial aspects. The evaluation process is based on Hevner et al.???s methodology for assessing DSR artefacts, and includes the collective application of multiple complementary evaluation methods, supported by a continuous and prompt return of feedback into IADR cycles. While each research artefact is promoted as independent and individually implementable, their interweaving nature is reflected in the fact they are holistically conceived and implemented, and simultaneously evaluated. The implementation, and evaluation of these artefacts were executed in the context of two large international organisations with complex IOMS, large B2B capabilities, and significant IOIS investments. Research findings were published and presented in renowned conferences for further feedback, culminating in the publication of eleven papers.

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  • Review of the book: Progressives at War: William G. McAdoo and Newton D. Baker, 1863-1941, by Douglas B. Craig

    Taillon, Paul (2015-07)

    Unclassified
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Response: Social work, science, social impact: Crafting an integrative conversation

    Nurius, SP; Kemp, Susan (2012-09-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Shifts in the ways that science is being undertaken and marshaled toward social change argue for a new kind of professional competence. Taking the view that the science of social work is centrally about the relationship of research to social impact, the authors extend Fong???s focus on transdisciplinary and translational approaches to science, illustrating ways that national and international priorities are exerting enormous influence in structures for and expectations of science relevant to social work. The authors also emphasize the growing centrality of transformational research, focusing in particular on the interdependence of education and impact. The intent is to stimulate reflectiveness regarding social work???s preparedness to support and indeed amplify a robust culture of high impact science, including more confident, clearly articulated roles and skills in this contemporary scientific landscape.

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  • Dwelling within political violence: Palestinian women's narratives of home, mental health, and resilience.

    Sousa, CA; Kemp, Susan; El-Zuhairi, M (2014-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Political violence is increasingly played out within everyday civilian environments, particularly family homes. Yet, within the literature on political violence and mental health, the role of threats to home remains under-explored. Using focus group data from 32 Palestinian women, this paper explores the implications of violations to the home within political violence. Threats to the privacy, control, and constancy of the family home ??? key dimensions of ontological security (Giddens, 1990) emerged as central themes in women???s narratives. Surveillance, home invasions, and actual or threatened destruction of women???s home environments provoked fear, anxiety, grief, humiliation, and helplessness, particularly as women struggled to protect their children. Women also described how they mobilized the home for economic, familial and cultural survival. Study findings illuminate the impact of threats to intimate environments on the well-being of women and their families living with chronic political violence, and underscore the importance of attention to violations of place and home in research on civilian experiences of and responses to political violence.

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