27,054 results for The University of Auckland Library

  • Comparison of collagenase activity in eosinophil and neutrophil fractions from rat peritoneal exudates

    Bassett, EG; Baker, JR; Baker, Paul; Myers, DB (1976-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The collagenase activity has been compared in extracts of eosinophils and of neutrophils from peritoneal exudates in two groups of rats, one of which had been treated to augment the numbers of eosinophils and the other the numbers of neutrophils. The proportion of granulocytes to other cells in each preparation was increased by differential centrifugation over a continuous gradient. Collagenase was extracted from the fractions in which granulocytes were concentrated and the activity assayed by the radioactive fibril method. There was at least as much collagenase in the eosinophil-enriched extracts as in the neutrophil-enriched extracts. It is postulated that eosinophil collagenase may have a function in the remodelling of newly-synthesised collagen during the post-inflammatory phase of healing, since eosinophil leucocytes appear in significant numbers within the connective tissue during this phase. This suggests a different role for eosinophil collagenase than that for neutrophil collagenase, since neutrophils are present only in the early stages of inflammation, when collagen is being degraded.

    View record details
  • Diversity, social cohesion and the curriculum: A study of a Muslim girls??? secondary school in New Zealand

    Lomax, D; Rata, Elizabeth (2016)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The paper argues that the integration of faith-based schools into New Zealand's secular democratic society is compromised by the localisation of the country's national curriculum. The argument is illustrated by a small study undertaken at a Muslim girls' secondary school. Significant dilemmas were encountered by the school as it sought to align its curriculum to the liberal principles and values in the national curriculum. New Zealand, as a modern, pluralist society built on liberal principles and values, has a long tradition of integrating diverse groups in order to create a cohesive society with the education system serving as the main site for integration. The post-1990s' shift to the localisation of that system changed the nature of the integration process leading to the possibility of permanent segregation for some groups. We identify the localised character of New Zealand education through its community-responsive curriculum, rather than the existence of diverse groups themselves, as a contributor to segregation with negative consequences for the country's social cohesion.

    View record details
  • ???Authentic leadership: Experiences from a Pasifika early childhood education program in teacher education

    Leaupepe, Manutai (2017-05)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper presents ideas that are associated with authentic leadership. In addition, it is concerned with how aspects of authentic leadership have influenced the direction of the author in a Pasifika early childhood teacher education specialisation program. The concept of the ???third space??? is introduced and employed to demonstrate the ways in which relationships and communication with those involved in the Pasifika program are enacted. Given Pacific cultures, languages and spirituality are at the core of the Pasifika early childhood specialisation program, the need to develop and sustain structures, processes and conditions for continued sustainability and retention become pertinent issues of concern.

    View record details
  • Navigating leadership in Pasifika early childhood education: Traversing the tides of change

    Matapo, Jacoba (2017-05)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The lack of leadership research in Pasifika early childhood education requires attention, as policies for improved outcomes targeting Pasifika learners remain an interest for Governing bodies. One such target includes the increased participation of Pasifika children enrolled in early childhood services (Ministry of Education, 2014). Current literature draws attention to strengthening culturally responsive practices, particularly in the critique of curriculum and pedagogy. However, the gaps in research to support sustainable leadership in our Pasifika early childhood settings continue to widen and includes a lack of research that investigates the impact of leadership upon teacher pedagogy. The need for further research within Pasifika early childhood settings is essential to understand how leadership influences and engages Pasifika children within culturally relevant pedagogy. This article will discuss the importance of cultural values, family and community contribution to sustaining a collective approach to education, which in turn resonates with Pasifika ways of knowing, Pasifika theology, ontology and epistemology. Leadership in the spirit of the collective fosters difference and offers potentialities in the learning and collective constructions of knowledge in leadership.

    View record details
  • A Durkheimian approach to knowledge and democracy

    Rata, Elizabeth (2017)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Ethnic revival

    Rata, Elizabeth (2017)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Professionals' perceptions of the quality of the transnational higher education in Sri Lanka

    Wickramasinghe, AKD; Hope, John (2015)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper discusses the professionals' perceptions of the quality of the transnational higher education in Sri Lanka. The main research questions focus on the priorities for quality in relation to the foreign degree awarding institutes of Sri Lanka and to what extent that the foreign degree awarding institutes of Sri Lanka implement and maintain quality in their institutes. Three different stakeholder groups, namely, lecturers and the senior managers of the foreign degree awarding institutes and the officials of the government organizations related to higher education were included in the sample. This study employed a vertical case study and the data were collected using a questionnaire survey. The findings revealed how quality can be understood differently by various stakeholder groups and the consequences of these various understanding to the quality of these institutes. Furthermore, the difficulties that these institutes face when implementing and maintaining quality were identified and a bank of solutions were suggested to these stakeholder groups by analyzing the data. It was evident from the results that the foreign degree awarding institutes of Sri Lanka face many issues related to quality due to lack of supervision from the government and their respective foreign providers. Since there is very limited research in this area, this paper may serve as a guide to quality of the transnational higher education of Sri Lanka.

    View record details
  • A statistical analysis of metamorphopsia in 7106 amsler grids

    Wiecek, E; Lashkari, K; Dakin, Steven; Bex, P (2015-02)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    View record details
  • Binocular therapy for childhood amblyopia improves vision without breaking interocular suppression

    Bossi, M; Tailor, VK; Anderson, EJ; Bex, PJ; Greenwood, JA; Dahlmann-Noor, A; Dakin, Steven (2017-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Purpose: Amblyopia is a common developmental visual impairment characterized by a substantial difference in acuity between the two eyes. Current monocular treatments, which promote use of the affected eye by occluding or blurring the fellow eye, improve acuity, but are hindered by poor compliance. Recently developed binocular treatments can produce rapid gains in visual function, thought to be as a result of reduced interocular suppression. We set out to develop an effective home-based binocular treatment system for amblyopia that would engage high levels of compliance but that would also allow us to assess the role of suppression in children's response to binocular treatment. Methods: Balanced binocular viewing therapy (BBV) involves daily viewing of dichoptic movies (with "visibility" matched across the two eyes) and gameplay (to monitor compliance and suppression). Twenty-two children (3-11 years) with anisometropic (n = 7; group 1) and strabismic or combined mechanism amblyopia (group 2; n = 6 and 9, respectively) completed the study. Groups 1 and 2 were treated for a maximum of 8 or 24 weeks, respectively. Results: The treatment elicited high levels of compliance (on average, 89.4% ?? 24.2% of daily dose in 68.23% ?? 12.2% of days on treatment) and led to a mean improvement in acuity of 0.27 logMAR (SD 0.22) for the amblyopic eye. Importantly, acuity gains were not correlated with a reduction in suppression. Conclusions: BBV is a binocular treatment for amblyopia that can be self-administered at home (with remote monitoring), producing rapid and substantial benefits that cannot be solely mediated by a reduction in interocular suppression.

    View record details
  • Orientation-crowding within contours

    Glen, JC; Dakin, Steven (2013-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    We examined how crowding (the breakdown of object recognition in the periphery caused by interference from "clutter") depends on the global arrangement of target and distracting flanker elements. Specifically we probed orientation discrimination using a near-vertical target Gabor flanked by two vertical distractor Gabors (one above and one below the target). By applying variable (opposite-sign) horizontal offsets to the positions of the two flankers we arranged the elements so that on some trials they formed contours with the target and on others they did not. While the presence of flankers generally elevated orientation discrimination thresholds for the target we observe maximal crowding not when flanker and targets were co-aligned but when a small spatial offset was applied to flanker location, so that contours formed between flanker and targets only when the target orientation was cued. We also report that observers' orientation judgments are biased, with target orientation appearing either attracted or repulsed by the global/contour orientation. A second experiment reveals that the sign of this effect is dependent both on observer and on eccentricity. In general, the magnitude of repulsion is reduced with eccentricity but whether this becomes attraction (of element orientation to contour orientation) is dependent on observer.We note however that across observers and eccentricities, the magnitude of repulsion correlates positively with the amount of release from crowding observed with co-aligned targets and flankers, supporting the notion of fluctuating bias as the basis for elevated crowding within contours.

    View record details
  • Reduced crowding and poor contour detection in schizophrenia are consistent with weak surround inhibition

    Robol, V; Tibber, MS; Anderson, EJ; Bobin, T; Carlin, P; Shergill, SS; Dakin, Steven (2013-04-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background Detection of visual contours (strings of small oriented elements) is markedly poor in schizophrenia. This has previously been attributed to an inability to group local information across space into a global percept. Here, we show that this failure actually originates from a combination of poor encoding of local orientation and abnormal processing of visual context. Methods We measured the ability of observers with schizophrenia to localise contours embedded in backgrounds of differently oriented elements (either randomly oriented, near-parallel or near-perpendicular to the contour). In addition, we measured patients??? ability to process local orientation information (i.e., report the orientation of an individual element) for both isolated and crowded elements (i.e., presented with nearby distractors). Results While patients are poor at detecting contours amongst randomly oriented elements, they are proportionally less disrupted (compared to unaffected controls) when contour and surrounding elements have similar orientations (near-parallel condition). In addition, patients are poor at reporting the orientation of an individual element but, again, are less prone to interference from nearby distractors, a phenomenon known as visual crowding. Conclusions We suggest that patients??? poor performance at contour perception arises not as a consequence of an ???integration deficit??? but from a combination of reduced sensitivity to local orientation and abnormalities in contextual processing. We propose that this is a consequence of abnormal gain control, a phenomenon that has been implicated in orientation-selectivity as well as surround suppression.

    View record details
  • Spatial-frequency dependent binocular imbalance in amblyopia

    Kwon, M; Wiecek, E; Dakin, Steven; Bex, PJ (2015-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    While amblyopia involves both binocular imbalance and deficits in processing high spatial frequency information, little is known about the spatial-frequency dependence of binocular imbalance. Here we examined binocular imbalance as a function of spatial frequency in amblyopia using a novel computer-based method. Binocular imbalance at four spatial frequencies was measured with a novel dichoptic letter chart in individuals with amblyopia, or normal vision. Our dichoptic letter chart was composed of band-pass filtered letters arranged in a layout similar to the ETDRS acuity chart. A different chart was presented to each eye of the observer via stereo-shutter glasses. The relative contrast of the corresponding letter in each eye was adjusted by a computer staircase to determine a binocular Balance Point at which the observer reports the letter presented to either eye with equal probability. Amblyopes showed pronounced binocular imbalance across all spatial frequencies, with greater imbalance at high compared to low spatial frequencies (an average increase of 19%, p < 0.01). Good test-retest reliability of the method was demonstrated by the Bland-Altman plot. Our findings suggest that spatial-frequency dependent binocular imbalance may be useful for diagnosing amblyopia and as an outcome measure for recovery of binocular vision following therapy.

    View record details
  • The role of crowding in contextual influences on contour integration

    Robol, V; Casco, C; Dakin, Steven (2012-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Dakin and Baruch (2009) investigated how context influences contour integration, specifically reporting that nearperpendicular surrounding-elements reduced the exposure-duration observers required to localize and determine the shape of contours (compared to performance with randomly oriented surrounds) while near-parallel surrounds increased this time. Here, we ask if this effect might be a manifestation of visual crowding (the disruptive influence of ''visual clutter'' on object recognition). We first report that the effect generalizes to simple contour-localization (without explicit shape-discrimination) and influences tolerance to orientation jitter in the same way it affects threshold exposure-duration. We next directly examined the role of crowding by quantifying observers' local uncertainty (about the orientation of the elements that comprised our contours), showing that this largely accounts for the effects of context on global contour integration. These findings support the idea that context influences contour integration at a predominantly local stage of processing and that the local effects of crowding eventually influence downstream stages in the cortical processing of visual form.

    View record details
  • Enhanced integration of motion information in children with autism

    Manning, C; Tibber, MS; Charman, T; Dakin, Steven; Pellicano, E (2015-05-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    To judge the overall direction of a shoal of fish or a crowd of people, observers must integrate motion signals across space and time. The limits on our ability to pool motion have largely been established using the motion coherence paradigm, in which observers report the direction of coherently moving dots amid randomly moving noise dots. Poor performance by autistic individuals on this task has widely been interpreted as evidence of disrupted integrative processes. Critically, however, motion coherence thresholds are not necessarily limited only by pooling. They could also be limited by imprecision in estimating the direction of individual elements or by difficulties segregating signal from noise. Here, 33 children with autism 6-13 years of age and 33 age- and ability-matched typical children performed a more robust task reporting mean dot direction both in the presence and the absence of directional variability alongside a standard motion coherence task. Children with autism were just as sensitive to directional differences as typical children when all elements moved in the same direction (no variability). However, remarkably, children with autism were more sensitive to the average direction in the presence of directional variability, providing the first evidence of enhanced motion integration in autism. Despite this improved averaging ability, children with autism performed comparably to typical children in the motion coherence task, suggesting that their motion coherence thresholds may be limited by reduced segregation of signal from noise. Although potentially advantageous under some conditions, increased integration may lead to feelings of "sensory overload" in children with autism.

    View record details
  • Local responses to land grabbing and displacement in rural Cambodia

    Neef, Andreas; Touch, S (2016)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Cambodia is endowed with relatively abundant natural resources. The Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) holds about 75-80 per cent of the country???s territory under the status of ???state land??? (USAID 2011). The 2001 Land Law allows the RGC to reclassify ???state public land??? into ???state private land??? as a precondition to allocate concessions for various purposes. An increasing share of state private land has been allocated as economic land concessions (ELCs) to Cambodian business tycoons, political elites and foreign investors since the mid-2000s, mostly for agro-industrial plantations and ??? more recently ??? tourism developments. As a consequence, land disputes have shown an increasing trend from the 2000s onwards. The Cambodian League for the Promotion and Defense of Human Rights recorded a total of 1,162 land conflicts ??? each involving at least five households ??? in the 10 years from 2004 to 2013 (C Oldenburg, personal communication). Most of the cases occurred in areas with strong economic growth, were about agricultural land and involved powerful foreign investors, domestic political and economic elites and local authorities. According to data collated by the Cambodian Human Rights and Development Association (ADHOC), more than 770,000 Cambodians ??? equal to almost 6 per cent of the population ??? have been affected by land grabs and resulting conflicts over natural resources (ADHOC 2014). Military and police forces have played an increasingly prominent role in land disputes and land evictions, siding with company owners and national, provincial and district authorities (Neef et al. 2013).

    View record details
  • Integration of indigenous knowledge into disaster risk reduction and management (DRRM) policies for sustainable development: The case of the Agta in Casiguran, Philippines

    Molina, JGJ; Neef, Andreas (2016)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Due to a combination of physical, socio-economic and political factors, the Agta, an indigenous group in Casiguran, Philippines, are highly susceptible to the threat of natural hazards, especially typhoons, floods, storm surges and landslides. Despite their evident vulnerabilities, the Agta possess valuable indigenous knowledge, generated through practical and long-standing experiences, culture and local resources, which they utilise in coping and in ensuring their safety from the detrimental impacts of disasters. However, the decision-making and planning processes of the local government in the area of disaster risk reduction and management (DRRM) remain insensitive to Agta???s knowledge and context, putting them in a more precarious condition and compromising the sustainability of their livelihoods. Employing qualitative and participatory methods, such as semi-structured interviews, policy and document analysis, participant observation and validation workshop, it is argued that there is a need for integrating Agta???s indigenous knowledge into the existing DRRM policies and plans of the local government in respect of the rights to sustainable development and survival of the former and in response to the legal obligation of the latter. A sustainable development framework that calls for a process of harmonising indigenous knowledge and science-based information in DRRM towards vulnerability reduction and disaster resilience guided the investigation. While the local government recognises the importance of indigenous knowledge in DRRM, integration with science only happens at the individual level and is not applied in formal settings such as planning and decision-making processes of the municipality. The study recommends mechanisms to ensure Agta???s inclusion in the local government???s DRRM decision-making, planning, and policy formulation processes such as effective implementation of national laws on DRRM and indigenous peoples; active representation in DRRM council and committees at the municipal and village scales; documentation, validation and integration of indigenous knowledge in different sectors such as education, health and livelihood; organising work; and capacity building initiatives that will realise Agta???s rights to sustainable development and disaster safety.

    View record details
  • Measures of pleasure

    Sword, Helen; Blumenstein, Marion (2016-07-01)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Can we measure academic pleasure? Should we? This serious-yet-playful session will report on findings from a four-year study in which more than 1,200 academics in 15 countries were asked to describe the main emotions that they associate with their academic writing. Rather than seeking to ???measure pleasure??? in any one definitive way, our research team employed a variety of methodologies and perspectives in our coding and analysis of the data. It???s tempting to say that we sought to illustrate the adage, ???There are many different ways to skin a cat??? ??? but what an unappealing metaphor! Instead, let???s say that we were guided by the structure and ethos of Wallace Stevens??? poem ???Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird???, which employs multiple perspectives to shift readers toward a deeper, more complex understanding of what they are ???really??? seeing. Some of our methodological approaches were unashamedly quantitative: for example, having coded the data to establish the relative percentages of respondents expressing purely positive, purely negative or mixed emotions about their writing, we ran a regression analysis showing how those ratios varied across demographic groups. Some were qualitative, drawing on established research paradigms such as content analysis, cluster analysis and grounded theory. And some were inspired by critical and creative paradigms from beyond the social sciences, such as narratology, material textuality, graphic design (in particular, the work of McCandless [2000]) and the poetics of metaphor. In the spirit of anti-???methodolatrists??? such as Feyerabend (1993), Law (2004) and Thrift (2008), our goal was not to produce a single, definitive set of ???proven??? findings but to experiment with a multiplicity of approaches and see where they might lead us. The nation of Bhutan famously measures not just the Gross Domestic Product of its citizenry but their Gross National Happiness as well. What if the nation of Academia, likewise, were to value emotions such as satisfaction, passion and well-being alongside conventional performance metrics such as research outputs and citation rankings? Our session will interrogate the very notion of measuring pleasure even while indulging in the pleasures of measurement. We hope that participants will leave with a renewed confidence that the Measured University need not be a place devoid of playfulness and pleasure.

    View record details
  • A process evaluation of the Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf) randomized controlled trial

    Olstad, D; Ball, K; Abbott, G; McNaughton, S; Le, HND; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Pollard, C; Crawford, DA (2016-02-24)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf) was a randomized controlled trial that operationalized a socioecological approach to population-level dietary behaviour change in a real-world supermarket setting. SHELf tested the impact of individual (skill-building), environmental (20 % price reductions), and combined (skill-building???+???20 % price reductions) interventions on women???s purchasing and consumption of fruits, vegetables, low-calorie carbonated beverages and water. This process evaluation investigated the reach, effectiveness, implementation, and maintenance of the SHELf interventions. Methods RE-AIM provided a conceptual framework to examine the processes underlying the impact of the interventions using data from participant surveys and objective sales data collected at baseline, post-intervention (3 months) and 6-months post-intervention. Fisher???s exact, ?? 2 and t-tests assessed differences in quantitative survey responses among groups. Adjusted linear regression examined the impact of self-reported intervention dose on food purchasing and consumption outcomes. Thematic analysis identified key themes within qualitative survey responses. Results Reach of the SHELf interventions to disadvantaged groups, and beyond study participants themselves, was moderate. Just over one-third of intervention participants indicated that the interventions were effective in changing the way they bought, cooked or consumed food (p???<???0.001 compared to control), with no differences among intervention groups. Improvements in purchasing and consumption outcomes were greatest among those who received a higher intervention dose. Most notably, participants who said they accessed price reductions on fruits and vegetables purchased (519 g/week) and consumed (0.5 servings/day) more vegetables. The majority of participants said they accessed (82 %) and appreciated discounts on fruits and vegetables, while there was limited use (40 %) and appreciation of discounts on low-calorie carbonated beverages and water. Overall reported satisfaction with, use, and impact of the skill-building resources was moderate. Maintenance of newly acquired behaviours was limited, with less than half of participants making changes or using study-provided resources during the 6-month post-intervention period. Conclusions SHELf???s reach and perceived effectiveness were moderate. The interventions were more effective among those reporting greater engagement with them (an implementation-related construct). Maintenance of newly acquired behaviours proved challenging. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN39432901.

    View record details
  • Protecting New Zealand children from exposure to the marketing of unhealthy foods and drinks: a comparison of three nutrient profiling systems to classify foods

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Mackenzie, T; Vandevijvere, Stefanie (2016-09-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Promotion of unhealthy foods and drinks is a significant, modifiable risk factor for child obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases. We compared three accepted nutrient profiling systems: the Health Star Rating (HSR), the Ministry of Health Food and Beverage Classification System (FBCS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe Nutrient Profiling Model, to identify the best system to protect New Zealand children from exposure to the marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages.13,066 packaged foods from the 2014 New Zealand Nutritrack database were classified as 'restricted' or 'not restricted' as per the WHO model; 'everyday/sometimes' or 'occasional' as per the FBCS model; and 's exposure to marketing of unhealthy foods and drinks should be subject to evaluation by an independent body.

    View record details
  • Effects of plain packaging, warning labels, and taxes on young people's predicted sugar-sweetened beverage preferences: an experimental study

    Bollard, T; Maubach, N; Greenaway, Natalie; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona (2016-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with increased risk of obesity, diabetes, heart disease and dental caries. Our aim was to assess the effects of plain packaging, warning labels, and a 20??% tax on predicted SSB preferences, beliefs and purchase probabilities amongst young people.A 2????????3????????2 between-group experimental study was conducted over a one-week period in August 2014. Intervention scenarios were delivered, and outcome data collected, via an anonymous online survey. Participants were 604 New Zealand young people aged 13-24 years who consumed soft drinks regularly. Participants were randomly allocated using a computer-generated algorithm to view one of 12 experimental conditions, specifically images of branded versus plain packaged SSBs, with either no warning, a text warning, or a graphic warning, and with or without a 20??% tax. Participant perceptions of the allocated SSB product and of those who might consume the product were measured using seven-point Likert scales. Purchase probabilities were measured using 11-point Juster scales.Six hundred and four young people completed the survey (51??% female, mean age 18 (SD 3.4) years). All three intervention scenarios had a significant negative effect on preferences for SSBs (plain packaging: F (6, 587)???=???54.4, p s predicted preferences for, and reported probability of purchasing, SSBs.

    View record details