26,310 results for The University of Auckland Library

  • Securing the Aintree Intubation Catheter

    Baker, Paul; Hounsell, GL (2009)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Measuring Mindfulness and Health-Related Outcomes: Applying Rasch Analysis and Generalisability Theory to Improve Reliability and Validity of Scales

    Medvedev, Oleg (2017-07-27)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    There is growing evidence for mindfulness-based interventions in alleviating the symptoms and enhancing the coping abilities of people suffering from psychological and physical health conditions and improving overall well-being. In essence, mindfulness is our immediate, instant contact with our internal and external environments that is not contaminated by judgmental attitudes or habitual cognitions, and is associated subjectively with a greater clarity of consciousness. With increased application of mindfulness-based interventions, evaluation of their effectiveness requires more accurate measurement of both mindfulness and associated health-related outcomes. In particular, issues with measurement precision (e.g. ordinal rather than interval scaling), item functioning and the state-trait distinction have not been sufficiently addressed or resolved using appropriate modern statistical methods. Ordinal measures have limited precision, and using them with parametric statistical techniques violates the basic assumptions of these tests. The accurate distinction of state from trait and establishing measurement at an interval level are two essential steps for rigorously validating mindfulness and health outcome measures. The initial part of this thesis focused on applying Rasch analysis to improve the scaling properties of ordinal mindfulness and outcome measures to interval-level scales suitable for parametric statistics. Four studies improved the psychometric properties of widely used and recently developed mindfulness measures including the Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale (MAAS), the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS), the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Comprehensive Inventory of Mindfulness Experiences (CHIME). Three further studies improved the scaling properties of the Functional Assessment Measure UK FIM+FAM, the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). These studies all employed Rasch analysis and developed conversion algorithms to transform ordinal responses into interval-level data. The second part of the thesis applied Generalisability Theory for the first time to distinguish quantitatively between state and trait components in a mindfulness measure. This study demonstrated that Generalisability Theory can be successfully applied to accurately distinguish between state and trait components in a psychometric measure, and it is recommended as the most applicable psychometric method to validate state and trait questionnaires in the future. Until now the distinction between state and trait has typically based upon a single correlation between total test iv scores on two different occasions. Consequently, poor items could ???hide??? behind the other items undetected by test-retest correlation and may affect the overall performance of a scale. The proposed method estimates the extent to which a scale and every individual item are each measuring a state and a trait. Findings of this study have far-reaching implications to help improve the accuracy of distinction between state and trait in measurement of mindfulness and other areas of psychological assessment. Together, these studies analysed data representing 2,551 participants including community and clinical populations, as well as university students. Overall, this work contributed practical solutions and innovative methods to improve the reliability, validity and scaling properties of psychometric measures with a range of implications for mindfulness and health research practice.

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  • What are we thinking? Supervision as the vehicle for reflective practice in community-based child welfare services

    Rankine, Matthew (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Community-based child welfare social work within Aotearoa New Zealand has undergone major alterations in service delivery in response to a government neoliberal-driven agenda. To combat the challenges facing social work practice in community-based child welfare services, there is a necessity for reflective supervision to critique practice outcomes for practitioners and service users. An exploration of critical theory and, in particular, Bourdieu???s key concepts of habitus, field and capital, allow for a critical examination of reflective supervision in community-based child welfare, and the investigation of alternatives to social work practice in this study. This study aimed to explore reflective supervision practices within the current context of community-based child welfare services in Aotearoa New Zealand and to develop strategies that support reflective supervision. A qualitative critical reflection methodology provided a detailed understanding of reflective supervision in community-based child welfare through the participation of key informants and supervisory dyads. Bourdieu???s concepts were utilised in the critical analysis of the key informant findings and revealed that reflective supervision within community-based child welfare social work provides the social worker with an opportunity to develop self-awareness; identify their professional relationships and associated power dynamics; and explore the state???s influence on community-based child welfare social work. Key findings from the supervisory dyad data indicated that social workers utilised reflective supervision for developing self-awareness; understanding the tensions experienced within professional relationships; and discussing uncertainty within the organisation. However, the reflective supervision observed lacked a deeper analysis and critical examination of wider structural and environmental factors. The findings of this study suggest community-based child welfare social workers need to employ a deeper analysis within reflective supervision to assist in the development of social justice informed strategies in their work with service users. Greater critical exploration is needed regarding the socio-cultural and political factors impacting on community-based child welfare social work in the Aotearoa New Zealand context, the power between agencies and disadvantaged groups, and the development of the social worker???s self-awareness. The significance of this study is in its contribution to understanding the current supervision context within community-based child welfare and the thinking aloud process and the four-layered practice model as strategies to support reflective supervision.

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  • Total Synthesis of Iheyamine A

    Lindsay, Ashley (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This thesis describes the synthetic efforts towards iheyamine A 209, a unique azepino[3,2-b; 4,5-b??]bisindole isolated from the marine ascidian Polycitorella sp., which ultimately culminated in the first total synthesis of this natural product. Initial attempts towards the synthesis of iheyamine A 209 centred on construction of the azepinobisindole scaffold using sequential Beckmann rearrangement-Mannich cyclisation reactions. When the model oxime 221 was used, the desired pentacyclic framework 222 was formed, but subsequent efforts to convert 222 into the azepinobisindole core of iheyamine A 223 were unsuccessful. When this approach was used in pursuit of iheyamine A, oxime 300 did not undergo the Beckmann rearrangement, but instead the 2,4??-bisindole 305 was formed as a result of the electron rich C4-site reacting during the Mannich reaction. Based on spectroscopic data for the natural product and some biomimetic model studies previously reported by Bremner, we subsequently reinvestigated a biomimetic approach to iheyamine A. A Pictet-Spengler-Plancher rearrangement sequence resulted in the synthesis of a series of azepino[2,3-b; 4,5-b??]bisindoles 344 and 365-367, all of which are regioisomers of the natural product formed by C-N migration during the Plancher rearrangement. Attempts to promote the formation of the desired azepino[3,2-b; 4,5-b??]bisindole present in iheyamine A by C-C bond migration were unsuccessful using this biomimetic approach. The total synthesis of iheyamine A was completed by way of a novel intermolecular cross- Mannich reaction between 3-acetoxyindole 503 and tryptamine 479, which was developed to construct the crucial unsymmetrical 2,2??-bisindole 424. A serendipitously discovered oxidation led to indolone 425, which upon one-pot deprotection-cyclisation-oxidation sequence gave iheyamine A 209. Variable temperature experiments were conducted on 209 to determine if iheyamine A existed as the reported tautomer 209. No change in the 1H NMR spectrum of 209 was observed (even at -30 ??C), inferring that in solution iheyamine A 209 exists as a mixture of tautomers that undergo rapid chemical exchange on the NMR timescale.

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  • Community management of patients with diabetes

    Daly, Barbara (2015-10-28)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Quick Fire Research Update

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  • Impairment of driver vision by veiling glare from dashboard reflections

    Phillips, John; Musson, C; Huang, J (2012-06-01)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Reflections from the top of the dashboard are often seen in the windscreen as veiling glare superimposed on the road scene. Veiling glare can interfere with visual function and potentially compromise safe driving. Characterisation of a driver's vision is traditionally based on measurement of visual (letter) acuity and although it has shortcomings, visual acuity is a simple, well-tried measure of visual function. The aim was to determine the reduction in visual acuity and contrast sensitivity caused by veiling glare. Methods: Binocular visual performance was measured with Bailey-Lovie High and Low Contrast Acuity charts and a Pelli-Robson Contrast Sensitivity chart. Twenty subjects, 10 under 40 yrs of age (mean 23 yrs) and 10 over 40 yrs (mean 57 yrs) viewed the charts through a car windscreen with and without the presence of veiling glare. Veiling glare was induced naturally (by sunlight, outdoors) or with artificial light in a laboratory, where eye accommodation was also recorded. Results: visual performance was markedly reduced in the presence of veiling glare induced by sunlight. Visual Acuity Rating (VAR) dropped by 43 ??? 4.8 letters (mean ??? SD, n = 20) for low contrast letters and by 27 ??? 9.5 letters for high contrast letters (approximately equivalent to reductions from 6/6 to 6/48 and 6/6 to 6/24, Snellen acuity respectively). Contrast Sensitivity decreased from 1.65 to 0.29 (log Contrast Sensitivity). Similar reductions were observed under laboratory conditions. In the younger group veiling glare induced about 0.25D of accommodation while reading the distance charts. Conclusions: the presence of veiling glare from a dashboard can severely compromise static visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. Visual acuity is reduced well below the levels typically required to meet standards for obtaining a driving licence.

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  • Spontaneous activity drives local synaptic plasticity in vivo

    Winnubst, J; Cheyne, Juliette; Niculescu, D; Lohmann, C (2015-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Spontaneous activity fine-tunes neuronal connections in the developing brain. To explore the underlying synaptic plasticity mechanisms, we monitored naturally occurring changes in spontaneous activity at individual synapses with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and simultaneous calcium imaging in the mouse visual cortex in vivo. Analyzing activity changes across large populations of synapses revealed a simple and efficient local plasticity rule: synapses that exhibit low synchronicity with nearby neighbors ( fashion through proBDNF/p75(NTR) signaling to refine neuronal connectivity.

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  • Technical report two: Analysis of curriculum documents

    Ballantyne, N; Beddoe, Elizabeth; Hay, K; Maidment, JM; Walker, S; Ngan, L (2016)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Transformative aspirations and realities in Physical Education teacher education

    Ovens, Alan (2017)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Field, capital and professional identity: Social work in health care

    Beddoe, Elizabeth (2017)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    This chapter explores social work identity in health settings, a significant field of practice in many parts of the world, including North America and Australasia. The influence of the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu???s philosophical framework is explored in a consideration of professional identity. His concepts, ???field??? and ???capital??? are used to analyse the influence of power relations, utilising an additional concept of ???professional capital???. Social work may be perceived as successful in health contexts as it is not as subject to media and critical public scrutiny as children???s social work is, but health social workers still often express feelings of marginalisation (Beddoe, 2013a). In Bourdieu???s terms, social work may be viewed as a collective of ???agents??? occupying a field, playing out their roles in a ???structured social space, a field of forces??? (Bourdieu, 1998, p. 40). In such fields there may be palpable competition between actors for the accumulation of different kinds of capital and it is here perhaps that social work identity is less secure.

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  • Report on reader attitudes and behaviour

    Morris, Paula; Robertson, C (2016)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Technical report three: TISWEANZ Taxonomy

    Ballantyne, N; Beddoe, Elizabeth; Hay, K; Maidment, JM; Ngan, L; Walker, S (2016)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Report on citizenship law: New Zealand

    McMillan, K; Hood, Anna (2016)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Technical report one: Methods for the creation of terms for indexing social work education in Aotearoa New Zealand (TISWEANZ)

    Ballantyne, N; Beddoe, Elizabeth; Hay, K; Maidment, JM; Ngan, L; Walker, S (2016)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • The good without the bad: Selective chelators for beryllium encapsulation

    Perera, Lakshika C (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Beryllium is an indispensable metal. Its unmatched combination of unique properties such as extreme strength, low density and high machinability has made it vital in the automotive, nuclear, space, medical, defence sectors and other consumer industries. However, beryllium is considered the most toxic non-radioactive element on the planet. It is also a class one carcinogen and the cause of chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Surprisingly, this fact has not deterred its use in manufacturing. Therefore it is imperative that chemical agents be developed for better detection and remediation of beryllium in the environment and as therapies for individuals exposed to this element. The goal of this research was to develop strong, selective chelating agents for the encapsulation of beryllium. Furthermore a greater ex-ploration of beryllium fundamental coordination chemistry was under-taken with an investigation of binding preferences of the Be2+ cation. The introduction begins with a brief overview of beryllium solu-tion chemistry. Following this is a comprehensive review of the Be2+ coordination chemistry with an investigation into existing organic and inorganic ligands with an emphasis on hard nitrogen and oxygen donor containing ligands. This then moves on to a brief description of the selected ligand design based on the fundamental coordination prefer-ences of Be2+. The main ligand motif will be based on a di-pyridyl sca???old with selected chelating pendant groups, allowing the formation of tetradentate complexes which can form the desired six-membered chelate rings with Be2+ cations. Chapter Two explored the synthesis of a ligand based a dipyrrin pendant group. The corresponding dipyrromethane was used as the starting point. While coupling of this dipyrromethane directly on to a dipyridyl sca???old was unsuccessful, the same dipyrromethane con-taining a one pyridyl group in the form of an acyl-pyridyl unit served as a reasonably good candidate for the successful coupling of the last pyridine group. Furthermore, synthesis of a modi???ed dipyrrin ligand with the inclusion of hydrogen-bonding buttressing groups was also attempted. Chapter Three explored the synthesis of a ligand containing a mo-tif based on a hydroxy-phenyl imidazole moiety. The hydroxyphenyl imidazole moiety was synthesised and used as a starting point. The brominated analogue of the hydroxyphenyl imidazole moiety was suc-cessfully coupled to a di-pyridyl sca???old containing a nitrogen at the center sca???old position through a modi???ed Ullman type reaction. DFT studies of the ligands synthesised and preliminary complexation studies were conducted using boron and aluminium ions as safe analogues and are described in chapters Four and Five. ESI-MS studies were also used for the study of the Be-ligand complexes, allowing their synthesis on a small scale and minimising exposure to beryllium.

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  • On the analysis of quasi-periodic systems and a novel ???deterministic??? explanation of the stochastic resonance phenomenon

    Blekhman, I; Sorokin, Vladislav (2017)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    The present paper is concerned with the analysis of quasi-periodic systems which represent an important class of dynamical systems frequently encountered in applications. The related problems appear, e.g. in the analysis of parametric amplifiers based on resonant micro- and nanoscale systems, wave propagation in nearly periodic structures and composite materials, etc. The conventional methods of linear and nonlinear dynamics, e.g. asymptotic methods and approximate approaches based on Floquet theory, often appear to be not applicable for solving such problems. The present paper addresses the application of the Oscillatory Strobodynamics approach and the Method of Varying Amplitudes for these problems with the notable effects being revealed. In particular, a novel ???deterministic??? explanation to the phenomenon of stochastic resonance is proposed.

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  • Heart-shaped worlds: Cordiform maps in the context of early modern Europe

    Watson, Ruth (2016-11-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Long fascinating to those who study cartography, the cordiform maps (from the Latin for heart, cor) are known to few outside that small group. The cordiform projection has been considered something of an anomaly, sitting uncomfortably with the discoveries and discourses of the New World or the genesis of modern cartography. This paper asks why the shape of a heart was chosen for imaging the world. To answer this requires exploring meanings for the heart image outside of its use in cartography. This approach sees the map not as a fixed sign, judged by its geographic content alone, but a complex image under pressure from wider expectations upon the mapmakers and their audiences. In the sixteenth century, meanings were attributed to the heart that we no longer subscribe to today, including learning and memory, leadership and wisdom. A second aim is to establish that the maps??? shape ??? the heart ??? was intimately entangled with aspirations about the New World. Ultimately, these unusual maps can illuminate the mindset of those in Europe aspiring to a new vision of human affairs, suggesting that the early modern cartographic enterprise was not as homogenous as is often considered. This paper introduces audiences to the maps as well as key issues that have hindered their interpretation. It will show that they, perhaps more than any other maps of their time, are critical for revealing potentially conflicting and controversial aspirations for the New World.

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  • Australia's Reliance on US Extended Nuclear Deterrence and International Law

    Hood, Anna; Cormier, M (2017)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    One of the central tenets of Australia???s defence policy is to rely on the extended nuclear deterrence of the United States (???US???). In recent years, politicians and civil society have questioned the doctrine???s compatibility with Australia???s international legal obligations but to date there has been very little academic analysis of the issue. The lack of scholarship in this area is concerning given that the legality of Australia???s reliance on US nuclear protection has significant ramifications for US-Australian relations, Australia???s national security policy and the global nuclear disarmament movement more broadly. This article explores the international legal issues that arise with respect to Australia???s policy of extended nuclear deterrence. The first part of the article focuses on whether the Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty (???ANZUS???) places Australia under US nuclear protection and, if so, whether ANZUS requires Australia to maintain its policy of extended nuclear deterrence. It argues that, as currently interpreted, Article IV of ANZUS implicitly allows for the US to use, or threaten to use, nuclear weapons in defence of Australia. However, contrary to what has been asserted by an Australian politician, this state of affairs does not mean that Australia is under an obligation to maintain its policy of extended nuclear deterrence. Having determined that ANZUS does not prevent Australia from giving up extended nuclear deterrence, the article then turns to examine whether the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (???NPT???) or the South Pacific Nuclear Free-Zone Treaty (???Treaty of Rarotonga???) require Australia to abandon its reliance on US nuclear protection. The article argues that while Australia???s policy of extended nuclear deterrence does not conflict with the terms of the Treaty of Rarotonga, Article VI of the NPT creates a more significant challenge for the policy. Article VI of the NPT requires Australia ???pursue negotiations in good faith towards effective measures??? relating to nuclear disarmament. While this obligation is not necessarily incompatible with extended nuclear deterrence, Australia???s entrenched opposition to a global nuclear ban treaty casts doubt on Australia???s commitment to the NPT.

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  • Development of a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of the invasive Mediterranean fanworm, Sabella spallanzanii, in environmental samples

    Wood, SA; Zaiko, A; Richter, I; Inglis, GJ; Pochon, Xavier (2017-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The Mediterranean fanworm, Sabella spallanzanii Gmelin 1791, was first detected in the Southern Hemisphere in the 1990s and is now abundant in many parts of southern Australia and in several locations around northern New Zealand. Once established, it can proliferate rapidly, reaching high densities with potential ecological and economic impacts. Early detection of new S. spallanzanii incursions is important to prevent its spread, guide eradication or control efforts and to increase knowledge on the species??? dispersal pathways. In this study, we developed a TaqMan probe real-time polymerase chain reaction assay targeting a region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene. The assay was validated in silico and in vitro using DNA from New Zealand and Australian Sabellidae with no cross-reactivity detected. The assay has a linear range of detection over seven orders of magnitude with a limit of detection reached at 12.4??????10 ???4 ??ng/??L of DNA. We analysed 145 environmental (water, sediment and biofouling) samples and obtained positive detections only from spiked samples and those collected at a port where S. spallanzanii is known to be established. This assay has the potential to enhance current morphological and molecular-based methods, through its ability to rapidly and accurately identify S. spallanzanii in environmental samples.

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  • Towards valid 'serious non-fatal injury' indicators for international comparisons based on probability of admission estimates

    Cryer, C; Miller, TR; Macpherson, AK; Lyons, RA; P??rez, K; Petridou, ET; Dessypris, N; Davie, GS; Gulliver, Pauline; Lauritsen, J; Boufous, S; Lawrence, B; de Graaf, B; Steiner, CA (2017-02)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    BACKGROUND: Governments wish to compare their performance in preventing serious injury. International comparisons based on hospital inpatient records are typically contaminated by variations in health services utilisation. To reduce these effects, a serious injury case definition has been proposed based on diagnoses with a high probability of inpatient admission (PrA). The aim of this paper was to identify diagnoses with estimated high PrA for selected developed countries. METHODS: The study population was injured persons of all ages who attended emergency department (ED) for their injury in regions of Canada, Denmark, Greece, Spain and the USA. International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 or ICD-10 4-digit/character injury diagnosis-specific ED attendance and inpatient admission counts were provided, based on a common protocol. Diagnosis-specific and region-specific PrAs with 95% CIs were calculated. RESULTS: The results confirmed that femoral fractures have high PrA across all countries studied. Strong evidence for high PrA also exists for fracture of base of skull with cerebral laceration and contusion; intracranial haemorrhage; open fracture of radius, ulna, tibia and fibula; pneumohaemothorax and injury to the liver and spleen. Slightly weaker evidence exists for cerebellar or brain stem laceration; closed fracture of the tibia and fibula; open and closed fracture of the ankle; haemothorax and injury to the heart and lung. CONCLUSIONS: Using a large study size, we identified injury diagnoses with high estimated PrAs. These diagnoses can be used as the basis for more valid international comparisons of life-threatening injury, based on hospital discharge data, for countries with well-developed healthcare and data collection systems.

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