14,272 results for University of Canterbury Library

  • Rural parents’ engagement in education in Bangladesh: problems and possibilities

    Hasnat, Mahammad Abul (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis explores the engagement practices, understandings and experiences of parents and teachers in the rural context in Bangladesh. It investigates the underlying factors that create blocks to engagement. It examines the complex interplay of expectations, blame-giving, financial constraints and pervasive social problems within the context, and how that interplay both calls for and yet inhibits engagement. The thesis also reports one head teacher’s initiatives to overcome the blocks and to create space for engagement. The study is a qualitative case study that utilises an emergent research design. This process of data collection offered me the flexibility to respond to contextual conditions and to capture rich data through group discussions and individual conversations with the teachers, parents and the community people. It allowed me to observe participants’ activities, review related documents and maintain a reflective research journal. The importance of place is highlighted throughout as my study sought to identify and report not only actual practices but the cultural, social and economic conditions that shape those practices. Place contextualises where policy decisions are to be implemented. Place is also a significant consideration in identifying the kinds of steps that might be taken to overcome barriers. Therefore, attention is given to describing the rural context of Bangladesh and its people in some detail. The study begins with examining the reasons for importance being placed on parental engagement by policy, and reports the problems in implementing policy aspirations in the rural context through the lenses of parents and teachers. It found that teachers were frustrated by lack of parental response to invitations and by their apparent disinterest in their children’s educational progress. It also found that parental illiteracy and poverty were major factors in preventing parents from becoming engaged with educational matters. Additional factors were unsatisfactory communication processes, the complex nature of the cultural relationship between parents and teachers, and the politicised nature of schools’ public programmes. I found of understandings, by both parents and teachers of the concept and possibilities of engagement were largely very limited. The thesis explores how cultural and socio-economic conditions shape dominant discourses and arbitrate access to cultural capital as well as posing practical problems. These factors impede parental engagement in education and are powerful indicators of why such engagement is needed. Next the study reports the activities of one head teacher who is taking a different approach in the same context. It details his different and innovative strategies for reaching out to parents and creating space for them to be become involved with their children’s learning and with the school. It also identifies a number of key characteristics of his leadership that allow him to make a difference and suggests that these characteristics are ones that should be looked for and fostered in appointment processes, professional development and official support. Finally the implications for policy and practice of the findings are discussed. Two models are offered: the first of the nature and possibilities of parental engagement in rural contexts of Bangladesh; the second of the processes needed to develop parental engagement in such contexts. The study is a deliberately contextual one. However, some of the contextual factors may have resonances with other contexts and other countries. Moreover the analysis of how contextual factors impact on parental engagement may also be relevant to other contexts. Therefore while the focus in on parental engagement in rural contexts in Bangladesh, it is envisaged that the study will also have wider relevance.

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  • An investigation into the use of applications on personally owned devices to enhance student engagement in large lectures

    Nesbit, Trevor Richard (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Increasing student numbers and reduced government funding have seen a trend towards there being larger numbers of students in lectures, with this having an impact on the extent of student interaction, participation, and engagement in lectures in many institutions. The impetus for this research came from a desire to retain much of the interaction, participation, and engagement that takes place in smaller classes when changing from small lectures to lectures with more than 100 students. A pilot study demonstrated that the use of applications on personally owned devices (APODs) in the form of a text messaging based system or an application running on a smart phone could create a marked increase in student interaction, participation, and engagement. This was followed by a more formal investigation using a pragmatic paradigm and a mixed methods research approach that was consistent with design-based research. This included interviews of lecturers and learning advisers, student surveys and student focus groups. The findings conclude that the use of APODs during lectures has the potential to increase student interaction. The participation and engagement through the creation of a two-way feedback channel between lecturers and students, allows for student misconceptions to be identified and addressed in a manner that can make learning more enjoyable, authentic and effective. This potential benefit can be realised by addressing the pedagogical and technological issues involved in the use of APODs in lectures. The main contributions of this research are the models that have been developed surrounding how to use APODs in a pedagogically sound manner; the importance of designing effective activities when APODs are being used; how to use APODs to cater for different groups of students; the benefits of using APODs; and how to address the challenges of using APODs. Implications for further research are also identified.

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  • An exploratory study of the practice of corporate planning and programme budgeting in the Government of the Kingdom of Tonga: evidence from a central government agency

    Ma’afu, ‘Ana T. (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Purpose – This research explores how corporate planning and programme budgeting are practised by the Government of the Kingdom of Tonga, focussing on their application by a central government agency, the Office of the Public Service Commission (OPSC). It addresses how corporate planning and budgeting are linked in their practice by government agencies in Tonga and why. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative approach is used to conduct an exploratory study of how OPSC practised corporate planning and programme budgeting during the 2015/2016 financial year1 (FY). An interpretivist methodology is used to analyse both primary and secondary data that were gathered using primarily a method indigenous to Pacific research known as talanoa. Literature review, participant observation, and document analysis were used to supplement data from talanoa. Findings – The practice of corporate planning and budgeting by the Government of Tonga varies from the extensive applications documented in Western literature. Those involved in their practice are concerned with some but not all aspects of the processes depending on their positions and roles. While external consultants continually express frustrations with slow progress, indigenous government officials are somewhat confident that a lot of progress has been made. The research highlights that in the continuation of the use of corporate planning and budgeting, it must respond to prevailing needs of the country. Originality/value – There seems to be a lack of consideration of specific contexts (e.g. existing regulations, systems etc.) in the introduction and development of concepts, ideas and processes foreign to small island countries. An example is the practice of accounting and management practices termed corporate planning and programme budgeting into the Government of Tonga. There has not been any research conducted on this in the context of the Kingdom of Tonga. The research compares Western ideologies with Tongan indigenous views.

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  • Predictors of Punjabi, Hindi and English reading comprehension among multilingual children in the Punjab Region of India

    Gautam, Seema (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The research reported in this thesis investigated cognitive-linguistic predictors of reading comprehension (both within and across languages) among multilingual primary school children in the Punjab region of India. The participants of this study learn three languages: Punjabi, Hindi and English; and are exposed to all three from the initial stage of literacy acquisition. Unlike English, the Punjabi and Hindi orthographies are written nonlinearly with a horizontal bar on the top of the aksharas that connects aksharas within a word, and include vowel symbols that have independent and dependent forms. Both Punjabi and Hindi are alphasyllabic orthographies, whereas English is an alphabetic orthography. Over 400 trilingual school children in Punjab (India) from grades 2 to 5 completed a measure of text reading comprehension that comprised passages followed by questions about details in those passages. Reading comprehension levels were compared to the measures of listening comprehension, phonological processing, orthographic knowledge and speed of processing. Analyses indicated the Punjabi, Hindi and English reading comprehension levels were predicted by measure of listening comprehension and word decoding, with the latter being predicted by phonological and orthographic skills. Such findings were consistent with current models of reading derived from studies of English. However, in contrast to these models, measures of orthographic skills were also predictive of variance in reading comprehension independent of word decoding across Punjabi, Hindi and English models. Contributions of phonological processing and speed of processing were also observed in the English reading comprehension model, again independent of word decoding processes. Overall, Punjabi and Hindi reading comprehension was predicted by similar predictors, with English reading comprehension showing more variations in predictors. Further analyses investigated the influence of Punjabi and Hindi cognitive-linguistic skills on English reading levels. The findings indicated that, in the younger cohorts of students who are more likely to have less reading experience, the influence of Punjabi and Hindi measures on English was limited to word recognition. However, once these multilingual children acquire more expertise in decoding skills (i.e., in the older cohort), listening comprehension, orthographic knowledge and phonological processing in Punjabi and Hindi influenced levels in English reading comprehension. The overall findings from this thesis were used to derive three multilingual models of Punjabi, Hindi and English and one cross-linguistic model of English reading comprehension. These models suggest that a simple view of reading could be applied to Punjabi and Hindi orthographies in a similar way to English. However, additional influences of orthographic knowledge for all three languages (Punjabi, Hindi and English) in such multi-literate learners will need to be taken into account. Additionally, the influence of first and second language skills will need to be considered when developing models of third language reading comprehension. The proposed four models that includes the additional factors are discussed in light of previous research and theories/models in the field.

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  • Intelligent condition assessment of power transformers

    Peimankar, Abdolrahman (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis begins by providing an introduction to different transformer failures and the most effective condition monitoring techniques. Different failures are introduced and their corresponding fault diagnosis methods are listed to have a better understanding of failure modes and their consequence effects. An investigation into monitoring major failures of transformers using dissolved gas analysis is then presented. Various conventional, dissolved gas analysis based, fault diagnosis techniques are presented and the drawbacks of these methods are discussed. Intelligent fault diagnosis methods are introduced to overcome the problems of the conventional techniques. An overview of statistical and machine learning algorithms applied in this research is also described. Preliminary research results on transformer load tap changers fault classification are reported. A hierarchical fault diagnosis algorithm for transformer load tap changers using support vector machines is used, in which, for each fault class, a unique single support vector machine algorithm is employed. However, while the developed algorithm is reasonably accurate, the shortcomings of applying single learning algorithms are discussed and a proposal for developing a more robust and generalised transformers condition assessment algorithm is made. An intelligent power transformer fault diagnosis algorithm is then developed to classify faults of transformers. The proposed fault diagnosis algorithm is an ensemble-based approach which uses different statistical and machine learning algorithms. In the first phase of the proposed algorithm the most relevant features (dissolved gases) corresponding to each fault class are first determined. Then, selected features are used to classify transformer faults. The results of this algorithm show a significant improvement, in terms of classification. A time-series forecasting algorithm is developed to predict future values of dissolved gases in transformers. The dataset for this algorithm was collected from a transformer for a period of six months which consisted of seven dissolved gases, a loading history, and three measured, ambient, oil, and winding, temperatures of transformer. The correlation coefficients between these 11 time series are then calculated and a nonlinear principle component analysis is used to extract an effective time series from highly correlated variables. The proposed multi-objective evolutionary time series forecasting algorithm selects the most accurate and diverse group of forecasting methods among various implemented time series forecasting algorithms. The proposed method is also compared with other conventional time series forecasting algorithms and the results show the improvements over the different forecasting horizons.

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  • Distribution of the likelihood ratio in fermi gamma ray models

    Roberts, Benjamin (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Gamma rays, the highest frequency component of the electromagnetic spectrum, are produced by the highest energy objects in the universe. The list of sources includes pulsars, active galactic nuclei, cosmic ray interactions, and as some have suggested dark matter. The Fermi Large Area Telescope was launched into orbit in 2008 to collect all-sky gamma ray data to investigate the mechanisms and sources that generate these particles. Models are fit to the data through the use of the maximum likelihood method, in which a statistical algorithm finds the most likely model parameters that generated the data. When comparing two models to the same data, the likelihood ratio is developed that gives an indication as to how well the models explain the data. In some problems, particularly in the detection of point sources against a background, it is of interest to compare the best fitting model to data with and without a point source present. In this case, the likelihood ratio that is used will determine whether there is a statistically significant source present. This study will motivate the use of the test statistic and examine the asymptotic distribution of the statistic when comparing models. This will then be extended to consider a multiband analysis of data, and how the test statistic used is distributed in these cases. Using Monte Carlo techniques, the asymptotic distributions of the test statistic will be validated. This will be achieved within the FermiTools suite using the Fermi Science Support Center recommended procedures in fitting models to gamma ray data.

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  • Planning for resilient communities: and every other day: learning from the Canterbury 2010-2012 earthquake sequence

    Banwell, Karen (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    After a disaster, cities experience profound social and environmental upheaval. Current research on disasters describes this social disruption along with collective community action to provide support. Pre-existing social capital is recognised as fundamental to this observed support. This research examines the relationship between sense of place for neighbourhood, social connectedness and resilience. Canterbury residents experienced considerable and continued disruption following a large and protracted sequence of earthquakes starting in September 2010. A major aftershock on 22 February 2011 caused significant loss of life, destruction of buildings and infrastructure. Following this earthquake some suburbs of Christchurch showed strong collective action. This research examines the features of the built environment that helped to form this cooperative support. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 20 key informants followed by 38 participants from four case study suburbs. The objectives were to describe the community response of suburbs, to identify the key features of the built environment and the role of social infrastructure in fostering social connectedness. The last objective was to contribute to future planning for community resilience. The findings from this research indicated that social capital and community competence are significant resources to be called upon after a disaster. Features of the local environment facilitated the formation of neighbourhood connections that enabled participants to cope, manage and to collectively solve problems. These features also strengthened a sense of belonging and attachment to the home territory. Propinquity was important; the bumping and gathering places such as schools, small local shops and parks provided the common ground for meaningful pre-existing local interaction. Well-defined geography, intimate street typology, access to quality natural space and social infrastructure helped to build the local social connections and develop a sense of place. Resourceful individuals and groups were also a factor, and many are drawn to live near the inner city or more natural places. The features are the same well understood attributes that contribute to health and wellbeing. The policy and planning framework needs to consider broader social outcomes, including resilience in new and existing urban developments. The socio-political structures that provide access to secure and stable housing and local education should also be recognised and incorporated into local planning for resilience and the everyday.

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  • Respiratory mechanics and patient effort in mechanical ventilation

    Redmond, Daniel Paul (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Positive pressure mechanical ventilation is a crucial therapy for patients with respiratory failure in the intensive care unit. The progression of disease and condition of the lung both influence mechanical behaviour of the respiratory system. Guiding mechanical ventilation treatment with respiratory mechanics allows a patient-specific approach to treatment, which can lead to improved alveolar recruitment, less ventilator induced lung injury and improved patient outcomes. Mathematical models of respiratory mechanics that can integrate this data into real-time, patient-specific respiratory mechanics parameters to monitor and guide treatment. Thus mathematical models can play an increasingly necessary role in implementing patient-specific mechanical ventilation therapy. This research tests and optimises respiratory mechanics models across a range of clinical data, predominantly from the pilot phase of the Clinical Utilisation of Respiratory Elastance (CURE) trials. A key issues in any such models is the trade-off of elastance and resistance, where poor models of resistance skew the results and utility of elastance and estimate and make the model unusable. This research presents a model that allows resistance to vary linearly with pressure. It offers similar performance to a more complex viscoelastic model in increasingly common pressure support modes, and improvements in volume control modes of ventilation. The variable resistance model suggests that resistance increases with pressure during inspiration. Existing models for respiratory mechanics do not perform well in the presence of patient effort. However, patient effort is increasingly common in the increasingly preferred ventilation support modes. Patient effort can be measured, but adds significant invasiveness and cost, and this is not clinically feasible. This research explores the impact of patient effort on respiratory mechanics, and how to maintain stable and accurate estimations of respiratory mechanics when patient effort is unknown, variable in time and effort, and significantly affects identified model results. A pressure reconstruction algorithm, and a polynomial model of patient effort are developed to allow stable estimations of respiratory mechanics in the presence of patient effort. A comparison of five different models and reconstruction methods tests their ability to provide consistent and correct estimates of respiratory mechanics in different volume control datasets with and without patient effort. An iterative pressure reconstruction method combined with stacking of small groups of reconstructed breaths in moving windows is shown to be the best method for consistent and accurate respiratory mechanics estimation. Methods are also presented for automated asynchrony detection, and while they achieve promising results, there is need for more accuracy before they are clinically useful. In particular it is difficult for automated methods of monitoring asynchronous patient effort to be highly accurate, and there is a need for a broader set of patient data to further develop any such methods. Overall, this thesis evaluates the ability of mathematical models to assess respiratory mechanics for monitoring and clinical decision support in mechanical ventilation, and especially addresses this issue in the presence of patient effort.

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  • Photo-Fenton catalysts supported on microporous materials for industrial pollutant oxidation

    MacDonald, Matthew (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Industrial pollution remains an issue in many parts of the world. While the problem is localised to certain areas with high densities of heavy industries, the worldwide demand for the products produced means that there is a worldwide responsibility for dealing with the pollution. As some compounds in the wastewater are difficult to treat with traditional methods, new processes must be developed to remove or degrade these pollutants. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) are a promising method of wastewater treatment that utilize in situ generation of the powerful hydroxyl radical to oxidize pollutants with little to no secondary waste. A significant disadvantage to AOPs is cost, which is compounded by the need for specific reaction conditions, especially pH. Therefore, any catalyst that can widen the range of reaction conditions will help to reduce the cost and improve adoption of AOPs for recalcitrant wastewater treatment. In this work, a novel heterogenous photocatalyst was synthesized by the loading of iron onto the metal-organic framework MIL-47 to create Fe/MIL-47. An iron-zeolite Y catalyst was also synthesized following methods previously reported. These catalysts were then tested for the photo-oxidation of methylene blue, a common model pollutant dye, under UV irradiation. The Fe/MIL-47 catalyst was found to be very effective for both the decolourisation and total organic carbon (TOC) removal at low pH when compared with the iron-zeolite catalyst, with 94% colour removal and 52% TOC removal after 180 minutes for the Fe/MIL-47 catalyst and only 74% colour removal and 8% TOC removal for the Fe-zeolite Y catalyst at the same catalyst loading. The base MIL-47(V) catalyst was also tested and was found to be active for the decolourisation of methylene blue, a result in agreement with previous research that found that other metal-carboxylate frameworks were also photocatalytically active. The Fe/MIL-47 catalyst was found to only be effective over a limited pH range, and therefore a copper MIL-47 catalyst was also synthesized, with a goal of possibly creating a bimetallic catalyst with a wide effective pH range. While the Cu/MIL-47 was indeed found to be active at the higher pH that the Fe/MIL-47 was less active at, the stability of the MIL-47 support was determined to be less than what was necessary for a durable catalyst, and therefore the focus of the remaining studies was shifted to the zeolite based catalyst. While iron-zeolite Y catalysts have been used as heterogenous photocatalysts before, the potential effect of the BrØnsted acid sites on the reaction rate has not been researched. In this section of work, the effect of NH4+, Na+ and H+ in zeolite Y on photo-Fenton oxidation of formaldehyde in a batch reactor was examined. The model pollutant was changed to formaldehyde, as unlike methylene blue, formaldehyde can diffuse within the pore structure of the zeolite, helping to illuminate any effect on the oxidation reaction by the internal pore environment The catalysts were prepared by partial exchange of Fe3+, in the zeolite Y. The charge balancing cations were found to play a vital role in the photo-Fenton oxidation of formaldehyde, with the Fe/zeolite Y catalyst prepared with BrØnsted acid sites (H+) exhibiting three times the reaction rate of the NH4+ or Na+ containing catalysts at pH 7 (TOF are 10.3, 2.7 and 3.4 μmol [mol Fe s]-1, for Fe/H-Y, Fe/NH4-Y and Fe/Na-Y respectively). The results of the study into the charge balancing cations in zeolite Y, did yield an effective photocatalyst at high pH, however the effect was only observable at low catalyst loading (0.5 g L-1), and low iron loading on the catalyst (50% exchanged), limiting the maximum concentration of pollutant that could be treated. Therefore, a bimetallic copper-iron catalyst was synthesized by incipient wetness ion impregnation of zeolite Y with iron and copper ions. This FeCu-zeolite Y catalyst was then tested for the photo-oxidation of methylene blue over a range of pHs. It was found to be effective at both low pH, with 98% colour removal and 89% TOC removal, and high pH, with 99% colour removal and 79% TOC removal. The FeCu-zeolite Y catalyst was also tested under recycle and found to remain effective after 3 runs. The XRD results also showed no loss in crystallinity, indicating the catalyst support continued to be stable throughout the recycle. Collectively, these results present the attempt to create a pH insensitive heterogeneous photo-Fenton catalyst. The MIL-47 based catalyst unfortunately did not have the required stability to fulfil this, however the partially exchanged zeolite Y and the bimetallic zeolite Y catalysts did allow for wider pH range photo-Fenton reactions.

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  • Mapping identity and connection : how first-time mothers make sense of premature birth

    Porter, Lauren Lindsey (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    First time motherhood in the context of premature birth is a specific experience of motherhood that has been relatively unexplored in the literature. This research examined the phenomena of meaning-making, identity formation, and relationship creation by first time mothers following “low risk” premature births. Low risk premature births are moderate and late preterm births associated with a lack of serious, persistent medical concern alongside well understood and effective medical responses. The vast majority of premature births in New Zealand occur in this category and, as with elsewhere in the world, such births are on the rise. While understudied, this subset of premature infants carry significantly more risk factors than their full term peers. Women who become mothers for the first time via the experience of premature birth must negotiate associated stresses, separations, and medical uncertainties in order to come to understand their lived experiences and evolve their identities as mothers. As with their low risk infants, exploration of the processes and perceptions of this group of mothers is underinvestigated. The research employed the qualitative methodology of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) to analyse semi-structured interviews with 15 participant mothers. Findings were generated in response to research questions that focussed on how participants made meaning of the event of premature birth, the relationship with their infants, and their nascent identities as mothers. Three unifying superordinate themes emerged and centred upon the mothers’ unique perspectives of their maternal experience (“Little things are big things”), the maternal distress associated with premature birth (“Maternal experience”), the particular obstacles mothers faced, and the avenues they pursued in an attempt to create a sense of themselves as mothers (“How do I become a mother?”). Findings demonstrated that the identification of mothers and babies as low risk, created a paradoxical situation in which the perception that the babies were healthy and the mothers where healthy and competent actually increased the overall risk for the dyad. Furthermore, the findings suggested that mothers made meaning from within an ecological framework that was dyadic in nature. When mothers were considered outside of this dyadic maternal context—or when their infants were—surplus suffering occurred. Findings have important implications for approaches to psychosocial interventions in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), including psychological support and social work practice. When professionals are better able to see mothers’ needs where they have been previously concealed, mothers and their infants can be better served. Similarly, when professionals can understand, embrace, and respond to mothers from an awareness of dyadic ecology—what this thesis terms the “dyad-in-context”—approaches to support, advocacy, and treatment can move beyond compartmentalised medicalised approaches to more relational, responsive, authentic ways of being with mothers and their infants.

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  • A Robust Algorithm for Automated HER2 Scoring in Breast Cancer Histology Slides Using Characteristic Curves

    Mukundan R (2017)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper presents a novel feature descriptor and classification algorithms for automated scoring of HER2 in Whole Slide Images (WSI). Since a large amount of processing is involved in analyzing WSI images, the primary design goal has been to keep the computational complexity to the minimum possible level. We propose an efficient method based on characteristic curves which encode all relevant information in a smooth polynomial curve with the percentage of stained membranes plotted against variations in intensity/saturation of the colour thresholds used for segmentation. Our algorithm performed exceedingly well at a recent online contest held by the University of Warwick [1], obtaining the second best points score of 390 out of 420 and the overall seventh position in the combined leaderboard [2]. The paper describes three classification algorithms with features extracted from characteristic curves and provides experimental results and comparative analysis

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  • Global justice awareness? The journey towards transformational learning through international volunteering

    Atkinson, Arthur Laird (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The opportunity to engage in international volunteering (IV) is a markedly privileged one that this thesis explores through the consideration of a complex range of factors and influences from the global to the personal in an effort to understand how volunteers make meaning of their experiences. IV encompasses a large range of organizations, many of which market volunteering abroad as a mutually beneficial experience for both the volunteer and the host community receiving the volunteers. Links to neocolonialism and neoliberalism, however, have illuminated ethical concerns about how transformation is experienced if host communities are used for the benefit of volunteers. This thesis undertook a mixed methods approach and analysis of three groups of volunteers: those who are currently volunteering, those who have recently returned, and those who have volunteered in years past. Through in-depth interviews and an open-ended survey, this thesis identified four phases of transformation that suggest IV can foster an awareness about global in/justice and that critical self-reflection plays a significant role. Using Mezirow’s theory of transformational learning compliments Bourdieu’s concept of habitus and embodied experience, which implies that volunteers need to be aware of their own habitus, recognizing they may contribute to both systems of injustice and justice. Using this theoretical strategy generated an account of IV as a doubled-edged sword, which signals that there is tension between personal transformation and social justice. Studying IV within a sociological context can contribute to knowledge about how IV programs are situated within a framework of service, influenced by tourism and development, and how they could be better operated within this framework to better foster volunteers’ awareness of inequality and global justice.

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  • Modelling, Speckle Simulation and Quality Evaluation of Synthetic Ultrasound Images

    Singh P; Mukundan R; de Ryke R (2017)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    Speckle noise reduction is an important area of research in the field of ultrasound image processing. Several algorithms for speckle noise characterization and analysis have been recently proposed in the area. Synthetic ultrasound images can play a key role in noise evaluation methods as they can be used to generate a variety of speckle noise models under different interpolation and sampling schemes, and can also provide valuable ground truth data for estimating the accuracy of the chosen methods. However, not much work has been done in the area of modelling synthetic ultrasound images, and in simulating speckle noise generation to get images that are as close as possible to real ultrasound images. This paper discusses these aspects, presents novel algorithms for speckle simulation and modelling based on three sampling schemes, and also evaluates the quality of the outputs using image quality metrics. Detailed experimental analysis including both quantitative and subjective assessments are also presented.

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  • Transport infrastructure performance and management in the South Island of New Zealand, during the first 100 days following the 2016 Mw 7.8 “Kaikōura” Earthquake

    Davies AJ; Sadashiva V; Aghababaei M; Barnhill D; Costello SB; Fanslow B; Headifen D; Hughes MW; Kotze R; Mackie J; Ranjitkar P; Thompson J; Troitino DR; Wilson TM; Woods S; Wotherspoon LM (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    At 00:02 on 14th November 2016, a Mw 7.8 earthquake occurred in and offshore of the northeast of the South Island of New Zealand. Fault rupture, ground shaking, liquefaction, and co-seismic landslides caused severe damage to distributed infrastructure, and particularly transportation networks; large segments of the country’s main highway, State Highway 1 (SH1), and the Main North Line (MNL) railway line, were damaged between Picton and Christchurch. The damage caused direct local impacts, including isolation of communities, and wider regional impacts, including disruption of supply chains. Adaptive measures have ensured immediate continued regional transport of goods and people. Air and sea transport increased quickly, both for emergency response and to ensure routine transport of goods. Road diversions have also allowed critical connections to remain operable. This effective response to regional transport challenges allowed Civil Defence Emergency Management to quickly prioritise access to isolated settlements, all of which had road access 23 days after the earthquake. However, 100 days after the earthquake, critical segments of SH1 and the MNL remain closed and their ongoing repairs are a serious national strategic, as well as local, concern. This paper presents the impacts on South Island transport infrastructure, and subsequent management through the emergency response and early recovery phases, during the first 100 days following the initial earthquake, and highlights lessons for transportation system resilience.

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  • What is meant by "Replication" and why does it encounter resistance in economics?

    Duvendack M; Palmer-Jones R; Reed WR (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Does cooperation enhance competitiveness? : assessing the impacts of collaborative business relationships

    Ryan, Nicholas Paul (2000)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Collaboration among firms is now a ubiquitous phenomenon. Many theoretical and managerial perspectives argue that firms that collaborate will outperform those firms that take independent approaches. This thesis reports the results of a study of New Zealand firms that examines the relationship between firm performance and participation in collaborative relationships. Environmental conditions and a firm's strategic orientation are also considered. Given the prevalence of cooperation, the thesis also investigates why many firms do not collaborate. The results of the moderated regression analysis indicate that there are no performance differences, across any of the performance measures used in the study, between firms involved in collaborative activity and firms that choose to remain independent. There is, however, some evidence suggesting that collaborating firms have higher performance levels than firms that would like to collaborate, but are unable to do so. The results also suggest that a firm's strategic orientation influences performance; customer- and technological-orientation both exhibit a positive association with firm performance. The thesis critically evaluates and tests the widely stated but little-tested argument that interfirm collaboration is usually beneficial.

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  • Investigation of modelling methods for buildings with non-structural elements

    Lee CL; Kerr CE; Proudfoot DG (2017)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    The modelling of non-structural elements is becoming increasingly important. It has been found that during seismic events modern buildings can incur significant downtime due to the damage of contents, even when the building is performing well structurally. This report details an investigation into the validity of the cascade modelling method for the design of buildings with non-structural elements. The cascade method is a way of modelling a building without using specific details of non-structural elements, and then later performing a separate analysis in order to design the contents. It was found that the cascade method may be an appropriate method for modelling non-structural elements. However, as the non-structural mass increases, the error becomes more significant. Currently, most cascade modelling considers only translational motions. Rotational motion, if present and relevant, should be considered as part of the modelling input.

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  • Performance and degradation of sliding steel friction connections: Impact of velocity, corrosion coating and shim material

    Rodgers GW; Chase JG; Causse R; Chanchi J; MacRae GA (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    It has become increasingly necessary to develop systems to decrease the impact of earthquakes by protecting people and mitigating resulting structural and economic damage. The Asymmetrical Friction Connection (AFC) or Sliding Hinge Joint (SHJ) has been intensively tested. It efficiently dissipates energy with almost no damage. However, its nonlinear mechanics have not fully been characterised. In this study, the AFC mechanism is fully modelled and parameterised using non-linear modelling. Menegotto-Pinto models of device behavior, including added velocity dependence, are validated against a series of experimental tests. These SHJs are modelled for several shim (friction sliding surface) materials, as well as with and without corrosion resistant coatings. The non-linear models developed accurately capture the experimentally observed nonlinear mechanics. The impact of shim material and corrosion coating on resistive force and velocity dependence are quantified. In particular, corrosion coatings create negative velocity dependence from a positive dependence without the coating. The overall modelling approach is suitable for use in a wide range of similar dynamic systems. Thus, the results also validate the overall modelling methods and the approach presented.

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  • Science to Emergency Management Response: Kaikoura Earthquakes 2016

    Woods RJ; McBride SK; Wotherspoon L; Beaven SJ; Potter SH; Johnston DM; Wilson T; Brunsdon D; Grace ES; Brackley H; Becker JS (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    The M7.8 Kaikoura Earthquake in 2016 presented a number of challenges to science agencies and institutions throughout New Zealand. The earthquake was complex, with 21 faults rupturing throughout the North Canterbury and Marlborough landscape, generating a localised seven metre tsunami and triggering thousands of landslides. With many areas isolated as a result, it presented science teams with logistical challenges as well as the need to coordinate efforts across institutional and disciplinary boundaries. Many research disciplines, from engineering and geophysics to social science, were heavily involved in the response. Coordinating these disciplines and institutions required significant effort to assist New Zealand during its most complex earthquake yet recorded. This paper explores that effort and acknowledges the successes and lessons learned by the teams involved.

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  • How should we interpret retrospective blood glucose measurements? Sampling and Interpolation

    Stewart K; Thomas F; Pretty CG; Shaw G; Chase J (2017)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    : This study investigates blood glucose (BG) measurement interpolation techniques to represent intermediate BG dynamics, and the effect resampling of retrospective BG data has on key glycemic control (GC) performance results. Many GC protocols in the ICU have varying BG measurement intervals with gaps ranging from 0.5 to 4 hrs. Sparse data poses problems in model fitting techniques and GC performance comparisons, and thus interpolation is required to assume a continuous solution. Retrospective data from SPRINT in the Christchurch Hospital Intensive Care Unit (ICU) (2005-2007) was used to analyze various interpolation techniques. Piece-wise linear, spline and cubic interpolation functions, which force lines through data, as well as 1st and 2nd Order B-spline basis functions, used to identify the data, are investigated. Dense data was thinned to increase sparsity and obtain measurements (Hidden measurements) for comparison after interpolation. All of the piece-wise functions performed considerably better than the fitted interpolation functions. Linear piece-wise interpolation performed the best having a mean RMSE 0.39 mmol/L, within 2 standard deviations of the BG sensor error. The effect of minutely vs hourly sampling of the interpolated trace on key GC performance statistics was investigated using the retrospective data received from STAR GC in the Christchurch Hospital Intensive Care Unit (ICU), New Zealand (2011-2015). Minutely sampled BG resulted in significantly different key GC performance when compared to raw sparse BG measurements. Linear piece-wise interpolation provides the best estimate of intermediate BG dynamics and all analyses comparing GC protocol performance should use minutely linearly interpolated BG data.

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