10,209 results for University of Waikato

  • The rewards of professional change: Two primary school teachers’ experiences of transforming outdoor education.

    Cosgriff, Marg (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Embarking on and sustaining professional change is often a challenging process for educators. This is particularly so within a broader context of rapid (r)evolution in curriculum, pedagogical and assessment-related developments in the compulsory school sector in Aotearoa New Zealand over the past decade. Teachers’ and school leaders’ accounts of professional learning and change in recent issues of this journal have suggested it can be both risky and rewarding, with a range of impacts and outcomes for all involved. In this paper I pick up on the notion of the possible rewards of professional change, drawing on the experiences of two generalist primary school teachers engaging in curriculum and pedagogical change in outdoor education within the Health and Physical Education learning area. Specifically, the contributions of outdoor-based learning in a local bush reserve to teachers’ own sense of personal wellbeing and rejuvenated sense of professional identity are explored. Here I speculate about the potentially renewing components of professional change in outdoor education in HPE for teachers themselves.

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  • Intermittency, nonlinear dynamics and dissipation in the solar wind and astrophysical plasmas

    Matthaeus, Willam H.; Wan, Minping; Servidio, Sergio; Greco, A.; Osman, Kareem T.; Oughton, Sean; Dmitruk, Pablo (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    An overview is given of important properties of spatial and temporal intermittency, including evidence of its appearance in fluids, magnetofluids and plasmas, and its implications for understanding of heliospheric plasmas. Spatial intermittency is generally associated with formation of sharp gradients and coherent structures. The basic physics of structure generation is ideal, but when dissipation is present it is usually concentrated in regions of strong gradients. This essential feature of spatial intermittency in fluids has been shown recently to carry over to the realm of kinetic plasma, where the dissipation function is not known from first principles. Spatial structures produced in intermittent plasma influence dissipation, heating, and transport and acceleration of charged particles. Temporal intermittency can give rise to very long time correlations or a delayed approach to steady-state conditions, and has been associated with inverse cascade or quasi-inverse cascade systems, with possible implications for heliospheric prediction.

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  • A conjecture of De Koninck regarding particular square values of the sum of divisors function

    Broughan, Kevin A.; Delbourgo, Daniel; Zhou, Qizhi (2014)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    We study integers n > 1 satisfying the relation σ(n) = γ(n)², where σ(n) and γ(n) are the sum of divisors and the product of distinct primes dividing n, respectively. If the prime dividing a solution n is congruent to 3 modulo 8 then it must be greater than 41, and every solution is divisible by at least the fourth power of an odd prime. Moreover at least 2/5 of the exponents a of the primes dividing any solution have the property that a + 1 is a prime power. Lastly we prove that the number of solutions up to x > 1 is at most x¹/⁶⁺є, for any є > 0 and all x > xє.

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  • Identification of central mechanisms underlying statin-induced changes in consummatory behaviour in rats

    Isgrove, Kiriana (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Simvastatin is a cholesterol lowering statin whose adverse effects include an increase in appetite and, consequently, obesity. This is counterproductive to the otherwise beneficial outcomes of simvastatin on metabolic and cardiovascular health. The mechanisms underlying simvastatin-induced hyperphagia are unknown. This thesis investigated by using a laboratory rat model whether central mechanisms contribute to simvastatin-induced increase in appetite. First, the effect of intracerebroventricularly (ICV) administered simvastatin on the energy-driven intake of ‘bland’ chow, and on reward-motivated consumption of palatable solutions, was determined. The data indicate that ICV simvastatin moderately increases ingestion of energy-dense chow, but it does not affect consumption of calorie-dilute and non-caloric palatable sucrose or saccharin solutions. It suggests that simvastatin acting directly at the brain level elevates intake of energy, while being ineffective in stimulating eating for reward. Surprisingly, rats injected ICV with this statin consume also significantly more water after water deprivation, which points to a relationship between centrally acting simvastatin and thirst-related processing. In the second part of this project, the effect of the orexigenic dose of ICV simvastatin on neuronal activation in consumption-related hypothalamic sites was investigated. Simvastatin elevated c-Fos immunoreactivity, which serves as a marker of neuronal activation, in the arcuate and paraventricular nuclei, two sites that have a profound influence on the regulation of energy intake and energy balance, as well as affect water balance. It can be concluded that simvastatin increases intake of energy and of water, and that it likely exerts its action through the hypothalamic paraventricular and arcuate nuclei.

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  • Temperature and Moisture Sensitivity of Soil Microbial Respiration in Adjacent Irrigated and Non-Irrigated Soils

    Petrie, Olivia Jane (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Irrigation is a commonly used management practice that is crucial for increasing plant growth and production, especially in areas prone to drought such as the Canterbury region of the South Island, New Zealand. Historically, irrigation was thought to increase soil carbon content due to increased production, however recent studies have shown that irrigation causes a loss of soil carbon (C). One possible mechanism for the C loss is an increase in soil microbial respiration under irrigation. The added soil moisture under irrigation releases microbial moisture limitations and enables soil microbes to access more C, therefore increasing respiration and decreasing soil C content. Soil microbial respiration also fluctuates seasonally. Irrigation changes the inherent seasonal effect by increasing soil moisture content during the hottest part of the year, therefore increasing soil microbial respiration rates. In this thesis soil samples were collected from 13 paired irrigated and non-irrigated sites in Canterbury and two sites at Rangiriri in the Waikato region of the North Island. The sites in Canterbury were sampled once while the sites at Rangiriri were used for a seasonal analysis and were sampled twice. Soil samples were wet to five different moisture contents and incubated on a temperature gradient block for five hours. MMRT curves were then fitted to the respiration data obtained from incubation and the temperature optima (Topt), temperature inflection point (Tinf) and change in heat capacity (ΔCp‡) were calculated. The absolute respiration rates at 10°C (R10) and 20°C (R20) were also calculated. Irrigation had a significant effect on soil microbial respiration in the Canterbury soils but not the Rangiriri soils. In Canterbury, the Topt and Tinf were higher in the irrigated soils by 8.8°C and 7.6°C respectively while the R10 and R20 were both nearly 50% higher in the non-irrigated soils and all differences were statistically significant. There was no difference between treatments in any of the parameters measured in the Rangiriri soils. The difference in temperature sensitivity and absolute respiration rate in the Canterbury soils was thought to be due to the soil microbes under irrigation decomposing less readily available soil C which has a higher temperature sensitivity and leads to a reduced respiration rate. Another possible explanation for the differences in temperature sensitivity and absolute respiration rate was that there had been a shift in soil microbial community structure between the two treatments and this should be further investigated.

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  • The development and taste of fruit of gold kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch. Var. chinensis "Gold3")

    Le Lievre, Danielle Evelyn (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The “Gold3” cultivar of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch. var. chinensis “Gold3”) has proven to be capable of producing high yields, however, growers have also noted an increased risk of small fruit that have high acidity, low dry matter and poor flavour. This thesis investigated how fruit composition and flavour components develop in “Gold3” kiwifruit, and whether altering the carbohydrate supply using common orchard practises would influence the accumulation and partitioning of the flavour components (starch, sugars and acids) in fruit. Fruit from a “Gold3” orchard were sampled fortnightly, from anthesis through to harvest, from canes receiving five treatment combinations of leaf or fruit thinning and girdling. These treatments increased or decreased carbohydrate supply, either early or late in fruit development. Overall, the “Gold3” fruit demonstrated similar patterns of starch, sugar and acid accumulation to other A. chinensis cultivars, in particular the gold kiwifruit cultivar “Hort16A”, with slight differences in timings and peak concentrations. An altered carbohydrate supply to developing fruit strongly influenced their composition in unique ways. As expected fresh weight growth and starch accumulation responded positively to a period of high carbohydrate supply. Regulation of organic acids were shown to be more complex, with the concentrations of some acids responding inversely to increased carbohydrate supply. At eating ripe the fruit from lower carbohydrate supply had altered sugar: acid ratios, with increased total acid concentrations, as well as decreased sugar concentrations. To identify how these compositional changes affected the taste of fruit at eating ripeness, a controlled consumer sensory experiment was carried out with 78 inexperienced consumers. Fruit from the different treatments were all perceived as having acceptable flavours, despite the fruit having significant differences in the standard flavour determinants (DM, rSSC and TA). Consumers were able to detect differences in sugar and acid concentrations between treatments. Low carbohydrate supply treatments had significantly higher TA, citric acid and quinic acid concentrations, combined with lower °Brix, DM and sucrose concentrations at eating ripe. Consumers more closely associated these fruit with being more acidic and having more sour and under-ripe flavours compared to the treatments that received increased carbohydrate supply. Overall the results of the research support the hypothesis that “Gold3” kiwifruit are vulnerable to changes in composition due to changes in growing conditions, and that these changes influence flavour as perceived by consumers. These effects may be more pronounced in orchards where high crop loads, shading, or variation in leaf to fruit ratio between shoots create populations of even more carbon deficient fruit.

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  • Characterisation of Food Intake and Expression of Feeding-Related Genes in The VPA Rat Model of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Laloli, Kathryn (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting roughly 1% of the global population. Aberrant food selectivity (AFS) is a common comorbid symptom of ASD which can result in nutritional deficiencies, increased parental stress and reduced quality of life. However, alarmingly little research has been conducted investigating the nature and the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms of AFS in ASD. This study attempts to determine whether the VPA rat model of ASD exhibits AFS when presented with various diet types. These include standard chow and water, palatable sweet tastants (sucrose, saccharin and complex liquid diet) and finally palatable high fat milks. The mRNA expression levels of oxytocin, oxytocin receptor, dynorphin and kappa-opioid receptor were then determined. These genes have previously demonstrated to be involved in both feeding and social behaviours. The VPA rats were found to consume less standard chow and water, yet increased intake of the sweet tastants was observed. Additionally, in the VPA rats’ oxytocin expression in the hypothalamus was increased, as was dynorphin expression in the hypothalamus and brainstem. Increased expression of the anorexigenic oxytocin may have resulted in the decreased intake of chow and water, and could potentially be a result of increased leptin or melanocortin levels. However, increased dynorphin expression may be responsible for the increased intake of the palatable sweet tastants, via inhibition of proopiomelanocortin or neuropeptide S. The development of effective treatments for AFS in ASD requires an understanding of the underlying neurological mechanisms. This research provides the first evidence of AFS and elevated oxytocin and dynorphin expression in the VPA rat model of ASD, thus paving the way for further research in this area.

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  • Secondary Traumatic Stress and Vicarious Posttraumatic Growth in New Zealand Clinical Psychologists: The Consequences of Working with Traumatised Clients

    Stapleton, Madeleine (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Clinical psychologists who provide trauma treatment are vicariously exposed to their clients’ traumatic experiences. The responsibility of clinical psychologists to practise both effectively and safely makes assessing the negative and positive psychological consequences of vicarious exposure to trauma imperative. If provisions are not put in place to prevent the negative psychological consequences and facilitate the positive psychological consequences, then detrimental outcomes may arise for the clinician, their clients, and the organisation that they work for. The present study was designed to assess the experience of secondary traumatic stress (STS) and vicarious posttraumatic growth (VPTG) in clinical psychologists who work with traumatised clients in New Zealand. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that were related to these phenomena, including the level of vicarious exposure to trauma (years working as a clinical psychologist, hours per week working with traumatised clients, and percentage of traumatised clients on caseload), posttraumatic cognitions, secondary trauma self-efficacy (STSE), perceived social support, and engagement in self-care activities. Seventy-two clinical psychologists completed the online survey. Significant relationships were found between the main variables in this study: STS correlated positively with posttraumatic cognitions and VPTG correlated positively with self-care. Non-hypothesised significant relationships were also found. Posttraumatic cognitions correlated significantly with hours per week working with traumatised clients, STSE, perceived social support, and self-care. Additionally, self-care correlated significantly with perceived social support. The results of this study suggest that clinical psychologists who experience more posttraumatic cognitions following vicarious exposure to trauma may be more likely to experience STS. The results also suggest that those clinical psychologists who engage in more self-care activities may be more likely to experience VPTG. As the majority of the proposed hypotheses were not supported, it appears that the factors thought to be related to STS and VPTG may not be as pertinent as previous research indicates. Overall, the results suggest that there may be other factors not explored in this study that may influence the experience of STS and VPTG. As discrepant results were found in this study, future research should continue to investigate the factors that are related to STS and VPTG in clinical psychologists. Investigation into the ways in which posttraumatic cognitions following vicarious exposure to trauma can be prevented, or reduced, would also be beneficial, as would investigation into the specific self-care activities that are related to VPTG. Future research could also investigate the barriers that may prevent clinical psychologists from engaging in self-care. Taken together, this study provides insight into the factors that are related to STS and VPTG, and importantly, identifies how STS may be prevented and VPTG may be facilitated.

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  • Effective, accountable and inclusive institutions? An analysis of the Chevron v. Ecuador (II) investment arbitration and the Lago Agrio environmental justice movement

    McGiven, Timothy Clyde (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The international investment agreement regime, one of the more obscure global institutions, has a significant impact upon how states, local governments and communities develop. Many investment agreements include investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) mechanisms, which seek to protect investors from unjust expropriation by host states. Yet, the implications of such a mechanism for fulfilling the vision of the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have never been studied. This thesis examines the ISDS mechanism by conducting a case study of the Chevron v. Ecuador (II) [CvE2] investment arbitration. The thesis analyses case documents such as hearing transcripts, decisions and submissions to identify the discourses at work within the arbitration; determine the implications of such discourses for processual developments; and explore how such processes influence the space afforded to those nongovernmental organisations and environmental justice groups affected by the arbitration. The research utilises an analytical framework informed by critical development theory and environmental justice theory, to demonstrate that the CvE2 arbitration is dominated by an exclusive discourse that prioritises a strict adherence to international investment law, to the exclusion of other principles such as those of international human rights law and environmental law. The dominance of such a discourse reduces the legitimacy of the institution and its rulings for many key stakeholders. The findings also reveal that marginalised stakeholders, such as environmental organisations representing indigenous communities, were refused access to the arbitrations though they were materially affected by the claims, and additionally, were denied consideration - whereby the material impact of the ruling upon the stakeholder group was deemed irrelevant to the proceedings. The findings provide evidence that ISDS, in its current form, is incompatible with the United Nation’s goal for ‘effective, accountable and inclusive institutions’ (United Nations Development Programme, 2016, p. 1). This thesis contributes to the scholarship on environmental justice and environmental policy through its analysis of the implications of arbitration mechanisms embedded in international investment regimes for environmental justice claims and, more broadly, the goal of sustainable development. The thesis highlights the need for further research into investor-state investment arbitrations and provides evidence that significant reform is necessary in order for the institution to be reconciled with the SDGs.

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  • You and me and shame

    Gillanders, Leah Esme (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This research project investigated the effects of bringing an as-yet-untold story of shame to a narrative therapy counselling conversation. The researcher, who became the client, invited a narrative practitioner to join her in three conversations, a counselling conversation and two interpersonal process recall conversations. The data generated from these conversations as well as the personal research diary kept by the researcher are woven together as research findings, presenting a layered, journeyed account of the movement experienced by the researcher. This study noticed the challenges of recognising and speaking stories of shame. Attention is given to noticing vulnerability and the difficulty of speaking stories of shame and also to the role of witnessing in the relationship between the counsellor and the client meeting within a context of shame. This autoethnographic account offers itself as practitioner researcher. Knowledges produced in this research highlight the importance of considering first the role of shame in the life of a problem and second how it is to be positioned as a client in a counselling relationship.

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  • Emotional Well-Being and Secondary Traumatic Stress in New Zealand Youth Workers

    Takhar-Stapleton, Amber (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This study aimed to explore the relationship of STS and emotional well-being among New Zealand youth workers using a qualitative approach. Eleven participants were interviewed for the study using a semi-structured interviewing technique. The purpose of this study was to fill a gap in the literature about the impact of working with traumatised youth and to identify if youth workers were at risk and vulnerable to the effects of trauma exposure. Three aims were incorporated in the study to answer the research question. The first aim was to explore ways in which youth work may be associated with decreased emotional well-being and STS with the second aim of identifying symptoms and causes of decreased emotional well-being and STS. Lastly, the third aim was to explore how decreased emotional well-being is associated with the development of STS. The findings suggest the majority of participants experienced moderate levels of decreased emotional well-being and displayed symptoms associated with the effects of secondary traumatic stress. The results confirmed the first aim of the study which identified youth work as being correlated with decreased emotional well-being and STS. The results suggested decreased emotional well-being increased vulnerability to developing STS and therefore, the third aim of the study was also confirmed. Several themes were found in the participants’ answers which revealed youth work is associated with emotional well-being and symptoms of STS. This included emotional detachment, suppression, and numbing, helplessness, burnout and lack of resources to cope, social withdrawal, difficulty sleeping and changes in appetite. Risk factors which appeared to increase vulnerability included personal trauma, PTSD, countertransference, and empathic engagement. Organisational stressors were also identified as increasing vulnerability which heavily influenced participants and contributed to extreme stress and exhaustion. Findings in this study contribute to the knowledge of secondary traumatic stress as well as increasing knowledge about the emotional effects of working with traumatised individuals. Furthermore, the study helps to educate helping professionals and increases knowledge of youth work.

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  • Barry Barclay: the Reflection of Maori and Pakeha Identities

    Hilal, Emad Jabbar (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This Media and Screen Studies thesis tries to investigate the identifications of Barry Barclay (1944-2008) - a New Zealand filmmaker, thinker and poet, of Māori and Pākeha ethnic background - who identified as Māori in the second part of his career, in the mid 1970s. The thesis relies on Barclay's writing and other historical and theoretical material in the reading of his own films. The thesis arrives at an argument that even when Barclay chose to identify more with the Māori side of his identity, the Pākeha side took part also in the shaping of his film practices. Studying Barry Barclay along this line of argument has several benefits for Screen Studies. It, on the one hand, covers what is left unstudied by the scholarship concerning his representation of the Māori world such as the way he commented on Māori cultural and social concerns and acheivements in his films. The thesis studies Barclay's films from the time he started his identification with his Māori side in Tangaata Whenua (1974), Te Urewera (1987), Ngati (1987),Te Rua (1991) and takes The Kaipara Affair (2005) as a case study and a carrier of change in film practices and development in outlook.The other important contribution is the way he represented Pākeha, and how he developed his representation of them in time. This representation which is unstudied at all, is important to Screen Studies becuase it contributes to Barclay's theory of Fourth Cinema. This thesis shows how representing Pakeha, especially in Barclay's last film problemematizes his theory of Fourth Cinema, but ultimately, deals with applies it creatively. The representation of Pākeha gives insight into Barclay's interest in the Māori world, which is not a dogma or a merely ethnic affiliation as much as an attraction to a world-view that can solve major universal issues such as environmental problems. Above all, the way how Barclay worked out this representation in his films sheds light on one of the important examples of how film can take part in healing social damages such as the history of colonizing and marginalization of Māori people.

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  • The Development of Professional Learning Communities (PLCs) in the Philippines: Roles and Views of Secondary School Principals

    Capili-Balbalin, Wenefe (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    It is widely recognised that principals play an indispensable role in the professional development of teachers in schools. In the Philippines, principals encourage teachers to participate in the traditional and most common approach to professional development such as conferences, seminars, workshops, and training. Despite documented benefits of these traditional approaches to teacher professional development, recent studies show that many teachers find them insufficient, inconsistent, and sometimes they do not necessarily address teachers’ classroom needs. There is a growing body of literature that recognises the importance of teacher engagement through professional learning communities (PLCs) as a new approach to teacher professional development. Unlike traditional approaches to teacher professional development, PLCs redefine professional development from programmes that regard teachers as passive learners to programmes that regard teachers as active learners who are responsible for their own professional growth. The study explored the roles and perspectives of secondary school principals in the development of PLCs in the Philippines. It is an underlying assumption that principals’ understanding of their roles in the implementation of teacher professional development policies in schools is central to the formation of PLCs. This raised two important questions that principals needed to contemplate: How did they view and implement national policies on teacher professional development in the school level? And, how did they perceive and establish PLCs in their schools? The study utilised a qualitative research methodology based on an interpretive paradigm. Through the use of semi-structured interviews alongside policy analysis, three main themes emerged: lack of continuing teacher professional development programmes in the Philippines; varying views of principals in the development of PLCs in schools; and, effective leadership styles as key to support continuing professional development of teachers. The lack of continuing teacher professional development programmes suggests that principals in the study failed to establish PLCs in their schools. This offers some important insights on the leadership experiences of principals in the implementation of national policies on professional development and how it affects their roles in supporting teachers’ continuing professional development. The study also reinforces theories around strong influence of school leadership in the formation of PLCs, particularly in developing countries such as the Philippines. This is an important issue for future work, as top-down leadership continuously predominates in school organisations in the Philippines. Further work is recommended to investigate the implications of this for the confidence level of principals in their leadership in the context of secondary schools in the Philippines.

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  • Adaptation to water scarcity in the context of climate change: A Case Study of the Nuku'alofa and Hihifo Districts, Tongatapu

    Fa'anunu, Jacqueline (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    For the most part, PICs and SIDS are constantly reminded of their vulnerability to climate change. Often, the increasing portrayal of island countries as vulnerable does not necessarily address what causes that vulnerability. The UNFCCC and IPCC have sought to adopt more adaptation measures alongside mitigation especially in vulnerability assessments. In the context of Tongatapu, adaptation in the water sector still holds significant political and economic challenges. This thesis explores the rural-urban adaptation experiences of residents in Nuku’alofa and Hihifo, Tongatapu, to water scarcity in the context of drought and climate change. It also seeks to investigate the role of vulnerability in the provision of aid, in reference to the PACC (Pacific Adaptation to Climate Change) water project in Hihifo. In utilising discourse analysis and analysis of semi-structured interviews and focus groups consisting of participants from Nuku’alofa and Hihifo, a range of themes emerged on the complexities of vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in Tonga. Hence, I sought to identify the ways that people can adapt to water scarcity in the context of drought and climate change. I draw from post structuralism, cultural geography and the vulnerability theory to uncover the discourses present in the climate change literature. It was also important to incorporate literature on sustainability and indigenous knowledge as they support better adaptation capacity in not only Tongatapu but also all of Tonga’s water sector. In particular, I examine vulnerability from a local point of view versus the views of those at the national level. In doing so, local knowledges can help shape decisions on policies regarding water and climate change. Government documents on climate change in Tonga has progressed from a vulnerability point of view to a resilience and adaptation frame of thinking. However, adaptation in the water sector is not solely a problem based on natural variability and climate change. A huge part of water problems is largely rooted on political and economic processes. This underpins the accessibility of people to water resources. This problem needs to be addressed, in order to increase the adaptive capacity of people in the rural-urban areas of Tongatapu.

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  • Investigating influences of incentives on implicit attitudes toward body size

    Taylor, Tokiko (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) was designed to detect relational responding that cannot easily be accessed via traditional survey methods. The IRAP requires participants to meet speed and accuracy criteria during practice trials before proceeding to test trials, which has resulted in an attrition rate of approximately 20%, on average, in the existing research. Variables affecting the attrition rate have not been systematically investigated. I examined the influence of incentives (in this case a $20 voucher contingent on meeting performance criteria) on attrition rate and other IRAP performance measures. In addition, I examined whether the IRAP would reveal an implicit anti-fat bias in 82 university students. I found significant differences in the performance of the incentive group compared to the control group in their response accuracy and measurement of their implicit bias. The results indicated higher levels of bias compared with those from previous research studies, particularly in the incentive group. I did not find statistically significant differences in the attrition rate but found a low attrition rate in both groups. This study reveals the utility of incentives for improving performance on the IRAP, a procedure that demands accurate responses under time pressure for assessing spontaneous relational responding.

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  • Emotional Well-Being and Secondary Traumatic Stress In New Zealand Youth Workers

    Takhar-Stapleton, Amber (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This study aimed to explore the relationship of STS and emotional well-being among New Zealand youth workers using a qualitative approach. Eleven participants were interviewed for the study using a semistructured interviewing technique. The purpose of this study was to fill a gap in the literature about the impact of working with traumatised youth and to identify if youth workers were at risk and vulnerable to the effects of trauma exposure. Three aims were incorporated in the study to answer the research question. The first aim was to explore ways in which youth work may be associated with decreased emotional well-being and STS with the second aim of identifying symptoms and causes of decreased emotional well-being and STS. Lastly, the third aim was to explore how decreased emotional well-being is associated with the development of STS. The findings suggest the majority of participants experienced moderate levels of decreased emotional well-being and displayed symptoms associated with the effects of secondary traumatic stress. The results confirmed the first aim of the study which identified youth work as being correlated with decreased emotional well-being and STS. The results suggested decreased emotional well-being increased vulnerability to developing STS and therefore, the third aim of the study was also confirmed. Several themes were found in the participants’ answers which revealed youth work is associated with emotional well-being and symptoms of STS. This included emotional detachment, suppression, and numbing, helplessness, burnout and lack of resources to cope, social withdrawal, difficulty sleeping and changes in appetite. Risk factors which appeared to increase vulnerability included personal trauma, PTSD, countertransference, and empathic engagement. Organisational stressors were also identified as increasing vulnerability which heavily influenced participants and contributed to extreme stress and exhaustion. Findings in this study contribute to the knowledge of secondary traumatic stress as well as increasing knowledge about the emotional effects of working with traumatised individuals. Furthermore, the study iii helps to educate helping professionals and increases knowledge of youth work.

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  • "Everything has shaped you": Contributors to young Māori university students' ability to flourish

    Major, Darcie Ngahuia (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    There are many disparities when considering the health and wellbeing of Māori in Aotearoa today, and the education sector is no different, with Māori less likely to leave school with level 2 certificate or higher compared with non-Māori. In response to the deficit orientated research on Māori and education, my thesis explores those factors contributing to young Māori tertiary students flourishing. My research includes five students from the University of Waikato who were between the ages of 17-24 years. A multi-method qualitative approach was utilised while engaging a Kaupapa Māori research framework. Participants were found to have a range of interconnected factors which contribute to their ability to flourish both inside and outside of the university. Of particular importance to my participants was relational connectedness or whanaungatanga within and outside of the tertiary environment, landscapes which offered multiple forms of care, and notions of both collective and individual motivation. Some of the challenges experienced by my participants included a sense of socio-cultural isolation, the minimal inclusion of Māori worldviews and perspectives within the general curriculum, and the personal stress of responding to negative stereotypes of Maori as generally unproductive members of society. Flourishing for my participants is therefore multi-layered, and recognises the interconnected nature of health and wellbeing.  

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  • That Dragon, Cancer: Contemplating life and death in a medium that has frequently trivialized both

    Schott, Gareth Richard (2017)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    As a game mechanic, death has primarily been used to punish players for mistakes and failure. Over-reliance on screen-death possibly constitutes one of the most dated aspects of digital games as a contemporary medium. This paper considers why this artefact of historical forms and content persists (Zimmerman, 2007), and in doing so, how it continues to trivialize the otherwise irreversible nature of the cessation of human life, and the sense of loss and grief experienced by those who are close to the deceased. In particular, this paper discusses the game That Dragon, Cancer (Numinous Games, 2016) for the manner in which it contributes towards a redefinition of the relationship between gaming and death. It is argued that the game allows the medium to tackle contemporary Western issues associated with the experience of death, and avoids contributing further to the ‘emotional invigilation’ (Walter et al., 1995) of death via its re-appropriation as an entertainment form. That Dragon, Cancer’s status as a game is also commented on, and defended, in terms of the player experience it offers.

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  • Updated reliability and normative values for the standing heel-rise test in healthy adults

    Hébert-Losier, Kim; Wessman, C.; Alricsson, M.; Svantesson, U. (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Objectives The heel-rise test is used to assess the strength and endurance of the plantar flexors in everyday clinical practice. However, several factors may affect outcomes, including sex, age, body mass index and activity level. The aims of this study were to revisit the reliability and normative values of this test, and establish normative equations accounting for several factors. Design Cross-sectional observational study with test–retest. Setting Community. Participants Volunteers (n = 566, age 20 to 81 years). Interventions Subjects performed single-legged heel rises to fatigue, standing on a 10° incline, once on each leg. A subset of subjects (n = 32) repeated the test 1 week later. Reliability was quantified using intraclass (ICC) correlation coefficients and Bland–Altman plots {mean difference [95% limits of agreement (LOA)]}, whereas the impact of sex, age, body mass index and activity level on the number of heel rises was determined using non-parametric regression models. Results The test showed excellent reliability (ICC = 1.0 right leg, 1.0 left leg), with mean between-day differences in the total number of heel-rise repetitions of 0.2 (95% LOA −6.2 to 6.5) and 0.1 (95% LOA −6.1 to 6.2) for right and left legs, respectively. Overall, males completed more repetitions than females (median 24 vs 21). However, older females (age >60 years) outperformed older males. According to the model, younger males with higher activity levels can complete the most heel rises. Conclusions The heel-rise test is highly reliable. The regression models herein can be employed by clinicians to evaluate the outcomes of heel-rise tests of individuals against a comparable normative population.

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  • The effect of surface tension on free surface flow induced by a point sink in a fluid of finite depth

    Hocking, G.C.; Nguyen, H.H.N.; Stokes, Tim E.; Forbes, L.K. (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Solutions are presented to the problem of steady, axisymmetric flow of an inviscid fluid into a point sink. The fluid is of finite depth and has a free surface. Two numerical schemes, a spectral method and an integral equation approach, are implemented to confirm results for the maximum-flow-rate steady solution for each configuration. The effects of surface tension and sink depth are included and constitute the new component of the work. Surface tension has the effect of increasing the maximum flow rate at which steady-state solutions can exist.

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