10,500 results for University of Waikato

  • The bovine teat canal: Its role in pathogen recognition and defence of the mammary gland

    Smolenski, Grant Alan (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    The bovine mammary gland is remarkable in that it produces over three litres of milk daily as an exocrine secretion, which passes through the teat into the external environment. Despite this substantial volume of fluid flow and that milk is one of the most nutritional mediums in which microorganisms can thrive, for the most part, this process occurs without colonisation of pathogens in the interior of the gland. Nevertheless, mastitis, when it does occur, is a significant dairy management problem. The major factor restricting ingress of pathogens into the gland has been assumed by most researchers in the field to be the length and diameter of the teat canal and the tightness of the teat sphincter. However, it has become increasingly clear in recent years that epithelial tissues have considerable innate immune functionality that contributes significantly to host defence. The presence of innate immune components within the teat end tissues has been only very superficially described to date. The presence of antimicrobial activity in the protein fraction of the teat canal lining has been previously demonstrated, as well as the presence of immune cells within some teat-end tissues, however, a detailed investigation into the identity of these proteins and cell types has not been undertaken. The aims of this thesis are to firstly, characterise the protein component of the teat canal lining (Chapter 3) and secondly, identify key immune-related cells in healthy lactating dairy cows (Chapter 4).0 A third aim is to assess changes in the cell population and immune-related factors that occur within teat-end tissues during mammary involution (Chapter 5). The fourth and final aim is to begin to characterise the immediate localised inflammatory response within teat-end tissues to the presence of mastitis-causing pathogens (Chapter 6), a question that has never been previously addressed. The approach used to address these aims were to (i) apply proteomics methodologies to the characterisation of the proteins within the teat canal lining, and (ii) examination of teat-end tissues by fluorescence immunohistochemistry using antibodies directed against known immune cell markers. The results revealed that aside from the major keratin proteins, the teat canal lining contained several other proteins and protein families (e.g. the S100 and serpin families) that differed from that of the cornified layer of the surrounding teat skin (Chapter 3). Immunofluorescent analysis revealed that there were substantial differences in the density and distribution of immune cells between the teat-end tissues. The Fürstenberg’s rosette is especially rich in antigen-presenting cells (Chapter 4). Drying-off of the udder (mammary involution) was associated with an increase in some immune cell types in the teat sinus, and an increased abundance of some antimicrobial proteins in the teat canal lining, but relatively few and minor additional changes (Chapter 5). The introduction of pathogens into the teat canal resulted in similar changes in the abundance of teat canal lining proteins, but no obvious changes in localised immune cell abundance or distribution after 24 hours exposure (Chapter 6). The presence of specific antimicrobial proteins in the teat canal lining, and the presence of immune cells within the Fürstenberg’s rosette and teat sinus epithelia demonstrate that these tissues play an active role in host defence. Thus, the research presented in this thesis has laid the foundation for a more complete understanding of host-defence functionality in the teat. This has implications for devising novel approaches to reducing susceptibility to mastitis in dairy cows.

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  • Indonesia’s great power and superpower environment in the post Cold War era: A study of Indonesia’s search for a dynamic regional equilibrium

    Syofian, Ahmad (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Against the backdrop of regional transformation, during President Soesilo Bambang Yudhoyono (SBY) period of office from 2004 – 2014, Indonesian officials have frequently expressed an expectation of a peaceful region through the promotion of a concept called the maintenance of a dynamic equilibrium. The concept was developed in the light of the rise of China, the US’ reengagement and Japan’s transformation, and is a response to the great power and superpower interactions in the region. This study is thus timely, significant and relevant as well as important in contemporary Indonesia. First, it analyses the impact of regional dynamics on Indonesia, which have been perceived differently and with uncertainty especially by Indonesian elites. Secondly, it provides a study on Indonesia’s foreign relations in pursuit of the country’s search for a dynamic regional equilibrium. In so doing, it sheds light on Indonesia’s foreign policy which, for some scholars, is considered less focused and irrelevant, especially in responding to great powers dynamics in the region. This thesis uses two main techniques of data collection to explore its main objectives: interviewing and textual / documentary investigation. The data collection was conducted, first, during the SBY Administration (from March to September 2014) and, secondly, during the Jokowi Administration (from June to September 2016). The data collection was primarily through in-depth interviews, which were semi-structured, with more than 50 officials and eminent persons involved in the process of Indonesian foreign policy making. The textual, or documentary, investigation was conducted using both primary and secondary resources. This research is qualitative in nature, but it contains data and statistics to support the analysis. This study sets its time frame into the end of 2016. The research has two main findings. First, the great powers and superpower dynamics and interactions in the region generate opportunities for and threats to Indonesia’s interests. On the one hand, their presence and interactions enhance Indonesia’s hedging and even-handed policy that provide an opportunity to earn maximal gains and avoid a total loss. On the other, the element of competition between them has the potential to trigger disputes and creates instability in the region. In addition, some elements of opportunities also come along with threatening factors. Secondly, the research finds that Indonesia has displayed an array of efforts conforming to the policy of equilibrium maintenance. Indeed, despite some weaknesses, there has been a degree of maintaining a policy for balancing or even-handed strategies in Indonesia’s foreign relations with the US, China and Japan, as well as in the country’s participation in ASEAN and the Family. At the end, this research finds that Indonesia’s relations with the superpower and great powers, as well as in ASEAN and the Family, are only a part of Indonesia’s foreign policy practices in the region. Accordingly, the discussion of Indonesia’s foreign policy towards the US, China and Japan in relation to a search for the maintenance of a dynamic equilibrium, is not distinct from that towards other countries in the region. In this respect, promoting a regional dynamic equilibrium is a collaborative effort that requires the support and participation of all states in the region.

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  • Understanding the Relative Importance of the Effects of Soluble and Insoluble Inhibitors on the Enzyme Digestibility of Steam Pretreated Radiata Pine

    MacAskill, Jessica Jane (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Lignocellulosic biomass use is one of the keys to growth and development of future biofuels and biochemicals. Amongst the lignocellulosic feedstocks, softwoods are particularly attractive as they have the potential to produce high sugar yields and are prevalent in many forests globally, currently they make up 95% of New Zealand’s forest estate. One of the most promising approaches to the production of lignocellulosic biofuels is the sugar pathway. This pathway involves using enzymes to hydrolyse the carbohydrate polymers in the biomass to monomeric sugars, and then converting these sugars to ethanol. High sugar yields during enzymatic hydrolysis requires an effective pretreatment to disrupt and/or remove some of the lignin and hemicelluloses, so that the cellulose is more accessible to enzymes. Softwoods, such as Pinus radiata, are amongst the most recalcitrant substrates towards enzymatic hydrolysis, typically, they require more severe pretreatment conditions and higher enzyme doses than hardwood or agricultural residues. Steam pretreatment is one simple and cost-effective pretreatment. Steam pretreatment involves heating the biomass in steam or water (150ºC to 250ºC), often in the presence of added acid catalysts. One disadvantage of steam pretreatment is that it can produce compounds that inhibit the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. During enzymatic hydrolysis, these inhibitors, particularly lignin, lower the digestibility of the cellulose by non-productively binding the hydrolysis enzymes. This means that high enzyme doses are required increasing the conversion costs. How these inhibitors are formed, how they work and what types of inhibitors are most deleterious during enzymatic hydrolysis is not well understood. The main objective of this thesis was to understand the relative roles of soluble and insoluble fibre components as inhibitors of enzyme hydrolysis of steam pretreated P. radiata as a function of pretreatment severity. Samples: P. radiata sawdust was pretreated using steam explosion under six different pretreatment conditions and separated to produce both water-soluble (filtrate) and insoluble (substrate) samples. These samples were used for the rest of the research. Insoluble inhibition: The digestibility of the insoluble substrates was examined using a commercial enzyme cocktail (Novozymes Cellic® CTec2). Results showed the digestibility of these substrates increased with increasing pretreatment severity due to increases in accessibility. However, when the substrates were tested after ball-milling to a common cellulose accessibility, as determined by Simons’ stain measurements, the digestibility decreased with increasing pretreatment severity. This showed that while increasing pretreatment severity led to greater enzyme inhibition, the inhibition was more than compensated for by increases in the accessibility. As part of this work, modifications were made to the Simons’ stain method to ensure a robust and reliable method was available for measuring cellulose accessibility. Soluble inhibition: The inhibitory effects of filtrates were investigated by comparing changes in the digestibility of both bleached kraft pulp and the insoluble steam pretreated substrates in the presence and absence of filtrates. The results showed that the inhibitory effects of the filtrates were minimal or non-existent under most conditions. It was therefore concluded that the insoluble components of steam pretreated P. radiata were more inhibitory than soluble components. With the commercial enzyme cocktail CTec2, adding the filtrates back during hydrolysis led to small enhancements in digestibility. The results of subsequent experiments were consistent with the enhancements being due to components in the filtrates acting as reductants for the oxidative cellulase enzymes present in this cocktail. Inhibition by lignin: Lignins were isolated from three insoluble substrates of differing pretreatment severity and their inhibitory effects on the digestibility of bleached kraft pulp were determined. Results showed: (i) that the inhibitory effects of added lignins increased with the amount of lignin added; (ii) that more severe pretreatments led to more inhibitory lignins; (iii) that adding the surfactant polyethylene glycol could overcome the inhibitory effects of these lignins. Additionally, the more severe pretreatments produced lignins with greater condensation and more phenolic groups, these in turn negatively correlated to digestibility, indicating the structural composition of lignin plays a role in the extent to which lignin is inhibitory.

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  • That 'austere anti-aesthetic angel': James K. Baxter and Puritanism

    Moffat, Kirstine (2017)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    It is necessary to begin with an apology to James K. Baxter. In my previous musings on the Puritan legacy in New Zealand I have chastised Baxter, along with other writers and critics of his generation, for using Puritanism as a reductive catchphrase to summarise all that they most despise about New Zealand society (Moffat, 'Destruction'). The phrase that I have repeatedly used to epitomise Baxter's perceived antagonism is his description of Pu,itanism as an 'austere anti-aesthetic angel' (Complete Prose 2. 328). Returning to this phrase as I meditate at much greater length on Baxter's relationship with Puritanism, I realise that I am guilty of flattening and simplifying what is a much more complex engagement with Puritanism in his prose writing. Baxter's phrase contains both condemnation and implied praise. He was vehemently opposed to what he regarded as the Puritan suspicion of imagination and sexuality, and throughout his writing castigated all the social and religious forces that sought to curb and quell aestheticism and the natural, instinctual self. Yet, he also refers to Puritanism as 'austere', a quality that much of his writing and his own life choices suggest he regarded as admirable, particularly as it relates to a paring back and relinquishing of the unnecessary paraphernalia of capitalism and materialism. And what to make of 'angel'? Surely this is more than simply alliterative effect. It too undercuts the antagonism of 'anti-aesthetic' to suggest that in Baxter's eyes there is at least a trace of the divine about Puritanism and its legacy.

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  • Wellbeing effects from family literacy education: An ecelogical study

    Furness, Jane Amanda; Robertson, Neville; Hunter, Judy; Hodgetts, Darrin; Nikora, Linda Waimarie (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This paper describes a study that used community psychology theories to investigate family-focused literacy education programmes, evaluations of which usually focus solely on skills gains and their economic advantage. Specifically, the study drew on an ecological systems-based, culturally adaptive framework for personal, relational and collective wellbeing bringing much-needed new thinking to how family-focused adult literacy education might be theorised and practiced. The study traced the experiences of 19 adult participants in four family-focused literacy programmes in different communities in New Zealand over 18 months. Participant accounts from 79 key informant interviews, 12 classroom observations and programme documentation were scrutinized using latent theoretical thematic analysis which drew on broad perspectives of literacy, ecological systems theory, network theory and integrative theories of wellbeing. The study found that the programmes shared common principles and practices that prioritised holistic wellbeing whilst valuing literacy enhancement. It showed that participants experienced positive literacy, social and wellbeing-related outcomes. Programme effects were found to be interconnected and to flow on to other parts of participants’ lives and to their families and communities. We demonstrate community psychology’s critical contribution to a fuller understanding of family-focused literacy education.

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  • Vocational Survival: Expanding the Film Value Chain for the Independent Filmmaker

    Jackson, Fiona (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    As a case-study in the occupational sociology of the creative industries, this thesis develops an argument for expanding the traditional FilmValue Chain model in order to address what it means to be an independent filmmaker. The research focuses specifically on the filmmaker’s journey or course of action, rather than on film aesthetics or artistry, and ultimately presents this as a structured series of stages. To reach an understanding of this structure, the research combines (auto)ethnography with Grounded Theory in order to develop a thick description that moves between practical experience and emergent concepts. The exposed structure of an independent’s filmmaking career progresses through four frameworks: exploration, focus, independence, and establishment. The exploration stage is dominated by a high level of simple autonomy-orientation. The focus stage is dominated by growing realisation that the simple autonomy-orientation is too simple and a different orientation is needed. The independence and establishment levels encompass a complex autonomy orientation. The presentation of the research draws heavily on both identity theory and the emerging research paradigm of performative ethnography, and one chapter takes the form of a screenplay which interacts creatively with the other chapters, the synthesis of which has produced a model of independent practices. By extending John Caldwell’s analysis of industrial “promotional surrounds” (IPS), which identifies the dominant corporate and labour practices and “logics” in relation to which independents necessarily define themselves, this thesis articulates the nature of an “independent promotional surround” with its distinctive actors and logics. Finally, it proposes that this IPS expresses a discourse of independence and that an expansion of the traditional Film Value Chain model will recognise the tensions around which this discourse organises itself.

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  • Representing the one left over: A social semiotic perspective of students’ use of screen casting

    Murphy, Carol; Calder, Nigel Stuart (2017)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    This paper examines the potential of using screen casting with an iPad to enhance learning in mathematics. Data are presented from two seven-year-old students as they use the Explain Everything app to solve a division with remainder problem (DWR). A social semiotic perspective was used to interpret students’ use of multiple modes as they represented the mathematical ideas within the context of the problem. We consider how a social semiotic perspective has the potential to draw attention to the students’ interests and emerging expressions in representing mathematical relationships. We further consider how the use of representations in the app might relate to student learning.

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  • Exploring Critical Alternatives for Youth Development through Lifestyle Sport: Surfing and Community Development in Aotearoa/New Zealand

    Wheaton, Belinda; Roy, Georgina; Olive, Rebecca (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    While competition-based team sports remain dominant in community and sport-for-development programs, researchers are exploring the value of alternative, less “sportized” activities such as lifestyle/action sports. In this paper, we explore the ways in which surfing is being used in development programs in Aotearoa/New Zealand, examining the perceived social benefits and impact. Our methods involved: (a) mapping the range of surfing projects; and (b) 8 in-depth interviews with program personnel. Widespread conviction in the positive developmental benefits of surfing was evident, and that surfing had a “special” capacity to reform or heal those who participate in it. However, the ways in which individuals’ self-developments were promoted appear to be following the traditional sport/youth development path. They focus on policies aimed at improved life chances, equipping youth with the tools for self-improvement and self-management, inculcating self-governance and self-reliance. However, a counter narrative co-existed, highlighting surfing as a freeing experience, which, rather than restoring social order, works to instigate a personal transformation or awakening. Despite the range of challenges presented by surfing as a tool for positive development, surfing presents a potentially “critical alternative” which if sport-for-development programs are to be a form of social change, we should remain open to exploring.

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  • Why do I need research and theory? A guide for social workers, by Jennifer Anderson-Meger[Book Review]

    Hunt, Sonya (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book “Why do I need research and theory? A guide for social workers”, by Jennifer Anderson-Meger.

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  • Transition to professional social work practice: The first three years

    Hunt, Sonya; Tregurtha, Melanie; Kuruvila, Albert; Lowe, Simon; Smith, Kelly (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article presents the findings of a longitudinal research project that followed the employ-ment outcomes of one cohort of Bachelor of Social Work graduates for three years. Prior to graduation, students receive professional preparation that develops their ability to critically engage with theory and practice. Following graduation, newly qualified social workers require quality induction, supervision and other workload management strategies to support the transition to social work practice. The development of this study was fuelled by political criticism of social work education. Additionally, there was a desire to track the employment outcomes of the graduates and understand what supported their transition to competent professional practice. The findings fit within a five-year longitudinal research project that follows three separate graduate cohorts each for three years to seek and compare participants’ experiences for their first three years post-qualification. An anonymous, semi-structured, on-line survey was used to provide both quantitative and qualitative data. By the second year of practice, these respond-ents were taking on the workload of an experienced social work practitioner with widely varied levels of support. By the end of their third year in practice, they reported that they had found little opportunity to apply their critical analytical academic skills to consider the wider social system in practice. Further, the graduates’ confidence in their cultural competencies also gradually decreased over the three-year period.

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  • Perspectives on counselling supervision in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Crocket, Kathie (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article is based on an invited keynote address delivered at the first New Zealand Association of Counsellors’ National Supervision Conference Day in July 2017. It considers questions that have continued to be significant for professional supervision over time in counselling in Aotearoa New Zealand, noting considerations for contemporary practice. It reviews a range of research studies of supervision, highlighting recent contributions to discussions of culture and supervision and the use of e-technology in supervision. long white cloud our map in the sky (Robin Fry, 2008)1

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  • There must be a better way - The case against the New Zealand Literacy Strategy and some examples of how we can help students who fall by the wayside

    Dymock, Susan (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Literate cultural capital is a phrase used to describe the literacy knowledge and skills children have on school entry (Prochnow, Tunmer & Arrow, 2015; Tunmer & Nicholson, 2011). Literacy knowledge and skills include oral language, vocabulary, an awareness of how books operate, letter name knowledge, letter sound knowledge, phonological awareness, and invented spelling (Prochnow, Tunmer & Arrow, 2015). Children who commence school with a good level of literate cultural capital are advantaged and are more likely to develop age-appropriate reading skills as they progress through school compared to children who commence school with little literate cultural capital.

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  • By rule or by rote? To what extent does children’s spelling improve as a result of learning words with the LOOK, SAY, COVER, WRITE, CHECK, FIX strategy, compared with phonological spelling strategies?

    Dymock, Susan; Nicholson, Tom (2017)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    The present study was a randomised controlled trial designed to compare the effects of two spelling interventions on spelling of taught words and transfer words. The sample consisted of 55 seven-year-olds, including proficient and less proficient spellers, in two Year 3 classrooms. The spelling interventions were for three lessons per week, 20-minutes per lesson, over 10 weeks. In the first intervention we taught eight spelling strategies that showed children how to stretch out the sounds in words and how to use different phonological spelling strategies, including how to spell short and long vowel sounds and phonics strategies, such as use of the silent e marker, how to break long words into syllables, and the doubling rule. In the second intervention students learned the LOOK, SAY, COVER, WRITE, CHECK, FIX strategy along with putting words to be learned into alphabetical order and writing each word in a sentence. They were not taught any strategies or rules. The control group completed comprehension, vocabulary, and punctuation activities. In order to see if the control group might implicitly learn the words, all groups in all lessons were exposed to the same words by reading a story to them that contained the words. Results for taught words showed that both intervention conditions increased participants’ spelling at an equivalent rate, greater than that of the control condition. For transfer words not taught but that followed similar patterns to the taught words, the strategy intervention showed greater transfer to spelling new words with similar patterns compared with the LOOK, SAY, COVER, WRITE, CHECK, FIX condition and the control condition. For this reason we conclude that although both intervention approaches had strong local effects in terms of learning to spell specific words, teaching rule-based spelling strategies had more global effects in terms of transfer to new words than the LOOK, SAY, COVER, WRITE, CHECK, FIX for both proficient and less proficient spellers.

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  • An interview: Making art as a dialogue with materials, moments and motivations

    Price, Graham; Earl, Kerry (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Graham Price has worked extensively in primary, secondary and tertiary art education in Otago (1976–1997) and since 2000 in pre-service secondary and primary art education within the University of Waikato arts education team. He has experience in developing art education resources, Waikato professional development programmes, and the development of visual art assessment in primary schools through the National Education Monitoring Project 1995–2008. His research interests include arts integration, the history of art education in New Zealand and how students talk about art. His own artwork spans painting, jewellery and sculptural responses to calligraphy. He actively participates in a cappella choral performance. In this piece Graham shares his views and his approach to art making.

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  • The social work regulation project in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Hunt, Sonya (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    INTRODUCTION: In this second of two articles on the history of professionalisation of social work in Aotearoa New Zealand, consideration is given to the more recent coalescing of forces from the 1990s to the initial implementation of the Social Workers Registration Act (2003), which led to our country’s example of a social work regulation project. APPROACH: This critical consideration of social work regulation in Aotearoa New Zealand situates it within the international social work professionalisation context alongside the national context. Consideration is given to the place of leadership and buy-in from the profession, political sponsorship, cultural considerations, and another ministerial review. Overlaying this, an examination of concepts of public trust, respect, and confidence in professions such as social work, are linked to crises of trust in professions in general, and placed within the current neoliberal, market-driven environment in which this project is anchored. CONCLUSION: The literature serves to document the history of social work regulation in Aotearoa New Zealand and as background for an ongoing research project which aims to uncover interests at work and interrogate the legitimacy of those interests, while enabling the voices of key actors from the time to surface, be explored, and be recorded.

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  • How reading published stories and making story webs can work together to enhance classroom story writing

    Dymock, Susan; Nicholson, Tom (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Many students find story writing a challenge (Beard & Burrell, 2010; Calfee & Patrick, 1995; Dunn & Finley, 2010; Dymock & Nicholson, 2010; Richards, Sturm, & Cali, 2012; Saunders & Smith, 2014). Teachers need a simple strategy that will have a significant positive effect on the quality of student writing. This teaching idea is about going from "Too hard" to "I can do that". Our suggestion is to use the well-known story web strategy in a different way by applying it to a published story and then going from this to story writing.

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  • E Kore E Ngaro, He Takere Waka Nui: Te Mātauranga Whakatere Waka me Ōna Take Nunui

    Tuaupiki, Jackie Whetumarama (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    E kapi ana te hautoru o te ao i te Moana nui a Kiwa. I ngā tau manomano ka huri, ka puea ake i Āhia ki te tonga mā rāwhiti, he iwi māia, he iwi mātau ki te hanga me te whakatere i ō rātou waka. Ka tupu ngātahi hoki i a rātou tētehi mātauranga whakatere i tarawhitia e rātou ngā tōpito katoa o te Moana nui a Kiwa. Koinei ngā tāngata tuatahi, nāna i kau ngā ara terenga waka onamata. Nō ngā tau maha i muri iho, ka whanake tēnei mātauranga me tō rātou hangarau waka, ā, ka tīmata ngā terenga whakawhiti roa e tau haeretia ana ngā moutere o Poronīhia, tatū mai ki Aotearoa. Engari ia, i roto i te wā, i tino waikauere ngā mahi whakatere waka, ā, i ētehi moutere o Poronīhia, i wairuhi kau, he mahara noa i mau i te kōrero tuku iho. Ko tātou tērā, te iwi Māori. Otirā, i roto i ngā tau e whā tekau ka pahemo atu rā, kua whakawhāiti mai tētehi ohu ki te whakahaumanu i ngā mahi whakatere waka me tōna mātauranga. He waka hourua kua hangaia i Poronīhia, i te ātārangi tawhito hei amo i ngā whakamanawatanga o ngā iwi me ngā kaupapa whakarauora i ēnei mahi tūpuna. Ka tika te oha ki te hunga hāpai kura i takere nui ai, i haumi tūporo ai ki te whakahaumanu i te mātauranga whakatere waka. Nō reira, o ngā mahi rangatira kua tutuki i te rāngai waka i Aotearoa i ngā tau tata nei, ko tā tēnei rangahau, he kohura i ētehi o ngā take nunui me ngā kaupapa whakahirahira e puta mai ana i mua i te aroaro o te mātauranga whakatere waka me ōna kaumoana i ēnei rangi, ki tā te Māori titiro. Waihoki, ko te pānga o aua take nunui ki te ahurea Māori. Koinei te matū o tēnei tuhinga kairangi. He pūtoi whakaaro, he whakaemieminga kōrero ki te whakatakoto i ngā huatau o ngā puhi kai moana Māori e tākawe ana i tēnei wānanga. Mātua rā, e kore e tukua kia riro anō ngā mahi whakatere waka i te nenewhatanga o te rā, tau ki te rua. Kua whakatupuria e te wā he kura kaumoana Māori, māna ngā take matua o tēnei tuhinga roa e whakatutuki ki tua i te pae kai ao. “E kore e ngaro, he takere waka nui”

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  • Risk committee, corporate risk-taking and firm value

    Bhuiyan, Md. Borhan Uddin; Cheema, Muhammad A.; Man, Yimei (2017)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    We empirically examine the impact of the stand-alone risk committee on corporate risk-taking and firm value. We argue that the existence of a stand-alone risk committee enhances the quality of corporate governance which results in improved investor protection by reducing corporate risk-taking and enhancing firm value. We find several measures of risk-taking decline significantly for firms that have a stand-alone risk committee compared with firms that have a joint audit and risk committee. We also find that the presence of a stand-alone risk committee is positively associated with firm value. The evidence is consistent with the proposition that the firms with a stand-alone risk committee can effectively evaluate potential risks and implement a proper risk management system.

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  • Effect of novel ketamine-analogue R5 on brain activation and select behavioural parameters

    Head, Mitchell Antony (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Ketamine is a common anaesthetic that works through complex neural mechanisms, including multiple molecular and circuitry targets. Importantly, it promotes analgesia, though it also induces undesirable effects, such as agitation, disorientation, hallucinations and nausea. Thus, there is an ongoing search for novel ketamine analogues that influence a similar repertoire of brain targets as ketamine, whose beneficial effects are potentiated. The present project, utilizing rats as an animal model, focused on examining functional properties of the ester-analogue of ketamine, R5, whose potentially beneficial profile had been suggested by preliminary studies. First, brain activation patterns following R5 compared to ketamine (and another ester-analogue control compound, R1) were assessed by employing immunohistochemical detection of an immediate-early gene product, c-Fos. R5 produced a somewhat similar pattern of activity as ketamine, whereas more profound differences in c-Fos were detected after R1. It was particularly striking in areas related to pain and addiction, including the anterior insular cortex (AIC) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Therefore, in the subsequent set of experiments, effects of R5 on pain- and addiction-related behavioral parameters were assessed in rats injected with R5 intracerebroventricularly (ICV) or intraparenchymally. It was found that BaCl attenuated ICV R5-induced analgesia. AIC administration of R5 produced modest analgesia in the tail-flick test. Finally, PVN R5 reduced naltrexone-precipitated exercise-induced withdrawal. In sum, R5 shows an analgesic effect similar to ketamine, most likely by targeting a similar subset of brain sites, which suggests that this particular ester-analogue can be considered as a good candidate for conceptualizing future pain management strategies.

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  • TOKU TIA: Tuvalu and the impacts of climate change

    Falefou, Tapugao (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Climate change is the greatest and most profound threat the world is facing today. Its impacts on the environment, species of all kinds, and humanity is intensifying at an unprecedented rate. Low-lying atoll states, such as Tuvalu, because of their geomorphologies, are exposed directly to climate change impacts. Scientific predictions of the rising sea levels and media representations of low-lying atolls becoming uninhabitable and sinking are increasingly causing grave concerns to people living in atoll states. This thesis endeavours to examine the perceptions of the people of Tuvalu about climate change and sea level rise. Situated within the human geography theoretical framework, this study specifically explores the cultural and emotional geographies of Tuvaluans in relation to these phenomena. Cultural and national identities are the two pillars that embrace the study. In examining Tuvaluans’ perceptions, the study noticed that most people display a profound uncertainty about the future of their cultural heritage and the country’s national sovereignty. The emotions and affects of the people about their future are overwhelmingly touching and heartbreaking. As people who highly value coconut in their traditional ways of life, Tuvaluans’ perceptions are analogous to what I metaphorically call “coconut roots and coconut fruits”. Tuvaluans’ conception of sense of place is one that has very strong connections and attachment to their fenua or island or land like the coconut roots to the soil. However, Tuvaluans, like other Pacific islanders, are also voyagers and great explorers who have traversed the Pacific oceans for centuries like the “coconut fruits” that can drift in the ocean for long periods and become established once washed ashore. Yet, the encroaching effect of climate change and sea level rise is greatly reshaping the rootedness and/or fluidity of Tuvaluans. Tuvaluans’ perceptions are greatly influenced by their religious beliefs. As citizens of a Christian atoll state, the majority of Tuvaluans firmly believe that the rainbow in Noah’s narrative is unequivocal. However, there is a new interpretation growing within the Tuvalu Christian Church leadership that casts doubt on this view and finds the rainbow starting to fade in their perception of climate change and sea level rise. Tuvaluans understand that they need to construct an ark – solution – to save the islands. Unless the world renders genuine support to the implementation of Tuvalu’s Climate Change Policy known as Te Kaniva, Tuvaluans will not be able to construct the ark and may well be displaced causing their identities to vanish in the passage of time.

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