10,728 results for University of Waikato

  • Effect of minor titanium addition on copper/diamond composites prepared by hot forging

    Yang, Fei; Sun, Wei; Singh, Ajit; Bolzoni, Leandro (2018)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Copper/diamond composites have great potential to lead the next generation of advanced heat sink materials for use in high-power electronic devices and high-density integrated circuits because of their potential excellent properties of high thermal conductivity and close thermal expansion to the chip materials (e.g., Si, InP, GaAs). However, the poor wettability between copper and diamond presents a challenge for synthesizing copper/diamond composites with effective metallurgical bonding and satisfied thermal performance. In this article, copper/diamond composites were successfully prepared by hot forging of elemental copper and artificial diamond powders with small amounts (0 vol.%, 3 vol.% and 5 vol.%) of titanium additives. Microstructure observation and mechanical tests showed that adding minor titanium additions in the copper/diamond composite resulted in fewer cracks in the composites’ microstructure and significantly improved the bonding between the copper and diamond. The strongest bonding strength was achieved for the copper/diamond composite with 3 vol.% titanium addition, and the possible reasons were discussed.

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  • Producing High-Quality Titanium Alloy by a Cost-Effective Route Combining Fast Heating and Hot Processing

    Yang, Fei; Raynova, Stella; Singh, Ajit; Zhao, Qqinyang; Romero, Carlos; Bolzoni, Leandro (2018)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Powder metallurgy is a very attractive method for producing titanium alloys, which can be near-net-shape formed and have freedom in composition selection. However, applications are still limited due to product affordability. In this paper, we will discuss a possible cost-effective route, combining fast heating and hot processing, to produce titanium alloys with similar or even better mechanical properties than that of ingot metallurgy titanium alloys. Two titanium alloys, Ti-5Al-5V-5Mo-3Cr (Ti-5553) and Ti-5Fe, were successfully produced from HDH titanium powder and other master alloy powders using the proposed processing route. The effect of the processing route on microstructural variation and mechanical properties have been discussed.

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  • Evaluation of reactive induction sintering as a manufacturing route for blended elemental Ti-5Al-2.5Fe alloy

    Jia, Mingtu; Gabbitas, Brain; Bolzoni, Leandro (2018)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This work focuses on gaining a better understanding of the feasibility of using reactive induction sintering to obtain the alloy Ti-5Al-2.5Fe using Ti, Al and Fe powders (i.e. via a blended elemental approach). For this, powder compacts were induction sintered under various temperature/time combinations like 700–1250 °C and isothermal holding of 0–15 min. Compositional homogeneity, microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of the sintered Ti-5Al-2.5Fe alloy were investigated. It was found that by increasing the sintering temperature and isothermal holding time, sintered Ti-5Al-2.5Fe components with a homogeneous chemical composition and a Widmanstätten microstructure can be produced. The tensile strength increases with the sintering temperature/time reaching comparable values to the wrought alloy; however the residual porosity has a significant impact on the ductility of the alloy. This study demonstrates that reactive induction sintering is suitable to shorten the production route of blended elemental Ti alloys to be used in non-critical applications where ductility is not the main requirement.

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  • Additive manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V with added boron: Microstructure and hardness modification

    Jackson, Ben; Torrens, Rob; Bolzoni, Leandro; Yang, Fei; Fry, Mike; Mukhtar, Aamir (2018)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Titanium alloy composites with titanium boride (TiB) discontinuous reinforcement have shown improved performance in terms of strength, stiffness, and hardness. Producing this composite through selective laser melting (SLM) can combine the advantages of freeform design with the ability to produce TiB reinforcement in-situ. In this study, SLM was used to consolidate a pre-alloyed Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) and amorphous boron (B) powder mixture with the intent of producing 1.5wt% TiB reinforcement in a Ti64 matrix. The processing parameters of laser power and scanning speed were investigated for their effect on the density, microstructures, and hardness of the composite material. The results showed that the boron and Ti64 composite could achieve a density greater than 99.4%. Furthermore, it was found that processing parameters changed the microstructural features of the material. The higher the energy density employed the more homogenous the distribution of boron modified material. Macro features were also observed with laser paths being clearly evident in the subsurface microstructure. Micro-hardness testing and density measurement also showed a corresponding increase with increasing energy density. Maximum hardness of 392.4HV was achieved in the composite compared to 354.2HV in SLM fabricated Ti64.

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  • Microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti-5Al-2.5Fe alloy produced by powder forging

    Jia, Mingtu; Blanchard, Clément; Bolzoni, Leandro (2018)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Blended elemental powder metallurgy is a cost effective approach to produce near net shape titanium alloy parts; however, the residual pores remaining in sintered parts are detrimental to the mechanical properties. In this study, elemental powders (Ti, Al and Fe) were used to produce the Ti-5Al-2Fe alloy by a powder forging process, involving cold compaction, vacuum sintering, forging and heat treatment. The residual pores of the sintered parts were removed completely by forging at the temperature of 1250ºC. The effect of solution and aging and mill annealing heat treatments on the mechanical properties of the forged Ti-5Al-2Fe parts were studied. It is found that the ductility of the forged Ti-5Al-2Fe parts is improved significantly by both solution and aging treatment and mill annealing, without decreasing their ultimate tensile strength, which sits around 1000 MPa. The enhancement of the mechanical behaviour is justified via understanding the evolution of the residual porosity and of the microstructural features of the materials.

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  • The effect of heat treatments on microstructure and mechanical properties of as-extruded Ti-6Al-4V alloy rod from blended elemental powders

    Romero, Carlos; Yang, Fei; Raynova, Stiliana; Bolzoni, Leandro (2018)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    In this study, Ti-6Al-4V bars were first prepared by extrusion of powder compacts from blended powder mixtures in the beta phase region, then the as-extruded bars were heat-treated following four different conditions: beta quenching and aging (βQA), broken up structure (BUS) treatment, solution treatment and aging (STA) and recrystallization annealing (RA). The effect of the heat treatments on microstructure and mechanical properties was studied using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and mechanical test to determine which heat treatment condition has the greatest impact on the mechanical properties of the as-extruded Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The results show that the as-extruded condition has the best balance of strength (1120 MPa of UTS) and ductility (11% of elongation to failure). βQA and STA lead to a slight increase in strength but ductility decreases considerably. After BUS and RA treatments, both strength and ductility are reduced. The relationship between processing, microstructure and properties was studied, and their implications towards fatigue behaviour and fracture toughness discussed.

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  • On microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of Ti-5Al-5V-5Mo-3Cr alloy synthesised from elemental powder mixtures

    Yang, Fei; Gabbitas, Brian; Dore, Martin; Ogereau, Audrey; Raynova, Stiliana; Bolzoni, Leandro (2018)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    In this paper, we explored to prepare a multi-compositional titanium alloy, Ti-5Al-5V-5Mo-3Cr (Ti-5553), by powder compact extrusion from elemental powder mixtures, and investigate the microstructure variation during the synthesising process and after post heat treatments and the changes of mechanical properties. XRD, OM and SEM were used to analyse the phase constitutions and microstructures of the Ti-5553 alloy at different processing conditions, and tensile tests were conducted to examine their mechanical properties. The results showed that a homogeneous Ti-5553 alloy was successfully produced by powder compact extrusion from the powder mixtures, β phase was mainly contained in the hot-pressed and 1200°C-extruded Ti-5553 alloy and had an equiaxed microstructure. Different types of α phase precipitated from the β matrix after heat treatment, and this significantly changed the microstructures and improved the mechanical properties of the extruded Ti-5553 alloy, with yield strength of 1250 MPa and ultimate strength of 1300 MPa for the alloy treated at 675 °C for 2 h, and the ductility of about 6.1% for the alloy treated at 780 °C for 2 h.

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  • Joint effect of steel addition and press-and-sinter on the properties of low-cost PM Ti Alloys

    Bolzoni, Leandro; Ruiz-Navas, Elisa Maria; Gordo, Elena (2018)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Cheap alloying elements and creative processing techniques are a way forward to open up more industrial opportunities for Ti in sectors where it is not extensively applied yet, rather than in aerospace and biomedical applications. This study focuses on understanding the joint effect of using a commercial steel powder to add Fe to pure Ti and its processing by press-and-sinter on the behaviour of low-cost PM Ti alloys. It is found that the calibrated addition of steel permits to develop new low-cost Fe-bearing Ti alloys that can satisfactorily be produced using the blending elemental PM approach. Densification of the samples and homogenization of the chemical composition are enhanced by the high diffusivity of Fe. The low-cost α+β alloys reach comparable physical and mechanical properties to those of wrought-equivalent PM Ti alloys, such as Ti-6Al-4V, and are therefore promising candidates for load-bearing lightweight products.

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  • Effect of microwave sintering parameters on the physical and mechanical properties of pure Ti and blended elemental Ti alloys

    Raynova, Stella; Imam, M. Ashraf; Taylor, Hunter; Yang, Fei; Bolzoni, Leandro (2018)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Microwave sintering (MWS) was used to consolidate hydride de-hydride Ti powder and blended elemental Ti6Al4V, Ti5Fe and Ti5Al5Mo5V3Cr (Ti5553) powder mixtures. The amount of powders used to prepare the powder compacts was scaled up to 500g.The effect of the MWS conditions on the relative density, porosity distribution, microstructure and tensile properties were studied. Furthermore, uniformity in distribution of the alloying elements was checked. For most of the materials considered, a combinations of sintering temperature of 1200ºC and 1300ºC and holding time of 5 to 30 min resulted in significantly improved density. Nevertheless sintering temperature of at least 1300ºC was required for pore coalescence and high tensile properties.

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  • No Effect of Muscle Stretching within a Full, Dynamic Warm-up on Athletic Performance

    Blazevich, Anthony J.; Gill, Nicholas D.; Kvorning, Thue; Kay, Anthony D.; Goh, Alvin G.; Hilton, Bradley; Drinkwater, Eric J.; Behm, David G. (2018)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Purpose: This study aimed to examine the effects of static and dynamic stretching routines performed as part of a comprehensive warm-up on flexibility and sprint running, jumping, and change of direction tests in team sport athletes. Methods: A randomized, controlled, crossover study design with experimenter blinding was conducted. On separate days, 20 male team sport athletes completed a comprehensive warm-up routine. After a low-intensity warm-up, a 5-s static stretch (5S), a 30-s static stretch (30S; 3 10-s stretches), a 5-repetition (per muscle group) dynamic stretch (DYN), or a no-stretch (NS) protocol was completed; stretches were done on seven lower body and two upper body regions. This was followed by test-specific practice progressing to maximum intensity. A comprehensive test battery assessing intervention effect expectations as well as flexibility, vertical jump, sprint running, and change of direction outcomes was then completed in a random order. Results: There were no effects of stretch condition on test performances. Before the study, 18/20 participants nominated DYN as the most likely to improve performance and 15/20 nominated NS as least likely. Immediately before testing, NS was rated less ‘‘effective’’ (4.0 T 2.2 on a 10-point scale) than 5S, 30S, and DYN (5.3–6.4). Nonetheless, these ratings were not related to test performances. Conclusion: Participants felt they were more likely to perform well when stretching was performed as part of the warm-up, irrespective of stretch type. However, no effect of muscle stretching was observed on flexibility and physical function compared with no stretching. On the basis of the current evidence, the inclusion of short durations of either static or dynamic stretching is unlikely to affect sprint running, jumping, or change of direction performance when performed as part of a comprehensive physical preparation routine.

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  • Promoting community socio-ecological sustainability through technology: A case study from Chile

    Aguayo, Claudio; Eames, Chris W. (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The importance of community learning in effecting social change towards ecological sustainability has been recognised for some time. More recently, the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools to promote socio-ecological sustainability has been shown to have potential in community education for sustainable development (ESD). The effective design and use of technology for community learning implies an understanding of a range of cross- dimensional factors including: socio-cultural characteristics and needs of the target audience; considerations of available and culturally responsive types of technology; and non-formal pedagogical ESD strategies for community empowerment. In addition, both technology itself and social communities are dynamically evolving and complex entities. This article presents a case study which evaluated the potential of ICT for promoting ecological literacy and action competence amongst community members in southern Chile. The case study addressed the ecological deterioration of a lake, which is having deep social, economic, recreational and cultural implications locally. The authors’ research involved developing a theoret- ical framework for the design, implementation and use of ICT for community learning for sustainability. The framework was based on key ideas from ESD, ICT and community education, and was underpinned by a systems thinking approach to account for the dynamism and complexity of such settings. Activity theory provided a frame to address overarching socio-cultural elements when using technology as a mediating tool for community learning. The authors’ findings suggest that the use of an ICT tool, such as a website, can enhance ecological literacy in relation to a local socio-ecological issue.

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  • Collective writing: An inquiry into praxis

    Jandrić, Petar; Devine, Nesta; Jackson, Liz; Peters, Michael A.; Lăzăroiu, Georage; Mihăilă, Ramona; Locke, Kirsten; Heraud, Richard; Gibbons, Andrew; Grierson, Elizabeth; Forster, Daniella J.; White, Jayne; Stewart, Georgina; Tesar, Marek; Arndt, Sonja Kathrina; Brighouse, Susanne; Benade, Leon (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This is the second text in the series collectively written by members of the Editors' Collective, which comprises a series of individual and collaborative reflections upon the experience of contributing to the previous and first text written by the Editors' Collective: 'Towards a Philosophy of Academic Publishing.' In the article, contributors reflect upon their experience of collective writing and summarize the main themes and challenges. They show that the act of collective writing disturbs the existing systems of academic knowledge creation, and link these disturbances to the age of the digital reason. They conclude that the collaborative and collective action is a thing of learning-by-doing, and that collective writing seems to offer a possible way forward from the co-opting of academic activities by economics. Through detaching knowledge creation from economy, collaborative and collective writing address the problem of forming new collective intelligences.

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  • 2017 External monitoring report of the Te Paritūtanga o Te Reo – Bachelor of Māori Advancement programme offered by T.W.O.A.

    Manuirirangi, Hori (2017)

    Report
    University of Waikato

    In 2017, I was asked to return as an external monitor to conduct a follow-up monitoring visit of the Te Paritūtanga o Te Reo Bachelor of Māori Advancement programme, T.W.O.A. On the day of the visit, my role as external monitor entailed assessing, reviewing and interviewing the programme’s facilitators, students, associated teaching and management staff. Upon completion, I was required to submit a comprehensive written report of my findings to NZQA, for the purpose of meeting accreditation requirements.

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  • Expanding financial communication: Investor relations, crowdfunding, and democracy in the time of fintech

    Doan, Mai Anh (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis studied financial communication in the context of a globalised, technologized, and financialised world. It arose from two seemingly opposite trends in practice and in academia. In practice, not only are technology and finance becoming more pervasive on their own, they are also merging as fintech, which is further disrupting financial and social practices. In academia, financial communication, more commonly, if incorrectly, known as investor relations, does not connect with these realities. While the trends in practice hold the promise of making profound impacts in democratising finance and promoting egalitarianism, their neglect in academia not only does a disservice to the practice but also threatens to further segregate and lower the poor reputation of public relations, which is the umbrella discipline that contains financial communication. Accordingly, the thesis attempted to bring financial communication closer to practice and to make an original contribution to knowledge by examining financial communication in the context of fintech. Specifically, it sought answers to the following two research questions: (1) What is the current state of academic research on investor relations and financial communication? and (2) In what ways could investor relations and financial communication integrate crowdfunding to their practice and research to further democratise finance and contribute to a fully functioning society? The thesis with publication includes four publications – three published journal articles and one book chapter (in press) – and each arose from a research project relevant to the overall theme. These projects identified how financial communication continues to be academically insular and disconnected from technology. Their findings also suggested how individually and in concert, by incorporating fintech and crowdfunding, financial communication can open up ways that benefit both practice and research. The thesis also found evidence that crowdfunding has the potential to improve financial democracy across the globe. For it to harness that potential, however, the thesis proposes that financial communicators become advocates for increasing financial literacy and inclusiveness for individuals and for the greater good of the society. The function should not only provide tangible results for businesses but also expand and re-focus on building communities and on re-balancing power. The thesis argues that the online environment of crowdfunding and fintech with new players and rules needs researchers to change. The change means researchers need to re-examine the nature, characteristics, scope and impact of communication, to look outside of their own discipline to add resources, to diversify their approaches, and to go beyond the traditional organisation-centric orientation of investor relations and public relations. In so doing so, financial communication will also be advancing the movement for improving the academic and social reputation of public relations. The thesis concludes that what financial communication has not been able to accomplish today can also serve as a fertile ground for future research directions.

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  • Kia kāpuia te reo o Tāmaki ki te Tonga: Tāmaki Makaurau ki te Tonga

    Lee-Morgan, Jenny Bol Jun; Lee-Morgan, Eruera (2017)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    Mai i te Papakuratanga o Mataoho tae noa ki tona Ipu. Mai i Pukaki Tapu o Poutiikeka ki Te Puketapapatanga a Hape. Mai i te tahuna o Torea i nga wai o Mokoia, mawhiti atu ki Te Arapueru e karekare mai na ko Te Manukanuka a Hoturoa, kei reira a Taramainuku raua ko Kaiwhare. Ka kawea ki nga.hau o Mangere, e topa ai taku manuhokahoka ki Te Manurewatanga a Tamapahore. Whakaterawhiti taku haere ki Otara-a-nuku, ki Otara-a-rangi koia te tikapatanga o toku tiipuna o Marutuahu. Hoki whenei mai au ki Te Pane o Mataoho, tiro kau ake au ki aku pa whakairo ko Matatukutureia, ko Matukurua nga nohoanga tapu o Huakaiwaka, o Nga Tini-o-toitehuatahi, o Maruiwi kua ngaro katoa ki te reinga.

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  • Beyond the Screen: Emerging Cinema and Engaging Audiences. [Book Review]

    Zalipour, Arezou (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book “Beyond the Screen: Emerging Cinema and Engaging Audiences”, by Sarah Atkinson.

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  • Identity and its protection as the aim and purpose of international human rights law: The case of (inter)sex identity and its protection

    Sterling, Rogena (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    The history of intersex people has demonstrated a life of invisibility with an imposed identity they did not choose. The lack of identity, or at least an autonomous one, led to a theoretical investigation into identity and how it has or has not been understood within international human rights. Intersex and sex has been used as an illustration of a multiplicity (often referred to as identities) to determine whether or not it has been protected and enabled through international human rights law. Before considering international human rights law, it was important to understand identity, what it means and how it is formed. This led to a hermeneutic inquiry into identity, in particular, from a Ricoeurian perspective. The hermeneutic inquiry leads to an understanding that what is called ‘identity’ centres on recognition of oneself and of others. This is a recognition of who one is and how one becomes one’s narrative identity. The becoming, however, develops through one of two interpretive horizons – vertical or horizontal – which may limit or expand one’s becoming. This becoming is understood through one’s narrative identity. The narrative identity reveals a temporal personal identity. Personal identity comprises of two forms or sources of identity: identity as idem (sameness) and identity as ipse (selfhood). How these are interpreted and implemented either limits or expands one’s becoming. When understood through the divesting of one’s personal identity from its narrative identity – identity as an identicality or status – it can be referred to as a problematic of identity. This problematic creates vulnerability of the human being, in particular, the loss of autonomy over who one is and how one comes to be. To prevent this vulnerability, one needs a moral identity living the good life of self-esteem and self-respect and the autonomy over one’s capabilities to speak, act, and narrate one’s life and be held imputable towards it. This enables relationality and respect toward others. Sex is commonly interpreted by international bodies within the binary which still leaves intersex people invisible. This is the result of understanding sex through the vertical interpretive horizon – as a sex status of male or female. As such, this required a study whether human rights were there to protect the status or the human person. The analysis revealed the basis and foundation of international human rights was the human person as a dignified being. The duty of state and society was to enable this human person so that they could freely and fully develop their personality. This would result in a dignified being. All the rights and freedoms were set for this purpose. For an intersex person to have a moral identity, they required the ability to freely and fully develop to form an identity. This came through the right to privacy. However, this development, and therefore one’s dignity, is limited when one’s well-being is interfered with or violated such as through sex-normalising treatment and other issues. It is therefore important to protect intersex people from such interference and violation to ensure their well-being. The development of who one is and the autonomy of how one comes to be enables recognition. This returns to the beginning – the purpose of identity. These represent the core issues for intersex people – the recognition of who they are and the autonomy of how the come to be.

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  • Chocolates for me or chocolates for you? The impact of a learning experience outside the classroom on the technological practice of two five-year-old students

    Milne, Louise (2015)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Knowledge of expert practice is a key element of Technology Education (Ministry of Education, 2007), and this paper which is part of a larger study, is a brief comparative study which investigates the impact a learning experience outside the classroom has on two students’ technological practice. These students, Dana and Manahi, who are in their first year at school, visit a chocolate factory with their class to find out how to make a chocolate gift for Mothers’ Day. This study uses a qualitative case study methodology (Stake, 2006). Data was collected and analysed from three interviews, before, after and six months after the students’ visit to the factory. The students’ drawings and stories recorded after the visit were also analysed using themes emerging from the literature of Education Outside the Classroom (Anderson, 2003; Falk, 2004), Technology Education (Compton, 2009; de Vries, 2012; Jones, Buntting, & de Vries, 2013) and the characteristics of young students learning (Cohen, 2013; Siegler & Alibali, 2005). The findings from this study identify a significant increase in both Dana and Manahi’s context specific oral language, their understanding of the individual phases of technological development, and their ability to transfer these understandings to other contexts. Whilst these developments showed an encouraging improvement in their technological understandings, there existed a lack of continuity and connectedness (Moreland & Cowie, 2011) through the development of Manahi’s chocolate gift. Compared with progress achieved by Dana, the gaps in Manahi’s understandings impacted negatively on his perceptions of the purpose of the visit and the final goal of his practice.

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  • Generalised domain and E-inverse semigroups

    Stokes, Tim E. (2018)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    A generalised D-semigroup is here defined to be a left E-semiabundant semigroup S in which the \overline{\mathcal R}_E-class of every x\in S contains a unique element D(x) of E, made into a unary semigroup. Two-sided versions are defined in the obvious way in terms of \overline{\mathcal R}_E and \overline{\mathcal L}_E. The resulting class of unary (bi-unary) semigroups is shown to be a finitely based variety, properly containing the variety of D-semigroups (defined in an order-theoretic way in Communications in Algebra, 3979–4007, 2014). Important subclasses associated with the regularity and abundance properties are considered. The full transformation semigroup T_X can be made into a generalised D-semigroup in many natural ways, and an embedding theorem is given. A generalisation of inverse semigroups in which inverses are defined relative to a set of idempotents arises as a special case, and a finite equational axiomatisation of the resulting unary semigroups is given.

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  • An ecological approach to Understanding assessment for learning in support of student Writing achievement

    Cowie, Bronwen; Khoo, Elaine G.L. (2018)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    In this paper, we report on a project conducted in a New Zealand primary school that aimed to enhance the writing achievement of primary school boys who were achieving just below the national standard for their age or level through the use of peer feedback and information and communication technologies (ICTs). The project involved a teacher collaborative inquiry approach where all seven teachers in the school and the school prin- cipal participated to achieve the project aim. We adopt an ecological approach as a lens to offer a holistic and comprehensive view of how peer assessment and use of ICTs can be facilitated to improve writing achievement. Data were collected through teacher inter- views and written re ections of practice and student learning, teacher analysis of student work, team meeting notes, classroom observations, and student focus group interviews. Findings from the thematic analysis of textual data illustrate the potential of adopting an ecological approach to consider how teacher classroom practices are shaped by the school, community, and wider policy context. At the classroom level, our ecological analysis highlighted a productive synergy between commonplace writing pedagogy strategies and assessment for learning (AfL) practices as part of teacher orchestration of an ensemble of interdependent routines, tools, and activities. Diversity, redundancy, and local adaptations of resources to provide multiple pathways and opportunities—social and material and digital—emerged as important in fostering peer assessment and ICT use in support of writing achievement. Importantly, these practices were made explicit and taken up across the school and in the parent community because of whole staff involvement in the project. The wider policy context allowed for and supported teachers developing more effective pedagogy to impact student learning outcomes. We propose that an ecological orientation offers the eld a productive insight into the contextual dynamics of AfL as classroom practice that is connected to the wider community and that has long-term value for developing student independence and learning outcomes.

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