10,277 results for University of Waikato

  • Panel versus individual interviews: A meta-analytic investigation of employment interview validity

    Guilford, Justine Rebecca (1997)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Further analysis using a similar data set to the McDaniel, Whetzel, Schmidt and Maurer (1994) meta-analysis of employment interviews was performed in the present study, in order to investigate four possible causes for the apparent superiority of individual employment interviews. These causes included (a) criterion contamination of individual interview studies, (b) greater prevalence of psychologists performing individual interviews, (c) greater number of trained/experienced individual interviewers, and (d) greater prevalence of high proximity to target positions in individual interviews. A research question was also proposed to investigate whether all interview panel sizes were inferior to individual interviews in terms of validity. Meta-analyses using 204 job and training performance validity coefficients indicated that individual interviews were superior in validity to panel interviews, but only when the criterion was training performance. Training/experience was the only explanation for the superiority of individual interview validity, such that individual interviewers were more likely to be trained/experienced, suggesting that individual interview validity was superior as a result. The explanation that the use of psychologists in interviews may account for superior individual interview validity was only partially supported. While psychologists were more prevalent in individual interviews, individual interview validity was lower than that of panel interviews, when the criterion was job performance. Only when training was the criterion was individual interview validity higher when psychologists were interviewers. Two hypotheses were not supported. Firstly, there was no evidence of criterion contamination inflating individual interview validity. Secondly, no relationship between interviewer proximity and interview validity was found. Investigations of whether all panel sizes were inferior in terms of validity found that panel sizes of more than three members were superior in validity to individual interviews, when the criterion was job performance.

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  • The philosophical use and misuse of science

    Kingsbury, Justine; Dare, Tim (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Science is our best way of finding out about the natural world, and philosophers who write about that world ought to be sensitive to the claims of our best science. There are obstacles, however, to outsiders using science well. We think philosophers are prone to misuse science: to give undue weight to results that are untested; to highlight favorable and ignore unfavorable data; to give illegitimate weight to the authority of science; to leap from scientific premises to philosophical conclusions without spelling out their relevance; to treat mere resonance between a scientific theory and a philosophical view as empirical evidence for the philosophical view. This article identifies and illustrates some of the ways in which philosophers misuse science, explains why these pitfalls are easy to fall into, and concludes with suggestions for avoiding them.

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  • Application of lidar techniques to time-of-flight range imaging

    Whyte, Refael; Streeter, Lee; Cree, Michael J.; Dorrington, Andrian A. (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Amplitude modulated continuous wave (AMCW) time-of flight (ToF) range imaging cameras measure distance by illuminating the scene with amplitude modulated light and measuring the phase difference between the transmitted and reflected modulation envelope. This method of optical range measurement suffers from errors caused by multiple propagation paths, motion, phase wrapping and non-ideal amplitude modulation. In this paper a ToF camera is modified to operate in modes analogous to continuous wave (CW) and stepped frequency continuous wave (SFCW) lidar. In CW operation the velocity of objects can be measured. CW measurement of velocity was linear with true velocity (R² = 0.9969). Qualitative analysis of a complex scene confirms that range measured by SFCW is resilient to errors caused by multiple propagation paths, phase wrapping and non-ideal amplitude modulation which plague AMCW operation. In viewing a complicated scene through a translucent sheet, quantitative comparison of AMCW with SFCW demonstrated a reduction in the median error from −1.3 m to −0.06 m with inter-quartile range of error reduced from 4.0 m to 0.18 m.

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  • Momentum, idiosyncratic volatility and market dynamics: Evidence from China

    Cheema, Muhammad A.; Nartea, Gilbert V. (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Recent evidence on the relation between momentum and idiosyncratic volatility (IV) in the U.S. is mixed. We verify the relation between momentum and IV in China and find at best, no relation supporting the view that idiosyncratic risk is not a significant arbitrage cost for momentum returns. While the absence of a positive relation between momentum returns and IV rejects both the underreaction and the overconfidence and self-attribution stories of momentum, we find support for the overconfidence and self-attribution story from our results on market dynamics and momentum. Our results are robust when verified in other Asian markets. We also find support for the suggestion that cross-country differences in momentum returns could be the result of differences in market dynamics rather than differences in levels of individualism as suggested earlier in the literature.

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  • Petrogenesis of the Rifted Southern Victoria Land Lithospheric Mantle, Antarctica, Inferred from Petrography, Geochemistry, Thermobarometry and Oxybarometry of Peridotite and Pyroxenite Xenoliths from the Mount Morning Eruptive Centre

    Martin, Adam P.; Price, Richard C.; Cooper, Alan F.; McCammon, Catherine A. (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The lithospheric mantle beneath West Antarctica has been characterized using petrology, whole-rock and mineral major element geochemistry, whole-rock trace element chemistry and Mössbauer spectroscopy data obtained on a suite of peridotite (lherzolite and harzburgite) and pyroxenite xenoliths from the Mount Morning eruptive centre, Southern Victoria Land. The timing of pyroxenite formation in Victoria Land overlaps with subduction of the Palaeo-Pacific plate beneath the Gondwana margin and pyroxenite is likely to have formed when fluids derived from, or modified by, melting of the subducting, eclogitic, oceanic crustal plate percolated through peridotite of the lithospheric mantle. Subsequent melting of lithospheric pyroxenite veins similar to those represented in the Mount Morning xenolith suite has contributed to the enriched trace element (and isotope) signatures seen in Cenozoic volcanic rocks from Mount Morning, elsewhere in Victoria Land and Zealandia. In general, the harzburgite xenoliths reflect between 20 and 30% melt depletion. Their depleted element budgets are consistent with Archaean cratonization ages and they have mantle-normalized trace element patterns comparable with typical subcontinental lithospheric mantle. The spinel lherzolite mineral data suggest a similar amount of depletion to that recorded in the harzburgites (20–30%), whereas plagioclase lherzolite mineral data suggest <20% melt depletion, consistent with Proterozoic to Phanerozoic cratonization ages, and have mantle-normalized trace element patterns comparable with typical depleted mid-ocean ridge mantle. All peridotite xenoliths have undergone a number of melt–rock reaction events. Melting took place mainly in the spinel peridotite stability field, but one plagioclase peridotite group containing high-sodium clinopyroxenes is best modelled by melting in the garnet field. Median oxygen fugacity estimates based on Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements of spinel and pyroxene for spinel-facies conditions in the rifted Antarctic lithosphere are –0·6 Δlog fO₂ at Mount Morning and –1·0 ± 0·1 (1σ) Δlog fO₂ for all of Victoria Land, relative to the fayalite–magnetite–quartz buffer. These values are in good agreement with a calculated global median value of –0·9 ± 0·1 (1σ) Δlog fO₂ for mantle spinel-facies rocks from continental rift systems.

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  • Accelerating success and promoting equity through the ako (note 1): Critical contexts for change

    Berryman, Mere; Eley, Elizabeth (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Achieving equity and excellence for all young people remains the major challenge of education systems across the world. This paper contends that equity and excellence for students currently underserved by our system needs transformative school reform. In response, we outline the ako: critical contexts for change. This model has been applied across five dimensions for transformative reform within Kia Eke Panuku (Note 2). This paper focuses on how this model can be understood and applied alongside curriculum implementation. We draw evidence from wider research of the impact on improving student achievement when individual aspects of the ako: critical contexts for change have been applied. We have found that when all three contexts are applied simultaneously and spread throughout the school, pedagogical reform can be accelerated, even for those students most underserved.

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  • Native bird abundance after Australian magpie (Gymnorhina tibicen) removal from localised areas of high resource availability

    Morgan, Dai K.J.; Waas, Joseph R.; Innes, John G.; Arnold, Greg (2012)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Many reports exist of Australian magpies (Gymnorhina tibicen) attacking and sometimes killing other birds. One study concluded that magpies had little impact on the abundance of other birds at landscape scales, but another found that birds (mainly exotic species) avoided flying or landing close to them. We assessed whether continuously removing magpies for 6 weeks from localised areas of high resource availability (e.g. bush remnants or private gardens with fruit- or nectar-producing trees) in rural areas increased visitations by native birds compared with similar sites where magpies were not removed. Three count methods were used to estimate bird abundance: five-minute bird counts and ‘slow-walk’ transects in bush remnants, and five-minute bird counts and ‘snapshot’ counts in gardens. Generally, the abundance of native birds did not increase in treatment areas after magpie removal. In bush remnants, transect counts were typically better at detecting the presence of most species compared with five-minute bird counts. In gardens, snapshot counts were better at detecting tui (Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae) while five-minute bird counts were better at detecting magpies. Despite these differences, the different bird counting methods were generally in agreement and revealed that magpies had little impact on native birds at the scale we examined.

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  • Urban outdoor water use and response to drought assessed through mobile energy balance and vegetation greenness measurements

    Liang, Liyin; Anderson, R.G.; Shiflett, S.A.; Jenerette, G.D. (2017-08-01)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Urban vegetation provides many highly valued ecosystem services but also requires extensive urban water resources. Increasingly, cities are experiencing water limitations and managing outdoor urban water use is an important concern. Quantifying the water lost via evapotranspiration (ET) is critical for urban water management and conservation, especially in arid or semi-arid regions. In this study, we deployed a mobile energy balance platform to measure evaporative fraction throughout Riverside, California, a warm, semi-arid, city. We observed the relationship between evaporative fraction and satellite derived vegetation index across 29 sites, which was then used to map whole-city ET for a representative mid-summer period. Resulting ET distributions were strongly associated with both neighborhood population density and income. By comparing 2014 and 2015 summer-period water uses, our results show 7.8% reductions in evapotranspiration, which were also correlated with neighborhood demographic characteristics. Our findings suggest a mobile energy balance measurement platform coupled with satellite imagery could serve as an effective tool in assessing the outdoor water use at neighborhood to whole city scales.

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  • Manahi’s red chocolate sunglasses: the impact of a learning experience outside the classroom on a five-year-old student’s technological practice

    Milne, Louise (2015)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Knowledge of expert practice is a key element of Technology Education, and this paper which is part of a larger study, investigates the impact a learning experience outside the classroom has on one student’s technological practice. This student, who is in his first year at school, visits a chocolate factory with his class to find out how to make a chocolate gift for Mothers’ Day. This study uses a qualitative case study methodology (Stake, 2006). Data were collected and analysed from three interviews, before, after, and six months after the visit to the factory. The student’s drawings and stories recorded after the visit were also analysed using themes emerging from the literature of Education Outside the Classroom (Anderson, 2003; Falk, 2004), Technology Education (Compton, 2009; de Vries, 2012; Jones, Buntting, & de Vries, 2013) and the characteristics of young students’ learning (Cohen, 2013; Siegler & Alibali, 2005). The findings from this study identify a significant increase in the student’s context specific oral language, his understanding of the individual phases of technological development, and an ability to transfer these understandings to other contexts including those presented six months after the visit. Whilst these developments showed an encouraging improvement in Manahi’s technological understandings, there existed a lack of continuity and connectedness (Moreland & Cowie, 2011) through the development of his chocolate gift. This impacted negatively on his perceptions of the purpose of the visit and the final goal of his practice.

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  • Coming out of the closet: From single-cell classrooms to innovative learning environments

    Whyte, Barbara; House, Nik House; Keys, Nikki (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The New Zealand Ministry of Education encourages schools to update to flexible learning spaces and activate teaching approaches that augment such physical settings. Many schools have embraced the concept of innovative learning environments (ILE) and team teaching, motivating a trend fast gaining popularity in New Zealand primary schools. However, apart from positive self-reporting documentaries from enthusiastic schools, there is a dearth of New Zealand-based information available to assist prospective schools to consider the complexities of adopting this trend. As they venture ‘out of the single-classroom closet’ into a collaborative ‘community of learners’, the staff of one primary school in the Bay of Plenty has been researching their own ILE practices and processes through inquiry, regular appraisal and self-review monitoring. While the school’s experience is contextual and unique to its own specific situation and community, it provides a representation of some affordances and constraints that other schools might contemplate when they similarly venture into ILEs.

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  • Children learning outside the classroom

    Milne, Louise (2017)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    Learning outside the classroom has the potential to extend a child's technological knowledge and promote design solutions to real-world problems. When a visit involves making a chocolate gift to celebrate Mother's Day, there are lots of opportunities for creative and original ideas that consider personal interests and the pupils' aspirations for creating a gift for their mother or relative.

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  • Ethics, relationships and pragmatics in the use of e-technologies in counselling supervision

    Flanagan, Paul; Cottrell, Caroline; Graham, Hilary; Marsden, Victaria; Roberts, Liz; Young, Jean (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    International literature and local anecdotal evidence report increasing use of video and other e-technology in counselling supervision. In this small-scale study, five experienced supervisors were interviewed about their use of e- technology within supervision. The research was part of a postgraduate paper in professional supervision and worked to introduce and engage researcher- students, all of whom were experienced counselling practitioners, in a supervised collaborative project. It also generated new knowledge for the researchers and participants for their supervision practice. This article offers a review of literature, and ideas about safe and ethical practice for the wider professional counselling community engaged in offering supervision using e-technology. While the use of e-technologies is an effective means of providing supervision, this study found that inquiry should be encouraged within supervision conversations to nourish the quality of supervisory relationships, and thereby enhance the effectiveness of supervision.

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  • Volcanic geology and hydrothermal alteration of the Onemana Area, Eastern Coromandel Peninsula

    Aldrich, Sean Mark (1995)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The Onemana Peninsula is located on the eastern side of the Coromandel Peninsula north of the township of Whangamata. This study investigates the volcanology, structure and hydrothermal alteration of the northern half of the Onemana Peninsula. The study area is dominated by rhyolite domes and lava flows, with minor andesite lavas, rhyolite pyroclastics and lake sediments. The central region is extensively hydrothermally altered, with high levels of the original system preserved including hydrothermal eruption breccias and sinters. The Onemana area is dominated by three rhyolite dome complexes: Pohakahaka, Pokohino, and Wharekawa. The Pohakahaka Dome Complex in the south of the study area consists of pyroxene rhyolite domes, lavas and autoclastic breccias. The Pokohino Dome Complex in the central region of the study area consists of biotite rhyolite domes, lavas and autoclastic breccias. Lavas appear to have erupted as coulees and have flowed in a SE direction from a NE-trending ridge. The Wharekawa Dome Complex and Eastern Flows are dominated by biotite rhyolites. Pyroclastic and epiclastic material is overlain by rhyolite lavas in coastal sections north of Pokohino Beach, suggesting explosive activity preceded the eruption of some lavas. Some Eastern Flow lavas have flowed into water and produced a hyaloclastite in the north of the area. The deposition of the Glassy Dome Pyroclastics is thought to have resulted from the collapse of a rhyolite dome. Andesite lavas occur in the west of the study area, and their compositions suggest that they are related to the McBeths Andesite which outcrops 6 km to the NW. A hornblende-biotite ignimbrite is exposed in the north of the area, and is thought to have been erupted from outside the area. Thick lake sediments occur between the Pokohino and Wharekawa dome complexes and infill a graben structure. A hydrothermal eruption breccia resulting from over-pressuring of a geothermal system overlies the lake sediments. The structure of the area is dominated by NW, N, and NE striking faults, and minor EW striking faults. The local structure plays an important role in controlling the locations of volcanism and hydrothermal activity. Older N-striking structures appear to have controlled vent locations for the pyroxene rhyolites, while NE-striking structures have controlled the location the biotite rhyolites and hydrothermal alteration. Mineralised structures are controlled by NW and N striking faults between the NE striking Whitipirorua and Pokohino Faults. XRF analysis of selected volcanic rocks from Onemana show the area to be dominated by medium-K to high-K rhyolites (75-78 wt% SiO₂), with minor andesite (56-58 wt% SiO₂). On the basis of Zr abundance the rhyolites can be divided into high Zr (pyroxene rhyolites) and low Zr (biotite rhyolites, Glassy Dome Rhyolite). The rhyolites are thought to be closely associated with partial melting of the continental crust in a rifting environment. Pervasive to weak alteration occurs within a NE-trending corridor bounded by the Whitipirorua and Pokohino Faults. There are two main alteration types in the area which represent different hydrothermal environments: alkaline and acid alteration. Alkaline alteration consists of an inner core of quartz silicification, surrounded by quartz+ K-feldspar alteration, which grades out into epidote and weak clay alteration assemblages. Zeolites also occur as an overprinting alteration assemblage. Acid alteration consists of pervasive kaolinite alteration, with small areas of quartz + illite/smectite ± pyrophyllite alteration and opaline quartz silicification. The Onemana area shows many volcanic and hydrothermal features that are typical of caldera settings and are comparable with the rhyolite volcanic centres in the TVZ. It is suggested that the rhyolitic volcanism at Onemana resulted from late stage volcanism along the ring fracture of a large caldera structure.

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  • Declining towns and rapidly growing cities in New Zealand: developing an empirically-based model that can inform policy

    Brabyn, Lars (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Understanding and predicting spatial patterns in population change has significant implications for infrastructure, property investments, and national spatial planning. It is also at the core of understanding what motivates people to move to different places, and the underlying geographical conditions that are important to people. During recent times, the population growth of large cities in New Zealand (particularly Auckland, but Tauranga has had faster growth) has resulted in severe social and infrastructural problems, such as sky-rocketing house prices, homelessness, and congestion of roads. At the same time, many small towns have had significant population decline, with no proposed solutions apart from acceptance or undertaking so-called “managed decline” (McMillan 2016; Wood 2017). As will be described in this article, net migration has been a significant component of the spatial variation in population change, while natural change does not have a significant spatial variation and has been generally positive for all urban places. A policy response to the spatial variation of net migration needs to be based on an empirically based understanding of what drives net migration.

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  • The latest international survey of adult skills: What does PIAAC mean for us in New Zealand?

    Coben, Diana; Earle, David (2014)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    • What can PIAAC tell us – and what can it not tell us? • What kinds of shifts in adults skills in the population might we expect to see since the ALL Survey reported in 2006? • What might PIAAC mean for adult literacy and numeracy educators, learners and the general public? • What are the implications of PIAAC for educators?

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  • What do we know about mathematics teaching and learning of multilingual adults and why does it matter?

    Ní Ríordáin, Máire; Coben, Diana; Miller-Reilly, Barbara (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The significant role of language in mathematics teaching and learning is not a new phenomenon. Given the growth of cultural and economic migration, the increasing international focus on education for economic development and the widespread use of English as a language for learning, we have become acutely aware of the importance of language in adults’ mathematics learning. While investigation has been undertaken in relation to the role of language in the learning and teaching of mathematics at primary and second level, little research has been done on multilingual (including bilingual) adults’ learning of mathematics and the ways in which teaching might support such learning. In this paper we investigate the role of language in the mathematics and numeracy education of bi/multilingual adults with a focus on the mathematics register and discourse; we address the relationship between language(s) and learning; we provide a review of available literature specific to adult learners; and discuss implications for adult mathematics education.

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  • Making the most of PIAAC: Preliminary investigation of adults’ numeracy practices through secondary analysis of the PIAAC dataset

    Coben, Diana; Miller-Reilly, Barbara; Satherley, Paul; Earle, David (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) assesses key information processing skills and collects information on how often people undertake a range of activities at work and in everyday life. We are exploring what secondary analysis of online anonymised PIAAC data can tell us about adults’ numeracy practices. In the process we review the accessibility and user-friendliness of the data for novice researchers and practitioners in the hope of encouraging them to explore this rich resource and give a brief account of our experience of the process of accessing publicly-available PIAAC data for secondary analysis.

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  • School leaders growing leadership from within: A framework for the development of school leaders

    Fisher, Anthony; Carlyon, Tracey (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article discusses the development of school leaders from within schools. Within this discussion, a framework is presented which identifies key features which support school leaders to achieve this. The authors propose that school leaders are required to deliberately establish and maintain positive relationships with their teachers while also developing a positive school culture. The framework demonstrates the strong influence that school leaders have on their relationships with teachers, and in turn the interconnectedness between these relationships and the school culture. It also shows how a positive school culture enables school leaders to create opportunities and support teachers to develop both personally and professionally, and grow as leaders from within their schools. Although in order to create this culture, school leaders draw on aspects from various different leadership styles, we suggest that to be successful the development of a new leadership style may be timely.

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  • Liberation and spread of stoats (Mustela erminea) and weasels (M. nivalis) in New Zealand, 1883-1920

    King, Carolyn M. (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This paper reviews the timing and spread of weasels and stoats across the South and North Islands of New Zealand during the late nineteenth century, entirely from historical records. The flavour of the debates and the assumptions that led to the commissioning of private and government shipments of these animals are best appreciated from the original documents. I describe the sites of the early deliberate releases in Otago, Canterbury, Marlborough, and Wairarapa, and list contemporary observations of the subsequent dispersal of the released animals to named locations in Southland, Westland, Wellington, Hawke’s Bay, Auckland and Northland. Originally, weasels were landed in far greater numbers than stoats (2622 weasels and 963 stoats listed in shipment records) and, while at first they were very abundant, they are now much less abundant than stoats. Two non-exclusive hypotheses could explain this historic change: (1) depletion of supplies of their preferred small prey including birds, mice, roosting bats, lizards, frogs and invertebrates, and (2) competition with stoats. Contemporary historic written observations on the first impacts of the arrivals of weasels and stoats on the native fauna offer graphic illustrations of what has been lost, but usually failed to consider the previous impacts of the abundant rats (Rattus exulans since the late 13th century, and R. norvegicus since 1770s–90s), and cannot now be distinguished from the activities of R. rattus arriving in the 1860s–90s.

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  • Robin's inequality for 11-free integers

    Broughan, Kevin A.; Trudgian, Tim (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Let σ(n) denote the sum of divisors function, and let ϒ be Euler’s constant. We prove that if there is an n≥5041 for which σ(n)≥eϒn log log n, then n must be divisible by the eleventh power of some prime.

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